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Chapter 28

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  • Figure: 28_08 Title: Warning mimicry Caption: The warning coloration of (a) the poisonous coral snake is mimicked by (b) the harmless mountain king snake. Mutual mimicry of warning coloration by the distasteful monarch butterfly (c) and the equally distasteful viceroy (d) protects both species.
  • Figure: 28_09 Title: Visual and behavioral mimicry Caption: In response to the approach of a jumping spider (a), the snowberry fly (b) spreads its wings, revealing a pattern that resembles spider legs. The fly enhances the effect by performing a jerky, side-to-side dance that resembles the leg-waving display of a jumping spider defending its territory.
  • Figure: 28_12 Title: Mutualism Caption: Each of these brightly colored lichens is a mutualistic association between an alga and a fungus.
  • Figure: 28_13 Title: Keystone species Caption: (a) The starfish Pisaster is a keystone species along the rocky coast of the Pacific Northwest. (b) The elephant is a keystone species on the African savanna.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 28 Community Interactions
    • 2. Why Are Interactions in Communities Important?
      • Community
      • Interactions limit population size
        • Balance between resources and # of individuals
        • Exotic species may upset balance
    • 3.
      • Interactions influence evolutionary change
        • Coevolution
    • 4. Interspecific Competition
      • Each species has a unique place in its ecosystem
        • Ecological niche
      • Niches of species never overlap completely
        • Competitive exclusion
    • 5.
      • Competitive exclusion may help determine population distribution
        • Fundamental niche vs. Realized niche
    • 6.
      • Species may evolve to reduce competition
        • Resource partitioning
    • 7. What are the Effects of Predator-Prey Interactions
      • Coevolution
      • Predators consume prey
      • Parasites feeding off host but may not kill the host
        • Herbivores
    • 8.
      • Camouflage
        • Hiding in plain site
        • Blending in
    • 9. resemble specific objects
    • 10. Camouflage assists predators Camouflage can be beneficial to predators as well
    • 11.
      • Bright colors or chemical defenses may warn off predators
        • Warning coloration
      Startle coloration
    • 12. Warning mimicry
    • 13. Visual and behavioral mimicry Chemical Warfare
    • 14.
      • Plants have defenses against herbivores
        • Chemicals
        • Tough outer parts
    • 15.
      • Symbiosis
        • Communalistic
          • + / neutral
        • Mutualistic
          • + / +
        • Parasitic
          • + / -
    • 16. Mutualism
    • 17. Keystone species
    • 18. How do Communities Change Over Time
      • Succession
        • Pioneers
        • Climax community
    • 19. Primary Succession
    • 20. Secondary Succession