Nepal disaster risk_case_study


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Nepal disaster risk_case_study

  1. 1. CASE STUDY Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Contribution To Hyogo Framework Of Action KAILALI DISASTER RISK REDUCTION INITIATIVES February 2009 Nepal Red Cross Society Kailali
  2. 2. Community work for river
  3. 3. Authors:Dhruba Raj GautamIndependent Researcher and ConsultantPhone: 98510-95808E-mail: KhanalStudent at the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies,Yale University, USAEmail: sudarshan.khanal@yale.eduSpecial contributors: Ulla Dons, Chet Bahadur Tamang ,Sagar Pokhrel, Himal OjhaPhoto contributors: PhTs:PhTs:PhTs:PhTs:
  4. 4. Table of ContentForeword IAcknowledgements IIAcronyms IIIExecutive Summary IV1. The Context 12. Methodology 23. The Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-2015) 24. Project contributions in achieving the priority actions of HFA 34.1 Priority action 1 34.2 Priority action 2 54.3 Priority action 3 84.4 Priority action 4 134.5. Priority action 5 155. Project contribution in achieving the strategic goals of HFA 175.1 Strategic goal 1 175.2 Strategic goal 2 175.3 Strategic goal 3 17List of tablesTable 1: Number of households and ethnic composition by community and VDC 1Table 2: Gender and ethnic composition of DPC 3Table 3: Lead-time of flooding for different locations 6Table 4: Warnings based on water levels 6Table 5: Number of participants in various trainings 10Table 6: Status of mitigation work, community nurseries and plantation 13
  5. 5. Mercy Corps Nepal is pleased to release the enclosed case study: Community Based DisasterRisk Reduction - Contribution to Hyogo Framework for Action. This case study is the result ofan evaluation of a DG ECHO-supported project implemented by Mercy Corps and the NepalRed Cross Society, Kailali District Chapter under the DIPECHO Fourth Action Plan for South Asia,Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives. The case study was conrFU-Asia,EO-iNpeNntult E;BOTf
  6. 6. Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the support of the European Commissions Hu- manitarian Aid department, both in the production of this publication and for its funding of the Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives Project under the 4th DIPECHO Action Plan for South Asia. This case study report has been possible because of the support of project com- munities of Bisanpur, Jokaiyapur, Mankapur, Lalitpur, Mohanpur and Shivaratanpur of Kailali district for their patience and cooperation during this study. Members of Disaster Preparedness Committees, community members and stakeholders, teach- ers and students, Village Development Committee and district level stakehold- ers enthusiastically shared their experience shared their experiences so many people personally and professionally. We would like to extend our sincere grati- tude to all persons who contributed to this study in many different ways: by sharing their experience, during the study, helping the study team to under- stand the contribution of the project towards the Hyogo Framework of Action by contributing time, advice and hospitality. We would also like to acknowledge the Kailali District Chapter of the Nepal Red Cross Society, Mercy Coprs partner for activities under the Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives Project. The importance of their role both in terms of this study and in terms of overall project implementation cannot be overstated. We are grateful to Ulla Dons and Project Team for their feedback and suggestion in the methodology as well as coordination of the whole study. The painstaking efforts made by project team during the study were highly appreciable. We would like to appreciate Josh DeWald, Country Director and other senior man- agement of Mercy Corps Nepal for their valuable comments in the draft report. Last but not least, our thanks go to Mercy Corps Nepal who entrusted us with the task of conducting this case study. Thanks, Dhruba Raj Gautam and Sudarshan Khanal Case StudyII February 2009
  7. 7. Acronyms and AbbreviationBASE Backward Society EducationCSSD Conscious Society for Social DevelopmentDDC District Development CommitteeDoHM Department of Hydrology and MetrologyDP Disaster PreparednessDPC Disaster Preparedness CommitteeDRM Disaster Risk ManagementDRR Disaster Risk reductionDSCO District Soil Conservation OfficeDTO District Technical OfficeDWIDP District Water Induced Disaster PreventionEWS Early Warning SystemFGD Focus Group DiscussionHFA Hyogo Framework of ActionJRC Junior Red Cross CirclesKII Key Informant InterviewS&R Search and RescueSHP Sub-health PostVCA Vulnerability and Capacity AssessmentVDC Village Development CommitteeVDMC Village Disaster Management Committee Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Contribution To Hyogo Framework Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives Of Action III
