Quantifying Ethnic Religious Diversity
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Quantifying Ethnic Religious Diversity Quantifying Ethnic Religious Diversity Presentation Transcript

  • Quantifying Ethnic & Religious Diversity in New Zealand:Recent Trends and Future Projections New Zealand Diversity Forum 2011 Claudelands Events Centre, Hamilton 21 August 2011 todd nachowitz email: <tn37@waikato.ac.nz> Dept. of Political Science & Public Policy University of Waikato
  • Outline of Presentation: Brief summary of early immigration Some examples of early discrimination Brief history of ethnic & religious diversity in NZ Recent growth of ethnic & religious diversity Summary: future projections implications
  • Settlement in Aotearoa &Early Migrant Arrivals 1820-1920:Long history of tangata whenua settlement prior to tau iwi arrivalsPeriod of European settlementFollowed by other ethnic groups, most notably Indians and ChineseFirst Indian settlers arrive: some arrived in NZ since the late 18th century when British East India Company ships brought supplies to Australian convict settlements boats often stopped in NZ to pick up supplies boat crews include Indian seamen & soldiers, some of whom jumped ship in NZFirst known Chinese settlers arrive: first known settler in 1842 in Nelson 1866: Chinese begin to arrive to work Otago goldfieldsSmall populations of Lebanese Christian settlers in Dunedin &Auckland areas
  • Papers Past — NZ Truth — 24 March 1927 — Aliens Should Be Barred Early Migrant Arrivals: English | M!ori PAPERSPAST Papers Past Home Introduction Search Browse Papers Past > NZ Truth > 24 March 1927 > Page 1 > Aliens Should Be Barred Aliens Should Be Barred NZ Truth , Issue 1112, 24 March 1927, Page 1 About this newspaper View computer-generatedEarly discrimination: some examples text List of search results 1926-1927: Formation of “White New Zealand League” in Pukekohe, where Indian market gardeners were the target of a racist campaign started by other growers; became a national movement to oppose both Indian & Chinese immigration, which was perceived as “a threat to the racial integrity and economic prosperity of European New Zealanders” This discrimination was supported by local media: “It is time, however, that New Zealand closed its doors to Asiatics, and in its advocacy of this policy, the White New Zealand League, which has recently been holding meetings in Wellington, has ‘NZ Source: Truth’s’ full support.” New Zealand Truth 24 March 1927 Editorial cartoons This article has been automatically clipped from the NZ Truth, organised into a single column, then optimised for display on your computer screen. As a result, it may not look exactly as it did on the original page. The article can be seen in its original form in the page view. About this site | Site map | Accessibility | Contact us | Terms of use
  • Early Migrant Arrivals 1820-1920: Source: New Zealand Free Lance, 7 Jan 1905, artist: John Blomfield
  • Early Migrant Arrivals 1820-1920:Source: NZ Truth, 2 June 1917 Source: NZ Observer, 26 April 1919
  • Early Migrant Arrivals 1820-1920:Source: NZ Free Lance, 1 Dec 1920 Source: NZ Observer, 26 Jun 1920
  • Ethnicity in New Zealand 1820-1920: Maori & European Populations Maori European 1,100,000 1,099,268 1,008,453 825,000 888,572 772,695Population 703,314 626,658 550,000 578,482 489,927 414,412 275,000 299,514 256,393 218,668 172,158 38,540 37,502 45,470 43,595 44,097 41,969 41,953 39,832 43,112 47,701 49,829 49,771 0 0 0 99,021 0 59,413 58 61 64 67 71 74 78 81 86 91 96 01 06 11 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 Sources: NZ Census of Population and Dwellings, 1858-1916
