The Neuroanatomical Basis of      Brain Disorders               By       Daniel Martinez M.D         Zaid Syed MS4
Medical Model• George L. Engel   – 1977• Biological, psychological, social, spiritual,  cultural factors affect disease an...
Eitheory.com
Biology• Very important to stress medical follow up for  each patient  – Once a year• Strong connection between body and m...
Biology• Obtain medical records• Physical Exam  – Screening blood test     • CBC        – Hematocrit        – Hemoglobin  ...
Biology• Screening Blood Test (cont)  – Liver Function test  – Thyroid Function Test       • Hyperthyroidism       • Hypot...
Neuron in Action            http://blog.lib.umn.edu
Synthesis and Release of Dopamine
SPECT Scan                Neuroimaging in Psychiatry     Neuroimaging in psychiatry By Tripura Medical College , Slide 23 ...
Images (c) Dr. Amen
Images (c) Dr. Amen   Images (c) Dr. Amen
Images (c) Dr. Amen
http://www.brain-spect.com/SPECTscans/jpg/alz.JPG
OCD
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder• Epidemiology  – Occurs in 2-3% of US population.  – Bimodal distribution – 10 y/o and 21 y/...
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder• Pathogenesis  – Orbitofrontal dysfunction and frontal/parietal    white matter changes.  – ...
active front-on viewHeavy increased cingulate activity and right and left anterior lateral prefrontal   cortex activity (t...
http://www.londonneurofeedback.com/uploads/2/2/9/8/2298352/8876880.jpg
Autism
Autism• Epidemiology• 3 – 2- 1- 1  – Before the age of 3  – Two social problems (PRNS)  – One communication problem (LISP)...
Autism• Etiologys  – Dr Andrew Wakefield     • measles vaccineintestinal inflammation “leaky gut       syndrome”harmful...
Autism• More than 20 peer-reviewed epidemiologic  studies have shown no link between MMR &  autism.• Functional brain-imag...
Autistic patient                                Normal                   http://www.brain-spect.com/SPECTscans/jpg/normsag...
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia• Pathogenesis  – Overall unknown, however many associations are    known.  – Genetical component: observed c...
http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/szb/13/1/images/szb_13_1_115_fig11a.jpg
Depression
Depression• Epidemiology  – 17% of the US population     • 10-14% of medical inpatients1  – linked to social conditions• R...
Depression• Pathogenesis-  – Deficiency in excitatory neurotransmitters  – Neurotransmitter –     • Serotonin
http://img.webmd.com/dtmcms/live/webmd/consumer_assets/site_images/articles/health_tools/depression_overview_slideshow/may...
ADHD
Attention deficit hyperactivity               disorder• Pathogenesis  – Genetic Factor     • Concordance as high as 92% in...
Psychostimulant needed.
http://www.adhd.org.nz/petscan.jpg
Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder• Episodic mood shifts of mania, major  depression, hypomania & mixed states• Pathophysiology  – Altered c...
http://www.brain-spect.com/SPECTscans/jpg/alz.JPG
Thank You!!
Thank youagain!
2012 Latino Mental Behavioral Health Conference: Changing the Paradigm from Stigma to Wellness
2012 Latino Mental Behavioral Health Conference: Changing the Paradigm from Stigma to Wellness
2012 Latino Mental Behavioral Health Conference: Changing the Paradigm from Stigma to Wellness
2012 Latino Mental Behavioral Health Conference: Changing the Paradigm from Stigma to Wellness
2012 Latino Mental Behavioral Health Conference: Changing the Paradigm from Stigma to Wellness
2012 Latino Mental Behavioral Health Conference: Changing the Paradigm from Stigma to Wellness
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2012 Latino Mental Behavioral Health Conference: Changing the Paradigm from Stigma to Wellness

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CCS would like to encourage your attendance for the 2012 Latino Mental Behavioral Health Conference: Changing the Paradigm from Stigma to Wellness on Friday, October 19th at the Chicago School of Professional Psychology.

Come listen to Psychiatrist Dr. Daniel Martinez discuss the neuroanatomical basis of brain disorders, focusing on the biopsychosocial medical model, areas of the brain affecting emotions and psychiatric disorders with a clear medical basis.

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  • Cingulate gyrus???
  • Autisitcs have no filter on what to pay attention to and what is important
  • tryptophan, precursor amino acid required for central synthesis of serotonin,
  • Rat models suggest that an imbalance between the norepinephrine and dopamine systems in the prefrontal cortex contributes to the pathogenesis of ADHD (decrease in inhibitory dopaminergic activity and increase in norepinephrine activity). The findings from animal studies are supported by human studies indicating patients with ADHD have an increase in dopamine transporter density (which may clear dopamine from the synapse too quickly) compared to healthy controls [ 58 ] and that  methylphenidate  increases extracellular dopamine in the brain [ 59 ].
  • Posterior cingulate gyrus – awarneess
  • 2012 Latino Mental Behavioral Health Conference: Changing the Paradigm from Stigma to Wellness

