INFLUENCE OF THE SEA INTHE PORTUGUESE CULTURE LIVING BY THE SEA 2009/2011 Escola EBI/JI José Carlos da Maia 8º B – Área de Projecto
The Portuguese will remain in History forthe intensive maritime exploration undertakenduring the 15th and 16th centuries. Portuguesesailors were at the vanguard of European overseasexploration, discovering and mapping the coastsof Africa, Asia and Brazil. Expeditions started in1419 along West Africas coast under thesponsorship of prince Henry the Navigator,reaching the Cape of Good Hope and entering the Indian Ocean in 1488.Ten years later, Vasco da Gama led the first fleet around Africa to India,arriving in Calicut and starting a maritime route from Portugal to India.Soon, after reaching Brazil, explorations proceed to southeast Asia, havingreached Japan in 1542. Mainly because of this, the sea has always been a major influence in the Portuguese culture, especially in literature, music and architecture. LITERATURE Since the sixteenth century, the sea is largely sung by Portuguesepoets and historians. The theme of the Sea in Portuguese literaturebecomes a historical constant, shaping many general characteristics of thePortuguese identity. The Literature of Travel is one of the richest evidenceof Portugals relations with the oceans. Considered one of the greatest works ofPortuguese literature, The Lusiads date of 1572and this epic by Luís de Camões is the glorificationof the Portuguese people.Written in Homeric fashion, the poem focusesmainly on a fantastical interpretation of thePortuguese voyages of discovery during the 15thand 16th centuries. The Lusiads is often regardedas Portugals national epic, much in the way asVirgils Aeneid was for the Ancient Romans, as well as Homers Iliad and
Odyssey for the Ancient Greeks. It was first printed in 1572, three yearsafter the author returned from the Indies. Camões is considered Portugal’s greatest poet. On June 10th, date of his death, Portugal celebrates its National Day – Portugal Day and Camões Day. MUSIC Fado (translated as destiny or fate) is a music genre which can betraced from the 1820s, but possibly with much earlier origins. It ischaracterized by mournful tunes and lyrics, often about the sea. The musicis usually linked to the Portuguese word saudade, a unique word with noaccurate translation in any other language. (Home-sickness has anapproximate meaning. It is a kind of longing, and conveys a complexmixture of mainly nostalgia, but also sadness, pain, happiness and love).Some enthusiasts claim that Fados origins are a mixture of African slaverhythms with the traditional music of Portuguese sailors and Arabicinfluence. The ingredients of Fado are a shawl, a guitar, a voice and heartfeltemotion. Themes include: destiny, the sense of sadness and longing forsomeone who has gone away, the sea, the life of sailors and fishermen,and last but not least "Saudade”.Black ship, sung by Marisahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ElLSBx9Jo8&feature=fvwSong of the Sea, sung by Amália Rodrigueshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=89JbzIhIwlEThe Sea and You, sung by Dulce Pontes and Andrea Bocellihttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwfbTVzN-fc
PORTUGUESE AMTHEMA Portuguesa (The Portuguese Hymn), is the national anthem of Portugal.It was composed by Alfredo Keil and written by Henrique Lopes deMendonça during the resurgent nationalist movement ignited by the 1890British ultimatum to Portugal concerning its African colonies. It wasadopted as the national anthem of the Portuguese Republic in 1911. In itslyrics there are references to the Sea and the first words are Heroes of theSea.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AqwU1OT36jg&feature=related ARTThe Manueline, or Portuguese late Gothic, is the sumptuous Portuguesestyle of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16thcentury, incorporating maritime elements and representations of thediscoveries brought from the voyages of Vasco da Gama and PedroÁlvares Cabral. It was named after King Manuel I, whose reign coincidedwith its development. Even if the period of this style didnt last long (from1490 to 1520), it played an important part in the Portuguese history of art.The influence of the style, however, outlived the king. Celebrating thenewly maritime power, it manifested itself in architecture (churches,monasteries, palaces, castles) and extended into other arts such assculpture, painting, works of art made of precious metals, faience andfurniture. Several elements appear regularly in these intricately carvedstoneworks : elements used on ships : the armillar sphere (a navigational instrument and the personal emblem of Manuel I and also symbol of the cosmos), spheres, anchors, anchor chains, ropes and cables. elements from the sea, such as shells, pearls and strings of seaweed. botanical motifs such as laurel branches, oak leaves, acorns, poppy capsules, corncobs, thistles. symbols of Christianity : such as the cross of the Order of Christ (former Templar knights), the military order that played a prominent role and helped finance the first voyages of discovery. The cross of this order decorated the sails of the Portuguese ships.
The window of the Convent of Christ in Tomar is the best known example of Manueline styleThe Tower of Belém, in Lisbon, is one of the most representative examples of Manueline
Manueline exterior of the Jerónimos Monastery in Lisbon. St. John Baptist Church portal in Tomarwww.wikipedia.org