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National platform on drr bidhan 2065 52

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  • 1. >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% k|:tfjgf;g @))% sf] hgj/L !* b]lv @@ ;Dd hfkfgsf] Xof]uf] lk|km]Sr/sf] sf]a] ;x/df ;;DkGgljkb Joj:yfkg;DaGwL ljZjlzv/ ;Dd]ngsf pknAwLx¿ k|fyldstfsf qmddf pNn]lvt 5g. ;g @))% sf] k|f/Dedf ;;DkGg pQm ;Dd]ngdf ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3;Fu ;Da4 !^* dnssf pRr:t/Lo gLlt lg0ff{osx¿, ljkb Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{df cfj4 ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf ;fy}Go"gLs/0fsf] If]qdf ljz]if of]ubfg k¥ofpFb} cfPsf ljleGg ljwf / If]qsf rf/ xhf/eGbf a9L;xeflu JolQmTj ;a}sf tkm{af6 Xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf, @))% @)!% nfO{ cf cfkmgf] dnsdf uDeL/tfk"js nfu" ug]{ k|ltj4tf klg JoQm ePsf] lyof] . JoQm k|ltj4tf cg?k Xof]uf] sfo{ {;+/rgf @))% @)!% nfO{ k|efjsf/L 9ªun] sfof{Gjog ug]{ ;Gbe{df ;xefuL dnsx¿sftkm{af6 ;/fxgLo k|of;x¿ hf/L eP tfklg jrgnfO{ Jojxf/df ptf/L /fi6«nfO{ ;dlrt9ªuaf6 ;b9 tNofpg] / ;dbfonfO{ ;an u/fpg] ;Gbe{df Ps ?ktf sfod u/fpg [;lsPdf nlIft p2]Zo k|fKtLdf ;xhtf cfpg] ;f]r /fv]/ hg % &, @))& df h]gefdf ];DkGg ljZj sfo{d~r (Global Platform) sf] ;Dd]ngn] Pp6f vfsfsf] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] 5 .pQm lzv/ ;Dd]ngdf ljkbhGo dnsx¿af6 k|ltlglwTj u/]sf pRrtxsf gLlt lg0ff{osx¿sf ;fy} ljkb Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL sfo{df cfj4 u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf, lzIf0f ;+:yfx¿Pj+ lghL If]qsf ljlzi6 JolQmTjx¿sf] ;xdtLn] /fli6«o d~rsf] :yfkgfnfO{ ljz]if hf]8lbPsf] 5 . ;f] cg;f/ g]kfndf klg ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~r u7g ug]{;Gbe{df of] ljwfg /fli6«o lgb]{zg P]g, @)!* sf] clwgdf /xL th{df ul/Psf] 5 . kl/R5]b ! k|f/lDes!= ;+:yfsf] gfd M o; ;+:yfsf] gfd ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~r /xg]5 . cªu]hLdf | National Platform on Disaster Risk Riduction /xg]5 . 5f]6s/Ldf g]kfnLdf ljhf]Go"/fd / cªu|]hLdf NPDRR /xg]5 .s_ ;+:yfsf] sfof{no /xg] 7]ufgf M o; ;+:yfsf] sfof{no sf7df8f}+ lhNnfdf /xg]5 .v_ ;+:yfsf] sfo{If]q M o; ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~r gfds ;+:yfsf] sfo{If]q g]kfn /fi6«e/ xg5 . ]u_ k|f/De M of] ljwfg ;+:yf btf{ ePsf] ldltb]lv k|f/De xg]5 .3_ ;+:yfsf] cl:tTj M of] ;+:yf Ps cljl5Gg pQ/flwsf/jfnf, ;ªul7t, :jzfl;t, u}/ gfkmfd"ns, u}/ /fhgLlts tyf u}/;/sf/L ;fdflhs ;+:yf xg]5 .@= kl/efiff ljifo jf k|;ªun] cGo cy{ gnfu]df o; ljwfgdf M >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 1
