• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Nvl   presentation - rognvaldur
 

Nvl presentation - rognvaldur

on

  • 700 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
700
Views on SlideShare
552
Embed Views
148

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0

4 Embeds 148

http://flexspan.blogspot.com 119
http://flexspan.blogspot.se 26
http://flexspan.blogspot.dk 2
http://flexspan.blogspot.jp 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Setja hér inn nýrri gögn um að þetta er enn í gangi úr skýrslu Hagstofunnar.Þegar litið er til síðustu fimm ára blasir nokkuð önnur mynd við. Þá fjölgaði landsmönnumað meðaltali um 1,2% á ári. Suðurnes voru á tímabilinu töluvert fyrir ofanlandsmeðaltal með 3,3% árlega fjölgun. Á höfuðborgarsvæðinu fjölgaði rétt ofanvið landsmeðaltal, 1,5% á ári að meðaltali, en á Suðurlandi fjölgaði um 1,2% á ári.Árleg fjölgun á Vesturlandi síðustu fimm ár var undir landsmeðaltali, eða 0,7%, ená Norðurlandi eystra hefur hún aðeins verið um 0,4%. Undanfarin fimm ár, fráársbyrjun 2006 hefur hins vegar fækkað á Vestfjörðum sem nemur 1,1% árlegrifækkun, á Austurlandi sem nemur 2,1% árlegri fækkun og á Norðurlandi vestrasem nemur 0,3% árlegri fækkun.Íbúaþróun í sveitarfélögumSveitarfélög á Íslandi voru alls 76 hinn 1. janúar 2011 og fækkaði um eitt frá árinuáður. Þau eru misfjölmenn. Reykjavíkurborg var fjölmennasta sveitarfélagið með118.898 íbúa en Árneshreppur á Ströndum var fámennast með 52 íbúa. Alls hafa26 sveitarfélög færri en 500 íbúa, en í aðeins níu sveitarfélögum búa 5.000 íbúareða fleiri (sjá töflu 1).Á árinu 2010 fækkaði íbúum í 45 af 76 sveitarfélögum landsins. Í 26 minnstusveitarfélögunum fækkaði í 16 en fjölgaði í 10. Alls fækkaði fólki í þeim um 100manns. Hlutfallslega fækkaði íbúum mest í Fljótsdalshreppi. Í níu stærstu sveitarfélögummeð 5.000 íbúa eða fleiri fækkaði aðeins í Reykjanesbæ.Þegar litið er til íbúaþróunar síðustu fimm ára var mest árleg fjölgun í stærstusveitarfélögunum, en þar á eftir í sveitarfélögum með 1.000–1.999 íbúa. Árlegfækkun var í öllum sveitarfélögum með færri en 1.000 íbúa, þó einna mest íminnstu sveitarfélögunum. Íbúum fækkaði í 14 minnstu sveitarfélögunum aðmeðaltali um 4,1% á ári frá 1. janúar 2006 til 1. janúar 2011, eða alls um 368 íbúa.Ef Fljótsdalshreppur er ekki talinn með — en þar var íbúaþróun nokkuð sérstök átímabilinu — varð fækkunin í minnstu sveitarfélögunum 0,9% að meðaltali á ári.

Nvl   presentation - rognvaldur Nvl presentation - rognvaldur Presentation Transcript

