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South asia women speak out on cca
 

South asia women speak out on cca

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    South asia women speak out on cca South asia women speak out on cca Document Transcript

    • xfdLnfO{ xfd|f] cfjZostf yfxf 5 Ûhnjfo kl/jt{g cgsngsf] ;Gbe{df " blIf0f Pl;ofnL dlxnf eG5g k[i7 1
    • Acknowledgementsof] k|ltj]bg 6f]d ldr]n, yf]d; 6ofg/ / Sof6L nl:;o/-ljsf; cWoog ;+:yf–IDS ;;]S; ljZjljBfno o"s]) åf/fn]lvPsf] xf] .:ynut cWoogdf ;xof]u k¥ofpg], ljZn]if0fdf ;xof]u ug]{/ d:of}bf k|ltj]bgdfly k[i7kf]if0f lbg] ;a}nfO{ w]/} wGojfb5, h;df Maªunfb]z M jflxbf az/ cxdb, Gol/g kmltdf,km]/xfgf km]/8f];, / PS;gP8 aªunfb]zsf] sfo{;d"x .ef/t M g]xf P]Zjof{, z/b sdf/L, df]gf, /dg d]xtf,HoftL k|;fb / PS;gP8 ef/tsf] sfo{;d"x .g]kfn M clDasf cdfTo, w|j uf}td, /fh]z xdfn, Zofd;Gb/ 1jfnL, cld|tf zdf{ / PS;gP8 g]kfnsf]sfo{;d"x .PGgL lrk]Da]/,] 6f]gL bxf{d, ;f/fx lunfd, cfgL lhn]df, o; k|ltj]bgsf] cªuhL ;Dkfbg PGh]nf a6g, dfl/of]g ]| {dfl/of]g vfld;, cfsfªIff df/kmfltof, ofl:dg DofS8f]gn,] vfld; / :6]km]g /f]haf6 / g]kfnL efif ;Dkfbg /fdrGb|sf]Nd Sogfr]g, zzfªs zfbL, Onfgf ;f]nf]df]g, 6f]d Gof}kfg]af6 ePsf] xf] .;f/dg, x/hLt l;+x, cfgL Ol:qt / /f]h/ oft]; . o;sf] cfs[lt ljGof; ;fGb|f Snfs{af6 ePsf] xf] .vl;{b cfnd -k/fdz{bftf_vf;u/L, cg;Gwfgdf ;xefuL eP/ ;xof]u k¥ofpg] kmf]6f] Maªunfb]zsf] kfAgf / kml/bk/ lhNnf, ef/tsf] dhkmkm/k/ aªunfb]z M ODbfbn O:nfd la6lhNnf / g]kfnsf] afFs] / alb{of lhNnfsf dlxnfx¿nfO{ ef/t M ;l~ht bf;ljz]if wGojfb lbOG5 . g]kfn M lagf]b ltldlN;gfgf]eDa/ @))& ] k[i7 2
    • ljifo;"rL sfo{sf/L ;f/f+z $ != kl/ro ^ @= cfwf/e"t oyfy{M uªuf gbL–a];Ldf dlxnfn] F ckgfPsf hnjfo kl/jt{g cgsngsf pkfo " !) #= k|dfl0fs kIf M dlxnfsf] hLljsf]kfh{gdf cgsngsf k|fyldstf " !$ $= gLltut cGt/ M ;dfof]hg;DaGwL cfly{s nufgLdf dlxnfsf] clwsf/ !& %= l;sfO M cgsngsf nflu " nufgL;DaGwL ;emfj gf]6 ] @@ ;lGht bf;÷PS;gP8k[i7 3
    • sfo{sf/L ;f/f+zæ d ^) jif{sL eP“ / d}n] clxn]sf jif{x¿sf] h:tf] af9L, v8]/L, tftf] xfjf / c;Lgf slxNo} Joxf]/sL lyO“g . xfdL;“u o:tf ;d:ofx¿ olt w]/} bf]xf]l/Psfdf d cfZro{rlst ePsL 5 . sf/0f h];s} xf];, ] afnL lalu|b} 5 / pTkfbg sd eO/x]sf] 5 . “ Æ rlGb|sf tLjf/L ^) d6]lxof, af“s], g]kfn . hnjfo kl/jt{gn] hflt, ju{, lnªu / ;dbfo cyjf cfDbfgLsf] :t/ h:tf];s} eP klg ;a}dfly k|lts"n c;/ kfl//x]sf] 5 . rlGb|sfh:tf dlxnfx¿ af9Laf6 k|efljt eO/x]sf 5g . lsgeg] pgL dlxnf xg / dlxnfx¿ a9L ljkGg 5g . ;+;f/sf] ul/aLsf] &) k|ltzt lx:;f dlxnfn] cf]u6]sf 5g . pgLx¿nfO{ lg0ff{o k|lqmofdf ;xefuL u/fOFbg / cfly{s ;|ft, e"ld, lzIff, :jf:Yo / cGo } ] cfwf/e"t clwsf/x¿df pgLx¿sf] kxr k?ifeGbf sd 5 . F To;}n] hnjfo kl/jt{gsf] k|efj;Fu h‰g / cgsngdf " ;lqmo xg dlxnfx¿ k"0f{ ¿kdf ;Ifd 5}gg . o; k|ltj]bgn] aªunfb]z, g]kfn / ef/tsf ljkGg dlxnfx¿ df};dhGo k|sf]kaf6 hLjg, ;DklQ, hLljsf]kfh{g tyf 3/af/ ;+/If0fdf ;ª3if{/t /x]sf] oyfy{nfO{ b]vfPsf] æ olb ;/sf/n] ;dbfosf nflu af9L ;/lIft cfjf;x¿ agfOlbPdf af9L cfp“bfsf] avt PDbn O:nfd la6÷PS;gP8 Æ leq k5{g . hLpwgsf] ;/Iff xg] lyof] . cd]d uNhf/, dG8f]n ufpF, dlxnfsf] clwsf/ k|j4{gdf cgsng sf]ifn] dxTjk"0f{ " kml/bk/ lhNnf, aªunfb]z . e"ldsf v]Ng k5{ . hnjfo kl/jt{gsf] ;Gb{edf ;dflhs tyf cfly{s pGgltsf nflu ul/Psf ;fgf k|of; oy]i6 gxg] 5 . uªuf gbL–a];Ldf cfPsf] eLif0f af9Lkl5 ul/Psf] F s/f ;a}n] klxrfg ul/;s]sf 5g . cgsngsf nflu " If]qut cg;Gwfgn] klg cl:y/ jf clglZrt dg;gL sf]ifsf] Joj:yf ug{ wgL /fi6«x¿dfly rfk a9b} uPsf] 5 :j?kn] o; If]qsf dlxnfsf] hLljsf]kfh{gdf kf/]sf] hf] xl/tu[x Uof;sf] pT;{hg cTolws u5{g / To;}sf] c;/af/] k|i6 kf/]sf] 5 . oBlk, dlxnfx¿ hnjfo k|efj:j?k ljZjtfkdfgdf j[l4 eO/x]sf] 5 . kl/0fdtM kl/jt{gsf lgliqmo lzsf/ eg] xf]Ogg . sd ljsl;t b]z tyf ;fgf 6fksf ljsf;zLn /fHox¿df cgsng k|lqmofnfO{ 6]jf lbg cltl/Qm cfly{s tyf " ;Lldt ;|ft, sdhf]/ ;"rgf k|0ffnL / Go"g ;xof]usf] ] k|fljlws ;|ftsf] Joj:yf xg h?/L 5 . dlxnfx¿nfO{ ] cj:yfdf cg;Gwfg ul/Psf] eP klg o; cg;Gwfgn] nlIft u/L cgsng k|lqmofdf låkIfLo tyf ax"kIfLo " h6fPsf k|df0fx¿n] ul/a If]qsf dlxnfx¿n] ablnFbf] sfo{qmdsf ¿kdf nufgL ul/Psf k|df0f sd} e]l6G5g . hnjfo kl/jt{g;Fu cfk"mnfO{ ;dfof]hg ug{ ;? ul/;s]sf o;sf] ;fy} ltgLx¿sf] c;dfgkflts sfo{af]emsf afjhb 5g eg] cfˆgf] hLljsf]kfh{gnfO{ cem lbuf] / k|efjsf/L klg hnjfo kl/jt{g tyf cgsng k|lqmof;DaGwL ;+oQm " agfpg cfjZos kg]{ j:t :ki6;Fu klxrfg ug{ ;Sg] /fi6«;ª3Lo ax;df ljkGg dlxnfx¿sf] cfjfh sd} dfq eO;s]sf 5g eGg] kli6 u5{ . jiff{ofddf a:g tyf ;lGfG5 . c;dfgkflts nufgLnfO{ ;dtfd"ns, k|efjsf/L afnLgfnL Pj+ j:tefp /fVg ;/lIft :yfg, hLljsf]kfh]gsf { / r:t tNofpg hnjfo kl/jt{g cgsngsf nflu gLlt " ljsNk tyf cgsng /0fgLltsf af/]df ;"rgf tyf tflnd, " tyf lgb]l{ zsf thdfs} qmddf ljkGg dlxnfx¿sf] ;+nUgtf { v]tLkftL, Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ k|efjsf/L /0fgLltsf] / pgLx¿sf] cgej tyf cfjZostfsf] ;Daf]wg u/L thdfh:tf ;]jfdf pTs[i6 kxr g} oL dlxnfsf k|fyldstf { F k|fyldstfdf kfg{ cfjZos 5 . k[i7 4