  • Ethnicity in New Zealand 1820-1920: Other Populations of Note Chinese Indian Lebanese Pacific 5,000 4,816 5,000 4,542 4,433 4,444 3,859 3,750 2,963Population 2,570 2,630 2,500 2,147 1,250 431 459 361 195 240 181 9 0 6 0 0 46 24 6 15 151 0 58 61 64 67 71 74 78 81 86 91 96 01 06 11 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 Sources: NZ Census of Population and Dwellings, 1858-1916
  • Ethnicity in New Zealand 1921-1990: Maori, European & Pacific Populations Maaori European Pacific 3,000,000 2,693,186 2,696,568 2,651,595 2,561,280 2,426,352 2,216,886 2,250,000 2,016,287 1,823,769Population 1,592,876 1,484,508 1,500,000 1,342,082 1,213,475 750,000 270,035 279,081 295,659 201,159 227,414 115,676 137,151 167,086 52,751 63,670 82,326 98,744 61,354 89,697 99,135 334 988 0 0 3,624 8,103 14,340 26,271 45,413 0 1921 1926 1936 1945 1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 Sources: NZ Census of Population and Dwellings, 1921-1986 Note: No censuses were taken in 1931 and 1941
  • Ethnicity in New Zealand 1921-1990: Second Wave of Immigration Chinese Indian 20,259 21,000 18,480 15,810 14,860 14,000 12,818Population 11,244 10,283 9,247 8,524 7,807 6,731 6,843 7,000 5,732 4,940 4,179 3,226 3,374 3,151 2,943 2,425 1,200 1,554 671 987 0 1921 1926 1936 1945 1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 Sources: NZ Census of Population and Dwellings, 1921-1986 Note: No censuses were taken in 1931 and 1941
  • Ethnicity in New Zealand 1991-2006: Maori, European & Pacific Populations Maaori European New Zealander Pacific 3,000,000 2,879,085 2,871,432 2,783,028 2,609,592 2,000,000Population 1,000,000 523,374 526,281 565,329 434,847 429,429 231,801 265,974 0167,070 202,233 1991 1996 2001 2006 Sources: NZ Census of Population and Dwellings, 1991-2006
  • Ethnicity in New Zealand 1991-2006: Other Populations Chinese Indian MELAA 147,594 150,000 100,203 100,000 104,625Population 78,663 44,790 61,803 50,000 42,408 34,746 30,606 24,084 15,288 6,330 0 1991 1996 2001 2006 Sources: NZ Census of Population and Dwellings, 1991-2006
  • Overview of Ethnic Diversity in New Zealand 1906 1956 2006 Pop: 948,649 Pop: 2,174,062 Pop: 4,027,947 European European European 93.7% 92.7% 67.6% Maori 14.6% Maori Maori Pacific 5.0% 6.3% OtherAsian6.9% Other Other 11.2% 9.2%MELAA 0.9% 1.3% 1.0%Moriori: 30 0.00% Pacific: 8,103 0.37% Other: 430,923 11.16% NZer: 429,429 11.12%Offshore PI: 12,340 1.30% Chinese: 6,731 0.31% Other: 1,494 0.04%Chinese: 2,570 0.27% Asian: 354,552 9.20% Indian: 3,151 0.15% Chinese: 147,594 3.82%Indian: 6 0.00% Indian: 104,625 2.71% Other:Lebanese: 361 0.04% Korean: 30,792 0.008% Filipino: 16,938 0.004%Other: Japanese: 11,910 0.003% Sri Lankan: 7,041 0.002% Cambodian: 6,915 0.002% Thai: 6,057 0.002%
  • Ethnic Diversity: Average annual percent change, 1996-2006Total Population 1.1% Maori 0.8% European 0.9% Pacific Islander 3.2% Asian 10.4% MELAA 12.7% Percent change
  • FUTURE PROJECTIONS: National Ethnic Population Projection 2006-2026 (Statistics NZ) European Maori Pacific Islander Asian 80% 77% 73% 69% 60%Percent of population 40% 20% 16% 17% 15% 16% 13% 10% 10% 7% 8% 0% 2006 2016 2026
  • FUTURE PROJECTIONS:National Ethnic Population Projection 2006-2026 (Statistics NZ) Projected annual Ethnicity population growth to 2026 European 0.3% Maori 1.4% Pacific Islander 2.4% Asian 3.4%
