Media History 2


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Media History 2

  1. 1. Media History <ul><ul><li>2 nd session: The Press </li></ul></ul>Steen Christiansen [email_address]
  2. 2. Exam deadline <ul><li>April 20 th </li></ul>
  3. 3. Exam workshop <ul><li>Moved to April 2 nd </li></ul><ul><li>Still this room </li></ul>
  4. 4. Course blog <ul><li> </li></ul>
  5. 5. Topics <ul><li>Newspapers and society </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers and the public sphere </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers and economy </li></ul><ul><li>News as institutions </li></ul><ul><li>News and Radio/TV </li></ul><ul><li>News and the Internet </li></ul>
  6. 6. Newspapers and society <ul><li>Source of information and opinion </li></ul><ul><li>One-to-many </li></ul>
  7. 7. Benedict Anderson and ‘imagined communities’ <ul><li>A nation “is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion” (Anderson, 6-7) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Imagined communities <ul><li>Nation building takes place through language </li></ul><ul><li>“Print-capitalism” - nations for around national print-language </li></ul><ul><li>This language standard continues in radio and TV with enforcement of a standardized spoken language </li></ul>
  9. 9. Imagined communities and media <ul><li>Media texts articulate a nation’s cultural and social identity </li></ul><ul><li>Unifying </li></ul>
  10. 10. Imagined communities and news <ul><li>Newspapers determine what issues are important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex relation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectivity/fact over opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do newspapers reflect public opinion or lead and shape? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. News and war <ul><li>Propaganda and social order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A ban on photos of dead American soldiers from Iraq and Afghanistan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total war </li></ul>
  12. 12. Newspapers and the public sphere <ul><li>Critical self-reflection and reflection on the state </li></ul><ul><li>Allows participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by the propertied, rational, male bourgeoisie </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Public sphere and electronic media <ul><li>Positive: complex, critical and culturally demanding material is made widely available </li></ul>
  14. 14. Public sphere and electronic media <ul><li>Negative: consumption becomes increasingly privatized </li></ul>
  15. 15. Public sphere and electronic media <ul><li>Argument: public sphere broken up, loss of unified participation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Public sphere and imagined communities <ul><li>Fragmented media makes for a fragmented nation </li></ul><ul><li>No longer unified view of cultural and social identity </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of national unity and national identity </li></ul>
  17. 17. Newspapers and technology <ul><li>Telegraph 1844 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transatlantic cable 1850s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telephone 1870s </li></ul>
  18. 18. News and technology <ul><li>News moves fast </li></ul><ul><li>The typewriter enables papers to produce faster </li></ul>
  19. 19. News and technology <ul><li>Attempts at making telephone news channels in the 1880s. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio precursor </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Media types <ul><li>Time-biased </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Durable, stable, immobile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay, rock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates social reproduction over long periods of time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Space-biased </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary, unstable, mobile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansive over large territories </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Media types <ul><li>Electronic media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proliferate, mutate, omnipresent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annihilate space and time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invasive, relocating, deterritorializing </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Newspapers and economy <ul><li>Restricted economically by “The Stamp Act” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An attempt of moderate state control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advertising frees the press </li></ul><ul><li>Comics are introduced in papers to increase popularity </li></ul><ul><li>Conglomerates arise </li></ul><ul><li>Free newspapers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not as successful as expected </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. News as institutions <ul><li>Institutions are socially interpreted facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They help us think about society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic, stable structures of society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutions are carriers of ideology </li></ul>
  24. 24. News as institutions <ul><li>Ideology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“The ruling ideas of the ruling class” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our understanding and knowledge of the world is determined by political interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propagated by mass media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(CT 189-191) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideological slants </li></ul>
  25. 25. News as institutions <ul><li>Party press </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication tool for a political party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agitation/propaganda </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. News as institutions <ul><li>Public news </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication channel between social institutions and citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service for the public </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. News as institutions <ul><li>Commercial news </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact between organization and audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. ‘Great men’ of news <ul><li>The ‘Great Men’ concept of history </li></ul><ul><li>Influential and significant, but how much remains uncertain </li></ul>
  29. 29. William Randolph Hearst <ul><li>Newspaper magnate </li></ul><ul><li>Influencing public opinion for the Spanish-American war in 1898 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war” </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. William Randolph Hearst
  31. 31. Rupert Murdoch <ul><li>Media mogul </li></ul><ul><li>FOX News </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking points from Bush White House to FOX News commentators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill O’Reilly </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Rupert Murdoch
  33. 33. Randolph Hearst and Rupert Murdoch
  34. 34. Radio and TV <ul><li>Commercial vs public broadcasting </li></ul><ul><li>News become a group activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially family-oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public sphere </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Newspapers vs radio <ul><li>British newspapers hostile towards radio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US complimentary and competitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1933 attempt at limiting broadcasting to specific times of the day </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. News and the media <ul><li>Replicate the format of the newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>News is to some extent considered independent of media </li></ul>
  37. 37. News and the Internet <ul><li>Official channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remediation of paper-version </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative news proliferate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-to-many, still </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. News and the Internet <ul><li>Blogging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Live” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the action, not detached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many-to-many </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But in fact, many-to-few and few-to-many </li></ul></ul></ul>