  • Research and Education Centres in Rural Icelandlooking back over a decade
    dr. Rögnvaldur Ólafsson
    director
    University of Iceland, Regional Research Centres
    NVL Symposium
    Faroes
    The Nordic House
    21 September 2011
  • Will talk about:
    Background
    Iceland
    Population
    Demographic changes
    Local education networks
    Research centres of The University of Iceland
    Knowledgecentres
  • Iceland
    103.300 Km2
  • Population is very small
    318.452
    Iceland is basically a micro state
    But a state with an ambition
    to be an educated, internationally minded society
    Expensive
    Demanding on manpower
    Requires education
    • The long literary tradition helps
  • The demographic changes
    The population multiplied
    during the 20th century
  • Population of Iceland 1900-2011
    2X
    2X
    From 80 to 300 thousand
    in 100 years
    (Statistics Iceland, 2011)
  • They all went to Reykjavík
    In the rest of the country the population remained stable
    Only Akureyri increased its population somewhat
  • 30. maí 2000
    Population 1997
    and changes from 1987 to 1997
    Stefán Ólafsson: Búseta á Íslandi,
    Byggðastofnun 1997
  • Annual average population change by urban nuclei 2006–2011
    Size of circles shows the population size of urban nuclei.
    Colour of circles:
    Red = negative;
    yellow = positive, below national average;
    green = positive, above national average.
    (Statistics Iceland, 2011)
  • IcelandandtheNordicCountries
    Much fewer people in Iceland
    Much lower population density
    Norden i tal 2010
  • But even more important
    There is only one densely populated area in Iceland, the capital region around Reykjavík
    A very large portion of the population lives there
    Much larger portion than in the other Nordic countries
  • 3/4
  • During the last decade or two big changes have occurred in Iceland, not least in rural areas
  • The situation some decades ago
    Plenty of jobs in the basic industries that did not require education
    Plenty of possibilities and plenty of money for hard working, uneducated people
    Consequently
    neither need for education
    nor was it highly regarded
    This has to be taken with a grain of salt !
  • The fishing industry....
  • Huge changes in the last 20 years
    Fundamental changes in the labour situation
    A new fishing quota system
    Mechanization of fish processing
    The abundance of well paid unskilled jobs disappeared
    With rationalization the skilled jobs tended to be transferred to the capital region
    People moved to Reykjavík as never before
  • ... and farming
  • The development of some industriesfrom 1991 to 2009
    Acriculture
    Education
    Fishing industry
    Other industry
    Hotels &
    restaurants
    (Statistics Iceland, 2010)
  • The service industry grows
    Commerce
    Production
    Service
    Heimild: Mikilvægi þjónustugeirans fyrir íslenskan þjóðarbúskap. Skýrsla unnin af viðskiptadeild Háskólans í Reykjavík fyrir SVÞ – Samtök verslunar og þjónustu. Katrín Ólafsdóttir og Vilhjálmur Wiium, Hagfræðisetur Viðskiptadeildar Háskólans í Reykjavík, 2006
  • But much less in the regions
    Production
    Commerce
    Service
    Regions
    Capital area
    Iceland
    Source: Katrín Ólafsdóttir and Vilhjálmur Wiium, 2006
  • Great differencein educational level
    People with university degree:
    About 25% in the capital region
    About 15% outside the capital
    The need for education is recognised
    Do you need more education?
    No
    Yes
  • In 2000 the question was:
    How can a sparsely populated
    country like Iceland
    ensure the availability of education to all its inhabitants?
  • A grass root movementwas borne
    For increasing the availability of education
    By using the possibilities of the new technologies
    Internet, ADSL, Video conferencing
    Local education networks were established in all regions
    They were outside the official educational system
    They got special finance through the local parliamentarians
  • The local education networks
    The networks were established in 1998 and have grown since
    They are:
    now well established in the Icelandic education scene
    beginning to have an effect on the Icelandic regional politics
    based on the new technologies
    http://www.fraedslumidstodvar.is/
  • Local education networks
    Independent, self governing
    Basically networks
    Participation:
    Local industry
    Local authorities
    Labour unions
    Secondary schools
    Universities
  • The facilities
    The larger centres have good access to internet
    through a net set up with the assistance of the Ministry of Education
    Reading facilities
    Facilities for group work
    Student assistance and advice
    Video conferencing
    Cooperate with the universities running a video bridge
  • Their emphasis
    The emphasis varies according to local needs and circumstances
    All levels of education
    Continuing education
    Secondary education
    University education
    In Iceland the individual pays for his continuing education
  • The present state
    Considerable demand for the service
    Lack of courses from the universities
    The centres are financed by a yearly fixed contribution from the ministry of education
    The amount is not related to “output”
    Decided from year to year
  • University of IcelandInstitute of Research Centres
    Research institute
    Under the senate, not a department
    The contact point with the regions
    local councils, institutes, private firms and individuals
    A collection of small research units
    independent
  • Nineresearch centres
    Rannsóknasetur HÍ
    Vestfjörðum
    Bolungarvík og Patreksfirði
    Rannsóknasetur HÍ
    Norðausturlandi
    Húsavík
    Rannsóknasetur HÍ
    Norðvesturlandi
    Skagaströnd
    Rannsóknasetur HÍ
    Austurlandi
    Egilsstöðum
    Háskólasetur Snæfellsness
    Stykkishólmi
    Rannsóknasetur HÍ
    Suðurlandi, Selfossi og Gunnarsholti
    Háskólasetrið á Hornafirði
    Höfn og Kirkjubæjarklaustri
    Háskólasetur Suðurnesja
    Sandgerði
    Rannsóknasetur HÍ
    Vestmannaeyjum
  • Staff
    Selected by same process as other university staff
    Duties:
    80% research
    20% other duties
    Recently signed contract with the department of Life and Environmental Sciences
  • Institute of Research Centres
    2009
    Turnover around 170 MIKR
    19 employes
    Over 20 master and doctor students
  • Why situate researchin the regions?
    Some important research is better done outside the capital region
    Land use and preservation
    Forestry research
    The effects of glaciers
    Research on birds
    Snow avalance research
    .........
    ?
  • Research policy depends on:
    Local facilities and interest
    Natural and social
    Knowhow inside the University
    Fundamental research
    Akademic, not applied research
  • Important:
    Carefully define field of study
    Stick to it
    Ensure quality of:
    research
    teaching
    Form networks:
    national
    international
  • Húsavík
    North Sailing News
    February 25th 2011
    Researches
    Each year, researches of whales are becoming a bigger part of Skjálfandi Bay
     