  • Tracking Religious Diversity An early example from 1871Source: New Zealand Census 1871
  • Tracking Religious Diversity2011: We’ve come a long way... Source: Statistics New Zealand, 2011 Census
  • Religious Diversity in New Zealand 1906 1956 2006 Pop: 948,649 Pop: 2,174,062 Pop: 4,027,947 Christian Christian Christian 95.3% 87.4% 56.0% Other Other Other 12.6% 44.1% 4.7%Object to answering: 24,325 2.75% Object to answering: 173,569 7.98% Object to answering: 242,610 6.50%Not stated: 1,884 0.21% Not stated: 16,252 0.75% Not stated: 249,711 6.70%Baha’i: 0 Baha’i: 107 0.01% Baha’i: 2,772 0.07%Buddhist: 1,452 0.17% Buddhist: 450 0.01% Buddhist: 52,362 1.40%Hindu: 12 0.01% Hindu: 1,597 0.07% Hindu: 64,392 1.72%Islam: 16 0.01% Islam: 200 0.01% Islam: 36,072 0.96%Jain: 0 Jain: 1 0.01% Jain: 111 0.01%Judaism: 1,867 0.21% Judaism: 3,823 0.18% Judaism: 6,858 0.18%Sikh: 0 Sikh: 133 0.01% Sikh: 9,507 0.25%Zoroastrian: 0 0.01% Zoroastrian: 4 0.01% Zoroastrian: 1,071 0.03%No religion: 1,709 0.19% No religion: 12,651 0.58% No religion: 1,297,104 34.60%Don’t know: 0 Don’t know: 243 0.01% Don’t know: 1,743 0.05%Outside scope: 0 Outside scope: Outside scope: 30,945 0.83%Other: 1,410 0.17% Other: Other: 1.10%
  • Recent Change in Select Christian Denominations Denomination 1996 Census 2006 Census Percent change 1996-2006 Total Christian 2,143,995 2,027,418 -5.4% Anglican 631,764 554,925 -12.2% Catholic 473,112 508,437 7.5% Presbyterian 470,442 400,839 -14.8% Christian nfd 186,891 186,234 -0.4% Methodist 121,650 121,806 0.1% Pentecostal 69,333 79,155 14.2% Baptist 53,613 56,913 6.2% Latter Day Saints 41,166 43,539 5.8%
  • Recent Change in non-Christian Religions Religion: 1996 Census 2006 Census Percent change 1996-2006 Bahá’í 3,111 2,772 -10.9% Buddhism 28,131 52,362 +86.1% Chinese religions 699 912 +30.5% Hinduism 25,551 64,392 +152.0% Islam 13,545 36,072 +166.3% Jainism 27 111 +311.1% Japanese religions 234 384 +64.1% Judaism 4,809 6,858 +42.6% Maori religion 1,257 2,412 +91.9% Sikhism 2,817 9,507 +237.5%Spiritualism/New Age 9,786 19,800 +102.3% Zoroastrianism 216 1,071 +395.8%
  • Religious Diversity: Average annual percent change, 1996-2006 Baha’i -1.1% Buddhism 8.6% Chinese religions 3.1% Christianity -0.5% Hinduism 15.2% Islam 16.6% Jainism 31.1% Japanese religions 6.4% Judaism 4.3% Maori religions 9.2% Sikhism 23.8%Spiritualism/New Age 10.2% Zoroastrianism 39.6% Percent change
  • Ethnicity and Religious Affiliation: Europeans 60% 57.7% 50% 40% 37.7% 30% 20% 10% 0.4% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.8% 6.0% 0% sm ity sm am ism r n t ec e io th ian hi i Isl bj lig du da O dd O ist Re Ju in Bu hr H o CBased on 2006 Census data N
  • Ethnicity and Religious Affiliation: Maori 60% 59.1% 50% 40% 36.5% 30% 20% 10% 8.6% 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 1.4% 0.1% 0% sm ity sm am ism r n t ec e io th ian hi i Isl bj lig du da O dd O ist Re Ju in Bu hr H o C NBased on 2006 Census data
  • Ethnicity and Religious Affiliation: Pacific Islanders 90% 83.2% 75% 60% 45% 30% 15% 14.0% 0.2% 0.4% 0.4% 0.1% 0.7% 5.1% 0% sm ity sm am ism r n t ec e io th ian hi i Isl bj lig du da O dd O ist Re Ju in Bu hr H o C NBased on 2006 Census data
  • Ethnicity and Religious Affiliation: MELAA 60% 50% 49.3% 40% 30% 32.9% 20% 10% 11.0% 3.2% 2.6% 3.6% 0.4% 0.2% 0% sm ity sm am ism r n t ec e io th ian hi i Isl bj lig du da O dd O ist Re Ju in Bu hr H o CBased on 2006 Census data N
  • Ethnicity and Religious Affiliation: Asians 35% 30% 31.2% 29.2% 25% 20% 17.6% 15% 10% 11.4% 5% 5.8% 3.6% 3.4% 0% sm ity sm am r n t ec e io th ian hi i Isl bj lig du O dd O ist Re in Bu hr H o C NBased on 2006 Census data
