RFID tag - technology and scenarios
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RFID tag - technology and scenarios

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Presentation about RFID technology, some interesting scenarios and actual applications. Pervasive computing in a tagged world.

Presentation about RFID technology, some interesting scenarios and actual applications. Pervasive computing in a tagged world.

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RFID tag - technology and scenarios RFID tag - technology and scenarios Presentation Transcript

  • RFID TAG THE WORLD OF OBJECTS Davide Del Monte – www.diplod.it – Complex Adaptive Systems 2008 – Management Engineering – unimore – http://www.ingre.unimore.it/
    • What is RFID technology
    • Detection of interactions with RFID tagged Objects
    • Inferring activities from interaction: ADL (activities of daily living)
    • RFIG Lamps: Interacting with a self-describing world via photosensing wireless tags and projectors
    • Applications in the real world
    • Java experiments with Alien reader
    Outline Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore Jun 2, 2009
  • What is RFID Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore Jun 2, 2009
  • What is RFID
    • RFID = R adio F requency Id entification
    • An RFID tag is an object that can be applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification using radiowaves. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader.
    Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore Jun 2, 2009 Wikipedia definition of RFID
  • Components and types of RFID tag
    • Antenna: for receiving and transmitting the signal
    • Integrated Chip
    • Plastic Inlay
    • Maybe sensor, battery, external memory…
    • TYPES
    • Passive : no battery, t he electrical current induced in the antenna by the incoming radio frequency signal provides just enough power in the tag to power up and transmit a response
    • Active : internal power source, which is used to power the integrated circuits and broadcast the signal to the reader
    • Semipassive : similar to active tags in that they have their own power source, but the battery only powers the microchip and does not broadcast a signal.
    Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore Jun 2, 2009 125/134 kHz 13,56 MHz 868/915 MHz >2,4 GHz international standard for RFID: Epc Gen2 Electronic Product Code Generation 2: From Wikipedia
  • Communication in passive tags Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore Image from Alien Guide Image from Alien Guide
  • RFID vs BAR CODE
    • Is possible to attach a tag on many surfaces
    • Estimated production for 2008: 2-3 billion
    • No line-of-sight
    • Many informations and/or applications
    • Can be reprogrammed in the field to reflect current information
    • Cheap: 0,20 $
    • Now everything has a bar code
    • Requires line-of-sight
    • Only ID information
    • Data is fixed at the moment the label is printed
    • Cost free
    • RFID
    • BAR CODE
    Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore Jun 2, 2009 ..but RFID are not only for identification scope..
    • I sense a disturbance in the force: unobtrusive detection of interactions with RIFID-tagged objects
    • K.P. Fishkin, B. Jiang, M. Philippose, S. Roy
    • Intel research Seattle – 2004
    • Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington
    Detection of interactions with RFID tagged Objects Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore Jun 2, 2009
  • Idea
    • “ A novel method to infer interactions with passive RFID tagged objects is described. The method allows unobtrusive detection of human interactions with RFID tagged objects without requiring any modifications to existing communications protocols or RFID hardware. The object motion detection algorithm was integrated into a RFID monitoring system and tested in laboratory and home environments.”
    Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore Jun 2, 2009
  • Tagged objects and movements
    • Existing readers support a “poll” command, wherein the reader transmits N poll commands per second to tags and reports the number of received responses for each tag.
    • We therefore define a response rate α as the ratio of responses to polls. α C [0..1]
    • When 0, the tag cannot be seen at all. When 1, the tag is always seen.
    • The response rate can be used to approximate the RF signal strength
    • The algorithm detect interaction reliably, and as quickly as possible after the event has occurred
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
  • Response rate α
    • Left: The response rate at 4 different distances, with N=20.
    • Right: The relationship between mean and standard deviation of response rate (N=10)
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
    • Left: Response rate as a function of distance from the reader antenna
    • Right: Response rate as a function of angle between the reader and tag antenna
  • Experiments and scenarios
    • The first scenario represents a typical living-room interaction. Four items were tagged: a hardbound book, a magazine, a deck of cards, and a TV remote control.
    • A sequence of typical interactions with these objects were performed, 30 interactions in total: objects were picked up and/or put down 23 times, an object was motioned with while in the hand 3 times, and a hand was waved in front of each object, for a total of 4 interactions.
    • Two readers were used, both wall-mounted, on perpendicular walls
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore All 23 pick up / put down events were detected, all 3 motions with an object were detected, and all 4 hand-waves were correctly labeled as occlusions: 100% accuracy by the algorithm. No false positives occurred.