    • cgsng nufgL ;+oGqn] ul/a dlxnfsf nflu cgsngsf] " " o;nfO{ 5f]6s/Ldf lgDgcg;f/ lng ;lsG5 McfjZostfnfO{ k|efjsf/L ¿kdf ;Daf]wg u/L ;xof]u ljQLo cgsng vfsf / sfof{Gjogsf nflu "pknAw u/fpg] ;lglZrttfsf lgldQ ljz]ifu/L /fli6«ocgsng nfugL;DaGwL ;Demf}tf tyf Joj:yfkgdf " Gofo;ªut k|lqmof ;lglZrt ug{ M ljkGglhDd]jf/ lgsfonfO{ nlIft u/L ;emfjx¿ k|:tt u/]sf] dlxnfx¿sf] kxrsf nfuL ljleGg lgsfosf] F5 . oL ;emfjn] d"nt M Sof]6f] cle;lGwcGt{ut :yfkgf ;+nUgtfdf cGt/f{li6«o ;Demf}tf, /fli6«o cgsng "ePsf] cgsng sf]if nlIft /x]sf] 5 . o;sf] ;fy} " nufgL ;+oGqaf/] ;"rgf tyf sf]ifdf ljkGgklxn]bl] v ;~rfngdf /x]sf] ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo hnjfo dlxnfx¿sf] k|ltlglwTj u/fpg k5{ .kl/jt{g ;+/rgfcGt{ut sd ljsl;t /fi6«sf] sf]if / ljz]ifhnjfo kl/jt{g ;+oGq;Fu ;d]t ;DalGwt /xg]5 . cgsng sf]ifdf ljkGg dlxnfsf] cfjZostfnfO{ " k|fyldstf lbg M clt hf]lvdoQm ;d"xdf /x]sf ljkGg dlxnfsf] klxrfg u/L ;xof]usf] k|f?k tof/ ug{ / sfo{ut If]q lgwf{/0fdf ljz]iftM pgLx¿sf nflu ljQLo cgsngsf] cfjZostf kl/nlIft ul/g k5{ . " ;dfof]hg sf]ifaf6 dlxnfx¿ s;/L nlIft tyf nfeflGjt xG5g egL cgudg ug]{ M n}ªl us ;+jbgzLntf ;"rsfªsnfO{ ;dfj]z u/L sf]ifn] ] dlxnfsf hLljsf]kfh{g;Fu ;DalGwt vfB ;/Iff, ;fdflhs ;/Iff / ;dfg kxrh:tf If]qnfO{ s;/L F k|Tofe"t u/]sf] 5 eGg] s/fnfO{ Wofgdf /fVg k5{ . cgsng sf]if Joj:yfkgsf nflu dlxnf " ;xeflutf ;lxtsf] ;+oGq l;h{gf ug]{ M cgsng " sf]if cgudgdf gful/s ;dfhsf] nfut clej[l4sf] ;+oGq ljsf; ug]{ ;fy} kl/of]hgfsf] cgudg, dNofªsg, sf]ifsf] ;fdflhs n]vfk/LIf0fh:tf sfo{df ;fdbflos :t/sf dlxnfsf] k|ltlglwTj xgu/L dlxnf ] ;xeflutf ;lglZrt ul/g k5{ . ljQLo cgsng ;+oGqn] ul/a ju{sf] cgsng " " sfo{qmddf dlxnfsf] hLljsf]kfh{gsf nflu k|fyldstf;fy ;xof]u ;lglZrt ug]{ M lzIff, ;"rgf / hLljsf]kfh{gh:tf cfwf/e"t If]qdf dlxnfx¿sf] kxr a9fpg / sf]ifn] k|bfg ug]{ F cgsngsf ljsNkx¿sf] 5gf]6df pgLx¿sf] " cfjZostfnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ to ul/Psf] 5 eGg] ;lglZrt ug]{ . PDbn O:nfd la6÷PS;gP8 /fHon] dlxnf ;xeflutf ;lglZrt ug]{ e/kbf]{ jftfj/0f tof/ ug]{ M Gofo;ªut ;+:yfut ;+/ rgfaf6 dfq dlxnf clwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt xG5 eGg] oyfy{nfO{ cfTd;ft u/L ;f]cg?k sfo{ ug]{ . jt{dfg ;dodf cgsng sf]ifn] :jt:km"t{ / ;dfj]zL " k|of;åf/f dfq ul/a dlxnfsf] cfjZostfnfO{ k|fyldstfdf kfg{ ;S5 . ;fy} o;n] eljiodf xg] cgsng;DaGwL cGo ljQLo Joj:yfkg jftf{df hnjfo " kl/jt{gsf] clt hf]lvddf /x]sf dlxnfx¿nfO{ ;xof]u ug{ ;S5 . k[i7 5
    • ! kl/ro df};ddf cfPsf] kl/jt{gn]] xfd|f] hLjg sl7g agfof] d]/f] gfd lgd sdf/L af]x/f xf] . d g]kfnsf] af“s] lhNnfsf] d6]lxof eGg] ufp“df a:5 . d #@ jif{sL eP“ / d ljjflxtf x“" . gbL glhs} d]/f] v/n] 5fPsf] 3/ 5 / k|To]s jif{ d af9Låf/f g/fd|/L k|efljt eO/x]sL 5 . xfn}sf jif{x¿df xfd|f ;d:ofx¿ a9]sf 5g . o;}sf/0f d}n] d]/f] cfosf] w]/} lx:;f d]/f] 3/nfO{ ;/lIft /fVg vlr{g k5{ . k|To]s af9Lkl5 d}n] o;nfO{ dd{t ug{ k5{ . kfgL slxn] k5{ 7]ufg gePsf]n] xfdLn] cfkm"nfO{ kl/jt{g ug{ k¥of] . xfdLn] xfd|f] ;a} afnL gudf]; eGgsf nflu d}n] xfd|f] Aof8 agfpg] tl/sf kl/jt{g ug{ yfn]“ . | kl/l:yltcg?k d}n] ljleGg k|sf/sf afnL nufpg] u/]sL 5 . cfkmgf] tLg s67f -sl/a !,))) ju{ld6/_ hUufdf d}n] :yfgLo hftsf] wfg nufpg ?rfp“5 . lxp“b] lagf]b ltdN;]gf÷PS;gP8 afnLsf ¿kdf xfdL tf]/L / d;/f] klg pAhfp“5f}+ . t/ cfkmgf] afnL ;/lIft /fVgsf nflu d}n] d]/f] 3/6x/f pEofpg ;Ifd xg k5{ . e"ldsf] /fd|f] l;“rfO k|0ffnL klg xfdL ;a}sf] nflu k|fyldstfsf] If]qleq k5{ . Tolt eP tfklg olb dnfO{ ;f]WgxG5 eg] af9L / ;Vvf ePsf] avt klg 5f]6f] cjlwdf kfSg] k|lt/f]wfTds Ifdtf ePsf] wfg / cGo afnL xfdLnfO{ rflxG5 .lgd g]kfn, ef/t / aªunfb]znfO{ hf]8/ aUg] uªuf gbLsf] hnjfo kl/jt{gn] hflt, ju{, lnªu / ;dbfo cyjft6Lo a];Ldf al:5g . o; t6sf afl;Gbfx¿ a9bf] Pj+ F cfDbfgLsf] :t/sf afahb klg ;a}nfO{ ;dfg ¿kdf c;/uDeL/ k|sl[ tsf] af9Laf6 kLl8t 5g . ;g @))& sf] eLif0f kfl//x]sf] 5 . t/ lgdh:tf dlxnfx¿ a9L k|efljt ePsfdg;gL jiff{af6 k|efljt xg] @ s/f]8 *) nfv 5g . lsgeg] plgx¿ dlxnf xg / dlxnfx¿ w]/} ljkGgdflg;x¿dWo] lgd Ps xg . ;g @))& df @ nfv x]S6/ 5g . ;dfhdf ltgLx¿sf] c;dfg l:yltsf] dtna k};f,afnL kfgL;Fu} x/fPsf] jf gfl;Psf] lyof] . jiff{ /f]lsPsf] e"ld, lx+;faf6 kfpg] ;/Iffsf ;fy} :jf:Yo / lzIffh:tfdlxgf}kl5 klg sof}n] cfˆgf] hLljsf]kfh{g oyfl:yltdf F { cfwf/e"t If]qdf kxr yf]/} 5 . uhf/fsf nflu pgLx¿ FNofpg ;s]sf 5}gg . ! k|fs[lts ;|ftdf w]/} lge{/ xG5g . To;}n] kl/jf/sf] x]/rfx ] ug{ / hLljsf]kfh{gsf] ;/Iffsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ ;|ft ] tyf lghL ;DklQ pgLx¿;Fu yf]/} 5 / hnjfohGo k|sf]kaf6 klg pgLx¿ g} a9L k|efljt 5g . dlxnfx¿ w]/} k|sf/sf uDeL/ / 5§} kL8faf6 k|efljt /x]sf 5g . k[i7 6
    • dlxnf– vfB pTkfbs / k|bfossf ¿kdf æhnjfo kl/jt{gaf6 8/nfUbf k/hLjLhGo /f]usf hLjf0fsf] k|;f/ xg] ;dofjlw nlDag] ;Defjgf /xG5 .dlxnfx¿ hnjfo kl/jt{gsf] k|efjsf] hf]lvddf kgsf] { ;fy} ltgLx¿sf] ef}uf]lns z[ªvnfnfO{ kl/jt{g u/L [ k|dv sf/0fdWo] k|fs[lts ;|ftx¿dfly c;dfgkflts ¿kn] ] dflg;sf] k|lt/f]wfTds Ifdtf jf hg:jf:Yo ;]jfsflge{/ xg tyf kxr rgf}tLk"0f{ xg klg xf] . ;+oQm F k"jf{wf/sf] cefj ePsf] If]qdf km}lng] ;Defjgf /xG5 .Æ%/fi6«;ª3Lo hnjfo kl/jt{g cGt/;/sf/L ;ldlt cf}nf] k/hLjLhGo /f]usf] Pp6f pbfx/0f xf] hg hnjfo(UN/IPCC) sf] xfn} ;fj{hlgs k|ltj]bg æk|efj, kl/jt{gsf sf/0fn] ljz]ifu/L tfkdfg tyf jiff{sf] j[l4sf]cgsng / ;ªs6f;GgtfÆ n] pb3f]if u/]cg;f/ ;g @)@) " kl/0ffd :j?k a9g] u5{ .;Dddf clk|msfsf] ;j–;xf/f If]qsf jiff{sf] kfgLdf cfl>tv]tLof]Uo e"ldsf] pTkfbsTjdf nueu %) k|ltztn] x|f; ljz]ift ue{jtL dlxnfx¿ hf]lvddf xG5g . lsgeg]cfpg]5 .@ vfB pTkfbgdf cfpg] o:tf] x|f;n] lgZro g} pgLx¿n] dn]l/ofsf lhjf0f af]Sg] nfdv§nfO{ ;fwf/0f ]s[lifhGo k];fdf ;+nUg ax";ªVos dlxnfsf] bMvnfO{ dlxnfeGbf bf]Aa/ b/df cfslif{t u5{g . uef{j:yfn]a9fpg]5 . ;j–;fxf/f / blIf0f cd]l/sfsf $% k|ltzt dlxnfsf] dn]l/of;Fusf] k|lt/f]wfTds IfdtfnfO{ 36fpFb}3/kl/jf/df vfB pTkfbgsf nflu dlxnf g} lhDd]jf/ ;ªqmd0fsf] ;Defjgf a9fP/ c:j:ytf, /QmcNktf;Fu}5g . ha vfBfGg pTkfbg 365 / ;|ftsf] cefj xG5 ta ] d[Tosf] hf]lvd a9fpF5 . cf}nf]n] :jtM ue{ktg, ckl/kSjdlxnfx¿dfly sfo{af]em a9g uO{ pgLx¿sf] 3/aflx/ ;Ts]/L, d[t–afn–hGd / sd tf}nsf] hGd xgh:tf afn ]sfd ug]{ tyf ljBfnodf xflh/ xg] cj;/ ;ªs6df k5{ . d[Tob/ j[l4sf nIf0fx¿nfO{ a9fpF5 .