Personal Protective Equipment


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Personal Protective Equipment

  1. 1. Personal Protective Equipment “Your Last Line of Defense!”
  2. 2. Presented by LT Russell Peterson Shift Safety Officer Station 3/B-Shift
  3. 3. A little about me… • Born in Valdosta, GA; • Entered the fire service in • “Air Force Brat”; 1979 • Eagle Scout; • Joined BFD in 1987; • AS in physical science • Promoted to Engineer in from Sinclair College, 1988 and Lieutenant in Dayton OH; 1992; • BA in economics from • Fire Instructor I, Fire Univ of Tenn, Knoxville; Officer II, EMT-IV, HM Specialist, member of FD • MS in industrial Safety Committee technology & safety from Middle Tenn State; • Specialist in safety, HM, and WMD…
  4. 4. Now… Tell me a little about yourself!
  5. 5. Introduction • What’s your name?… • Where are you from?… • Do you have a college degree? What’s it in? • Where else have you worked? • What attracted you to Brentwood? • What can you do to make Brentwood a better department?
  6. 6. You are now called a Meercat!!!
  7. 7. Our Objectives Today • To approach today’s lesson with “newbees” eyes – “clean your slate” • To better understand PPE, the “total safety concept”, and the role it plays in your personal safety • To learn and understand the BFD Operational Guidelines as they pertain to PPE, PPE Inspection, and PAS.
  8. 8. Firefighter Injuries • Over the past ten years, 99,535 firefighters have been injured annually, many due to inappropriate protective equipment; • Over the same time period, fires have decreased by 39% • Why haven’t injuries decreased by 39%? • Additionally, the fire service averages 100 to 120 fatalities each year, most due to some aspect of physical fitness or PPE failure/non-use.
  9. 9. Firefighter Injuries • Cuts – result from lack of PPE, including gloves • Burns – result from lack or improper use of PPE • Inhalation - result from lack or improper use of SCBA • Eye irritation – lack of protective eyewear
  10. 10. Firefighter fatalities…
  11. 11. Our primary mission is to… Save lives, protect property, and… to make sure that each other makes it home in the morning!!!
  12. 12. Introducing… The “Upside – Down Inside – Out” Approach to Firefighter Safety
  13. 13. The “Inside Out – Upside Down” Approach to Firefighter Safety • This approach to Firefighter Safety is based on “layering” your safety starting with: – Your core organs; – Your personal protective equipment; – Your crew; and finally – Your environment • Think starting at the top going down and from the inside going out.
  14. 14. The “Layering” Approach Your degree of the need for safety decreases as you move away from the core of the body.
  15. 15. Your Core Organs • Starting from the “Upside-Down”, we have: – The Brain – The Heart – The Lungs – The Skin • The criticality of body systems diminishes as you move down the body; organs higher and closer to the core are more critical.
  16. 16. The Brain • The “central processing unit” for the body • Injury and damage to the organ can cause severe or terminal dysfunction. • Injury and damage can be prevented by using common sense and a helmet.
  17. 17. The Heart • Central pump for circulating oxygenated to the body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs. • Injury and damage to the organ can cause severe or terminal dysfunction. • Injury and damage can be prevented by aerobic exercise, good nutrition, and stress management.
  18. 18. The Lungs • Organ that facilitates gas exchange with the blood. • Injury and damage to the organ can cause severe or terminal dysfunction. • Injury and damage can be prevented by using common sense and wearing and using your SCBA.
  19. 19. The Skin • Protective outer layer that provides a “container” for the body. • Injury and damage to the organ can cause moderate to terminal dysfunction. • Injury and damage can be prevented by using common sense and wearing protective turnout gear, gloves, and hood.
  20. 20. Do whatever you can and whatever is necessary… …at any price, to protect your core organs and skin…
  21. 21. Your personal protective equipment • Think “Upside down – Inside out” – Helmet and eye protection – SCBA and PASS – Turnout coat and pants – Boots, hood, gloves, and flashlight – Hearing protection – PAS – Physical fitness, stress management, and common sense!!!