  • Religious Diversity of Largest Asian Ethnicities Object Christianity Buddhism Hinduism Islam Other No Religion Chinese 5.0% 22.8% 12.5% 0.1% 0.3% 58.4% Indian 2.0% 16.6% 0.3% 54.9% 10.9% 4.8% Korean 1.5% 72.2% 5.8% 0.0% 0.0% 20.2% Filipino 1.6% 94.1% 0.2%3.4% 0.2% 0.1% Japanese 4.9% 11.7% 18.2% 0.4% 0.1% 62.0%Sri Lankan 0.9% 27.9% 40.7% 23.0% 3.2% 3.8%Cambodian 4.2% 8.1% 73.0% 1.4% 0.1% 12.7% Thai 3.2% 9.4% 77.1% 0.9% 0.2% 8.5% 0% 25% 50% 75% 100%
  • Some Points to Consider Based on 2006 Census Data:Increase in those affiliating with non-Christian religions is mainly attributedto migrants, particularly from AsiaThe rise of those reporting ‘No Religion’: numbers have doubled since 1991to where 1.3 million people, 35% of the population, now report no religiousaffiliation at all. This comprises the largest single category of respondentsafter Christianity.The percentage of those who “Object to answer” is larger than the sum ofall the non-Christian religions combined, or roughly 6.5% of the totalpopulation.Almost 8 out of every 10 Hindus (78.8%) were born overseasMore than one-third (36.1%) of overseas-born Buddhists arrived in NewZealand less than five years agoOf those born overseas, 49.8% of Hindus and 48% of Muslims had arrivedin New Zealand less than five years ago
  • Summary of Religious Diversity in New Zealand and Future Trends 1956 2006 2026Pop: 2,174,062 Pop: 4,027,947 Pop: 5,058,200Christian Christian Christian 87.4% 56.0% 43.4% Other Other Other 44.1% 56.6% 12.6%
  • Implications of Change in Ethnic Diversity on Religious Diversity in New Zealand Changing ethnic composition will have significant implications forreligious diversity in New Zealand In terms of percentages of the population, as the Europeanpopulation declines in relation to rising Maori, Pacific Islander, Asian& MELAA populations, New Zealand will continue to be increasinglyreligiously diverse This means increasing numbers of adherents to non-Christianreligious traditions, as well as significant increases in Christiandenominations that are well represented in immigrant populations The importance of migration to and from New Zealand will remain animportant factor in Religious Diversity
  • Diversity in New Zealand: Some Final ThoughtsA robust, culturally & religiously diverse population can be strong indicators of anation’s internal securityNew Zealand must keep abreast of the increasing discrimination, ethnic tension,racism and violence now faced by many countries by maintaining & strengtheningpolicies designed to foster and improve social cohesion in our communitiesContinued support of our cultural, religious, and linguistic diversity policies throughboth governmental and non-governmental agencies is therefore of utmostimportance to our national securityMoving beyond mere tolerance of difference and into a sphere of activeengagement between cultures and faiths is not only urgent, but increasingly vital intoday’s globalised worldIn the next decades, the onus for this future should become less reliant ongovernment and non-governmental agencies and more reliant on our ethnic &religious communities and on ourselves as individuals to help promote necessarycultural and religious literacies amongst our increasingly diverse populations.
  • Quantifying ethnic & religious diversity Recent Trends and Future Projections todd nachowitz email: <tn37@waikato.ac.nz> Dept. of Political Science & Public Policy University of Waikato