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2012 Latino Mental Behavioral Health Conference: Changing the Paradigm from Stigma to Wellness
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2012 Latino Mental Behavioral Health Conference: Changing the Paradigm from Stigma to Wellness


CCS would like to encourage your attendance for the 2012 Latino Mental Behavioral Health Conference: Changing the Paradigm from Stigma to Wellness on Friday, October 19th at the Chicago School of …

CCS would like to encourage your attendance for the 2012 Latino Mental Behavioral Health Conference: Changing the Paradigm from Stigma to Wellness on Friday, October 19th at the Chicago School of Professional Psychology.

Come listen to Psychiatrist Dr. Daniel Martinez discuss the neuroanatomical basis of brain disorders, focusing on the biopsychosocial medical model, areas of the brain affecting emotions and psychiatric disorders with a clear medical basis.

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  • Cingulate gyrus???
  • Autisitcs have no filter on what to pay attention to and what is important
  • tryptophan, precursor amino acid required for central synthesis of serotonin,
  • Rat models suggest that an imbalance between the norepinephrine and dopamine systems in the prefrontal cortex contributes to the pathogenesis of ADHD (decrease in inhibitory dopaminergic activity and increase in norepinephrine activity). The findings from animal studies are supported by human studies indicating patients with ADHD have an increase in dopamine transporter density (which may clear dopamine from the synapse too quickly) compared to healthy controls [ 58 ] and that  methylphenidate  increases extracellular dopamine in the brain [ 59 ].
  • Posterior cingulate gyrus – awarneess


  • 1. The Neuroanatomical Basis of Brain Disorders By Daniel Martinez M.D Zaid Syed MS4
  • 2. Medical Model• George L. Engel – 1977• Biological, psychological, social, spiritual, cultural factors affect disease and overall wellbeing• How the cause of the illness stems from functioning of the individuals body
  • 3.
  • 4. Biology• Very important to stress medical follow up for each patient – Once a year• Strong connection between body and mind
  • 5. Biology• Obtain medical records• Physical Exam – Screening blood test • CBC – Hematocrit – Hemoglobin » Rule out anemia • CMP – Electrolytes – Glucose – Cr/BUN
  • 6. Biology• Screening Blood Test (cont) – Liver Function test – Thyroid Function Test • Hyperthyroidism • Hypothyroidism – Lipid panel – Drug screen – Pregnancy – Vitamin B12 – Folic Acid – Thiamine
  • 7. Neuron in Action
  • 8. Synthesis and Release of Dopamine
  • 9. SPECT Scan Neuroimaging in Psychiatry Neuroimaging in psychiatry By Tripura Medical College , Slide 23
  • 10. Images (c) Dr. Amen
  • 11. Images (c) Dr. Amen Images (c) Dr. Amen
  • 12. Images (c) Dr. Amen
  • 13.
  • 14. OCD
  • 15. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder• Epidemiology – Occurs in 2-3% of US population. – Bimodal distribution – 10 y/o and 21 y/o• Signs and Symptoms – Obsession - Persistent thoughts, ideas and images that intrude into conscious awareness. – Compulsion – urges or impulses for repetitive intentional behavior performed in a stereotyped manner in an attempt to alleviate the anxiety caused by the obsessions.
  • 16. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder• Pathogenesis – Orbitofrontal dysfunction and frontal/parietal white matter changes. – Prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus and basal ganglia dysfunction are implicated. – By using PET scan, patient after treatment had a reduction in cerebral metabolism in these areas. – Serotonin is also believed to play an integral role.
  • 17. active front-on viewHeavy increased cingulate activity and right and left anterior lateral prefrontal cortex activity (together termed hyperfrontality).
  • 18.
  • 19. Autism
  • 20. Autism• Epidemiology• 3 – 2- 1- 1 – Before the age of 3 – Two social problems (PRNS) – One communication problem (LISP) – One inflexible behavior problem (PIMP)
  • 21. Autism• Etiologys – Dr Andrew Wakefield • measles vaccineintestinal inflammation “leaky gut syndrome”harmful proteins can affect brain Autism – In 1998, Wakefield & a group of colleagues published a research study in the British medical journal, The Lancet, which linked inflammatory bowel symptoms in 12 autistic children to the Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine
  • 22. Autism• More than 20 peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies have shown no link between MMR & autism.• Functional brain-imaging studies show under activation in areas associated with planning & control of complex actions, & in areas linked with processing socioemotional information.
  • 23. Autistic patient Normal
  • 24. Schizophrenia
  • 25. Schizophrenia• Pathogenesis – Overall unknown, however many associations are known. – Genetical component: observed concordance rate is about 40-50% in monozygotic twins, and 5-10% in dizygotic twins. – Environmental components • Obstetrical complications • Infections • Inflamation • Cannibus use
  • 26.
  • 27. Depression
  • 28. Depression• Epidemiology – 17% of the US population • 10-14% of medical inpatients1 – linked to social conditions• Rule out hypothyroidism• Association with Parkinson disease and dementia 1. Katon, W. Epidemiology of Depression in Primary Care. General Hospital Psychiatry 1992. July 14(4). 237-247
  • 29. Depression• Pathogenesis- – Deficiency in excitatory neurotransmitters – Neurotransmitter – • Serotonin
  • 30.
  • 31. ADHD
  • 32. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder• Pathogenesis – Genetic Factor • Concordance as high as 92% in monozygotic twins and 33% in dizygotic twins.
  • 33. Psychostimulant needed.
  • 34.
  • 35. Bipolar Disorder
  • 36. Bipolar disorder• Episodic mood shifts of mania, major depression, hypomania & mixed states• Pathophysiology – Altered circadian rhythmicity
  • 37.
  • 38. Thank You!!
  • 39. Thank youagain!