  22. 22. Never, Never, Ever… Wear your gear in the fire station… Keep our stations (and its’ air) clean!!!
  23. 23. Your Helmet • Helmets must comply with NFPA 1972 • Issued helmet is the Morning Pride LiteForce 5 or the Cairns Metro 660C • Personal helmet may be the Cairns Classic 1000, 1010, or Sam Houston. • Helmet colors are white for the Chief, red for the Officers, yellow for Firefighters, and blue for the Safety/Training Officer.
  24. 24. This helmet…doesn’t fit!!!
  25. 25. Your Helmet… • Impact absorption – Provided by suspension system • Penetration – Provided by outer shell • Heat Resistance – Provided by composition of materials and layers of materials • Face Protection – Provided by SCBA mask, face shield, or goggles
  26. 26. Your helmet must have… • Eye protection – Face shield or goggles • Chin strap • Label providing manufacturing information • Addition of rubber straps, wooden wedges, flashlights, and other items may void NFPA compliance
  27. 27. SCBA and PASS • This department uses the Scott Aviation AirPak with 4500 psi carbon fiber wrapped/spun aluminum cylinders • We use the AV-2000 face piece with voice amplifier • Weight is around 30 pounds • Useful air life is approximately 30 to 40 minutes • All frontline SCBA have integrated PASS devices
  28. 28. When do I wear my SCBA???
  29. 29. Turnouts • The department issues Morning Pride “tailed turnouts” to every member • Turnout outer material is “Advance” which is a 60% Kevlar and 40% Nomex blend incorporating the heat resistance of Nomex and the tear resistance of Kevlar. • Breakdown temperature of Advance is around 700 degrees F.
  30. 30. Turnout construction • Consist of three layers: – Outer shell – Vapor/moisture barrier – Thermal barrier
  31. 31. Outer Shell •The purpose of the outer shell is to provide flame resistance and protection from cuts and abrasions •Our gear use “Advance” material •“Advance” is a Nomex/Kevlar blend
  32. 32. Vapor Barrier •Prevents transfer of liquid from the environment to the thermal barrier •Our gear uses “Crosstech” which is a Gore product that functions like Goretex
  33. 33. Thermal Barrier • The purpose of the thermal barrier is to absorb perspiration, to provide thermal protection, and to keep body warm in cold weather. • Our gear uses a Nomex E89 hybrid
  34. 34. All turnouts must have… • Label attached to the outer shell of coat and pant giving directions for maintenance and use – Includes Manufacturer’s name, address, and country of manufacture; – Lot number or serial number – Month and year of manufacture – Model name, number, or design – Size or size range • Must have at least 235 sq in of reflective material on coat and not less than 125 sq in visible from the front of the coat.
  35. 35. Boots – Gloves - Hood • Issued boot is standard rubber knee length boot • Personal boot may be any leather boot that is NFPA approved (NFPA 1974) • Issued and personal gloves must meet NFPA 1973 • Hoods must meet NFPA 1971
  36. 36. Hearing Protection • On-board Intercom systems – On all large apparatus – Also at pump panel compartment • Ear Muffs – At stationary locations such as air fill station, woodworking and metal shop, lawn mower, etc. • Ear plugs – Issued to everyone with PPE – To be used whenever operating power tools
  37. 37. Station/Work Uniforms • Our station uniforms are NOT fire- resistant!!! • Pants and shirts are 65% polyester/35% cotton – will burn if it gets hot enough… • Boots are not steel-toed or steel- shanked… • Which means that it is EVEN MORE IMPORTANT THAT YOU WEAR YOUR PPE!!!
  38. 38. Personnel Accountability System (PAS) • The department utilizes a modified Seattle/Fairfax County type accountability system with the addition of a task tracking system. • Used by all adjoining fire departments except Nashville (Franklin, Nolensville, & Rescue Squad) • System incorporates Accountability Tags, PASPorts, and PASBoards. • The system works no better than the individuals using it.
  39. 39. How it works… • Place your Accountability Tag on the apparatus PASPort each shift at the beginning of the shift (Don’t forget!!!). • During an incident, the company officer carries the PASPort to the primary PASBoard before crew enters the hot zone. • Upon arrival, the Incident Manager obtains the PASBoard and accountability is established at the command post.
