A STUDY OF EGO DEFENSEMECHANISM FOUND IN THE KITERUNNER BY KHALLED HOSSEINI
1.1 Background2.2 Research Question 2.1.1 What kind of ego defense mechanism is used by the characters of The Kite Runner? 2.1.2 How do the characters of The Kite Runner apply the ego defense mechanism? 2.1.3 Why do the characters of The Kite Runner apply the ego defense mechanism?2.3 Objective of the Study 2.4 Significant of the Study 2.5 Scope and Limitation 2.6 Definition of Key Term - Id - Ego - Superego
CHAPTER IIREVIEW OF THE RELATREDLITERATURE 2.1Review of the Related Theories 2.1.2 Psychology Literature • “Psychology literature is psychology study of the writer, as type as and an individual, or the study of the creative process, or the study of the psychological type and laws present within works of literature upon its readers (audience psychology).”
2.1.2 Theory of Psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud• Id is the original system of personality that most basic system in which there is innate instincts (Sigmund Freud, 1991 32)• Ego is a personal system that acts as a referral of individuals to objects of reality, and perform its function on the principle of reality (Sigmund Freud, 1991 :33-34)• Superego is a personality system that contains the value and rules that are evaluative (Sigmund Freud, 1991:34-35) Id Ego Superego
2.1.3 Ego Defense Mechanisms is as a strategy used by individuals to prevent the emergence of the open of id impulses and to face the pressure of the superego over the ego, with the aim that anxiety can be reduced or mitigated.
Anxiety is “Feeling of being threatened, in the event of conflict that controls the ego.” (Boeree, 2005:42)• Realistic Anxiety• Moral Anxiety• Neurotic Anxiety
Kinds of Ego Defense Mechanism1.Repression- buried the thoughts or desires that cannot be accept
2. SublimationSublimation is an ego defense mechanism that uses a higher way out that socially more acceptable.”
3. Projection The projection is an ego defense mechanism that transfers the drive,attitude, or behaviorthat cause an anxiety to others
4. Displacement Displacement is an ego defense mechanism that takes itsenergy to the object or another person if original object could not be reached
5. RationalizationRationalization is to finda justification or excusefor his attitude, so even become more acceptable to the ego than the actual reason
6. Formation ReactionReaction is the formation of ego defense mechanisms that act contrary to the unconscious desires
7. RegressionRegression is asetback due to stresson behavior and thetypical of an earlydevelopmental stage
Review of Previews Study Agus Santoso, the student of Petra Christian University, 2006.A Study of Heathcliff’s anxiety as Seen in Emily Bronte’s WutheringHeight. He formulates some problems, they are: (1) How does the anxiety reflected in Heatchilif’s life? (2) What are the effects of Heathchilif’s anxiety as seen in this novel?
CHAPTER III METHOD AND PROCEDURES OF RESEARCH3.1 Approach 3.2 Method 3.3 Source of Data3.4 Procedures of data Collection 3.5 Procedures of data Analysis
CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH FINDINGS 1.1 Data analysis “When it became abundantly clear that I hadn’t inherited a shred of his athletic talents, he settled for trying to turn me into a passionate spectator. Certainly I could manage that, couldn’t I? I faked interest for as long as possible. I cheered with him when Kabul’s team scored against Kandahar and yelped insults at the referee when he called a penalty against our team. But Baba sensed my lack of genuine interest andresigned himself to the bleak fact that his son was never going to either play or watch soccer. “
A moral anxiety happens when someone faces anemotional conflict.To reduce the anxiety, Amir did a formation reaction bydoing the opposite of true desire. Reaction formation involves adopting opposite feelings,impulses or behavior. Someone adopting a reactionformation defense strategy would treat a spouse orloved one in the same manner in which they’d treat ahated enemy.