  8. 8. Executive summary The context: In cooperation with the Nepal Red Cross field office, early warning information was made Society (NRCS) in Kailali, Mercy Corps is currently available to communities and community-based early implementing the Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Ini- warning systems were established. At the commu- tiatives project in six communities. The European Com- nity level, either agharia (a local messenger who mission supports this project through its Humanitar- circulates messages to local people) or other persons ian Aid Department (under the DIPECHO 4th Action assigned by the DPC monitor flood levels. Emergency Plan for South Asia). This case study was conducted and first aid kits were provided to each community. to demonstrate whether and how and to what ex- CDMA phones and hand-operated sirens helped alert tent the project contributes toward achieving the goals people to and save them from flood risks. The dis- towards the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA). Con- semination of emergency news and weather-related sultations with NRCS and Mercy Corps staff, key in- bulletins by local FM stations was also very effective formant interviews, focus group discussions, exit in providing advance preparation. meeting with project staff and analysis and report- ing were some of the main approaches used in car- For the proper use of knowledge, innovation, and rying out the study. education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels (priority action 3), the project published Project contributions toward achieving the priority ac- IEC materials for widespread dissemination, showed tions of HFA: The project has made several efforts to DRR video documentary, organised cross visits and ensure that DRR is a national and local priority with performed street dramas. Early warning system and strong institutional basis for implementation (priority evacuation simulations are beneficial for knowledge action 1). In each community, it established disaster management. So far, more than 1,000 local people, preparedness committees (DPCs) and sub-commit- schoolteachers and students have attended various tees with clearly defined roles and responsibilities capacity-building trainings. Viewing students and for reducing flood risks and people’s vulnerability. teachers as the key agents for change, the project’s Financial transparency is maintained through well- school-level programme focuses on DP and DRR as established social auditing. Emergency funds, a com- well as conservation education. munity-managed initiative, have been instrumental in initiating the disaster preparedness, response and The project has contributed to reducing the underly- maintenance activities. So far, the six communities ing risk factors (priority action 4) through introducing have saved a total of Rs. 74,300 (EUR 728). By low-cost, replicable and easily maintained bioengi- linking community-level disaster preparedness (DP) neering mitigation techniques including bamboo work plans to village development committee (VDC)-level and sand-filled cement sacks. To reinforce bioengi- DP plans, the villagers have secured the resources neering efforts and save productive land along they need to execute their plans. riverbanks, 43,000 plants have been planted over an area of 27,300 m2. These initiatives have signifi- The project has helped project communities to iden- cantly reduced riverbank erosion and increased the tify risks, assess, monitor and carry out early warn- local communities’ confidence in the possibility that ing initiatives (priority action 2). Physical, attitudi- agriculture land and communities can be saved. Com- nal, and social risks and vulnerability were identified munity boats have become a means for safe evacu- through vulnerability and capacity assessment ex- ation during flood, and provisions for community shel- ercises in each community. In coordination with the ters have effectively saved lives during periods of Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DoHM) inundation. The construction of evacuation routes (so Case StudyIV February 2009
  9. 9. far 4.2 km have been completed) has helped peoplereach these shelters or other safe places. Raising handpumps has ensured a source of safe water and re-duced the risk of epidemics and the spread of water-borne diseases during the monsoon season.The project has positively contributed to increasingpreparedness for effective response and recovery(priority action 5). By participating in national anddistrict-level trainings and workshops for sharing andexchanging information and by sharing resources theproject has helped strengthen policy, technical and