    Ever since North Sailing began offering regular whale and nature watching in Skjálfandi Bay the company has striven to assist scholars and researchers, both Icelandic and foreigners, to perform various marine biology studies in the bay.
  • Vatnajökull National Park
  • Höfn and Þórbergssetur
  • The effectof the research centres
    New job oportunities in new fields
    Research that otherwise might not have been done
    Projects connected with culture and new employment
    Close cooperation with the University
    Local and foreign researchers and students
    Impact on local life
  • Knowledge activitiesin the regions
    Local Education Centres
    Research Centres of the University of Iceland
    Natural history institutes
    Branch offices of research institutes
    Marine Research Institute
    Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories
    Agricultural service institutes
    Regional Environmental Research Institutes
    Business and Regional Development Centres
    ................
  • This activity forms a few nets
    Each with their own properties
    Local educational networks – teaching and training
    Research centres – mostly academic research
    Natural history institutes - mostly applied research
    Regional development agencies - development, employment, innovation
  • How can this activity
    support
    research, education
    and
    development
    in the regions?
  • Knowledge
    Centre
    Continuing
    education
    University Teaching
    Centre
    Research
    Distance
    education
    Local
    education
  • The knowledge centres are centres of cooperation
    Þekkingarsetur Þingeyinga, Húsavík
    Þekkingarsetur Vestmannaeyja
    Þekkingarnet Austurlands, Egilsstöðum
    Háskólasetur Vestfjarða, Ísafirði
    Háskólafélag Suðurlands ehf, Selfossi
  • Extensive cooperation
    The aim is to house in one building all knowledge related activity in the area
    Create a community of the people working in the so called „information sector“
    Collective facilities and service
    Nýheimar, Höfn
  • Examples
    Þekkingarnet Þingeyinga
    http://www.hac.is/
    Þekkingarnet Austurlands, ÞNA
    http://tna.is/
    Háskólafélag Suðurlands, HfSu
    http://www.hfsu.is/
  • http://www.hac.is/english/
  • Lifelong learning
    a centre for lifelong learning and adult education
    expand educational offering
    offer vocational and recreational courses and study programmes
    be a centre for distance learning in co-operation with schools offering such programmes
    provide guidance and counselling to students and prospective students
    work with businesses, municipalities and institutions in shaping their educational policy and provide customized study programmes
  • Research and development
    a hub for research and researchers in Þingeyjarsýslur county
    initiating research in the region
    provide service to the scientific community; independent researchers, postgraduate students, institutions and organizations
    facilitate co-operation and increased activity among those who do research in the region
    take active part in shaping a dynamic environment of innovation in the region
    facilitating collaboration in research and innovation
  • University study
    operate a well equipped study facility in Húsavík and, as needed, elsewhere in the region
    work with universities to increase the offering in distance learning and local study opportunities in Þingeyjarsýslur
    work with universities to develop study programmes and courses based on natural and cultural traits unique to the region
  • Coordination of academic studies and research
    Strengthen the community in Þingeyjarsýslur by offering dynamic lifelong learning programmes, distance learning programmes and active research
    coordinate research, academic work, education and development among the parties of interest in this field
  • Local teaching
    Distance master courses from the School of Education at the University of Iceland
    Two courses
    Quantative Research Methods (5 ECTS)
    Qualitative Research Methods (5 ECTS)
    Local groups of students
    Local assistant lecturers
    Meet once a week for tutorial and assistance
  • Supportinglocaltourism
    Weak easterly part
    Analysed the situation
    Strengthen the tourism industry
    Lengthen the tourist season
    • Establish a geopark
    • Networking local operators
    • Courses in geotourism and local geography for local guides
    • Master courses with foreign students in cooperation with the University of Iceland
  • Katla Geopark – GeologicalMap of Area
  • Katla JarðvangurorKatla Geopark
    Admitted into European Geopark Network and Global Geopark Network last Friday
  • Effect of knowledge centres on employment and innovation
    Considerable in some places
    Nýheimar Höfn
    Átaksverkefni Háskólafélags Suðurlands
    The tendency goes this way
    In most places better cooperation and contact has still to be built up
  • From Erla Björk Örnólfsdóttir, Sjávarrannsóknasetrinu Vör, Ólafsvík
  • Evaluation
    Too limited
    General lack of research on regional development in Iceland
    In 2010 a study on the number and turnover of regional activities in the field of:
    Education and training
    Research and development
    Culture
    Service and consulting
    http://www.menntamalaraduneyti.is/frettir/Frettatilkynningar/nr/5550
  • Regional employment
    Áfangaskýrsla um þekkingarsetur á Íslandi.
    Ministry of Education and Culture Oct. 2010
  • Some results
    Total turnover: 5.052.234.000 IKR
  • In 2011 the question is:
    How can a small and sparsely populated country
    as Iceland
    ensure jobs for educated people in all regions?
  • The communities need
    Similar diversity as big places
    in employment
    socially
    Young, educated people
    A better self image
  • Rural development
    A clear policy is needed
    The solutions need to be local, not imported from Reykjavík or abroad
    dr. Rögnvaldur Ólafsson
    Institute of Research Centres
    University of Iceland
    Sæmundargötu 2, 101 Reykjavík
    rol@hi.is