Policy influence in ICT:                                 experience from Asia                                             ...
Possible way to think of type(s) of    policy influence you want to achieve                            Types of Policy Inf...
Example 1 – Mobile tax: a change inpolicy• Govt. proposes flat LKR 50 tax per month per SIM card• LIRNEasia research data ...
…but WITHOUT change in thinking withingovernment (@least not immediately)• One time success for us, and consumers• But thi...
Possible way to think of type(s) of    policy influence you want to achieve                            Types of Policy Inf...
Example 2 - Disaster Early warning: changein thinking (a more sustainable change)• Sri Lanka’s largest CBO, Sarvodaya (in ...
Possible way to think of type(s) of    policy influence you want to achieve                            Types of Policy Inf...
Example 3 - How do we expand policy capacity,sustainably, in the long term? CPRsouth• CPRsouth (Communication Policy Resea...
• Since 2007:  – 6 Conferences (2 days each);  – 7 Young Scholar trainings (2 days each). And    Young Scholars attend the...
Increasing number of Mode 2 applicantsbeing selected for the conference
Academic and Policy Outputs surveyed annually                                                       Survey 2007           ...
Academic and Policy Impact of CPRsouthparticipants (paper presenters and Young Scholars)                                  ...
South-South learning, collaboration, policyinterventions
Possible way to think of type(s) of    policy influence you want to achieve                            Types of Policy Inf...
Some lessons to take back…
If we have direct access to regulators         and policy makers…• GREAT! We use it. We make presentation, we do  private ...
But that’s a luxury. What if you want toinfluence policy as a “policy intellectual”, fromthe outside• Understand POWER (in...
• Look for policy windows  – And be ready to react quickly  – No time to do new research for most policy windows• Build re...
• More than one way to get to policy maker  – Reach their symbolic environment (i.e. media + other    people policy makers...
CPRsouth Paper Presenters: covered        almost all of Asia                          Paper presenters                    ...
CPRsouth Young Scholars: have    covered most of Asia                       Young scholars                       CPRsouth1-6
What research areas do we cover?
What are our young scholars’ interest              areas?
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Policy influence in ICT: experience from Asia - Helani Galpaya

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Policy influence in ICT: experience from Asia - Helani Galpaya

  1. 1. Policy influence in ICT: experience from Asia Helani Galpaya DIRSI workshop May 16, 2012This work was carried out with the aid of a grant from the International Development Research Centre, Canada and UKaid from the Department for International Development, UK. 06/21/12 1
  2. 2. Possible way to think of type(s) of policy influence you want to achieve Types of Policy Influence (Lindquist)Expanding Policy Broadening Policy Horizons Affecting Policy RegimesCapacity Improving the knowledge  Providing policy makers with  Modifying Existing or data of certain actors opportunities for networking or programs or policies Supporting recipients to learning within their jurisdiction or  Leading to the develop innovative ideas with colleagues elsewhere fundamental re-design of Improving Capabilities to  > Introducing new concepts to frame programs and policies communicate ideas debates, putting ideas on the agenda  Helping create a new Developing new talent or stimulating public debate policy regime in an for research and Analysis  Educating researchers and other who emerging field take up new positions with a broader understanding of issues  Stimulating quiet dialog among decision-makers (and among, or with, those involved in knowledge production)
  3. 3. Example 1 – Mobile tax: a change inpolicy• Govt. proposes flat LKR 50 tax per month per SIM card• LIRNEasia research data showed that – The poor are heavy users of mobiles (i.e. mobiles are no longer a luxury item, so this wasn’t a luxury tax) – The poor spend under LKR 300 per month on calls (so a LKR 50 flat tax would be a huge percentage increase in cost to the poor) – The flat nature of the tax effects the poor disproportionately (richer spend more, therefore LKR 50 is v. small % of their bill)• Media article  call from Telecom Minister  give him data AND gave members of the opposition data (educate them) floor amendment to modify the tax (in parliament) – Documented in Hanzard, specifically mentioning LIRNEasia