    • A second experiment was then performed with the same tagged objects but this time time using only a single wall-mounted reader. This time 9 pick up / put down events were performed and 3 interactions where one object was placed atop another
    All 9 pick up / put down events were detected, and one of the 3 placements were detected: the other two were not. No false positives occurred. Overall, 10 of 12 events were detected, for an accuracy of 83%.
  • Parameters and conclusions
    • One dificult of measuring any RFID technique is that RFID signal streght is impacted by many variables:
      • Flooring
      • Distance between tag and reader
      • Number of tags and their placement on object
      • Number of readers and thier deployment topology
      • Number of nearby tags
      • Number of objects moved simultaneously
      • Tag orientation
      • Amount and direction of tag rotation
      • Tag type
      • Type of reader
    • As ubiquitous computer matures, it will be possibile to detect interaction thanks to increasingly unobtrusive sensor networks
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
    • M. Philipose, K.P. Fishkin, M. Perkovitz (Intel research center)
    • D.J. Patterson, D. Fox, H. Kautz (university of Washington)
    • D. Hähnel (university of Freiburg)
    Inferring activities from interaction with objects Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
  • Idea
    • The idea is to infer activities from interactions with object, combining the RFID tag data with time and sequences of activities.
    • PROACT The system has three components: specialized sensors to detect object interactions, a probabilistic engine that infers activities given observations from sensors, and a model creator that lets us easily create probabilistic models of activities.
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
  • Prototype and models
    • To sense tags, the user wears a prototype glove with an RFID-detecting antenna in the palm
    • Activities are represented as linear sequences of activity stages
    • For example, we can model the making of tea as a three-stage activity: boil the water; steep the tea in the water; and flavor the tea with milk, sugar, or lemon
    • Is possible to convert activities in a probabilistic model.
    • These models are typically difficult to create without intensive hand tuning
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
  • Create the model
    • Once we specify the objects involved in each stage, we must define the object involvement probabilities
    • these describe the probability of using the object in that activity state ( what percentage of sandwiches involve ham?)
    • PROACT automatically determines these probabilities
    • Authors postulated that if an activity A occurs on n1 Web pages (the best extant approximation of human discourse), and n2 pages contain the activity and an object T, then the involvement probability for T in A is approximately equal to n2/n1. These numbers are obtained via the Google API
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
  • Experiments
    • Tests are made by having 14 subject (3 male, 11 female) perform ADLs, wearing the prototype glove. Each spent roughly 45 minutes in a house with RFID tagged object.
    • They went into the house and performed 12 tasks, in any order, without observation
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
  • Results
    • When PROACT correctly claimed an activity occurred, it scored a true positive (TP); an incorrect claim scored a false positive (FP). If an activity occurred and PROACT didn’t report it, PROACT scored a false negative (FN). The Table shows the results for each ADL.
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore PROACT correctly inferred that an activity occurred 88 percent of the time Applications are possible in health-care: ADL monitoring of elders with earlystage dementia
  • Other studies Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore A Scalable Approach to Activity Recognition Based on Object Use “ The ability to recognize human activities from sensory information is essential for developing the next generation of smart devices. Many human activity recognition tasks are — from a machine learning perspective — quite similar to tagging tasks in natural language processing.” From Relational Transformation-Based Tagging for Human Activity Recognition
    • R. Raskar, P. Beardsley, J. Van Baar, Y. Wang, P. Dietz, J. Lee, D. Leigh, T. Willwacher (Mitsubischi Electric Research Labs, Cambridge)
    RFIG Lamps: Interacting with a self-describing world via photosensing wireless tags and projectors Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
    • Each tag is augmented with a photo sensor to significantly extend the functionality and support radio frequency identity and geometry (RFIG) discovery
    Objects become self-describing Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
  • Augmented reality
    • At the mitsubishi lab they are working on handheld system to project information on tagged object and reproduce an “augmented reality”
    • On the objects there is a photo sensor that detects the light to allow programming on rfid tags
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
    • Applications and most common uses for RFID
    ..but we aren’t Neo. In the real world? Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
  • Antitheft systems and human implants
    • Most common use of RFID tag is for antitheft systems
    • Implantable RFID chips designed for animal tagging are now being used in humans. Night clubs in Barcelona , Spain and in Rotterdam use an implantable chip to identify their VIP customers, who in turn use it to pay for drinks.