^v8]/Lsf avtdf kl/jf/sf nflu dlxnfn] g} 6f9faf6 kfgL hnjfo kl/jt{gn] ljkGg dlxnfnfO{ c;dfgkflts c;/Nofpg], z4Ls/0f ug]{ / cfk"lt{ ug]h:tf sfo{df ;do { kfg]{ ePsfn] /fi6«;ª3Lo ;+oGq jf cGo pkfoaf6 pknAwvlr{g kg]{ ePsf]n] pQ/bfloTj klg a9]sf] xG5 .# xg] cgsng sf]ifn] hnjfo kl/jt{g;Fu dlxnf "dlxnf– :jf:Yo ;+/lIfsfsf ¿kdf cgsngnfO{ 6]jf k¥ofpg] s/f alnof] d2fsf ¿kdf " ;lglZrt ug{ cfjZos 5 . hnjfo kl/jt{gn] dlxnfdfhnjfo kl/jt{gsf sf/0fn] hn tyf udL{;u ;DalGwt F kfg]{ k|efjsf] ;Daf]wg c;kmn eO/x]sf] o; cj:yfdf/f]usf] j[l4;Fu} dlxnfx¿ cfˆgf] :jf:Yodf cfOkg]{ cTolws k|efljt dlxnfnfO{ ;xof]u ug{ ;lsPdf dlxnf /rgf}tLsf] ;fdgf / kl/jf/sf] x]/ljrf/ ug{;d]t yk k?ifaLrsf] cgsng Ifdtfsf] lje]bnfO{ sd ug{ an k|bfg "sfo{af]em axg u5{g .$ ljZj :jf:Yo ;ªu7gsf cg;f/ u5{ .& ;GhLt bf;÷PS;gP8 k[i7 7
    • ;Gbe{k|:tt k|ltj]bg :ynut cg;Gwfgdf cfwfl/t 5 . k|ltj]bgaªunfb]z, ef/t / g]kfndf uªufgbL d}bfgdf a:g] u|fdL0f;dbfosf dlxnfx¿sf] b}lgs hLjg, hLljsf]kfh{g, ;fdflhscj:yfsf cfwf/df tof/ kfl/Psf] xf] . oL tLgj6} b]z hnjfohGohf]lvdaf6 xb};Dd k|efljt /fi6«dWo] k5{g . of] If]q ljz]iftMcfFwL / af9Lsf] ;d:ofn] cfqmfGt 5 / :yfgLo ;dbfodf7"nf] k|efj kf/]sf] 5 . * uªuf gbL dWolxdfnoaf6 ;? xG5 / aªufnsf] vf8L;Dd @%)) ls=ld= axG5 . uªufa]F;L ;+;f/s} ;a}eGbf a9L hg;ªVof ePsf] a]F;L xf] . uªufsf] &,%),))) ju{ ls=ld= hnwf/ If]qdf $) s/f]8 dflg; hnjfo;DaGwL cGt/;/sf/L ;ldlt -IPPC) sf cg;f/ hnjfo a;f]af; u5{g . kl/jt{gaf6 Pl;ofdf lgDg k|efj kg{ ;S5g M • lxdfnL e]udf lxdgbL klUngfn] af9L / lxdklx/f]sf] ;d:of cfpg ;S5 . o;n] lxdgbL vlDrg hfg] xFbf gbLx¿df kfgLsf] a]u / dfqf ;d]t 36g hfG5 . • t6Lo If]q, ljz]ifu/L w]/} hg;ªVof ePsf blIf0f, k"j{ / blIf0fk"j{ Pl;ofsf If]qx¿df ;dbsf ;fy} | gbLaf6 cfpg] af9Lsf] hf]lvd w]/} xg5 . ] • dWo / blIf0f Pl;ofdf @! cf}F ztfAbLsf] dWo;Dddf vfBfGg pTkfbg #) k|ltztn] 36g uO{ w]/} b]zdf ef]sd/Lsf] hl6n ;d:of ylkg]5 . • af9L / v8]/Lsf sf/0f xg] emf8fkvfnf;DaGwL /f]u / ;fdlb|s tfkqmd a9gfn] xg] x}hfh:tf /f]un] ladf/L / d[Tosf 36gfdf j[l4 xg] ;Defjgf /xg]5 . k[i7 8
    • PDbn O:nfd la6÷PS;gP8of] cWoog u|fdL0f If]qsf ljkGg dlxnfx¿dfly ul/Psf] lyof] afFs] lhNnfdf k5{ / of] lhNnfs} ;a}eGbf las6 ufpF dflgG5 .hf] k?if jf dlxnf 3/dnL ePsf] 3/kl/jf/ cyjf hf] kl/jf/sf] of] ufpF Ps bzs nfdf] åGåaf6 kLl8t dfq /x]sf] lyPg, oxfFcfDbfgLsf] ;|ftsf nflu lhDd]jf/ 5g jf dxTjk"0f{ ¿kdf ] clxn];Dd lahnL tyf oftfoftsf] pknAwtf klg 5}g .of]ubfg u5{g . ;xeflutfd"ns cg;Gwfg ;fdfu|Lsf] k|of]u ] hLljsf]kfh{gsf] k|dv pkfo eg]sf] s[lif, kzkfng tyf df};dL u/]/ pgLx¿sf] hLljsf]kfh{gdf ablnFbf] dg;g / af9Lsf] sfd g} xf] . alb{of lhNnfdf /x]sf] ;"ok6jf ufpF ljsf; {:j?kn] kf/]sf] k|efj, ljBdfg ;dGjo /0fgLlt, ;dGjodf ;ldlt klg åGåaf6 k|efljt lyof] / o;n] dlxnfdflysf]b]vf k/]sf afwf / eljiosf] af9Lsf] kl/b[iodf cfwfl/t hf]lvdnfO{ cem a9fPsf] 5 . oxfFsf ax;ªVos dflg;cgsngnfO{ k|fyldstf lbg] ;DaGwdf cGj]if0f ul/Psf] lyof] . ( " kzkfng, df};dL sfd tyf s[lifdf cfwfl/t 5g .of] cg;Gwfg aªufnfb]zsf] s[lifdf lge{/ bO{ lhNnf kml/bk/ hLljsf]kfh{g lsg </ kfAgfdf ePsf] lyof] . kml/bk/sf dVo afnLx¿df wfg, hnjfo kl/jt{gn] dflg;sf] hLljsf]kfh{gdf 7"nf] c;/ kf/]sf]bfn, h6, Kofh, n;g abfd / v;f{gL k5{g eg] nueu ;a} 5 . ljkGg dflg;n] af9L, rqmatfh:tf ;ªs6sf sf/0f cfˆgf]kl/jf/ kIfLkfng / kzkfngdf ;+nUg 5g . kfAgfdf klg hLljsf]kfh{g udfpF5g . k|sf]ksf] csf]{ kL8f kgklxn] lat]sf] {dflg;x¿ s[lif / kzkfngdf a9L lge{/ 5g . oxfFsf dVo k|sf]kaf6 ePsf] Iflt jf hLjg, 3/ / ;DklQsf] kgM:yfkg ug{afnLx¿df wfg, ux,F tf]/L, d;/f], ltn / abfd k5{g . ;fdlxs dl:sn kl//x]sf] xG5 . hLljsf]kfh{g gePkl5 dlxnfx¿ g}v]tLkftL / a:tefp kfng oxfFsf] ;fdfGo cEof; xf] . ef]s} /xg] ;Defjgf a9L xG5 . vfB pTkfbs tyf k|a4{ssfef/tdf of] cWoog laxf/ k|fGtsf] dhˆkm/k/ eGg] ufpFdf ¿kdf dlxnfsf] k|dv e"ldsf /xgsf ;fy} 3/sf] cfly{s ePsf] lyof] . dlxnfx¿sf nflu dVo cfly{s lqmofsnfk lqmofsnfkdf ;d]t dxTjk"0f{ :yfg /x]sf] xG5 . 3/kl/jf/ [eg]sf] ldn]/ ul/g] ;fdlxs v]tL, s[lif dHfb/L / kzkfng g} ;~rfngdf blIf0f Pl;ofsf] u|fdL0f cy{tGqdWo] aªunfb]zsfxf] . lgof{tsf nflu ul/g] lnrL / cfFk v]tL klg :yfgLo !% k|ltzt 3/kl/jf/, g]kfnsf !) k|ltzt 3/kl/jf/ / u|fdL0fhgtfsf] gubsf] /fd|f] ;|ft /x]sf] 5 . !) ] ef/tsf #% k|ltzt 3/kl/jf/!! dlxnf 3/d"nLsf] dxTjk"0f{g]kfndf of] cWoog uªuf gbLsf] t6Lo hnfwf/ If]qdf kg]{ :yfg /x]sf] 5 . ha ljkGg dlxnfx¿n] cfˆgf] hLljsf]kfh{gafFs] lhNnfsf] /fKtL gbL–t6l:yt ufpF / s0ff{nL gbLt6df kg]{ udfpF5g, c;dfgtf / l;dfGts[t cj:yfdf cem a9L k|efj Falb{of lhNnfdf ul/Psf] lyof] . d6]lxof ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt k/]/ k|tfl8t aG5g . k[i7 9
