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Media History 5

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  • 1. Media History 5 th session: Comicbooks Steen Christiansen [email_address]
  • 2. Comicbook History
    • What are comicbooks?
    • 3. Why are comicbooks relevant?
    • 4. The history of comicbooks
    • 5. Comicbooks and popular culture
    • 6. Remediation
  • 7. What are comicbooks? Juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence. Little Sammy Sneeze , Winsor McCay
  • 8. What are comicbooks?
  • 9. What are comicbooks?
  • 10. What are comicbooks? Histoire de Monsieur Cryptogame by Rodolphe Töpffer (1830)
  • 11. What are comicbooks? The Yellow Kid/Hogan’s Alley, Richard Felton Outcault
  • 12. What are comicbooks? Rudolph Dirks’ Katzenjammer Kids
  • 13. Why are comics relevant?
  • 21. Mass production reduces status
    • Obeys the rules of commerce
    • 22. Popular equals vulgar
    • 23. Humor as opposite harmony and the sublime
  • 24. Influence on children
    • Fredric Wertham, Seduction of the Innocent
    • 25. Blacklisted for corrupting their only audience
  • 26. Visual forms subordinate to language
    • We need words to understand the image
      • Anchorage
    • The image as attractive and hence dangerous
    • 27. The imprisonment of the word
    • 28. Artistic mediocrity
  • 29. William Blake
  • 30. Four-fold symbolic handicap
    • It is a hybrid
    • 31. Story-telling that appear to remain on the level of sub-literature/paraliterature
    • 32. Connected to caricature, which is thought inferior
    • 33. Propose a return to childhood
  • 34. The history of comicbooks
  • 41. Newspapers and comics
    • Comic strips are found in newspapers and seen as a way to sell more newspapers
  • 42. Newspapers and comics
    • Comics aren’t seen as independent, but as light entertainment at the end of the paper
  • 43. Newspapers and comics
    • This means that the strips are short, concluding and typically humorous
    • 44. Otherwise, they will use cliffhangers
  • 45.  
  • 46. Cartoons and animated films
  • 47. Cartoons and animated films
  • 48. Cartoons and animated films
  • 49. Cartoons and animated films
  • 50. Cartoons and animated films
  • 51. The American Comics Industry
  • 52. The American Comics Industry
    • Only slowly do magazines emerge solely dedicated to comics
    • 53. Generally considered kids’ entertainment
  • 54. Superhero Mania
    • ” Comic books were a ghetto. I sold my part of the enterprise to my associate and then began The Spirit . They wanted an heroic character, a costumed character. They asked me if he'd have a costume. And I put a mask on him and said, 'Yes, he has a costume!'"
  • 55. Comics are genres
  • 59. Comics are publishers
    • DC (Detective Comics
    • 60. Marvel
    • 61. EC (Entertaining Comics)
    • 62. Dark Horse
  • 63. Comics retail
    • Usually, comics are sold at newsstands or other non-specialist shops
  • 64. Comics panic
  • 65. Comics panic
  • 66. Comicbook stores
    • As comics get their own magazines, shops dedicated only to comics emerge
  • 67. Comicbook stores
    • Comics gain a subculture
    • 68. Readers follow every issue
    • 69. Stories change, as a result
    • 70. Continuity emerges as a law
      • Today, people are employed to make sure continuity is maintained.
  • 71. Alternative comix
  • 72. Hippie comics
  • 73. Comics industry
    • Comics return to books when they gain cultural recognition
  • 74. The 80s – years of change
    • Two major changes
      • RAW and Maus
      • 75. The British Revision of the American Superhero
  • 76. RAW Magazine
    • Intellectual underground
    • 77. The medium is broadened
    • 78. New subject matters introduced
  • 79. Maus
    • Comics become morally complex
    • 80. They treat serious topics such as Holocaust
    • 81. Graphic novels are introduced
  • 82. Superhero Revision
    • Superheroes become morally suspect
    • 83. “Who watches the watchmen?”
  • 84. Superhero Revision
    • The Comics Code Authority is challenged
  • 85. Superhero Revision
    • Fascism is brought to the foreground
  • 86. The 90s – diaspora and a bursting bubble
    • The comicbook market collapses
    • 87. All manner of comicbooks emerge
    • 88. DC and Marvel both make ‘art-house’ imprints
  • 89. The Sandman
    • DC’s biggest success without superheroes
  • 90. Sin City
    • Will Eisner, The Spirit
    • 91. Frank Miller
      • Daredevil
  • 92. Comicbooks and Popular Culture
  • 93. Comicbooks and Popular Culture
  • 94. Comicbooks and Popular Culture
  • 95. Comicbooks and Popular Culture
  • 96. Remediation
    • The visual style is maintained, despite the loss of realism
  • 97. Remediation
    • Cross-over inspiration
    • 98. Comics work as inspiration for movies and games

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