Figure: 28_08 Title: Warning mimicry Caption: The warning coloration of (a) the poisonous coral snake is mimicked by (b) the harmless mountain king snake. Mutual mimicry of warning coloration by the distasteful monarch butterfly (c) and the equally distasteful viceroy (d) protects both species.
Figure: 28_09 Title: Visual and behavioral mimicry Caption: In response to the approach of a jumping spider (a), the snowberry fly (b) spreads its wings, revealing a pattern that resembles spider legs. The fly enhances the effect by performing a jerky, side-to-side dance that resembles the leg-waving display of a jumping spider defending its territory.
Figure: 28_12 Title: Mutualism Caption: Each of these brightly colored lichens is a mutualistic association between an alga and a fungus.
Figure: 28_13 Title: Keystone species Caption: (a) The starfish Pisaster is a keystone species along the rocky coast of the Pacific Northwest. (b) The elephant is a keystone species on the African savanna.