  40. 40. Physical Fitness (with the Titans!)
  41. 41. Physical fitness… • The Combat Test is only a portion of the physical fitness goal • Your ultimate physical fitness goal should be fireground fitness (ability to give that extra effort in an emergency situation) and increased stress resistance.
  42. 42. On Common Sense… Don’t be a Clown… Before all else… THINK!!!
  43. 43. Do’s and Don’ts of PPE Usage • DO wear it whenever you might need it - it’s better to wear it and not need it then to need it and not be wearing it!!!. • DO wear it when operating forcible entry tools and equipment. • DO wear at least your helmet when working on or near a roadway. • DO use a face shield or goggles when operating hand or power tools.
  44. 44. Do’s and Don’ts of PPE Usage • DO wear gloves whenever working with your hands (raising ladders, testing hose, or reloading hose). • DO wear your helmet whenever working with ladders or hose (training, testing, or reloading). • DO check your PPE on a daily basis before going on duty. IT IS YOUR LAST LINE OF DEFENSE!!!
  45. 45. Do’s and Don’ts of PPE Usage • DON’T dress out while in a moving vehicle. Wait until you get there if already out of quarters. DO dress out fully before leaving quarters on a fire incident. • DON’T use PPE that’s not NFPA approved. • DON’T rely on PPE to save your life…rely on your training and common sense!!!
  46. 46. Note on Personal Equipment The department is not responsible for the repair or replacement of personal equipment…
  47. 47. Non-Issued Protective Equipment • Non-department issued personal protective equipment will be limited to: – Helmet – Hood – Gloves – Boots • All other items worn must be department issued • “Comply before you Buy!”
  48. 48. Inspecting your PPE • Since YOUR PPE is YOUR last line of defense, no one but YOU is responsible for ensuring that it is able to provide for your protection. • Inspect your PPE before each shift as if you are guaranteed to have a fire that day!!! • Report problems immediately to your Shift Commander
  49. 49. Inspecting your Helmet • Criteria for the REPAIR of a helmet include: – Missing face shield nuts and adapters – Face shield excessively scratched – Chin strap and assembly broken or torn – Helmet liner worn, shredded, split or cracked – Webbed suspension broken
  50. 50. Inspecting your Helmet • Criteria for REPLACEMENT of helmet include: – Severely stained or split face shield – Helmet with visible cracks – Helmet which is warped or bubbled from heat exposure or drop – Helmet which has been exposed to mist or fumes which are known to weaken polycarbons.
  51. 51. Inspecting your Hood • Criteria for REPLACEMENT of Hoods: – Holes or tears – Not NFPA approved – Stretched out of shape or do not provide adequate coverage of face or neck surfaces
  52. 52. Inspecting your Turnouts • Criteria for REPAIR of Turnouts include: – Broken snaps – Rivets pulled loose from fabric and from the objects they secure – Stitches missing – Holes or rips in outer shell – Reflective stripes which are burned, cracked, melted, or torn
  53. 53. Inspecting your Turnouts • Criteria for REPLACEMENT of turnouts: – Coat or pants that are unrepairable – Ripped or torn liners – Charring or evidence of significant fire damage – Improper fit – Soiled with oil, tar, fuels to the point that they cannot be cleaned
  54. 54. A Note on Washing Gear • DON’T over-wash gear! Twice a year is what is recommended and should be enough. Scrubbing with a brush and soap and rinsing it off with a garden hose should take care of most post-fire contamination. Over-washing causes the gear to lose some of its’ protective qualities. • DO wash it whenever you’ve been exposed to a hydrocarbon (gasoline, diesel, other fuel oil) • NEVER dry clean your turnouts!!! NEVER use bleach or bleach additives when washing turnouts!!!