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore See www.amal.net From Wikipedia
  • Passport and payment methods
    • RFID tags are being used in passports issued by many countries. The first RFID passports (" E-passport ") were issued by Malaysia in 1998. In addition to information also contained on the visual data page of the passport, Malaysian e-passports record the travel history (time, date, and place) of entries and exits from the country.
    • Italian passport have an RFID tag since 26 th October 2006
    • Throughout Europe, and in particular in Paris (system started in 1995 by the RATP ), Lyon and Marseille in France, Porto and Lisbon in Portugal, Milan, Turin, and Florence in Italy, and Brussels in Belgium, RFID passes conforming to the Calypso (RFID) international standard are used for public transport systems.
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
  • Logistic and Domotic
    • Inventory systems: in an academic study [19] performed at Wal-Mart, RFID reduced Out-of-Stocks by 30 percent for products selling between 0.1 and 15 units a day.
    • Product Tracking: integrated supply chain from warehouse to consumer. See the story “ How and why you will talk to your tomatoes ”
    • Domotic systems for findind object
    • Tag environments, question tags for environmental conditions ( ubiquity of RFID tags)
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
  • Yes.. Also my car!
    • I bought a Nissan Micra on august 2003
    • I can open my car without inserting the key.. I have an intelligent key!
    • Why? The Texas Instruments Digital Signature Transponder (DST) is a cryptographically-enabled radio-frequency identification (RFID) device used in a variety of wireless authentication applications. The largest deployments of the DST include the Exxon-Mobil Speedpass payment system (approximately 7 million transponders), as well as a variety of vehicle immobilizer systems used in many late model Ford, Lincoln, Mercury, Toyota, and Nissan vehicles.
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore Wikipedia definition of DST
  • And much more..
    • Lap scoring (racing)
    • Animal Identification
    • E-tickets
    • Hospital
    • Musea, libraries
    • schools and universities
    • The privacy is a real problem: a primary security concern surrounding technology is the illicit tracking of RFID tags. Tags which are world-readable pose a risk to both personal location privacy and corporate/military security.
    • Privacy organizations have expressed concerns in the context of ongoing efforts to embed electronic product code (EPC) RFID tags in consumer products.
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore From Wikipedia
    • Test I made at DISMI
    Java Experiments with Alien Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
    • The reader has two antennas and is connected to a notebook via TCP/IP port
    • Orange labels are RFID tags
    Alien reader Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
    • To connect Alien with the notebook you have to specify the IP address
    Setting IP Address Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
  • MessageListenerTest
    • Instantiating the reader at a network address and specifying a network address for replies.
    • AutoStopTimer is the time for reading tags. This is a critical value!
    • // Instantiate a new reader object, and open a connection on the NET
    • AlienClass1Reader reader = new AlienClass1Reader();
    • reader.setConnection("192.168.0.2",23);
    • reader.setUsername("alien");
    • reader.setPassword("password");
    • reader.open();
    • // Set up Notification.
    • reader.setNotifyAddress("192.168.0.1",service.getListenerPort());
    • reader.setNotifyFormat(AlienClass1Reader.XML_FORMAT); // Listener only supports XML messages
    • reader.setNotifyTrigger("TrueFalse"); // Notify whether there's a tag or not
    • reader.setNotifyMode(AlienClass1Reader.ON);
    • // Set up AutoMode
    • reader.autoModeReset();
    • reader.setAutoStopTimer( 4000 ); // Read for 4 second
    • reader.setAutoMode(AlienClass1Reader.ON);
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
  • MessageReceived
    • If there are tags in the antenna’s area, the system reports a message with the tag’s identification number, the time when the tag was discovered, and last time the tag was seen.
    • The main method only initializes the class MessageListenerTest
    • public void messageReceived(Message message){
    • System.out.println(" Message Received:");
    • if (message.getTagCount() == 0) {
    • System.out.println("(No Tags)");
    • } else {
    • for (int i = 0; i < message.getTagCount(); i++) {
    • Tag tag = message.getTag(i);
    • System.out.println(tag.toLongString());
    • }
    • }
    • }
    • //Main metod
    • public static final void main(String args[]){
    • try {
    • MessageListenerTest test = new MessageListenerTest();
    • } catch (Exception e) {
    • System.out.println(&quot;Error:&quot; + e.toString());
    • }
    • }
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
    • While Alien is reading it reports the ID number of the tag read, plus other information
    Output Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
  • Output
    • Typical output is a sequence of information
    • You can also obtain this information in a XML file
    • This function is very powerfull, you can integrate this informations with a web service to realize different kinds of applications.