  4. 4. …but WITHOUT change in thinking withingovernment (@least not immediately)• One time success for us, and consumers• But thinking within govt. NOT changed – Think of mobile operators a source of “easy revenue” through high taxation – Don’t account for high tax  reduce usage  reduced overall revenue – Don’t view mobile as enabler of other economic activity• Increased taxes: unto 32% (so 32 cents out of every Rupee users spent went to govt.) with various levies (environment levy, others). – but at least equally applied to mobiles AND fixed (instead of just mobiles).• Only MUCH later was consumer tax system rationalized: tax reduced to 20%
  5. 5. Possible way to think of type(s) of policy influence you want to achieve Types of Policy Influence (Lindquist)Expanding Policy Broadening Policy Horizons Affecting Policy RegimesCapacity Improving the knowledge  Providing policy makers with  Modifying Existing or data of certain actors opportunities for networking or programs or policies Supporting recipients to learning within their jurisdiction or  Leading to the develop innovative ideas with colleagues elsewhere fundamental re-design of Improving Capabilities to  > Introducing new concepts to frame programs and policies communicate ideas debates, putting ideas on the agenda  Helping create a new Developing new talent or stimulating public debate policy regime in an for research and Analysis  Educating researchers and other who emerging field take up new positions with a broader understanding of issues  Stimulating quiet dialog among decision-makers (and among, or with, those involved in knowledge production
  6. 6. Example 2 - Disaster Early warning: changein thinking (a more sustainable change)• Sri Lanka’s largest CBO, Sarvodaya (in 15,000 villages) – Previously focused in disaster recovery and relieve• Engagement with LIRNEasia’s “National Early Warning System: Sri Lanka” report/project/concepts• Change in thinking: – “One of the biggest lessons we learned from the Tsunami was how lacking Sri Lanka was in terms of an emergency warning system” (p.73), Sarvodaya, post-Tsunami report• Change in actions: – Projects on disaster preparedness and early warning – Adopted risk-reduction strategy for organization – Included risk reduction in regular induction training
  7. 7. Possible way to think of type(s) of policy influence you want to achieve Types of Policy Influence (Lindquist)Expanding Policy Broadening Policy Horizons Affecting Policy RegimesCapacity Improving the knowledge  Providing policy makers with  Modifying Existing or data of certain actors opportunities for networking or programs or policies Supporting recipients to learning within their jurisdiction or  Leading to the develop innovative ideas with colleagues elsewhere fundamental re-design of Improving Capabilities to  > Introducing new concepts to frame programs and policies communicate ideas debates, putting ideas on the agenda  Helping create a new Developing new talent or stimulating public debate policy regime in an for research and Analysis  Educating researchers and other who emerging field take up new positions with a broader understanding of issues  Stimulating quiet dialog among decision-makers (and among, or with, those involved in knowledge production
  8. 8. Example 3 - How do we expand policy capacity,sustainably, in the long term? CPRsouth• CPRsouth (Communication Policy Research – South)• Objectives of CPRsouth – To facilitate the creation, sustenance and continuous advancement of policy intellectuals capable of informed and effective intervention in ICT policy and regulation processes in specific country and regional contexts in the south – To develop capacity, stimulate interest, and promote research and systematic study in ICT policy and regulatory issues in the South• Focus on policy – Papers selected based in academic excellence, but with 10% marks for policy relevance (+several months of mentorship on the paper) – At conference: Policy brief (not abstract) given to audience; asked to make a “policy presentation” (not a traditional academic) – Training: how to communicate to a policy audience, to write a policy brief• Now with CPRafrica
  9. 9. • Since 2007: – 6 Conferences (2 days each); – 7 Young Scholar trainings (2 days each). And Young Scholars attend the conference• Unique Paper presenters: 92• Young Scholars trained: 188• Graduates from YS to PP: 14
  10. 10. Increasing number of Mode 2 applicantsbeing selected for the conference