  • 2. s_ æljwfgÆ eGgfn] o; ;+:yfsf] ljwfgnfO{ ;Demgk5{ . v_ æ;+:yfÆ eGgfn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rnfO{ hgfpF5 . u_ æ;ldltÆ eGgfn] o; ljwfgsf] bkmf !# adf]lhd ul7t sfo{;ldltnfO{ hgfpF5 . 3_ æ;efÆ eGgfn] o; ljwfgadf]lhd a;]sf] ;fwf/0f;ef / ljz]if ;fwf/0f;efnfO{ ;d]t hgfpF5 . ª_ ækbflwsf/LÆ eGgfn] ;+:yfsf kbflwsf/Lx¿nfO{ ;Demgk5{ . r_ ælgod, ljlgodÆ eGgfn] o; ljwfgcGtu{t aGg] lgod ljlgodnfO{ hgfpF5 . 5_ æ/fli6«o sfo{d~rÆ eGgfn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{ ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] o:tf] d~rnfO{ hgfpF5, h;n] ljleGg txx¿df xg] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL sfo{x¿sf] ax;, k}/jL, ;dGjo / ljZn]if0f tyf k|fyldstfsf If]qx¿nufot cGo ofjt ljifox¿df ;dGjofTds Pj+ ;xeflutfd"ns gLlt, of]hgf / sfo{qmdx¿ agfpgdf ;xof]u ub}{ cufl8 a9g5 . ] 5_ æ:yfgLo clwsf/LÆ eGgfn] k|dv lhNnf clwsf/LnfO{ hgfpF5 . h_ ætf]lsPsf] jf tf]lsP adf]lhdÆ eGgfn] of] ljwfg / o; ljwfgcGtu{t ag]sf] lgod ljlgoddf tf]lsPsf] jf tf]lsPadf]lhd ;Demg k5{ . em_ æ:yfgLo lgsfoÆ eGgfn] ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt; dxfgu/kflnsf, pkdxfgu/kflnsf, gu/kflnsf / lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltnfO{ hgfpg] 5 .#= ;+:yfsf] 5fk / lrGx M ;+:yfsf] Pp6f 5§} 5fk / lrGx xg5 . 5fk / lrGx cg;rL ! adf]lhdsf] 9fFrfdf ] " xg5 . t/ ;+:yfsf] gfd 5fk / lrGx o;cl3 btf{ ePsf] sg} ;+:yf;Fu d]n vfPdf ] ;+zf]wgsf] k|lqmofåf/f t?Gt ;+zf]wg ul/g] 5 . kl/R5]b @ p2]Zo$= ;+:yfsf] p2]Zo M ;+:yfsf] p2]Zo b]xfoadf]lhd /xg]5 . s_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~r /fli6«o :t/df k|ltlglwTj ug]{ ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] o:tf] d~r xg]5, h;n] ljleGg txx¿df xg] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL sfo{x¿sf] ax;, k}/jL, ;dGjo / ljZn]if0f nufot k|fyldstfsf If]qx¿sf] ;Gbe{df ;emfj lbg] h:tf ofjt ljifox¿sf] ;dGjofTds Pj+ ;xeflutfd"ns gLlt, of]hgf / sfo{qmdx¿nfO{ d"nwf/df NofO{ cufl8 al9g]5 . v_ b]zleq ul/g] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL ;d:t sfo{nfO{ d"n k|jfxdf ;dflxt u/]/ ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ Pp6} ynf]df hDdf u/L Jojl:yt ¿kdf 5nkmn u/L ;femf cjwf/0ffsf] ljsf; Pj+ /fli6«o ;xdltsf] jftfj/0f agfpg] tkm{ ;zQm ¿kdf k|of; ul/g]5 . >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 2