    • @ cfwf/e"t oyfy{ M hnjfo kl/jt{g cgsng " uªuf gbL–a];Lsf dlxnf / F xfdLn] lhljsf]kfh{gsf] cGo ljsNk kQf nufpg k5{ ‘t];f] af9Ldf ;a} s/f ljgfz ePsf] lyof] . | klxn]sf af9Lx¿ 7"nf eP klg o;kfnLsf] af9Ln] s]nfO{ -bfnsf] Ps k|sf/_ h:tf afnLx¿ gi6 PDbn O:nfd la6÷PS;gP8 kf¥of] . klxn]sf] af9Ldf eGbf kfgLsf] ;tx clxn] a9b5 . clxn] af9Lsf] kfgL clglZrt ta/n] } cVt/ afg #) jif{sL eOg / bO{ 5f]/Lx¿sf ;fy t6aGbsf] cfp“5 . klxn]–klxn] gbLn] c;f/df -aªunfb]zL IfoLs/0fsf] pkh:j?k kbdf gbLsf] cjlzi6 kbfy{n] ag]sf] kfqf]sf] t];f] dlxgf_ df dfq s6fg uYof]{ t/ | gbLsf] anf}6] 6fkdf al:5g . pgL cfkmgf]] kl/jf/sf] dnL xg / afv|f tyf kIfLkfng u/]/ kl/jf/sf] uhf/f rnfp“l5g . cfhsn jif{el/ g} yf]/axt s6fg eO/x]sf] 5 . pgsf] cf7F}“ sIff;Ddsf] cWoognfO{ wGojfb 5, lsgeg] pgn] olb o:t} eO/xg] xf] eg] xfdLn] hLljsf]kfh{gsf] glhs}sf] ufp“df lzlIfsf eP/ cfkmgf] cfDbfgLdf s]xL yk ug{{ j}slNks pkfo vf]Hg cfjZos xG5 h:t} M ;xof]u kfPsL l5g . slxnsfxL“ pgL c? dflg;sf] v]tdf ufOj:t kfNg jf ;fgf] Joj;fo ug{ h;af6 xfdL Hofnfbf/L dhb/sf ¿kdf klg sfd ul5{g / o; jif{ tLgj6f af“Rg ;sf}“ .’ af9Låf/f pgL k|efljt ePsL lyOg .uªuf gbLsf] t6df af9L cfpg lgoldt k|lqmof g} xf] . jif]gL { clgb|f, nfrf/ Pj+ tLj| cfzfsf] efjgfn] u|l;t ePsf] kfP .cfpg] af9L hndfu{af6 ;fdfg 9jfgL ug{, l;FrfOsf nflu kl/jf/x¿ af9Lu|:t ;dodf c:yfoL ¿kn] / sltko cj:yfdfkfgLsf] pknAwtf / hldgsf] pa{/tf a9fpg lgs} kmnbfoL t :yfoL ¿kd} lj:yflkt xg kg]{ b]lvof] . o;sf] hl6n c;/klg xG5 . tyflk, xfn}sf bzsdf lgGt/ bf]xf]l/O/xg] af9LhGo ;fdflhs ;xfotf ;~hfn / kfl/jfl/s aGwgdf kg{ hfG5k|sf]ksf] ;do / axfjsf] cjlwdf pNn]vgLo kl/jt{g cfPsf] h;n] dlxnfnfO{ af9Lsf] ;fdgf ug{ ;xof]u k¥ofpF5 . o;5 . df};ddf cfPsf] ljrngsf] 9fFrfn] 3gf jiff{sf] ;ªst ] cg;Gwfgaf6 k|fKt k|df0fn] ;a} af9Lu|:t If]qsf] of] ;femf æ !@u/]sf] 5 h;sf sf/0f clws jiff{ xG5 . clgoldt ¿kdf ;d:of xf] eGg] ls6fg u5{ .xg] 3gf jiff{n] ck|Tofl;t ¿kdf af9L bf]xf]l/g] ;Defjgf klga9]sf] 5 . t/ cVt/h:tf dlxnfsf nflu To;sf] ;fdgf ug{ xfd|f] ufp“sf dflg;n] Ps csf{klt ;xof]usf] |g} klxnf] ;To xf] . efjgf x/fO;s]sf 5g / ca t ;fdflhs;ldqfn] cgej u/]cg;f/ -k[i7 !! x]gxf];_ 7"nf] txsf] af9Ln] { efjgf g} af“sL 5}g . dflg;n] Ps csf{nfO{pNn]vgLo ¿kdf v]tLkftL, j:tefp tyf ;DklQsf] gf]S;fgL ;xof]u ub}gg a? u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf jf {u5{ . pgLh:tf dlxnfn] hLljsf]kfh{gsf] nflu Hofnfbf/L ;/sf/sf] ;xof]u s// a:5g . af9L ]>ldssf] ¿kdf sfd ug{ jf ;fx";u rsf]{ Aofhb/df C0f Flngafx]s cGo sg} ljsNk /xFbg . ha e08f/0f ul/Psf] } cfPsf avt Pscsf{nfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ efjgf kgM s;/L Nofp“g ;lsG5 eg]/ xfdLn] ;f]Rg ÆvfBfGg, aLplahg / cGo k|sf/sf ;DklQsf] Iflt xG5 tavfBfGg / aLplahgsf] d"No j[l4 xG5 . b}lgs Hofnfbf/L u/]/ h?/L eO;s]sf] 5 .hLjg wfGg] >ldssf nflu xKtf}F jf dlxgf};Dd a]/f]huf/ /xg F –rNrLb]aL, u+u6L la;gk/,kg]{ cj:yf pTkGg eP hLjg emg} sl7g aG5 . laxf/, ef/to; ;Gbe{df, 3/fo;L ;fdu|L tyf ef}lts ;DklQsf] Ifltsf lgZro g} k|sf]ksf] dgf]j1flgs c;/ dlxnfx¿df dfq ;Lldt }afahb klg dlxnfx¿n] af9Laf6 pTkGg xg] dfgl;s kL8fsf] 5}g t/ ;xof]u ug]{ lgsfo jf JolQm pknAw gePsf] ;dodf;fdgf ug{ kg]{ jf:tljstfk|lt cfZro{ dfGg kg]{ cj:yf cfkm" 7"nf] ;d:ofdf k/] tfklg kl/jf/sf c? ;b:osf] x]/larf/xbg . g]kfnsf cg;Gwfg If]qx¿df uf}tdn]!# dflg;x¿ lrGtf, F} / /]vb]v ug]{ yk sfo{af]em eg] pgLx¿df k/]s} xG5 . k[i7 10
    • ;ldqfb]jL ef/tsf] laxf/ k|fGtdf kg]{ afudtL gbL glhs}sf] rf}kfne/t ufp“df al:5g . pgL / pgsf >Ldfg e"ldxLg 5g / :yfgLo;fx"n] clwof“df lbPsf] hUufdf wfg, ds}, ux“ / t/sf/Lv]tL ugkj{ { "Hofnfbf/L sfd ug]{ uy]{ .æxfd|f] wfgafnL k"0f{ ¿kdf ;vfk eof] . cln klxn] kfgL k/]sf] eP xfdLn] s]xL t/sf/L;Dd nufpg ;SYof}“ . t/ ca To;sf] nflu klg l9nf] eO;Sof] / xfd|f] v]t cem} hnfdo 5 . afnLsf] ladf hUufwgLn] lng]5 / xfdLnfO{ s]xL cfpg]5g . xfd|f] d]xgt, wfg pAhfpg } u/]sf] ;Dk"0f{ nufgL / vr{ v]/ uof] . Æ ;ldqfb]jL rf}kfn ef/t ufpF, afUdtL gbL glhs}, laxf/, ef/t ;GhLt bf;÷PS;gP8 k[i7 11
    • xfdLnfO{ af9Lsf] c;/;“ u h ‰ g ljBdfg cgsng /0fgLlt "lhljsf]kfh{gsf] ljsNkn] ;xof]u u¥of] / o;sf ;Ldfx¿æd]/f] gfd ;jf/L yf? xf], d #@ jif{sL Aff9Ln] cGo aGws >ldsnfO{ h:t} ;jf/L yf? / pgsf afnaRrfnfO{ ;d]t Jofks c;/ kf/]sf] 5 . pgLx¿ xf]rf]eP“ / g]kfnsf] ;"ok6jfdf a:5 . xfdL { e"ld / hf]lvdoQm gbLsf t6x¿df a:g afWo 5g .dQm sd}of xf}“ . xfdLnfO{ ;/sf/n] yf]/} To;}sf/0f pgLx¿sf pTkfbg af9Ln] ;lhn} aufpF5 .dfq e"ld lbPsf] 5 . d]/f] kl/jf/df !);b:o 5f}“ . xfdL klxn] c?sf] nflu sfd t/, dlxnfx¿ ufx|f] cj:yfsf afahb lg/Lx lzsf/sf] ¿kdf g/xL ;a} rgf}tLsf] ;fdgf u5{g . ;jf/L yf¿sf]uYof}+{ t/ clxn] xfdLn] l5d]sL / sygn] o;nfO{ ki6L u/]sf] 5 . dlxnfx¿ hLjg,cfkmGtsf] ;xof]udf sfpnL, Kofh, hLljsf]kfh{g / ;DklQsf] /Iff ug{ /0fgLlt / ;+oGq lgdf{0fuf]ne]8fh:tf t/sf/L pAhfpg yfn]sf “ ug{ ;Ifd 5g .5f}“ . of] jif{ af9Ln] ;a} t/sf/L v]tL aªunfb]zdf kfgLsf] ;tx a9bf s]xL dlxnfx¿ glhs}sf];vfk kf¥of] . cUnf] hldgtkm{ hfG5g / cfkm" tyf cfˆgf] kl/jf/sf]xfdLn] a]ndf dT:okfngsf af/]df } ;/Iff ;lglZrt ug{ c:yfoL af; agfpF5g . sltn] tg;f]rsf] eP af9Låf/f yk kLl8t xGYof}“ . ] cUnf] 7fpFdf /x]sf cfkmGt / ;fyLsf] 3/df z/0f lnG5g .xfdLn] d+u/ hftsf] df5fsf ! xhf/ e/f dlxnfx¿ aLplahg af9L cfpgkj{ g} 3/sf] cUnf] :yfgdf "kf]v/Ldf 5f]8/ dT:okfng ;? u¥of}“ . tL ] ;/lIft;Fu /fV5g h;sf sf/0f pgLx¿sf] hLljsf]kfh{gsf]dWo]sf s]xLnfO{ af9Ln] aufof] t/ ;|ft ;/lIft /xg]5 . slxnsfxLF kzkIfLnfO{ cUnf] e"lddf ]clwsf+znfO{ p4f/ ug{ d ;kmn eP“ . nluG5 t/ ufO{j:tsf] nflu ;/lIft :yfg e]66fpg lgs} tyflk, af9Lsf] sf/0fn] tf/ftfn / sl7g xG5 . af9Lsf] k|lts"n k|efjsf] kl/0ffd:j?k pTkGg;fgf]>L ahf/ hfg] af6f] lxnfDd] eP/ xg] vfBfGg tyf cGo cfjZos ;fwgsf] cefjlj?4 h‰g dlxnfx¿n] k};f ;fk6 lnG5g / kzkIfL nufot cGoaGb ePsf] 5 kl/0ffd:j?k d df5f a]Rg ;fwg laqmL u5{g .ahf/ hfg ;lSbg . obL d}n] lhNnf;b/dsfd uP/ tflnd lng ;s]sf] eP s]xL ls;fgn] hndUg v]tdf afnL slxgaf6 arfpg af9Lt/sf/L v]tL / df5f v]tL badf yk } cfpgcl3 g} leqofpg ;lsg] jf l56} kfSg] hftsf afnL nufpF5g . To;sf] ;fy} pgLx¿n] ljutsf] l;sfOsfsfd ug{ ;Sy]“ . cfwf/df af9Lsf] cf}ift ;txeGbf cUnf] xg] hftsf afnLd]/f] >Ldfg df};dL Hofnfbf/Lsf] nflu nufpg] u5{g, h;sf sf/0f nufOPsf] afnLdf w]/} 7"nf]ef/t hfG5g . ToxL sf/0fn] afnaRrf, k|efj gk/f]; . æt/sf/Lv]tL / df5fkfng ;a}klt d]/f] |w]/} pQ/bfloTj 5 . xfd|f] ufp“df klg d tL ls;fgx¿dWo] Ps x“" hf] a]df};dL;fgf] 3/]n pBf]u eP Psbd /fd|f] xg] t/sf/L / s]/f v]tLdf ;+nUg 5g . oLlyof] . dT:okfng / t/sf/L v]tL ug{ afnLx¿ af9L / v8]/Laf6 sd Iflt xG5g .xfdLnfO{ yk ;Lk / ahf/sf] vf“rf] 5 .xfd|f pTkfbg a]Rg] ahf/af/] xfdL d}n] a]Rgsf nflu s/];faf/Ldf t/sf/L;lglZrt xg ;s] xfdLn] cfkmgf] Jofkf/ pTkfbg ug{ yfn]sL 5 . nufOPsf] afnLlj:tf/ ug]{ lyof}“ .Æ gi6 xgaf6 hf]ufpg xfdL ;dIf xfd|f] v]tLafnL nufpg] tf}/tl/sfdf kl/jt{g k[i7 12 ugsf] csf]{ ljsNk g} 5}g . { Æ nf}6gL yf?, ;ok6jf ufpF, alb{of lhNnf, g]kfn . {