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
  • XML Message
    • XML message is obtained with the method getXML() of the object Message.
    • This is the output when a new tag is read by Alien.
    • Message Received:
    • Tag=0000 0000 0000 6101 3407 3649 Disc=Fri Mar 07 08:11:50 CET 2008 Last=Fri Mar 07 08:11:52 CET 2008 Count=9 Ant=0
    • XML message:
    • <Alien-RFID-Reader-Auto-Notification>
    • <ReaderName>Alien RFID Reader</ReaderName>
    • <ReaderType>Alien RFID Tag Reader, Model: </ReaderType>
    • <IPAddress>192.168.0.2</IPAddress>
    • <CommandPort>23</CommandPort>
    • <Time>2008/03/07 08:11:55</Time>
    • <Reason>AUTO MODE EVALUATES TRUE</Reason>
    • <StartTriggerLines>0</StartTriggerLines>
    • <StopTriggerLines>0</StopTriggerLines>
    • <Alien-RFID-Tag-List>
    • <Alien-RFID-Tag>
    • <TagID>0000 0000 0000 6101 3407 3649</TagID>
    • <DiscoveryTime>2008/03/07 08:11:50</DiscoveryTime>
    • <LastSeenTime>2008/03/07 08:11:52</LastSeenTime>
    • <Antenna>0</Antenna>
    • <ReadCount>9</ReadCount>
    • </Alien-RFID-Tag>
    • </Alien-RFID-Tag-List>
    • </Alien-RFID-Reader-Auto-Notification>
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
  • Writing Data
    • Is possible to write and update data of RFID tags
    • Programming commands are not enabled by default; to enable it is necessary to pass the command (see later for ASCII commands):
    • Alien >set Function = Programmer
    • Then there are some methods to write data
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore String tagID = &quot;12345678&quot;; reader.setProgAntenna(0); //set the antenna for programming tag reader.eraseTag(); //erase data reader.programTag(tagID); //set new tag ID
  • Session
    • The most basic way to communicate with a reader is to use a method called doReaderCommand(), which sends an ASCII command and returns the ASCII response
    • String readerName = reader.doReaderCommand(&quot;get ReaderName&quot;);
    • Whit few line of code is possible to create a session to comunicate with Alien
    • You can perform the same commands with java methods or with ASCII strings
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
  • Session Code
    • This is the code. When the connection is open, a BufferedReader is created to pass command whit the method doReaderCommand
    • public AlienClass1Communicator() throws Exception {
    • AlienClass1Reader reader = new AlienClass1Reader(); // Create reader object
    • // Connect to a networked reader:
    • reader.setConnection(&quot;192.168.0.2&quot;,23);
    • reader.setUsername(&quot;alien&quot;);
    • reader.setPassword(&quot;password&quot;);
    • reader.open(); // Open the reader connection
    • // Use stdin for user input
    • BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(System.in));
    • do {
    • System.out.print(&quot; Alien>&quot;); // Show prompt
    • String line = in.readLine(); // Grab user input
    • if (line.equals(&quot;q&quot;)) break; // Quit when &quot;q&quot; is pressed
    • System.out.println(reader.doReaderCommand(line)); // Send command, print result
    • } while (true); // Repeat indefinitely
    • System.out.println(&quot; Goodbye.&quot;);
    • reader.close(); // Close the reader connection
    • }
    Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
    • Here I only ask the reader his name, type and version
    ..and this is the session Jun 2, 2009 Davide Del Monte - www.diplod.it - Management Engineering @ unimore
  • THANKS Davide Del Monte – www.diplod.it – Complex Adaptive Systems 2008 – Management Engineering – unimore – http://www.ingre.unimore.it/ Bibliography I Sense a Disturbance in the Force: Unobtrusive Detection of Interactions with RFID-tagged Objects http://www.intel-research.net/Publications/Seattle/062420041544_244.pdf Inferring Activities from Interactions with Objects. http://192.5.53.208/u/kautz/papers/pervasive_proact_final.pdf A Scalable Approach to Activity Recognition Based on Object Use http://seattleweb.intel-research.net/people/matthai/pubs/iccv07.pdf RFIG Lamps: Interacting with a self-describing world via photosensing wireless tags and projectors http://www.merl.com/people/raskar/Sig04/ Alien Technology http://www.alientechnology.com/ EPC http://www.epcglobalinc.org/home Amal Graafstra http://www.amal.net/ Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RFID