  10. 10. 1. The Context In cooperation with the Nepal Red Cross Society NRCS in ailali istrict, !ercy Corps has been implement- ing the ailali isaster Risk Reduction Initiatives in six communities of four village development com- mittees V Cs since November 2007. The European Commission supports this project through its Humani- tarian Aid department under the IPECHO 4th Action 3 20 katha=1 bigha = 0.67ha, and 1 katha = 0.0335 ha
  11. 11. 2. Methodology This report is based on field research conducted in six through resource sharing. Primary data was collected project communities. Before checklists and guide- using participatory tools and techniques such as fo- lines for questions to ask in the field were prepared, cus group discussions FG s and key informant in- project documents and relevant literature were re- terviews IIs. FG s were carried out with disaster viewed. preparedness committees PCs and Junior Red Cross Circles JRCs to provide insight into the project’s key A consultation between !ercy Corps and the ailali accomplishments. IIs with bhalmansha4, agharia5, Chapter of NRCS was held before the fieldwork be- coordinators of sub-committees6, early warning sys- gan in order to identify the key areas of interven- tem EWS volunteers, schoolteachers and students tions, the emerging issues and the concerns of lo- were conducted to explore their perceptions of the cal people with respect to RR and P. A brief project’s contributions toward reducing disaster risks. meeting with project field staff in Hasuliya revealed Transects walks with PC members and nursery man- some key outputs as well as good practices and agement committees helped reveal the extent of miti- success stories. A sharing meeting with district-level gation work carried out by the communities, the pro- stakeholders helped to identify the level of coordi- cesses and procedures they followed during that work nation and networking which exists for providing and the benefits in RR they acquired from it. technical backstopping and synergetic impacts3. The Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-2015) The HFA provides a strong basis for priority actions strengthen disaster preparedness for effective re- by governments and governmental organisations sponse. The three strategic goals are i integra- as well as by local, regional and international non- tion of disaster risk reduction into sustainable de- governmental organisations. It is designed to build velopment policies and planning, ii development the resilience of nations and communities to disas- and strengthening of institutions, mechanisms and ters. The HFA has five priorities for action and three capacities to build resilience to hazards, and iii strategic goals. The five priorities for action are i incorporation of risk reduction approaches into the ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and implementation of emergency preparedness, re- local priority with strong institutional basis for sponse and recovery programmes. implementation, ii identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning, iii use This report is organised according to the broad cat- knowledge, innovation and education to build a egories set out in the HFA’s priorities for action sec- culture of safety and resilience at all levels, iv tion 4 of this case study and its strategic goals sec- reducing the underlying risk factors, and v and tion 5 of this case study. 4 A bhalmansha is a traditional Tharu leader or village guardian selected or elected every year during the !aghi festival 15 to run the village systems. It is a highly respected position found only in Tharu-dominated villages. 5 An agharia is an assistant to a bhalmasha who circulates messages to local people as instructed by a bhalmash 6 The five sub-committees are 1 nursery management, 2 early warning and rescue, 3 procurement and accounting, 4 construction and 5 community mobilisation. Community Based isaster Risk Reduction Contribution To Hyogo Framework ailali isaster Risk Reduction Initiatives Of Action 2
  12. 12. The project’s achievements demonstrate that theproject has indeed contributed to bringing aboutthe priority actions of HFA. These achievements arediscussed briefly in the following sections.4.1 Priority action 1: Ensure that disaster riskreduction is a national and local priority withstrong institutional basis for implementation