  • 3. u_ ljkb Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL sfo{ hl6n ePsf]n] o; ;DaGwdf /fhgLlts k|lta4tf, hg;/f]sf/, ;Lk Pj+ j}1flgs 1fg, cfd hgtfsf] lxtcgsnsf] k"j{ " r]tfjgLk4lt / ljkb;Fu ;DalGwt cGo dxTjk"0f{ ljifox¿df ;/f]sf/ /fVg] ;a}aLr e/kbf]{ ;+oGqsf] ljsf; ul/g]5 . 3_ /fli6«o ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf lqmofsnfkx¿sf] sfo{Gjogdf kyk|bz{g Pj+ ;wf/fTds sfo{x¿ ul/g]5 . ª_ gful/s ;dfh, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf Pj+ lghL If]qsf ;Da4 ;+:yfx¿nfO{ ;d]t ljkb Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{df k|efjsf/L ¿kn] ;+nUg u/fO{ pkoQm :t/df ;+jfb, 5nkmnnufotsf sfo{x¿ ;~rfng ul/g] / cGonfO{ o:tf] sfo{ ;~rfng ug{df d2t k¥ofOg]5 . r_ ldq /fi6« Pj+ cGo cGt/f{li6«o lgsfox¿sf ;fy} /fli6«o kbflwsf/Lx¿;Fusf] ;+jfb / ;fem]bf/Ldf ;xhtf NofOg] 5 . 5_ 1fg / ;"rgfsf] ;fem]bf/L Pj+ k|ljlw x:tfGt/0f tyf :yfgfGt/0fdf clej[l4 ug]{ k|lqmofnfO{ ;dfof]hg ul/g]5 . h_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ;fem]bf/x¿sf] cGt/;DaGwaf6 /fli6«o, If]qLo / ljZjsf ;Da4 lgsfox¿sf] ;DaGwdf lj:tf/ ug]{ sfo{df ;3fp k¥ofOg]5 . em_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] nflu vfFrf] kg]{ Jojl:yt ;xof]usf nflu ;Da4 ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] ;xeflutfdf ;an ;+oGqsf] :yfkgf ug{ / ;du|df ljkbaf6 kg{ ;Sg] k|lts"n k|efjnfO{ Go"g ub}{ n}hfg /fi6«nfO{ ;zQm tNofO{ ;j{;fwf/0f hgtfsf] dfgjLo tyf ef}lts ;/Iffsf] k|Tofe"lt ;lglZrt tNofpg];DaGwL sfo{ ul/g]5 . `_ o; d~råf/f /fli6«o sfo{ of]hgfsf] dfWodaf6 ul/g] Xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] sfof{Gjogdf cu|0fL / g]tTjbfoL e"ldsf lgjf{x ul/g]5 . [ 6_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f sfo{df ;3fp k¥ofO{ ;/Iff / ;jnLs/0fsf] ;fj{hlgs bfloTjaf/] gful/sx¿aLr r]tgf j[l4 ul/g]5 . 7_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ljifonfO{ ljsf;;DaGwL gLlt, sfo{gLlt tyf lqmofsnfkdf ;dflxt u/fpg jsfnt / k}/jL ug{sf ;fy} o; ljifonfO{ axkIfLo jftfj/0fLo ;Demf}tfsf] cleGg kIfsf ¿kdf ;dfj]z u/fOg]5 . 8_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL /fli6«o :t/df ;+of]hg ul/g] ;Da4 ;a} sfo{df ;xeflutf hgfOg]5 .%= ;+:yfsf] p2]Zo k|fKt ug{ ul/g] sfdx¿ M o; ;+:yfn] pk/f]Qm p2]Zox¿ k|fKt ug{ b]xfosf sfo{x¿ ug]{5 M s_ ;+:yfn] k|rlnt g]kfn sfggadf]lhd ;DalGwt lgsfoaf6 cgdlt jf Ohfht k|fKt u/]/ dfq cfkmgf p2]Zox¿ sfof{Gjog ug]{ . v_ ;+:yfnfO{ cfjZos kg]{ ejg lgdf{0f ug]{ jf ef8fdf jf lnhdf lng] 5 / sDKo6/, 6]lnkmf]g, 6fOk/fO6/, kmofS;h:tf sfof{no ;fdfg tyf ;jf/L ;fwg vl/b ug]{ jf ef8fdf lnO{ k|of]u ug]{ . u_ ;+:yfnfO{ cfjZos kg]{ sd{rf/L lgoQm ug]{ tyf ltgsf] ;]jfsf ;t{x¿ lgwf{/0f ug]{ . 3_ ljkb Joj:yfkg;DaGwL gLlt, sfgg tyf sfo{k|0ffnLsf] sfof{Gjosf nflu pRrgLlt lgdf{0f tx / ;Da4 kIfsf] ;lqmo ;xeflutf xfl;n ug{ k|efjsf/L ¿kdf ;Dafb, jsfnt / k}/jLsf] cleofg ;~rfng ug]{ . >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 3
