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Human development

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  • 1. R.W.Pang
  • 2. Human Development  motor skills and other psycho-physiological processes  cognitive development involving areas such as problem solving, moral understanding, and conceptual understanding  language acquisition  social, personality, and emotional development  self-concept and identity formation.
  • 3. Theories  Attachment theory  Ecological systems theory  Psychosexual development  Stages of moral development  Stages of psychosocial development  Theories of cognitive development  Zone of proximal development
  • 4. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages  Oral (Age 0-1)  Anal (Age 1-3)  Phallic (Age 3-6)  Latency (Age 6-11)  Genital (puberty)
  • 5. Infants  When will the infant react differently to the smell of the mother compared to the father?  Endogenous smile(innate reflex)  Exogenous/Social smile (in response to a face)  Preferential social smile (mother vs. stranger)  First words?  First Steps?
  • 6. Key Developmental Issues  Earliest child memory?  Understanding of universality, inevitability and irreversibility of death at age?  Stranger Anxiety (at unfamiliar people)  Appears at 6m, disappears after 12m  Separation Anxiety  Appears at 10m, begin to disappear after 22m  Reactive Attachment Disorder in Infancy  Separation Anxiety Disorder  Imprinting
  • 7. Cognitive Developments (Piaget)  Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 yo)  Object permanence @ 2 yo.  Sensation movement  Preoperation Stage (2-7 yo)  Strong egocentrism  Able to use symbols to represent objects due to aquiring language skills  Concerete Operational Stage (7-11 yo)  Law of conservation  Able to see in different point of view  Organized and logical thoughts  Formal Operational Stage (11++ yo)  Reason in more abstract ways and to test hypothesis
  • 8. Physical Development
  • 9. Language and Social Development
  • 10. Figures copied and appropriate age 3 y.o. 4 y.o. 4.5 y.o. 5 y.o. 6 y.o. 7 y.o.
  • 11. Teenagers  Onset of sexual maturity is 10+ y  Identity formation is the main issue; eg: independence and self definition  Rebellion is manifested as minor disagreement regarding hair, music, dress and friends.  “who am i?”
  • 12. Adulthood  Early adulthood (20-25)  According to Erickson, stage of maintaining relationships  Bonds of intimacy  Friendships  Middle Adulthood (25-69)  Conflict between generativity(contribute to society/next generation/ someone) and stagnation (sense of purposelessness)  Decrease in muscle strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, cardiac output, menopause
  • 13. Attachment and Loss  7 mo-5 y0  Bowlby’s theory of 3 phases of prolonged separation  Protest: cry, aggressive, alarm  Despair: hopes of regaining loved ones fades  Detachment: yearning and anger repressed.  Adults  3 phases  Initial: protest acute disbelief  intermediate: grief, disorganisation  Recovery: reinvestment of energy
  • 14. Reference  First Aid Step 1  Kaplan Step 1 Behavioral Science  http://www.juliegohman.com/uploads/1/5/1/2/15125614/149 579132.jpg  http://www.shutterstock.com/pic-129166586/stock-vector- man-aging-age-human-life-young-growing-old-process- stage-development-stick-figure-pictogram-icon.html  http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/chapter-1- introduction-to-human-development-and- theory/deck/1054286  http://www.dinf.ne.jp/doc/english/global/david/dwe002/d we00236.html

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