  13. 13. the community level: all expenditures are discussedat community gatherings both at the initial and finalstages of project activities. All key decisions and trans-actions are displayed on community notice boards aswell as on the walls of PC offices. Both the PC andprocurement sub-committee members are involvedin procuring materials from outside, so financial trans-parency and risk-sharing is high.d. Translated community-agreed rules andregulations into actionThe PCs have formulated and enforced rules and
  14. 14. V Cs secretaries serve as V C! coordinators and are currently overseeing the formulation of V C-level P plans which will consolidate community- level plans and consider common issues pertinent to RR. This step has opened the way to mobilising V C-level re- sources in the execution of community-level P plans. For instance, Hasuliya V C provided Rs 5,000 to Shivaratanpur PC to construct a boat. Inspired by Shivaratanpur, other PCs also plan to solicit funds from their V Cs. Once community-level P plans are linked with V C plans, they will automatically be linked to the plans of ailali istrict and RR will be mainstreamed in district policies, planning and imple- mentation. VDC level stakeholders meeting In short, the establishment of strengthened commu- nity-based institutions to carry out P and RR activi- ties, the development of knowledge-sharing mecha- able to develop risk maps based on the level of risk nisms, the maintenance of financial transparency in identified. The categorised areas as being at low, each project activities, and the drafting of commu- medium or high risk. They identified areas at low nity- as well as V C-level P plans have ensured that risk as those inundated during a general flood. If disaster risk reduction is a local priority with strong floodwaters enter areas at medium and high risk, institutional basis for implementation. preparations for evacuation to save lives and impor- tant belongings are required. uring the flood of Sep- 4.2 Priority action 2: Identify, assess and tember 2008, local communities used the skills and monitor disaster risks and enhance early knowledge they had acquired with great success to warning reduce flood risks. a. Developed knowledge and skills to identify Box 2 No need to worry about getting resources and assess risk Since learning that Shivratanpur got resources The project introduced vulnerability and capacity as- from Hasuliya VDC to construct a boat, we have planned to visit our VDC to request some resources sessment VCA exercises in each community to iden- to replicate bioengineering work. We now know tify physical, attitudinal, and social risks and vulner- that making such a request is our right. I am quite hopeful that once the VDC-level DP plan is abilities. It also facilitated the assessment of natural finalised, incorporating our community-level DP and man-made hazards in line with communities’ plan, it will be easier to secure resources from perceptions of the associated risks. Local people have the VDC to execute the plan’s activities. I don’t think we need to worry about funds for the VDC identified and ranked flooding as the main hazard in either as its plan will automatically be linked with their area. The factors that increase their vulnerabil- the DDC plan. ity include ignorance, social disunity, the location of -!r Chheduram Chaudhari, PC Coordinator, Jokaiyapur settlements on low land near riverbanks and the lack of preparedness. These VCA exercises are beneficial People are well informed about the time it takes a in that they increase awareness and preparedness flood to reach their localities from different up- and change the attitudes and behaviours of locals stream river gauge stations. Through coordination with respect to risks and how they cope with them. with the epartment of Hydrology and !eteorology oH!9 field office, early warning information was Project communities are well aware of which areas made available to downstream communities. In or- are vulnerable to flooding and inundation and were der to reduce the possibility of errors being made, 7 A popular festival among Tharus in which people throw coloured powder and water balloons at each other. It usually falls in !arch. 8 A song and dance programme practiced from house to house by hill migrants during Tihar, the Festival of Lights, which falls in October or November. 9 A department under the !inistry of Science, Technology and Environment Case Study5 February 2009