    • To;}u/L, tLg b]zdf ul/Psf] cWoogaf6 k|fKtglthfcg;f/ aLpAof8 tof/ kfg]{ ;+/rgfdf ;wf/, :yfgLokl/j]z / df};dcg;f/ afnLsf] hftsf] 5gf]6 -:yfgLo /j0f{zªs/ hftsf] ld>0f_ ;xof]uL k|ljlwsf] ¿kdf kfOof] .o; ljlwaf6 hLljsf]kfh{gdf kg]{ k|lts"n k|efj s]xLxb;Dd sd ePsf] b]lvof] . j0f{zªs/ hftx¿ k|fo MdxFuf xG5g eg] s]xL hftsf] /]vb]v / x]/rfx ug{ w]/} >drflxg] xg ;S5g . clws >d cfjZos k/]df dlxnfdflyg} af]em ylkG5 . To:t} tL hftsf] pTkfbgsf] nflu k|r/ 1fg / ;Lk rflxG5 hf] u|fdL0f, ul/a / ;LdfGts[tdlxnfx¿;Fu xbg . dlxnfx¿ sd lzlIft xg] xgfn] gofF F };Lk l;Sg] If]qdf ;d]t kxr ;Lldt xG5 . 1fg, ;Lk, / Fk|ljlw l;Sg] sfo{df ;+nUg xg kfP pgLx¿sf] Ifdtfljsf; xg] lyof] t/ o; cj;/af6 dlxnf k|foM jl~rt/x]sf 5g . lagf]b ltldN;]gf÷PS;gP8dlxnfx¿åf/f 5/l5d]sdf j}slNks pmhf{ k|j4{g -;f}o,{uf]a/ Uof;, ;wfl/Psf] u[x:y rnf]_ ug]{ cEof;df ;+nUgxg yfn]sf 5g . pgLx¿n] sd >d nfUg] afnL nufpg],ldl>t afnL tyf cGt/ afnLsf] nflu kxn ug],{ ;lhn}ahf/ pknAw xg] afnL tyf v8]/L ;xg] afnLnufpg]h:tf cgsngsf ljsNkx¿ klxrfg ul/Psf] / "l;FrfOdf nufgL a9fpg] pkfo cjnDag ePsf] 5 t/w]/h;f] dlxnfx¿ o;nfO{ wfGg ;Ifd aGg ;s]sf 5}gg . } pgLx¿;Fu yf]/} ;DklQ ePsf] sf/0f ;fx|f–ufx|f] k/]sf] avt ]æ ;fdflhs ;/Iff ;+oGqsf] cefjdf kmfObf p7fO{ rsf]{ Aofh c;Ng] JolQmut ;fx" dxfhgsxfF cf>o lng afWo l5d]sLx¿n] k|of]u ug]{ ;fdfu|Lsf] af/]df 5g . oBlk, cg;Gwfgn] b]vfPcg;f/ g]kfndf a9bf] yfxf xbfxb} klg To:tf ;fdfg h6fpg d “ “ qmddf /x]sf] ;dbfodf cfwfl/t ;xsf/L ;d"x / ;~hfnx¿ ;dbfosf] ;fdlxs cleofg ;~rfng ug],{ c;dy{ 5 . d tL ;a}sf] kmfObfaf/] ;/lIft hLljsf]kfh{gsf] lgldQ Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{ Pj+ ul/a dlxnfsf] cfly{s hf]lvdnfO{ sd ug]h:tf sfo{df { hfGb5 t/ Tof] k|ljlwsf] d"No lgs} w]/} cu|;/ /x]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . pbfx/0fsf nflu >dsf] PsLs[t 5 . Tof] k|ljlw k|of]u ug{ d]/f] cfly{s ;bkof]u / ;dod} v]tL nufpg] sfo{df ;dbfon] kd{ Æ -;fdlxs >d–;6xL_ k|0ffnL ;~rfng u5{g hf] klxn]bl] v g} cj:yf g} afws ag]sf] 5 . kxf8L ;dbfodf JofKt lyof] . ;fdbflos artsf] ldG6 ltjf/L, d6]lxof ufpF, Jojxf/nfO{ klg l5d]sLaLrsf] ;fdflhs P]Soa4tfsf] afFs] lhNnf, g]kfn . k|df0f dfGg ;lsG5 . æxfdLn] xfd|f] dgf]jlQ / cEof;df kl/jt{g NofPgf“} eg] abln“bf] [ kl/j]zdf af“Rg dl:sn xg5 . xfdLn] a;fO“;/fOaf6 cfPsf kxf8L ] ;dbfosf] h:t} k|0ffnL c“ufNb}5f}“ . xfdLn] af9L / v8]/Llj?4 h‰gnfO{ ;dflhs ;+:yfsf] ljsf; u/]sf 5f}“ h;af6 af9L kLl8t l5d]sLsf nflu vfgf / af; pknAw u/fpg] ;+oGq lgdf{0f xf]; .ÚÚ dGgf ds]/L, %%, d6]xLof ufpF . lagf]b ltldN;]gf÷PS;gP8 k[i7 13
    • # k|fdfl0fs kIf M cgsng–k|fyldstfdf dlxnfsf] hLljsf]kfh{g "æ xfdL ufO{df lge{/ 5f}“ / xfd|f] u[x:yLsf] nflu of] cToGt} dxTjk"0f{ 5 . olb xfd|f] hldg hndUg eof] eg] d}n] tx a9fpg ;of}“ O“6f lsGg kg]{ xG5 h;sf] nflu k};f rflxG5 . To;dfly xfdLdWo] sf]xL klg lzlIft 5}gf}“ . olb sf]xL lzlIft jf kzlrlsT;s ePsf] eP af6f]df cj/f]w ePsf] a]nf ufOj:tsf] pkrf/ ug{ ;lsGYof] . olb xfdL;“u df5f dfg]{ 8ªuf ePsf] eP xfdLdWo] kf“rn] ;fdlxs ¿kdf Æ ef8fdf lnO{ glhs}sf] anf}6] 6fkdf uO{ ufOj:tsf] nflu 3f“; Nofpg ;SYof}“ . df]d]gf a]ud, uNhf/ dG8f]n ufpF, kml/bk/ lhNnf, aªufnfb]zcg;Gwfgdf efu lnPsf dlxnfx¿n] k]z u/]sf] wf/0ffdfaf9L;Fu cgsl" nt xg cfjZos /x]sf] cfef; k|i6 ¿kdfkfOPsf] 5 . hnjfo kl/jt{gaf6 hLjgdf k|lts"n c;/kf/]sf] cgej pgLx¿n] JoQm u/]sf 5g / ;/lIfthLljsf]kfh{gsf] nflu cgsngsf k|of; u/]sf 5g . "pgLx¿ cgsngsf ljBdfg ;+oGq / ljlw tyf To;sf ";Lldt kIfaf/] cgle1 /x]sf] kfOP klg pgLx¿nfO{ cfˆgf]jt{dfg l:ylt lglZrt ¿kdf yfxf 5 / k|dv k|fyldstfdf kg]{ cTofjZos j:t jf ;fwgsf] ;"rLsf] gofF rgf}tL ;fd;/lIft hLljsf]kfh{gsf] nflu h‰g k5{ eGg] yfxf 5 .tLgj6} b]zsf clwsf+z dlxnfn] afnL ljljlws/0f /cgsl" nt s[lif k|0ffnL Pj+ cEof;nfO{ h?/L 7fg]sf] kfOof] .oBlk, pgLx¿n] cfkm";u gofF s[lif k|0ffnL cFufNg] Ifdtf F PDbfbn O:nfd la6÷PS;gP8sd ePsf] dx;; u/] . To;}n] pgLx¿n] ;fyL,clVtof/jfnf, k];j/, lj1 / u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfh:tf cGo ];/f]sf/jfnfaf6 s[lif, kzkIfL, af9L / v8]/L ;xg] hftsfafnL, lglZrt hnjfosf] cj:yf cgsn pTkfbg lbg] ":yfgLo / j0f{zªs/ afnLsf hftx¿, dn k|of]u,sL6gfzs, l;FrfO, afnL leqofPkl5sf] k|ljlw, ;wfl/Psf]kzkfng Pj+ hLljsf]kfh{gsf] nflu j}slNks 1fg, ;Lk /k|ljlwsf] lj:tf/ rfxG5g . g]kfnL dlxnfx¿n] ljz]if u/L æcWoog e|d0f, ;Lkd"ns tflndsf] cfjZostfdf hf]8lbP . pgLx¿n] afv|fkfng / sv/fkfngnfO{ af9Låf/f xfdL gof“ ;Lk l;Sg] s/fdf lgs} k5fl8IftLu|:t dg;gL afnLsf] c;/ Go"gLs/0fsf] pkfosf] /x]sf 5f}“ . d ;f]R5, xfdLn] klg¿kdf lnPsf] kfOof] . hfgsf/L, tflnd / cGo ljsNksf] af/]df hfGg h?/L 5 . xfdL cGo ufp“sf dlxnfx¿n] s;/L hLljsf]kfh{g 14 k[i7 wfg]sf 5g eg]/ x]g{ rfx5f}“ . Æ dGgf ds]/L, d6]xLof ufpF, afFs] g]kfn .