    1. 1. The Neuroanatomical Basis of Brain Disorders By Daniel Martinez M.D Zaid Syed MS4
    2. 2. Medical Model• George L. Engel – 1977• Biological, psychological, social, spiritual, cultural factors affect disease and overall wellbeing• How the cause of the illness stems from functioning of the individuals body
    3. 3. Eitheory.com
    4. 4. Biology• Very important to stress medical follow up for each patient – Once a year• Strong connection between body and mind
    5. 5. Biology• Obtain medical records• Physical Exam – Screening blood test • CBC – Hematocrit – Hemoglobin » Rule out anemia • CMP – Electrolytes – Glucose – Cr/BUN
    6. 6. Biology• Screening Blood Test (cont) – Liver Function test – Thyroid Function Test • Hyperthyroidism • Hypothyroidism – Lipid panel – Drug screen – Pregnancy – Vitamin B12 – Folic Acid – Thiamine
    7. 7. Neuron in Action http://blog.lib.umn.edu
    8. 8. Synthesis and Release of Dopamine
    9. 9. SPECT Scan Neuroimaging in Psychiatry Neuroimaging in psychiatry By Tripura Medical College , Slide 23 http://www.slideshare.net/shaan_47/neuroimaging-in-psychiatry http://www.slideshare.net/shaan_47/neuroimaging-in-psychiatry
    10. 10. Images (c) Dr. Amen
    11. 11. Images (c) Dr. Amen Images (c) Dr. Amen
    12. 12. Images (c) Dr. Amen
    13. 13. http://www.brain-spect.com/SPECTscans/jpg/alz.JPG
    14. 14. OCD
    15. 15. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder• Epidemiology – Occurs in 2-3% of US population. – Bimodal distribution – 10 y/o and 21 y/o• Signs and Symptoms – Obsession - Persistent thoughts, ideas and images that intrude into conscious awareness. – Compulsion – urges or impulses for repetitive intentional behavior performed in a stereotyped manner in an attempt to alleviate the anxiety caused by the obsessions.
    16. 16. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder• Pathogenesis – Orbitofrontal dysfunction and frontal/parietal white matter changes. – Prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus and basal ganglia dysfunction are implicated. – By using PET scan, patient after treatment had a reduction in cerebral metabolism in these areas. – Serotonin is also believed to play an integral role.
    17. 17. active front-on viewHeavy increased cingulate activity and right and left anterior lateral prefrontal cortex activity (together termed hyperfrontality).
    18. 18. http://www.londonneurofeedback.com/uploads/2/2/9/8/2298352/8876880.jpg
    19. 19. Autism
    20. 20. Autism• Epidemiology• 3 – 2- 1- 1 – Before the age of 3 – Two social problems (PRNS) – One communication problem (LISP) – One inflexible behavior problem (PIMP)
    21. 21. Autism• Etiologys – Dr Andrew Wakefield • measles vaccineintestinal inflammation “leaky gut syndrome”harmful proteins can affect brain Autism – In 1998, Wakefield & a group of colleagues published a research study in the British medical journal, The Lancet, which linked inflammatory bowel symptoms in 12 autistic children to the Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine
    22. 22. Autism• More than 20 peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies have shown no link between MMR & autism.• Functional brain-imaging studies show under activation in areas associated with planning & control of complex actions, & in areas linked with processing socioemotional information.
    23. 23. Autistic patient Normal http://www.brain-spect.com/SPECTscans/jpg/normsag.jpg
    24. 24. Schizophrenia
    25. 25. Schizophrenia• Pathogenesis – Overall unknown, however many associations are known. – Genetical component: observed concordance rate is about 40-50% in monozygotic twins, and 5-10% in dizygotic twins. – Environmental components • Obstetrical complications • Infections • Inflamation • Cannibus use
    26. 26. http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/szb/13/1/images/szb_13_1_115_fig11a.jpg
    27. 27. Depression
    28. 28. Depression• Epidemiology – 17% of the US population • 10-14% of medical inpatients1 – linked to social conditions• Rule out hypothyroidism• Association with Parkinson disease and dementia 1. Katon, W. Epidemiology of Depression in Primary Care. General Hospital Psychiatry 1992. July 14(4). 237-247
    29. 29. Depression• Pathogenesis- – Deficiency in excitatory neurotransmitters – Neurotransmitter – • Serotonin
    30. 30. http://img.webmd.com/dtmcms/live/webmd/consumer_assets/site_images/articles/health_tools/depression_overview_slideshow/mayo_c7_pet_depression.jpg
    31. 31. ADHD
    32. 32. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder• Pathogenesis – Genetic Factor • Concordance as high as 92% in monozygotic twins and 33% in dizygotic twins.
    33. 33. Psychostimulant needed.
    34. 34. http://www.adhd.org.nz/petscan.jpg
    35. 35. Bipolar Disorder
    36. 36. Bipolar disorder• Episodic mood shifts of mania, major depression, hypomania & mixed states• Pathophysiology – Altered circadian rhythmicity
    37. 37. http://www.brain-spect.com/SPECTscans/jpg/alz.JPG
    38. 38. Thank You!!
    39. 39. Thank youagain!

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