  15. 15. flood warning information was circulated to project the community level, either the agharia or a personcommunities one to one-and-a-half hours earlier than assigned by the PC monitors flood levels. This projectthe calculated lead time see Table 3. The commu- provision built on rather than interfering with tradi-nities thought that this information was very helpful tional EWS-based practices. Hazard monitoring prac-as it enable them to evacuate in time. tices vary across the communities. Shivaratanpur, for instance, has allocated a team of people to monitorTable 3 Lead time of flooding for different locations floods twice a day, at 9 a.m. and 8 p.m., whereasRiver Location Calculated Suggested Bisanpur requires that the EWS coordinator monitor hours hour flood levels three times a day, at 5 a.m., 1 p.m. and!ohona !alakheti to Bisanpur 9 8 !alakheti to Bhansar 3 2.5 9 p.m. eeping safety and security in mind, each Bhansar to Bisanpur 6 5 monitor has been provided with an umbrella, rubberhutiya hutiya !udi Bhavar 10 9 boots, a torchlight and a raincoat. to BisanpurGauri Ganga Highway to Lalitpur 3 2.5ataini Highway to !anikapur 4.2 3.5 Community-based local practices are designed to beSource: Project record, 2008 accessible to illiterate people. For instance, each com- munity has established a wooden post marked withb. Hazard monitoring yellow and red bands at riverbanks. Such a marker isThe project has introduced both watershed and com- a very simple method of RR: water reaching themunity-level approaches to hazard monitoring. In col- Box 3 We are proud that no one has died in our communities.laboration with five upstream rain gauge stations and With the careful use of EWS devices andsix upstream and three downstream water-level application of the skills and knowledge wegauging stations, project communities are able to gained through various trainings and exposures,monitor the extent of flood risks in their localities. we made sure that no human casualties were reported in our project communities althoughThe project has helped train gauge recorders to moni- 24 people died in adjoining communities. Thesetor water levels hourly so that they can disseminate figures show that if locals are prepared sufficiently in advance, the extent of flood risksreal-time data to downstream communities. PC and can be reduced dramatically.EWS coordinators are responsible for maintaining com- -!r Chhallu Ram Chaudhari, Teacher, Hasuliamunications with upstream stations and for dissemi-nating information to communities. Cross-visits to four yellow band is a sign to get prepared; reaching therain gauge stations and four water-level gauging sta- red, a warning to evacuate immediately. In terms oftions clarified to PC and EWS sub-committee mem- rainfall-based warnings, an intensity of 110-150 mmbers how rain and water levels are monitored and per hour is considered the first warning; 151-200 mm,how information is communicated. They learned the second; and above 200 mm, the third. Warningsabout average and warning levels and how this are issued through F! radio stations.knowledge can be translated into preparedness intheir communities see Table 4. c. Early warning dissemination The project has coordinated with district-level stake-The mechanism for disseminating information about holders, and enhanced the capacity of communitiesflood hazards is also well defined and functional. At through training and equipment and simulation ex-Table 4 Warnings based on water levels River Location Average flood level Warning flood level 1st stage Warning flood level 2nd stage Ready Get set Go !ohona !alakheti 2.0 m 2.5 m 3.4 m hutiya !udi Bhavar 2.1m 3.6 m 4.8 m Shiva Ganaga Highway Bridge 1.5 m 1.8 m 2.5 m Guruha Highway Bridge 1.2 m 1.5 m 2m ataini Highway Bridge 1.8 m 2.2 m 2.8 mSource: Project record, 2008 Community Based isaster Risk Reduction Contribution To Hyogo Framework ailali isaster Risk Reduction Initiatives Of Action 6
  16. 16. bulletins, both of which effectively enabled locals to prepare in advance. uring the September 2008 flood, project communities informed F! stations about their situation in order to pressure relevant authori- ties into acting immediately to provide support. Work- ing with local media is an effective way of fostering EWS. We appreciated the project’s support in providingercises to develop local knowledge-based early warn- emergency kits. Life jackets felt like friends in hard times. During the last monsoon, Aitabari Chaudhari,ing systems. who lives on the other side of the Mohana, had to return home immediately because his wife DraupadiTo facilitate the dissemination of early warning mes- had died unexpectedly. It was night and there was asages, the project provided nine C !A phones at thefour downstream and five upstream rainfall andwater-level gauges and a hand-operated siren toeach community. Both were found to be very effec-tive EWS tools during the September 2008 flood. Com-munication channels and contact telephone numberswere disseminated to communities through fliers.Because of these simple