metacognition’s definitions:According to J. H. Flavell metacognition refers toone’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitiveprocesses or anything related to them.For example: the learning-relevant properties of information ordata.I am engaging in metacognition if I notice that I amhaving more trouble learning A than B; if it strikes methat I should double check C before accepting it asfact.—J. H. Flavell (1976, p. 232).
what is metacognition?Metacognition is the knowledge and awareness one hasof their own thinking processes and strategies and theability to evaluate and regulate one’s own thinkingprocesses. (Wilson: 14) It is learning to think about thehow and why of what one does.
components of metacognitionBaird (1999) describes three components ofmetacognition:2.Metacognitive knowledge: knowledge of the natureof learning, effective learning techniques, andpersonal learning characteristics.2. Metacognitive awareness: of the task and ofprogress.3. Metacognitive control: making productivedecisions about approach, progress and outcomes.Metacognitive control is comprised of motivation andvolition.
Some one else described the componentsin a different way:•Metacognitive knowledge (also called metacognitiveawareness) is what individuals know about themselvesand others as cognitive processors.•Metacognitive regulation is the regulation of cognitionand learning experiences through a set of activities thathelp people control their learning.6.Metacognitive experiences are those experiencesthat have something to do with the current, on-goingcognitive endeavor.
important pointsPurpose of strategiesWhat are they? which are they?what are critical elements of teaching Metacognitivestrategies?
Self-regulated learning. Reflective practice Applied linguistics Self-questioning (e.g. "What do I already know about this topic? How have I solved problems like this before?")For developing Metacognitive student’s skills: Fostering a classroom environment conducive to the development of metacognitive skills. Modelling. Facilitated group interaction. Reflection. Self-assessment and peer assessment. Improving regulation of cognition.
1. Williamson (2006):Cognition is usually defined as something like theprocess of acquiring, retaining and applying knowledge.To a first approximation, therefore, cognitive science isthe science of knowing. Knowing is a relation betweenthe knower and the known. Typically, although notalways, what is known involves the environment externalto the knower. Thus knowing typically involves a relationbetween the agent and the external environment. It is notinternal to the agent, for the internal may be the samewhether or not it is related to the external in a way thatconstitutes knowing.
LeDoux (1995)If cognition is defined broadly to include sensory information processing, such as that occurring in the sensory thalamus and/or sensory cortex, as well as the processing that occurs in complex association areas of cortex in the frontal lobes or hippocampus, then emotional processing by the amygdala is highly dependent on cognitive processing. If cognitive processing is defined narrowly to include only the higher mental functions most likely mediated by complex association cortex, then emotion is not necessarily dependent on prior cognitive processing.
Neisser (1967):… the term “cognition” refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used. It is concerned with these processes even when they operate in the absence of relevant stimulation, as in images and hallucinations… Given such a sweeping definition, it is apparent that cognition is involved in everything a human being might possibly do; that every psychological phenomenon is a cognitive phenomenon. But although cognitive psychology is concerned with all human activity rather than some fraction of it, the concern is from a particular point of view. Other viewpoints are equally legitimate and necessary.
Cognition involves the process of “knowing” things and handling information. The use of knowledge is said to direct our actions towards a particular goal. A big part of cognition or a person’s cognitive process is the way we process information. Usually people tend to organize thoughts and make categories for certain data or information.what is cognition?Cognition refers to mental processes that take place in gaining and understanding information.It involves the basic thinking process of an individual, including his/her memory, perceptions, knowledge, and judgment.
components of cognition3.Concept formation:GroupsPrototypesStereotypes8.Problem solving:Trial and errorAlgorithmsHeuristicsInsightMental models