Media History 3

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Media History 3

  1. 1. Media History <ul><ul><li>3 rd session: Film, Hollywood and History </li></ul></ul>Steen Christiansen [email_address]
  2. 2. Early cinema history <ul><li>Kinetoscope, peepshow </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of direction </li></ul><ul><li>Urban phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Language not a barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagined community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fixed-camera </li></ul>
  3. 3. Movie Theaters <ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>“Nickelodeon” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Movie Industry <ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibition </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical integration </li></ul><ul><li>Genres </li></ul><ul><li>Star system </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Rise of Hollywood’s Studio System <ul><li>LA, California and Hollywood </li></ul><ul><li>Double-billing </li></ul><ul><li>Popcorn </li></ul><ul><li>1948 Supreme Court ended the studio system by ruling vertical integration illegal </li></ul><ul><li>‘Peter Pan’ effect </li></ul>
  6. 6. Film Industry and Technology <ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A challenge to Hollywood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyed Danish cinema’s international appeal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Cinemascope </li></ul><ul><li>The challenge of TV </li></ul><ul><li>SFX and CGI </li></ul><ul><li>3D </li></ul>
  7. 7. Controlling the Film Industry <ul><li>Film is particularly persuasive? </li></ul><ul><li>MPPDA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MPPA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion Picture Association of America </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voluntary scrutiny </li></ul><ul><li>Production Code </li></ul><ul><li>Exploitation movies </li></ul>
  8. 8. Film Production <ul><li>Risky business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theaters, DVD, TV, Planes, Hotels, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>90% of the revenue goes to the distribution company/production company </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Film Form of Hollywood <ul><li>180 degree rules </li></ul><ul><li>Coherent narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Specific narrative development </li></ul><ul><li>The Hollywood style determines general expectations of films </li></ul>
  10. 10. Hollywood Canonic Narration <ul><li>“Normalized options” (Bordwell 1985, 156) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologically defined characters </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Clear goals or problems </li></ul><ul><li>Decisive resolution </li></ul>
  11. 11. Basic plot <ul><li>Initial stage gets violated and must be set right </li></ul><ul><li>Undisturbed </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbance introduced </li></ul><ul><li>Struggle </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbance eliminated </li></ul>
  12. 12. Double causal structure <ul><li>Romantic relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Other sphere: work, war,quest, mission, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Distinct but interdependent </li></ul>
  13. 13. Movies and Culture <ul><li>What is film’s connection to culture? </li></ul><ul><li>How have different styles, narratives, genres, etc been used at different times in history? </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Dominance of Hollywood Films Today <ul><li>WWI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American companies untouched by war could keep producing movies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WWII </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeting own national audience, international audiences only add extra money </li></ul></ul><ul><li>80% of movies in Denmark are American/Hollywood </li></ul>
  15. 15. Independent movies <ul><li>Sundance </li></ul><ul><li>Film festivals in general </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Juno </li></ul></ul>

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