mechanisms, locals wereable to evacuate the elderly, pregnant and lactating The joint efforts of district-level agencies have helpedmothers, children and livestock before flood levels establish watershed-level EWS. The !ohana Water-approached the level of risk. Although their response shed EWS was designed by a committee under theand evacuation times differed according to the dis- chairmanship of the district techncial office TO withtance to safe shelter and community size, all six com- representation from relevant district stakeholders.munities were able to evacuate all their members This committee has given time, energy and othersafely. resources to strengthen watershed-level EWS and to link it with downstream communities.F! radios have been very effective in disseminatinginformation. The project mobilised local F! stations The project provided emergency and first aid kits toto disseminate emergency news and weather-related all six communities so they could carry out EWS and search and rescue work. The emergency supplies in-Box 4 Small initiatives promote knowledge about EWS clude life jackets, safety vests, throw bags, Before we took exposure visits to upstream rain guage and flood monitoring stations and carabineers, inner tubes, rope, helmets, hand-oper- interacted with technicians at the DoHM field ated sirens, and stretchers. These materials were office, we never understood the weather reports broadcast on radio and TV. Those reports were put to good use during the last monsoon. The people not useful for us because we did not know the of !ohanpur saved lives using their emergency ma- techical terms. We are surprised that with a terials during the flood of September 2008. In mechanism as simple as installing a red-and- yellow banded wooden post, so much information Shivaratnapur, a drowning person was rescued with can be collected and used for EWS. The exposure the help of a life jacket. The first aid kits were widely visit helped us understand the meanings of flood levels and estimated time for water to reach our used during flooding. First aid kits are kept in the communities. This information is very useful for houses of sudeni10 so that services can be instantly EWS. I think small initiatives are very important in provided to locals. making local communities aware. -!s. Gandhabi evi Chaudhari, EWS Sub-committee Coordinator, !anikapur
  17. 17. In short, endeavours in risk identification and assess-ment were made by increasing knowledge about risksand about suitable strategies for coping with and mea-sures for reducing those risks. EWSs were establishedby drawing upon the existing knowledge of localsabout specific hazards and risks. Information wasdisseminated by those systems in a timely fashionusing simple and understandable language.
  18. 18. boo protection work with assistance from WFP/Back- drama, thus creating local capacity for this important ward Society Education BASE. Emulating Bisanpur, service. Altogether, more than 16,000 people have the Lalitpur community plans to make wooden spurs observed street dramas staged in schools and in com- to protect their bio-engineering work. This same bio- munities. engineering work inspired Phulbari-7, Shivtal, which lies outside the project area, to establish 100 metres of bio-engineering. Similarly, rishnanagar and Bhiteria communities have requested funds from the istrict Soil Conservation Office SCO to implement bio-engineering in their communities. Inspired by Shivaratanpur’s example, other communities have started to raise grains for their emergency funds on the basis of landholding one kilogramme per kattha. There is a growing tendency to collect cash and grains from cultural and religious events like Fagui in !arch and eusi and Bailo in October. mass observing street drama Box 6 Street dramas were helpful to explore local resources d. Video documentaries: learning from others’ I was impressed by the street drama. Its subject touched my heart. My eyes were filled with tears experiences when I saw how the irresponsibility of one character Video documentaries can sometimes galvanise view- increased his own vulnerability and that of his ers into reducing disaster risks. Using their emergency family. Most of the audience was sombre, and many were teary-eyed. We were inspired to use local funds, each PC organized to show documentary films resources rather than waiting for external about the various coping mechanisms people in high- resources, and now plan to assess local resources and start risks reduction initiatives. We have heard risk situations adopt. Like street drama, videos suc- that the project will not stay with us for much cessfully generated awareness among illiterate longer. people. Some