Media History 2
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Media History 2 Media History 2 Presentation Transcript

  • Media History
      • 2 nd session: The Press
    Steen Christiansen [email_address]
  • Exam deadline
    • April 20 th
  • Exam workshop
    • Moved to April 2 nd
    • Still this room
  • Course blog
    • dissemination.wordpress.com
  • Topics
    • Newspapers and society
    • Newspapers and the public sphere
    • Newspapers and technology
    • Newspapers and economy
    • News as institutions
    • News and Radio/TV
    • News and the Internet
  • Newspapers and society
    • Source of information and opinion
    • One-to-many
  • Benedict Anderson and ‘imagined communities’
    • A nation “is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion” (Anderson, 6-7)
  • Imagined communities
    • Nation building takes place through language
    • “Print-capitalism” - nations for around national print-language
    • This language standard continues in radio and TV with enforcement of a standardized spoken language
  • Imagined communities and media
    • Media texts articulate a nation’s cultural and social identity
    • Unifying
  • Imagined communities and news
    • Newspapers determine what issues are important
      • Complex relation
      • Objectivity/fact over opinion
      • Do newspapers reflect public opinion or lead and shape?
  • News and war
    • Propaganda and social order
      • A ban on photos of dead American soldiers from Iraq and Afghanistan
    • Total war
  • Newspapers and the public sphere
    • Critical self-reflection and reflection on the state
    • Allows participation
      • by the propertied, rational, male bourgeoisie
  • Public sphere and electronic media
    • Positive: complex, critical and culturally demanding material is made widely available
  • Public sphere and electronic media
    • Negative: consumption becomes increasingly privatized
  • Public sphere and electronic media
    • Argument: public sphere broken up, loss of unified participation
  • Public sphere and imagined communities
    • Fragmented media makes for a fragmented nation
    • No longer unified view of cultural and social identity
    • Loss of national unity and national identity
  • Newspapers and technology
    • Telegraph 1844
      • Transatlantic cable 1850s
    • Telephone 1870s
  • News and technology
    • News moves fast
    • The typewriter enables papers to produce faster
  • News and technology
    • Attempts at making telephone news channels in the 1880s.
      • Radio precursor
  • Media types
    • Time-biased
      • Durable, stable, immobile
      • Clay, rock
      • Creates social reproduction over long periods of time
    • Space-biased
      • Temporary, unstable, mobile
      • Paper
      • Expansive over large territories
  • Media types
    • Electronic media
      • Proliferate, mutate, omnipresent
      • Annihilate space and time
      • Invasive, relocating, deterritorializing
  • Newspapers and economy
    • Restricted economically by “The Stamp Act”
      • An attempt of moderate state control
    • Advertising frees the press
    • Comics are introduced in papers to increase popularity
    • Conglomerates arise
    • Free newspapers
      • Not as successful as expected
  • News as institutions
    • Institutions are socially interpreted facts
      • They help us think about society
      • Basic, stable structures of society
    • Institutions are carriers of ideology
  • News as institutions
    • Ideology
      • “The ruling ideas of the ruling class”
      • Our understanding and knowledge of the world is determined by political interests
      • Propagated by mass media
      • (CT 189-191)
    • Ideological slants
  • News as institutions
    • Party press
      • Communication tool for a political party
      • Agitation/propaganda
  • News as institutions
    • Public news
      • Communication channel between social institutions and citizens
      • Service for the public
  • News as institutions
    • Commercial news
      • Contact between organization and audience
      • Service
  • ‘Great men’ of news
    • The ‘Great Men’ concept of history
    • Influential and significant, but how much remains uncertain
  • William Randolph Hearst
    • Newspaper magnate
    • Influencing public opinion for the Spanish-American war in 1898
      • “You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war”
  • William Randolph Hearst
  • Rupert Murdoch
    • Media mogul
    • FOX News
      • Talking points from Bush White House to FOX News commentators
      • Bill O’Reilly
  • Rupert Murdoch
  • Randolph Hearst and Rupert Murdoch
  • Radio and TV
    • Commercial vs public broadcasting
    • News become a group activity
      • Especially family-oriented
      • Public sphere
  • Newspapers vs radio
    • British newspapers hostile towards radio
      • regulation
    • US complimentary and competitive
      • 1933 attempt at limiting broadcasting to specific times of the day
  • News and the media
    • Replicate the format of the newspaper
    • News is to some extent considered independent of media
  • News and the Internet
    • Official channels
      • Remediation of paper-version
      • Web-only
      • Alternative news proliferate
      • One-to-many, still
  • News and the Internet
    • Blogging
      • Different authority
      • “Live”
      • Part of the action, not detached
      • Many-to-many
        • But in fact, many-to-few and few-to-many