    • ;GhLt bf;÷PS;gP8 æljsf;f]Gdv dnssf dlxnfx¿sf] ;Lk clej[l4 ug{ kg]{ cfjZostfnfO{ cGo cWoogx¿n] ;d]t kli6 u/]sf] 5 . ;/sf/n] ;dbfosf nflu af9L–:srn] eg]cg;f/ ……olb dlxnfx¿n] hnjfo kl/jt{g;FuufFl;Psf ;Dk"0f{ ljQLo kIf 5g] xf] eg] pgLx¿sf] ;/lIft c:yfoL cfjf;cfjZostfdf cfwfl/t Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ / pgLx¿sf] agfOlbPdf af9L cfPsf] ;dodf Ælxtdf hnjfo jftf{df k}/jL ug{ cfjZos b]lvG5 .ÚÚ;/Iff ;a}sf] k|dv ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo xf] . t/, ljz]ifu/L xfd|f] hLpwgsf] ;/Iff xg] lyof] .;+/Ifssf] ¿kdf dlxnfsf] e"ldsf dxTjk"0f{ xG5 . aªunfb]zsL cd]df uNhf/, dG8f]n ufpF, kml/bk/, aªunfb]z .Ps dlxnfsf] ufpF d f xfn} dfq rf/j6f 6fk-gbLs6fg / e"Ifosf sf/0f_ ag]sf] 5, pgsf cg;f/ oxfF dlxnfsf] ;dGglt Pj+ hLljsf]kfh{gsf] nflu lrlsT;s, kza;Gh]n pgLx¿ slxn] klg cfk"mnfO{ ;/lIft 7fGb}gg . pgLx¿sf lrlsT;f, s[lif k|;f/ ;]jfdf pgLx¿sf] kxr xg klg cfjZos Fnflu cgsngsf] k|yd k|fyldstf eg]sf] ;dbfosf] kgjf; " { xG5 . af9Lsf] avt clwsf+z ;8s / af6f] hndUg xG5g /xf] hxfF ;/lIft;fy a:g / hLljsf]kfh{g ug{ ;lsof]; . hals, ;dbfo plNnlvt ;]jfaf6 k|foM al~rt /xG5g . af9L j[l4clwsf+z dflg;n] oyf:yfgdf cUnf ejg lgdf{0f u/]/ cgsl" nt eO/x]sf] kl/b[iodf dlxnfx¿n] pgLx¿sf] lhljsf]kfh{gsf]xg] ck]Iff /fv]sf xG5g . cfwf/df k|ToIf ;/f]sf/ /fVg] oL ;]jfx¿sf] kxr xgkg]{ F clwsf+z dlxnfn] af9Lsf] avt cf>o lng ;lsg] af;:yfgsf] cfjZostf dx;; u/] .lgdf{0f cToGt} h?/L ePsf] pNn]v u/] . o:tf :yfgdf kLl8ttyf ul/a hgtfsf] kxr ;xh xf]; / kz;lxt kzcfxf/ tyf FaLp ;/lIft /fVg ;lsof]; eGg] rfxgf kfOPsf] 5 . k[i7 15
    • tflnsfaf9Lsf] k|lts"n c;/, af9Llj?4 hem g] ljBdfg /0fgLlt,+;fdgf Ifdtf Pj+ uªuf gbLa};Lsf dlxnfsf] hLljsf]kfh{gsf F;Gbe{df ;xof]usf] k|fyldstf b]z hLljsf]kfh{gdf k|efj ljBdfg ;xof]u tyf cgsngsf " ljBdfg ;Ldf cgsng /0fgLlt " k|fylds If]q aªunfb]z 3/ tyf 6x/fsf] Iflt k};f ;fk6 lng] lhljsf]kfh{gsf] j}slNks pkoQm ;Lk tyf kz k IfL s v / fdf husf] tx j[l4 ug]{ pkfo vf]Hg] 1fgsf] sdL, /f]u÷d[To ufOj:t tyf sv/fnfO{ 3/ tyf uf]7sf] hu cUnf] ef}lts ;fdu|L tyf 3fF; ;f]Q/sf] sdL cUnf] 7fpFdf /fVg] kfg]{ ljQdf ;Lldt kxrF ahf/ kUg cK7of/f] kf/Dkl/s cf}iflwsf] k|of]u ;fdbfonfO{ ;/lIft :yfgdf ;/lIft hldg / v]tsf] afnLdf Iflt 5/l5d]sdf a]Rg] :yfgfGt/0f ug]{ cfjf;sf] cefj ;/lIft e08f/0fsf] af9Lk"j{ leqØfpg ;Sg] ;fdbflos cfjf;sf] lgdf{0f af9Lsf] k|sf]kkl5 cefjdf lap ty afnL nufpg] :yfoL kz:jf:Yo ;]jf / lsGg ;lsg] d"Nosf] cGgsf] IftL af9LdQm 7fpFdf v]tL ug]{ cf}iflwsf] Joj:yf lapsf] cefj s[ l ifhGo kbfy{ sf] jf afnL nufpg] af9Lsf] ;dodf 5f]6f] kfSg] ;]jfpk/ dlxnfsf] pRr d"No / cefj pTkfbg 3/sf] cUnf] / v]tL ug]{ kxFrdf ;fF:s[lts afnjfsf] ykfn] ubf{ |] ;/lIft 7fpFdf e08f/0f ug]{ af9Lsf] ;dosf] nflu xg] afwfx¿ pTkfbsTjdf x|f; afn j fdf dlnnf] df6f] oftfoft Joj:yfdf ;wf/ ahf/ tyf C0fdf kxFr a9fpg] ef/t 3/sf] Iflt ;fx";u k};f lng] F lhljsf]kfh{gsf] j}slNks pkoQm 1fg tyf kzwgsf] Iflt cUnf] ;8sdf ;g]{ ;|ftsf] ljsf; ] ;Lksf] sdL ; w fl/Psf] c:yfoL kSsL 3/ lgdf{0f ug]{ ljQLo ;| f ] t sf] kfgLhGo /f]u af9L ;f]:g ;Sg] Ifdtf cfjf;df ;g]{ sdL sF8f]÷ cfxf/f / kzkIfLsf] laqmL ug]{ ePsf l;d;f/ If]qsf] ;:tf] Aofhsf] kzcfxf/sf] cefj afWotf ;+/If0f C0f cefj /f]huf/Lsf] sdL ;fx";u k};f lng] F hLljsf] k fh{ g sf] j} s lNks pkoQm ;Lk tyf g]kfn dlnnf] hUufsf] pkfo cefj 3/6x/fsf] hu cUnf] kfg]{ 1fgsf] sdL e08f/0f ul/Psf ufpFaflx/ a;fOF;/fO ug]{ kSsL 3/ lgdf{0f ljQLo tyf lap tyf cGgsf] ;fdlxs v]tLsf] cEof; s[lif tyf kz;DaGwL 1fgsf] ef}lts ;fdu|Lsf] Iflt km/s k|sf/sf] Aof8 lgdf{0f lj:tf/ ;] j fdf ;Lldt vfgfsf] sdL j}slNks pmhf{sf] k|of]u 3/ tyf 6x/f cUnf] kfg]{ kxrF :yfgLo 1fgsf] k|of]uåf/f v]tL c;kmn xgaf6 hf]ufpg ;:tf] Aofhsf] nfutdf kxrsf] F afnL ljljwLs/0fsf] nflu cGt/afnL / ld>Lt afnLsf] C0f ;xof] u sf] sdL cGt/afnL, ldl>t afnL cEof; k|f/De cefj v]tLof]Uo hUufdf / ax"afnL nufpg] cEof; gub]afnLsf] pTkfbg ; / lIft e" l dsf] afnjfsf] cefj cjlzi6Ls/0f s[ l if tyf kz afWofTds k| ; f/ ;] j fdf a;fOF;/fO ;Lldt kxrF v] t Ldf pRr nfut k[i7 16
    • $ gLltut cGt/ cgsng nufgLdf dlxnfsf] clwsf/ "hnjfo kl/jt{gsf] uDeL/ c;/ ljz]ifu/L ul/a dlxnfdf pgLx¿n] cgsngsf] ;Gbe{df cfˆgf] cfjZostf tyf "k/]sf] 5 / o;lj?4 h‰g kg]{ k|dv lhDd]jf/L pgLx¿s} hLljsf]kfh{gsf] ;wf/sf nflu k|efjsf/L tl/sf ckgfpgsfFwdf 5 . cg;Gwfgdf ;xefuL dlxnfn] pgLx¿sf] / hnjfohGo hf]lvdn] ljz]ifu/L dlxnfx¿sf] hLjgkl/jf/df ul/aLlj?4 h‰g / kfl/jfl/s tyf ;fdbflos lgjf{xdf v8f u/]sf] rgf}tLlj?4 n8g cgsng sf]if "¿kdf hLljsf]kfh{g /0fgLlt sfof{Gjogdf hnjfo cfjZos /x]sf]df hf]8 lbPsf 5g .kl/jt{gn] s:tf] afwf k¥ofPsf] 5 eGg] b]vfPsf 5g . ;GhLt bf;÷PS;gP8 k[i7 17
    • hnjfo kl/jt{g;DaGwL uPsf] bzse/ ljZjJofkL ¿kdf oBlk, ljBdfg pknAw ;|ftx¿ ;Lldt 5g . oL ;|ftsf] ] ]j[l4 eO/x]sf] pi0fLs/0f /f]Sg xl/t u[x Uof; pT;{hgdf lbuf] / k|efjsf/L pkof]u tyf hnjfo kl/jt{gsf]s;/L s6f}tL ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] ljifodf ax; s]lGb|t /x]sf] kl/0ffd:j?k ul/a dlxnfdfly c;dfgkflts lx;fan]5 . t/, ca Tof] ax;sf] Wofg csf]{ If]qdf ;/]sf] 5 / a9]sf] af]emnfO{ ;Daf]wg ul/g cToGt} cfjZos 5 . s"ncTolws hf]lvdoQm b]zx¿nfO{ hnjfo kl/jt{g ul/asf] ;ªVofdf dlxnfsf] lx:;f &) k|ltzteGbf a9Lcgsngsf] nflu ;xof]u gul/Pdf ;fdflhs–cfly{s " /x]sfn] klg cgsng nufgL / hnjfo kl/jt{gsf k|efjsf] "j[l4sf] ;fy} ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIo k|fKtLdf ;d]t cj/f]w ;fdgf ug]{ /0fgLlts sfo{df pgLx¿nfO{ k|fyldstfdfcfpg] oyfy{ phfu/ eO;s]sf] 5 . ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo /fVg cfjZos 5 .hnjfo kl/jt{g cGt/;/sf/L ;ldlt (IPCC) sf] xfn}k|sflzt k|ltj]bgcg;f/ ……hnjfo kl/jt{gsf] k|efj o;} kl/b[iodf o; k|ltj]bgn] dlxnf clwsf/sf] /Iff /Go"gLs/0fsf nflu Hofb} s8f k|of; ul/Pdf klg o;sf] hnjfo kl/jt{gsf] ;fdgf ug]{ k|of;df gLltut Joj:yfsf]c;/ cfufdL s]xL bzs;Dd sd xg] ;Defjgf 5}g, cefj Jofks /x]sf] b]vfPsf] 5 . blIf0f Pl;ofsf ul/a /To;}n] k|efjsf/L cgsng cfjZos 5 .!^ " lk5l8Psf dlxnfsf af/]df hnjfo kl/jt{gsf k|lts"n k|efj;Fu h‰g] pgLx¿sf] cgejsf] sb/ ub}{ cgsng"ljsf;f]Gdv b]znfO{ hnjfo kl/jt{g cgsngsf] nflu !) " /0fgLltdf ;wf/sf] nflu cfjZos sbd cl3 a9fpg o;b]lv %) ca{ cd]/LsL 8n/ cltl/Qm nufgL ug{ kg]{ cg;Gwfg k|ltj]bgn] pgLx¿sf] b[9 ljrf/;d]t k|:ttcgdfg ul/Psf] 5 .!& of] cgdfgn] ;Id / oyfy{k/s u/]sf] 5 . k|:tt k|ltj]bgn] cgsng nufgLsf] vfsf "u0fgf ug{ g;s] klg ul/aL 36fpg / cfly{s ljsf;sf] thdf k|lqmof, ;zf;g, Joj:yfkgsf ;fy} ;du| sfo{qmd {af6f]df cl3 a9g cem} yk k|of; ug{ cfjZos b]lvPsf] / ultljlwdf dlxnfx¿sf] ;xeflutf h?/L 5 eGg] :ki65 . kl/0ffd:j?k hnjfo kl/jt{gsf] nflu k|dv lhDd]jf/ ¿kdf cf}NofPsf] 5 . F7xl/Psf wgL /fi6«x¿n] ul/a, cTolws hf]lvddf /x]sftyf sd ljsl;t /fi6«sf] ;d"x / ;fgf 6fk b]zsf];d"xsf nflu cgsng k|lqmofnfO{ cfly{s / k|fljlws ";xof]usf] dfqf a9fpg kg]{ oyfy{nfO{ c:jLsf/ ug{ ;lsg]cj:yf 5}g . PDbn O:nfd la6÷PS;gP8 k[i7 18