of the particular risk reduction activi- -!s. Binita Chaudhary, Treasurer/ PC, !ohanpur, Hasulia -4 ties the videos communicated well and that have been emulated on the ground include the enforce- c. Street drama: an effective tool for increasing ment of rules like zero grazing and the practice of awareness agro forestry-based income-generating activities. Street drama is an important way of communicating key messages to illiterate communities. Locals said e. EWS simulations: increasing confidence they found street drama effective in communicating The EWS and evacuation simulation exercises sharp- useful information about P and RR initiatives. Since ened people’s knowledge about and skills in EWS dramas were presented in the local language by and evacuation but also helped spawn necessary trained local people, they were lively and their mes- amendments to local plans and practices. Each com- sages accessible. The street drama team also dis- munity conducted these exercises in order to dem- seminated its messages through the radio station onstrate the steps of the community evacuation and inesh F!. That street dramas are effective in aware- emergency plan as well as the use of project-pro- ness raising can be seen through the example of vided equipment and material. The steps demon- Jokahiyapur: according to the PC Coordinator, the strated included the communication of a flood warn- community were prepared for the September 2008 ing message by upstream monitoring stations, basic flood and were able to evacuate and rescue com- preparation for evacuation, the operation of EWS, munity members because of what they had learned evacuation, search and rescue, shelter management, from street drama events. So far, 24 young people first aid, and distribution of relief materials for recov- have been trained to conceive and perform street ery and rehabilitation. After the simulation, !ankapur Case Study9 February 2009
  19. 19. and Bisanpur PCs revised their evacuation plans tomake them more realistic. The locals of the Lalitpurand !ohanpur communities said that the EWS simu-lation exercises came in handy during rescue opera-tions in September 2008 and increased everybody’sconfidence.Increased skills and knowledge through educationand training: The project has targeted communitymeion s,d andod eiinato s8 knowledge boute and
  20. 20. d. Disaster risk management training: Project fieldstaff organised local-level disaster risk management R! trainings after themselves participating in com-munity-based R! trainings. These trainings were seenas instrumental in changing beliefs about internal re-source mobilisation. Locals are now less likely to waitfor external assistance to reduce disaster risk; their knowl-
  21. 21. ipendra Higher Secondary School, Hasulia, startedconducting sanitation campaigns around the schoolin order to reduce the risk of snake bites. The trainingsare instrumental in establishing a student-guardianlink to RR and in enabling students to fill in theknowledge and skills gaps among their fellow stu-dents and family members, particularly their moth-
  22. 22. In sum, through its provisions for information man-agement and exchange as well as for increasing skillsand knowledge through education and training, itwas possible for the project to use knowledge, inno-vation, and education to build a culture of safetyand resilience at all levels.4.4 Priority action 4: Reducing theunderlying risk factorsa. Small-scS6h,JkitigatiRxm1h,Jtsp:4ru:g.’’]h,TN1J,ThN,,6,T:biRx-engineering: ’ThUFTThxhN,J4ThU:enl.’6J:vpR1lPe.’6J:v:RelT:y 1 JT 4 4 DT 97 T T 5 1 JT T 837 cT 15 25eT.NlpR. l- b
  23. 23. safely, the boats facilitate safe evacuation during floods. With these boats, children, elderly people, pregnant and lactating mothers and important be- longings were saved. The locals of Shivaratnapur be- lieve that they would have lost 10-12 people of the halla community during the last flood if the project had not provided boats. The locals of Shivaratnapur community management bio engineering work community managed boatAfter reclaiming land along a riverbank through bio-engineering work, people often start to farm off-sea- used to use doond wooden troughs used to feed live-sonal vegetables, watermelon and nuts, to diversify stock as boats though the risk of their overturninglocal sources of income. was great. The rescuers of Bisanpur rescued some mem- bers of Chotki Palia community after their boat wasBox 9 We are now fully convinced that bamboo works submerged. The community members of Lalitpur and We were sceptical about the project’s proposal Bisanpur even managed to save some police officers. to use bamboo spurs for flood mitigation. After the project suggested we make them in our community, I met project officials to request them c. Community shelters serve as a refuge to focus on gabion boxes instead of bamboo spurs. during flooding I remember our community saying, ‘Aandhika agadi benako ke kam (What is the use of a fan in Shelters play an important role in mitigating the fear front of a hurricane)?’ to the officials. When we of floods and inundation. !ohanpur and saw what bamboo spurs can do, we were amazed. Now we are committed to making more bamboo Shivaratnapur communities are constructing safe spurs upstream from the present bioengineering buildings linked to safe evacuation routes in order site with the support of the DSCO. We are thinking so serve as community shelters. In Bisanpur, people about requesting other agencies to support us in introducing bio-engineering work because it has realised the importance of such shelters after 15 already demonstrated its strength and its households were displaced for seven days last year. functionality during heavy flooding. Gabion work is no longer our main demand. d. Construction of evacuation routes -!r. !aya Ram Chaudhari, Coordinator, PC, !ohanpur Hausulia-4 Evacuation routes are needed so that people can reach safe places before major risks arrive. The project has facilitated the effort to construct such routes. So far, ab. Using community- managed boats total of 4.2 kilometeres 1.7 in Lalitpur and 1.5 into reduce risk Jokahiyapur have been completed with additionalCommunity-managed boats can effectively save support from a “cash for work”14 scheme. The heightspeople’s lives and livelihoods during floods. With of routes are determined by assessing the flood lev-project resources and community contributions, all six els of the last 50 years. The evacuation route atcommunities run community boat services. Besides Shivratanpur is high enough to serve as a dike andtheir regular function of helping people cross rivers prevent water from flowing in from the Indian side.14 This initiative was supported by World Food Programme Community Based isaster Risk Reduction Contribution To Hyogo Framework ailali isaster Risk Reduction Initiatives Of Action 14
  24. 24. people were still able to get safe and clean watere. Raised hand pumpsRaised hand pumps can provide safe drinking waterand minimise the incidence and spread of water-borne diseases during floods. With project support,five communities have constructed hand pumps. Al-though Lalitpur and !ohanpur communities were com-pletely inundated during the flood last September,
  25. 25. to the project communities’ efforts, especially thosein bio-engineering, the SCO has sent its training par-ticipants to visit the six project communities and tolearn from them. The SCO’s interest suggests thatdistrict-level stakeholders view project communitiesas learning laboratories.b. Promote and support dialogue, exchange ofinformation and coordinationThe project has made an effort to promote dialogue
  26. 26. low-income community members for their losses dueto floods.With its provisions for strengthening policy, technicaland institutional capacities for local disaster manage-ment; promoting and supporting dialogue, the ex-change of information and coordination; and endors-ing regular disaster-preparedness exercises at the locallevel, the project has contributed to strengtheningdisaster preparedness for effective response.
  27. 27. Observation of IEC posters
  28. 28. IPECHO is the isaster Preparedness Programme of the European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid depart- ment, the largest single humanitarian donor in the world. The IPECHO programme funds pilot projects Mercy Corps Nepal intended to demonstrate that simple, inexpensive pre- P.O.Box 24374 paratory measures, particularly those implemented Sanepa Chowk, Lalitpur, Nepal by communities themselves, can limit damage and Telephone: +977 1 555 5532 increase resilience and save lives. Fax: +977 1 555 4370 E-mail: !ercy Corps is an international non-governmental humanitarian relief and development organization Mercy Corps European Headquarters with headquarters in the USA and U that focuses on 40 Sciennes, Edinburgh, EH9 1NJ, U providing support to countries in transition. !ercy Telephone: +44 0131 662 5160 Corps exists to alleviate suffering; poverty and op- Fax: +44 0131 662 6648 pression by helping people build secure, productive and just communities. !ercy Corps is primarily focus- ing on emergency relief; economic development; and, initiatives that strengthen civil society. The goal of !ercy Corps Nepal is to alleviate poverty by increas- ing resilience to shocks, expanding economic oppor- tunity, and fostering social inclusion. Case Study20 February 2009