  55. 55. Inspecting your Boots • Criteria for REPLACEMENT of Boots: – Severely cracked – Holes or tears – Improper fit
  56. 56. Additional checks • Flashlight – bright beam? Need batteries? See your Station Officer! • Portable radio – battery charged? Will it transmit? Can you get to it? • SCBA mask – is it clean? • SCBA voice amplifier – check to see if YOURS is working – don’t forget it in the AM! • CHECK YOUR OWN SCBA !!! – the life it saves may be your own (the Engineer won’t be wearing it) !!!
  57. 57. Final Checks • Are you physically fit to respond? – Are you injured or otherwise impaired? – Would you pass the Combat Test today? • Are you medically fit to respond? – Are you ill or otherwise impaired? – Would you pass a medical exam today? • Are you mentally fit to respond? – Do you have the proper attitude to respond today?
  58. 58. A Note on Mental Preparedness • The body does not recognize the difference between real stress and perceived stress (fight versus flight). • The best way to emulate real and perceived stress is through intense physical activity. • By exercising, you can increase your resistance to perceived stress by increasing your exposure to real stress. • Don’t avoid stress – seek out stress!
  59. 59. Mental Preparedness and Nutrition • Avoid alcohol • Avoid caffeine • Avoid high fat foods • Tired? Eat a light, low fat that 50% carbohydrate/50% protein • Sleepy? Eat some protein • Wired or nervous? Eat some carbohydrates
  60. 60. Do yourself a favor… Read either “Stress for Success” by James Loehr or “The Corporate Athlete” by Jack Groppel
  61. 61. Your Crew • Your crew will become your most important “life preservers”. • Team building and teamwork are essential to safe and effective operations. • Know in advance the aptitude and limitations of the crew you work with…emphasize the aptitudes and don’t push the limits! • Know YOUR role within the team! What are you expected to do? And what can you expect from others?
  62. 62. Your Crew… • The crew that PLAYS together, STAYS together!!! • Work and play together enough that you learn each other habits, likes and dislikes;
  63. 63. Your Crew… Train together enough so you learn each others aptitudes and limitations; and
  64. 64. Your Crew… Exercise together enough that you learn each others physical strengths and limitations.
  65. 65. Your Environment… You can CONTROL the environment around you… …or let the environment CONTROL you!
  66. 66. Our “office” is hazardous!!!
  67. 67. Your Environment… • Your environment consists of: – Heat – Smoke – Darkness – Panic – Chaos – Disorder
  68. 68. The environment is changing! Changing fuel loads… – Maple wood has 8211 BTU’s/lb – Nylon has 15,902 BTU/lb – and it’s toxic, too…
  69. 69. Toxic Environments • Toxicity – Carbon Monoxide – Hydrogen Chloride – Hydrogen Cyanide – Carbon Dioxide – Nitrogen Dioxide – Phosgene – Ammonia – Chlorine
  70. 70. IDLH
  71. 71. When do I use my SCBA? Whenever you are in an IDLH environment!
  72. 72. Carbon Monoxide
  73. 73. Hydrogen Chloride
  74. 74. Hydrogen Cyanide
  75. 75. Carbon Dioxide
  76. 76. Nitrogen Dioxide
  77. 77. Phosgene
  78. 78. Ammonia
  79. 79. Chlorine
  80. 80. Your Environment… • You can control your environment: – Survive in the heat with your PPE – Thrive in smoke with your SCBA
  81. 81. Your environment… – Illuminate the darkness with your flashlight, and – Control panic, chaos, and disorder with your ability, aptitude, and mental and physical toughness.
  82. 82. Your Environment… LOOK UP First! (these things will kill you!) – Power lines – Falling walls, roofs, and other debris
  83. 83. Your Environment… LOOK OUT (these things can kill you)! – Fire conditions – Moving vehicles
  84. 84. Your Environment… LOOK DOWN (these things can hurt you)! •Trip hazards •Holes in floors
  85. 85. In Conclusion… • PPE is just one component of your total safety package. • You can increase your safety by knowing your crew and by controlling your environment - Above all, protect your core organs!!! • Physical fitness, stress management, and good thinking/common sense are safety multipliers. • PPE is your last line of defense…check it daily and use it when you need it.
  86. 86. Welcome to the Brentwood Fire Department and Good Luck with your career…Stay Safe!!!