    • cgsng sf]if " /fHo tyf ;+:yfsf] e"ldsfcgsng nufgLdf dlxnfsf cfjZostfnfO{ ;dflxt ug{ " cgsng sf]if PSn}n] ul/a dlxnf tyf ;dbfosf "n}ªl us lrGtgnfO{ cgsng nufgLsf] k|0ffnLdf!* ;dflxt " cfjZostfnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ ;Sb}g . o;sf] nflu ;dfhdf n}ªl us ;dfgtf sfod /fVg k|lta4 ;jn gLlt tyfug{ k5{ . o;sf nflu tn n]lvPsf l;4fGtaf/] dgg ug{ ;+:yfut ;+oGqsf] cfjZostf k5{ . To;}n,] cgsng "cfjZos 5 M sf]ifnfO{ ;dtfd"ns / k|efjsf/L agfpg /fHo, /fHosf k|hftflGqs ;zf;g :yfgLo lgsfo tyf ;ª3;+:yfn] k|efjsf/L e"ldsf lgjf{x gful/s ;dfhsf] ;xeflutf ug{ kg]{ xG5 . lbuf] / ;+:yfut nufgL zt{/lxt cfly{s nufgL ;dfhleq n}ªl us ;dfgtfsf] k|lta4tf xg cfjZos 5 . clt ;ªs6f;Gg cj:yfdf /x]sf ;dbfosf] kxr . F cgsng nufgLdf ;dfgtfsf] k|Tofe"lt lbg] sfo{df /fHo / " ;ª3;+:yfsf] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf /xG5 . ul/a dlxnf,cgsng;DaGwL lgDgcg;f/sf cGt/fli6«o sf]ifx¿n] ;+oQm " pgLx¿sf] kl/jf/ / ;dbfodf hnjfo kl/jt{gsf] k|lts"n/fi6«;ª3Lo hnjfo kl/jt{g sfo{;/rgfsf] dftxtdf /x]/ + / a[xt k|efjsf] ;fdgf ug{ oL lgsfon] ;a}sf] Ifdtfsfo{ u5{g M clej[l4 ug]{ Goflos k|lta4tf /fHon] ug{ k5{ . hnjfo kl/jt{gsf] k|lts"n k|efjsf] ;fdgfsf nflu ;fdflhs / sd ljsl;t /fi6«sf] sf]ifn] ljsf;f]Gdv /fi6«df gLlt Goflos cgsngsf nflu nufgLdf ;+nUg ;a} kIfn] " lgdf{0f / sfof{Gjogdf nufgL u/]sf 5g . /fli6«o ljz]ifu/L dlxnfsf] ;dfg clwsf/ / kxrsf] k|Tofe"lt lbg] F cgsng sfo{qmd ;+/rgf (gfkf–NAPA) thdf " { jftfj/0f tof/ ug{ h?/L 5 . k|lqmofdf n}ªl us ;dfgtfnfO{ Ps k|dv tTjsf] ljz]ifu/L /fHon] sfggL ¿kd} dlxnfsf] ;dfg clwsf/sf] ¿kdf /flvPsf] eP klg o;af6 ;~rfng xg] k|Tofe"lt ug{ cfjZos 5 . ul/a dlxnfsf] clwsf/sf] /Iff cgsng kl/of]hgfdf dlxnfnfO{ :ki6 ¿kdf nlIft " tyf k|j4{gsf] nflu lgDg abfdf Wofg lbg kg]{ b]lvG5 M F u/]sf] kfOFbg . } ljz]if hnjfo kl/jt{g sf]ifn] ljsf;f]Gdv /fi6«df pkoQm 1fg / ;Lkdfly kxr F cgsng kl/of]hgfsf] nufgLdf k|fyldstf lbPsf] " e"lddflysf] :jfldTj 5 . t/ klg o; sf]ifsf] Joj:yfkg / sfof{Gjogsf] lg0f{o k|lqmofdf ;dfg ;xeflutf nflu tof/ ePsf] lgb]l{ zsfn] oyfy{k/s 9ªun] lnªu s[lif k|;f/ ;]jf Pj+ kz lrlsT;f ;]jfdfly kxr F / clwsf/sf] af/]df ;Daf]wg ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . o;afx]s lgDg ljifodf gLltut Joj:yf xg cfjZos 5 Mt];f] sf]if, Sof]6f] cle;lGwcGt{ut :jR5 ljsf; ;+oGqsf] |cjwf/0ffdf sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8 pT;{hssf] tkm{af6 ul/g] cgsng nufgLdf dlxnf ;+nUgtfsf nflu ;xof]u "sfa{g Aofkf/df s]lGb|t 5 . xfn cEof;df geP klg lhljsf]kfh{g;DaGwL cgsngsf lg0f{odf dlxnfsf] "o;leq ul/aL / lnªunfO{ lgb]l{ zsfsf] dVo tTjsf] ¿kdf cfjZostfdfly Wofg k¥ofpg] ;lglZrttf:ki6;Fu ;dfj]z ug{ cfjZos b]lvPsf] 5 . n}ªl us k|sf]ksf] hf]lvdnfO{ e"–pkof]u of]hgfdf ;dfj]z;+jbgzLntfnfO{ /fli6«o lxtcg?k ;~rfng ul/g] cgsng ] " ul/Psf] 5 eGg] ;lglZrttfsf]ifsf] sfo{n] dlxnfsf] lxtdf lgjf{x ug]{ e"ldsfsf] k/Dk/fut ;fF:s[lts cEof;n] dlxnfsf] cgsng ";lglZrttf sfod ug]{ lhDd]jf/L ;xof]u k|fKt ug]{ jf Ifdtfdf afwf gk¥ofpg] k|lta4tf .k|fks tyf ljsf;f]Gdv /fi6«sf] sfFwdf /xG5 . cGTodf, k|sf]k k|efljt If]qsf] of]hgf tyf cgsng "låkIfLo / ax"kIfLo nufgLaf6 ;~rflnt sfo{qmdn] vfsfsf] tof/L, kg/fjnf]sg / 3/nufot ef}lts ;+/rgfcgsngsf yk ultljlwdf hnjfo kl/jt{gsf] k|efj;Fu " tyf k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f jf of]hgf sfof{Gjogdf ;+:yfut;ª3if{/t ;ªs6f;Gg / hf]lvddf /x]sf dlxnfx¿sf nflu ;+oGqnfO{ pkoQm 9ªun] k|of]u ug{ cfjZos 5 . dlxnfsfcgsngsf ;Gbe{df cNksfnLg / bL3{sfnLg " ;d:ofsf] ;Daf]wg / lgdf{0f;+lxtfsf] kfngf u/LcfjZostfsf] k"lt{ ug]tkm{ ljz]if Wofg lbg] k|of; u/]sf] { cgsngsf] nflu k|efjsf/L of]ubfg k¥ofpg] ;lglZrttf "b]lvPsf] 5}g . o; ;Gb{edf bftf /fi6« / k|fks /fi6«sf k|bfg ug{ /fHosf] bfloTj xf] .;/sf/n] hnjfo kl/jt{gsf] hf]lvddf /xg] ;d"xsf]lhljsf]kfh{gdf ;wf/sf] nflu n}ªl us ;+jbgzLntfnfO{ ]cgsng ;xfotfsf] k|fyldstfdf /fVg k5{ . " k[i7 19
    • % l;sfOM cgsng nufgLsf nflu " ;emfjx?cgsng nufgL ;+oGqn] ul/a dlxnfsf] nflu cgsngsf " " l;kmfl/;n] ljz]ifu/L Sof]6f] cle;lGwcGtu{t :yfkgf ePsf]cfjZostfnfO{ k|efjsf/L ¿kdf ;xof]u k¥ofpg] cgsng sf]ifnfO{ nlIft /x]sf] 5 . oBlk, k|:tt ;emfjx¿ ";lglZlrt ug{ ljz]ifu/L ;a} /fi6«sf ljlzi6 k|ltlglw Pj+ ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3sf] hnjfo kl/jt{g ;dGjo ;+/rgfcGt{ut cgsng nufgL sf]if Joj:yfkgk|lt lhDd]jf/ lgsfo tyf " sd ljsl;t /fi6«sf] sf]if / klxnfb]lv g} ;~rfngdf /x]sf]JolQmnfO{ nlIft u/L o; k|ltj]bgn] s]xL dxTjk"0f{ ljz]if hnjfo kl/jt{g sf]ifsf] cnfjf ljsl;t cgsng"l;kmfl/;sf] k|:tt u/]sf] 5 . nufgLsf ;+oGqsf nflu klg pkof]uL xg5 .] ;GhLt bf;÷PS;gP8 k[i7 20
    • ;emfjx¿!= cgsng nfugLsf] of]hgf thdf tyf sfof{Gjogdf " { ul/g k5{ h;n] lgDgcg;f/sf ljifonfO{ sfo{If]q agfP/ cgudg ug{ ;sf]; M Goflos k|lqmofsf] ;lglZrttf cgsng sf]ifsf] cgudgsf] nflu dlxnf " cgsng nufgLdf ul/g] ;Demf}tfsf] nflu klxnf] r/0fdf M " clwsf/sdL{sf] ;d"x :yfkgf ug],{ cgsng nufgL ;Demf}tf, ljsf; / cgsng sfo{qmd " " of]hgf thdf, sfof{Gjog, cgudg / d"Nofªsgh:tf { sfof{Gjogdf dlxnfsf] ;dfgkflts ;xeflutf tyf kl/of]hgfsf ;a} txsf ;ldltx¿df dlxnfsf] kxr ;lglZrt ul/g k5{ . F ;dfgkflts ;xeflutf u/fpg], /fli6«o cgsng sfo{qmd / kl/of]hgfdf dlxnfsf] " sf]if Joj:yfkg k|lqmofdf ;fj{hlgs n]vfk/LIf0f k|0ffnL ;dfgkflts ¿kdf ;lglZrt kxrsf] ;lglZrttfsf] F ;dfj]z ug]{ . nflu l;4fGt / k|lqmofsf] lgwf{/0f ug]{ . % cgsng nufgL ;+oGqaf6 ul/a dlxnfsf] " /fli6«o cgsng sf]if Joj:yfkg / kl/of]hgf g]tTjsf] " [ hLljsf]kfh{gdf cgsngsf k|fyldstfdf ;xof]u ug]{ " 1fg / Ifdtf ul/a dlxnfsf] cfjZostf klxrfg u/L ;lglZrttf sfo{qmddf ;dfj]z ug{ ;Sg] u/L a9fpg k5{ . cgsng nufgL hg;s} ;+oGqaf6 ;~rfng eP klg " dWo:tstf{sf] e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ lgsfo, gufl/s sf]ifn] dlxnfsf] hLljsf]kfh{g;DaGwL k|fyldstfnfO{ ;dfhsf ;+:yf, ;/sf/L lgsfo, cg;Gwfg ;+:yf, lgDgcg;f/ ;xof]u ug{ u?/L 5 M dlxnf, afnaflnsf, ul/a / clt hf]lvddf /x]sf cgsng /0fgLlt sfo{Gjogdf lhljsf]kfh{g, j}slNks " ;d"xsf] cfjZostf / k|fyldstfk|lt ;+jbgzLn /x]sf] ] v]tL, l;FrfO k|0ffnL, s[lif rqm tflnsfdf :yfgLo ;lgZlrt ul/g k5{ . kl/j]zcg?k k|ljlwsf] ;wf/ ug{ cfjZos kg]{ lzIff, sf]ifsf] cgudg ;+oGq / To;af/]sf] ;"rgfdf gful/s ;"rgf / tflnddf pgLx¿sf] kxr ;lglZrt ug]{ . F ;dfhsf] kxr, pgLx¿sf] k|fyldstf, ;dfgkflts F dlxnfsf] lbuf] hLljsf]kfh{gsf nflu pgLx¿nfO{ ljt/0f, Jofj:yfksLo g]tTj / pQ/bfloTjaf]w [ cfjZos kg]{ ;|ft tyf ;]jf ;lglZrt ug]{ . cWoogdf ] ;lglZrt ul/g k5{ . ;dfj]z ul/Psf tLgj6} /fi6«n] cgsngsf] nflu "@ ljkGg dlxnfx¿sf] cgsng;DaGwL cfjZostfnfO{ " dlxnfsf k|dv cfjZostfsf] ;Daf]wg ug]{ qmddf cgsngg sf]ifaf6 k|fyldstf lbg] " ;fdbflos ;DklQ, ;|ft, ;]jfsf] lj:tf/, ahf/ d"No ] cgsng nfugL;DaGwL ;Demf}tf stf{ / Joj:yfkgn] " lgoGq0f / Hofn lgwf{/0fh:tf If]qdf lgoGq0f sfod cgsng k2ltdf ljz]ifu/L M " u/]sf] kfOof] . hnjfosf] lau|bf] k|efjsf] afahb F hnjfo kl/jt{gn] ul/a dlxnfnfO{ k¥ofpg] uDeL/ dlxnfsf] nflu hLljsf]kfh{gsf ;/lIft ljlw ;lglZrt c;/sf] ;fy} pgLx¿sf] cfjZostfsf] klxrfg Pj+ ul/Psf] k|Tofe"lt lbg h?/L 5 . k|fyldsLs/0f ug{ h?