  11. 11. Academic and Policy Outputs surveyed annually Survey 2007 Survey 2008 Survey 2009 ((response  (response rate - 49%) (response rate - 41%) rate - 38%)  PP YS PP YS PP YS# of respondents who wrote Policy Papers / brief 11 7 11 11# of respondents who made Policy submissions / 2 1 12 5 9 10Presentations# of respondents who wrote Op-ed pieces in the media 1 2 1 4 1# of respondents who gave Interviews to the media 1 4 2 1 1# of respondents who Participation in blogs 6 5 6 3# of respondents who had Journal Publications 4 9 5 7 6# of respondents who presented Conference papers 5 4 13 7 13 8# of respondents who submitted their Theses 2 2 2 3 3# of respondents who submitted Theses proposals 1 3 6 3 4# of respondents who received Grants 1 5 4 4 6# of respondents who submitted Grant Proposals 1 7 4 7 5
  12. 12. Academic and Policy Impact of CPRsouthparticipants (paper presenters and Young Scholars) IncreaseAll participants in previous years are surveyed each years (so respondent pool increases); participants who have not responded to surveys2 years in a row are not asked to participated in surveys. 2010 survey received very low responses due to technical err therefore not
  13. 13. South-South learning, collaboration, policyinterventions
  14. 14. Possible way to think of type(s) of policy influence you want to achieve Types of Policy Influence (Lindquist)Expanding Policy Broadening Policy Horizons Affecting Policy RegimesCapacity Improving the knowledge  Providing policy makers with  Modifying Existing or data of certain actors opportunities for networking or programs or policies Supporting recipients to learning within their jurisdiction or  Leading to the develop innovative ideas with colleagues elsewhere fundamental re-design of Improving Capabilities to  > Introducing new concepts to frame programs and policies communicate ideas debates, putting ideas on the agenda  Helping create a new Developing new talent or stimulating public debate policy regime in an for research and Analysis  Educating researchers and other who emerging field take up new positions with a broader understanding of issues  Stimulating quiet dialog among decision-makers (and among, or with, those involved in knowledge production Sustainability of ImpactLong term ImmediateDifficult Ease of implementation Easy?
  15. 15. Some lessons to take back…
  16. 16. If we have direct access to regulators and policy makers…• GREAT! We use it. We make presentation, we do private consultations, we write their speeches• If we get offers to consult directly (for a fee, or for free) – GREAT! We do it. – E.g. policy advisor to Ministry of Post and Telecom in Bangladesh, to write new “ICT Policy” for the country• This is often the most direct way• But keeping mind the political realities – don’t bring cookie cutter policies from the West – In context
  17. 17. But that’s a luxury. What if you want toinfluence policy as a “policy intellectual”, fromthe outside• Understand POWER (in a practical way) – Beyond “old fashioned” institutional analysis – Beyond what’s on paper: policy vs. practice• Do GOOD research – Policy relevant; theoretically and methodologically sound – Situated in developing country context (imperfect institutions, imperfect people…)• Publish (academically and build brand) – But also have an online presence (pre-publication versions of research online; have a blog)• But communicate it in simple terms also – Policy brief – Op-ed articles – blogs
  18. 18. • Look for policy windows – And be ready to react quickly – No time to do new research for most policy windows• Build relationship with media – A big part of building your visibility (among policy makers) – If you have relevant research, talk to them when they call (and don’t say “I don’t have time”) – If you don’t have evidence, say you don’t have it – this is how you differentiate yourself as a public intellectual)
  19. 19. • More than one way to get to policy maker – Reach their symbolic environment (i.e. media + other people policy makers talk to) if you don’t have direct access• Sometimes it’s ok to forget about the policy makers – deal with companies, community based organizations, non-governmental organizations. People who DO things. – In developing countries, sometimes good things happen WITHOUT proper policy backing – Low cost business models in telecom in Asia (only minor help from government)
  20. 20. CPRsouth Paper Presenters: covered almost all of Asia Paper presenters CPRsouth1-6
  21. 21. CPRsouth Young Scholars: have covered most of Asia Young scholars CPRsouth1-6
  22. 22. What research areas do we cover?
  23. 23. What are our young scholars’ interest areas?
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