Media History 2: Press and News Media
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  • 1. Media HistorySession 2: Press and News Media
  • 2. TopicsNews and societyNews and technologyNews and economy
  • 3. News and Society
  • 4. What are news media?
  • 5. What are news media?Source of information and opinion
  • 6. What are news media?One-to-many form of communication
  • 7. What is Society?
  • 8. What is society?A useful concept is Benedict Andersons "imagined communities"
  • 9. Imagined communitiesA nation “is imagined because themembers of even the smallestnation will never know most of theirfellow-members, meet them, oreven hear of them, yet in the mindsof each lives the image of theircommunion” (Anderson, 6-7)
  • 10. Imagined communitiesNation building takes place through language
  • 11. Imagined communities“Print-capitalism” - nations formaround national print-language
  • 12. Imagined communities This language standard continues in radio and TV with enforcementof a standardized spoken language
  • 13. Imagined communitiesMedia texts articulate a nation’s cultural and social identity
  • 14. Imagined communitiesUnifying
  • 15. Imagined Communities and the News Media
  • 16. Imagined communities and the news mediaNewspapers determine what issues are important
  • 17. Imagined communities and the news mediaObjectivity or fact over opinion
  • 18. Imagined communities and the news media Do news media reflect publicopinion or do they lead and shape public opinion?
  • 19. Imagined communities and the news mediaPropaganda and social order
  • 20. Imagined communities and the news mediaA ban on photos of dead Americansoldiers from Iraq and Afghanistan
  • 21. Imagined communities and the news mediaThe news media leads to the rise of the public sphere
  • 22. Imagined communities and the news mediaCritical self-reflection and reflection on the state
  • 23. Imagined communities and the news mediaAllows participation
  • 24. The Public Sphere and Electronic Media
  • 25. The public sphere and electronic media Complex, critical and culturallydemanding material is made widely available
  • 26. The public sphere and electronic mediaConsumption becomesincreasingly privatized
  • 27. The public sphere and electronic mediaPublic sphere broken up, loss of unified participation
  • 28. Public Sphere and Digital Media
  • 29. The public sphere and digital mediaUser participation is increased and democratized
  • 30. The public sphere and digital media Overflow of information, pureopinion, uninformed and lack of critical detail
  • 31. Public Sphere and Imagined Communities
  • 32. The public sphere and imagined communitiesFragmented media makes for a fragmented nation
  • 33. The public sphere and imagined communitiesNo longer unified view of cultural and social identity
  • 34. The public sphere and imagined communitiesLoss of national unity and national identity
  • 35. News Media and Technology
  • 36. News media and technologyTelegraph 1844Transatlantic cable 1850sTelephone 1870sTelephone news channels 1880s
  • 37. News media and technologyNews moves fast
  • 38. Media Types
  • 39. Media types Time-basedDurable, stable, immobile Clay, rockCreates social reproduction overlong periods of time
  • 40. Media types Space-basedTemporary, unstable, mobile PaperExpansive over large territories
  • 41. Media types Electronic mediaProliferate, mutate, omnipresentAnnihilate space and timeInvasive, relocating,deterritorializing
  • 42. Radio and TV News
  • 43. Radio and TV NewsCommercial vs public broadcasting
  • 44. Radio and TV NewsNews becomes a group activity
  • 45. Radio and TV NewsEspecially family-oriented
  • 46. Radio and TV NewsBritish newspapers hostile towards radio
  • 47. Radio and TV NewsThe result is state regulation
  • 48. Radio and TV News In the US, the relationship iscomplimentary and competitive
  • 49. Radio and TV News 1933: Attempt at limitingbroadcasting to specific times of the day
  • 50. News Media and the Web
  • 51. News media and the webOfficial versus alternative channels
  • 52. News media and the webReplicates and remediates the format of the newspaper
  • 53. News media and the webAlternative news proliferate
  • 54. News media and the web BloggingDifferent authority “Live” Part of the action, not detachedSupposed to be many-to-many But in fact, many-to-few and few-to- many
  • 55. News as Institutions
  • 56. News as institutionsInstitutions are socially interpreted facts
  • 57. News as institutionsInstitutions help us think about society
  • 58. News as institutionsBasic, stable structures of society
  • 59. News as institutionsInstitutions are carriers of ideology
  • 60. Ideology
  • 61. Ideology“The ruling ideas of the ruling class”
  • 62. IdeologyOur understanding and knowledge of the world is determined by political interests
  • 63. IdeologyPropagated by mass media
  • 64. Ideological Slants of News Media
  • 65. Ideological slants of news media Party pressCommunication tool for a politicalpartyAgitation/propaganda
  • 66. Ideological slants of news media Public newsCommunication channel betweensocial institutions and citizensService for the public
  • 67. Ideological slants of news media Commercial newsContact between organizationand audienceService