/L 5 . ul/a dlxnfsf] cfjZostfsf] cfwf/df lgAof{h cyjf nlIft / jf:tljs ;ªs6f;Gg ;d"xsf] klxrfg u/L sd Aofhdf nfdf] cjlwdf ltg{ ;lsg] / ;lhn} pknAw ltgsf] hLljsf]kfh{gdf ;wf/ ug{ / cgsng Ifdtfsf] " xg] C0f–sf]ifdf kxrsf] k|j4{g ug]{ . F ljsf;df ;3fpg sf]ifsf] lglZrt k|ltzt cf/If0f u/L ^= dlxnf ;xeflutfsf] nflu /fHon] ;an jftfj/0f sfof{Gjogsf] nflu :ki6 lgb]l{ zsf tof/ ug{ k5{ . pknAw u/fpg] ;lglZrttf gful/s ;dfh;Fu oL /0fgLlt / k|:tfj;DaGwdf 5nkmn ul/a dlxnfdfly kg]{ hnjfo kl/jt{gsf] hf]lvdnfO{ ul/g k5{ . cgsng sf]if PSn}n] 36fpg ;Sb}g . lg0f{o k|lqmof, "# cgsng sf]ifdf ul/a dlxnflxtk|lt nlIft nfesf] " clwsf/, ;|ft / ;]jfdf ;dfg kxr agfpg pkoQm / ] F cgudg ug]{ km/s–km/s ;"rsfªs ;dfj]z ug]{ ;b9 jftfj/0f cfjZos 5, h;sf] nflu M [ dlxnfsf] clwsf/;DaGwL sfgg tyf ;+:yfut ;+/rgfsf] cgsng;DaGwL sfo{sf] cgudgsf] nflu ;Demf}tf stf{ " :yfkgf ug]{ sfo{df ;/sf/ pQ/bfoL xG5 . ;/sf/n] / sf]if Joj:yfkg ug]{ lgsfon] nufgL ;+oGqdf n}ªl us ljz]ifu/L ul/a dlxnfsf] clwsf/sf] /Iff tyf 1fg / ;+jbgzLn ;"rsfªs ul/a dlxnfsf] lxtdf k|of]u ug{ ] ;Lkdfly kxr a9fP/ e":jfldTj, kl/jf/sf] nflu lg0f{o F k5{ . o; k|lqmofdf sf]ifn] hnjfo kl/jt{gaf6 pTkGg ug]{ clwsf/ / pknAw xg] ;]jf;Dd ;xh kxr a9fpg F ;d:ofleq dlxnfsf] ;/lIft lhljsf]kfh{g, vfB ;/Iff, cfjZos 5 . JolQmut ;/Iff, lzIff, :jf:Yoh:tf ;fdflhs ;]jfdf ;dfg kxr s;/L k¥ofPsf] 5 eGg] oyfy{k/s F ;"rsfªs ;dfj]z ug{ k5{ .$ cgsng sf]if Joj:yfkgdf dlxnf ;xeflutf ;+oGq " tof/ ug]{ cgsng sf]ifsf] cgudgsf] nflu gful/s ;dfh, " :yfgLo ;ª3;+:yf, ul/a dlxnf, ljsf;sf] d"nk|jfxaf6 k5fl8 kl/Psf] ;d"x;d]tsf] Ps Joj:yfkg ;+oGq tof/ k[i7 21
    • gf]61 One million hectares of cereal land were submerged in Bihar 11 CPD (2000) Centre for Policy Dialogue. Female Headed State in India alone. In Bangladesh, official estimates in households in rural Bangladesh: strategies for wellbeing and August indicated that some 854 000 hectares of paddy were survival. CPD-UNFPA paper 10. Dhaka. Bangladesh. 2000; completely lost and another 582 000 hectares partially World Bank 1991. Gender and poverty in India, A world Bank damaged. In Nepal, the number was placed at 106865 country study. The World Bank. Washington DC. 1991; CBS hectares. FAO/GIEWS Global 2007. Central Bureau of Statistics. Ministry of Planning. Watch, Floods Have Adversely Affected Crop Prospects and Government of Nepal. Food Security of Millions of Small Farmers in South Asia. http://www.cbs.gov.np/Surveys/NHCS/demographics_ http://www.fao.org/giews/english/shortnews/ characterics.htm sasia070814.html 12 In the Indian catchment, rainfall is projected to increase from2 Stoparic, B. (2007) Climate Change Is a Women’s Issue. a 134cm per year baseline (1961-1990) to 150cm per year by Women’s eNews, April 8. http://www.alternet.org/story/ the 2071-2100 period, with annual river flows rising nearly 38659 12% (IITM/MoEF/Defra 2005 Keysheet 5 Climate change impacts on water resources in India).3 COP 10 (2004) Mainstreaming Gender into the Climate Change Regime, 14 December Buenos Aires 13 Gautam D (2007) Floods and need assessment, a sociological study from Banke, Bardiya and Kailali of mid and4 A Women’s Rights Base Approach to Climate Change far-western Nepal. Lutheran World Federation, Nepal. http://www.madre.org/articles/int/climatechange.html 14 Skutsch MM (2002) ‘Protocols, treaties, and action: the5 World Health Organization (2007) Fact sheet N°266, Climate ‘climate change process’ viewed through gender spectacles’. and Health. Augusthttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/ Gender and Development, 10, 30-39. See also Lambrou Y factsheets/fs266/en/index.html and Piana G (2006) Gender: the missing component of the response to climate change. FAO, Rome.6 Climate Change and Malaria in Nairobi, 31 July 2007 http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportId=73501) 15 Some women in Bangladesh and India mentioned high roads as a good solution to their problems because it secures their7 Dankelman, I. (2002) Climate change learning from gender mobility and access to markets during the flood season. analysis and women’s experiences of organising for However, poorly planned and designed infrastructure projects sustainable development. Gender and Development, 21-29. such as highways can disrupt the natural drainage of the Davison, J.; 1988: Agriculture, Women and the Land: the water. Standards must be established and enforced to ensure African Experience. Westview, 278 pp. ; Denton, F., 2004: that the design and construction of infrastructure such as Gender and climate change - Giving the “Latecomer” a head roads, railways and dams factor in their impact in the start. IDS Bull., 42-49. surrounding areas and do not aggravate the local hazards.8 Sven Anemüller, Stephan Monreal and Christoph Bals (2006) 16 IPCC (2007): Summary for Policymakers. Climate change Global Climate Change Index 2006: Weather related loss 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of events and their impacts on countries in 2004 and in a long Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the term comparison. http://www.germanwatch.org/klak/ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F cri06.pdf Canziani, J.P Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E.9 The studies were conducted over a short period of time in Hanson, Eds, 7-22. limited number of villages affected by severe flooding in 17 Stern, N. (2006) The Economics of Climate Change, 2007. They do not aim to demonstrate that the floods are a Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, available at: result of climate change, but to show the urgent adaptation http://www.hmtreasury.gov.uk/independent_reviews/stern_ needs of poor and disadvantaged women and how these review_economics_climate_change/sternreview_index.cfm could be best met by adaptation financing. It is hoped that (accessed 11th November 2007); Adapting to climate this report will lead to more studies on rights and gender change, Oxfam Briefing Paper, May 2007. sensitive adaptation mechanisms being undertaken. 18 ActionAid USA (2007) Compensating for Climate Change:10 Practice whereby landlords allow landless people to cultivate Principles and Lessons for Equitable Adaptation Funding. their land in exchange of a share in the crops. ActionAid USA. k[i7 22
    • Back cover photographs from top:Emdadul Islam Bitu,Emdadul Islam Bitu,Emdadul Islam Bitu,Binod Timilsena,Emdadul Islam Bitu/ ActionAidActionAid UK is a UK registered charity no. 274467ActionAid International is registered under Section 21A of the South African Companies Act 1973.Registration Number 2004/007117/10 k[i7 23
    • ActionAid InternationalPostNet Suite 248Private Bag X31Saxonwold 2132JohannesburgSouth AfricaTelephone:+ 27 11 731 4500ActionAid UKHamlyn HouseMacdonald RoadArchwayLondonN19 5PGTelephone:+ 44 (0)207 561 7561Email:emergencies@actionaid.orgWebsite:www.actionaid.org End poverty. Together.ActionAid is an international anti-povertyagency working in over 40 countries, taking sides withpoor people to end poverty andinjustice together. k[i7 24