  • 4. ª_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu cfwf/e"t ;"rgf k|0ffnLsf] Joj:yfkg ug]{ .r_ ljkb Joj:yfkg;DaGwL /fli6«o gLlt, /0fgLlt / ljsf; sfo{qmdx¿ th{df ug{ tyf ;|ft kl/rfng / Ifdtf ljsf;sf k|of;df ;xeflutf Pj+ ;xof]u ug]{ . ]5_ ljkb hf]lvd;DaGwL ;/f]sf/ / rgf}tLsf] d"Nofªsg ljZn]if0f ug]{, ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf k|fyldstfsf If]qx¿sf] lgwf{/0f ug{sf ;fy} ;ªs6fledv l:yltdf /x]sf dfgj j:tL;d]tsf] klxrfg ug{ ;3fpg] .h_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ;~rflnt ljsf; of]hgf / sfo{k|0ffnLsf] ;dLIff u/L ;sf/fTds pknAwLnfO{ ;+:yfut ¿kdf lg/Gt/tf lbg PsLs[t k|oTg ug]{ .em_ ljkbu:t Pj+ cToGt hf]lvdoQm If]qsf hgtfsf] hf]lvd Go"g u/fpg /fli6«o | d~rsf] ;b:ox¿aLr ;xsfl/tf / ;fem]bf/L k|a4{g ug]{ .`_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / o;sf] pknAwL;DaGwL lzIffk|b kf7 / cgz/0ffLo sfo{sf] k|nv tof/ ug]{ / cfk;df cfbfg k|bfg ug]{ . o;cGtu{t dnssf] ] lzIffk|0ffnL / ;~rf/ dfWodaf6 k|jfx ul/g] 1fg / ;"rgfdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ljifonfO{ Jojxf/ kl/jt{gsf] sfo{;rLdf ;dfj]z ug{ ljz]if " k|oTg ug]{ .6_ ljkb Joj:yfkg;DaGwL cflh{t 1fg, ;Lk / ;"rgf cfbfg k|bfg ug]{ / tt;DaGwL k|ljlw x:tfGt/0f ug{ ;xh ug]{ .7_ Xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfnfO{ /fli6«o:t/df ;dGjofTds sfof{Gjogsf nflu sfo{dns of]hgf;lxt kl/0ffddvL sfo{tflnsf agfO{ ;f] sf] sfof{Gjog " u/fpg] . o;cGtu{t s]Gb|Lo tyf ;dbfo:t/af6 ePsf sfo{x¿sf] cgudg u/L k|ltj]bg tof/ ug]{ / ;fj{hlgs u/L cgkf]if0f k|fKt ug]{ . k|fKt cgkf]if0f tyf ;emfjnfO{ ;wf/fTds sfo{sf] cfwf/sf ¿kdf cfTd;ft ug]{ .8_ /fHosf] lbuf] ljsf;;DaGwL sfo{;rL / k|fyldstfdf ljkb Joj:yfkgsf] " ljifonfO pkoQm p2]Zok/s ;xeflutfsf nflu k|]/0ffbfoL e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ . o;cGtu{t vf;u/L ul/aLlgjf/0f /0fgLlt, ;x>fAbL ljsf; nIo, ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo ;xof]u ;+/rgf, låkIfLo tyf axkIfLo ljsf; ;Demf}tf kg]{5g .9_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ljifonfO{ ;a} k|sf/sf dfgjLo ;xfotf;DaGwL sfo{nufot ljsf; cjwf/0ff, of]hgf / sfo{qmddf PsLs[t ug]{ . To;}u/L hnjfo kl/jt{g, h}ljs ljljwtf / d?e"dLs/0fh:tf dxTjk"0f{ k|fs[lts jftfj/0f;DaGwL axkIfLo ;lGw;Demf}tfdf ;d]t o; ljifonfO{ k|fylds ;/f]sf/sf ¿kdf :yflkt ug{ k|oTgzLn /xg] .0f_ /fli6«o:t/df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;Fu ;DalGwt lbuf] ljsf;, jftfj/0f / hnjfo kl/jt{g;DaGwL ;Dks{ PsfO{, k|fljws ;ldlt, k|fl1s tyf cg;Gwfg ;+:yfh:tf kIf;Fu ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ ;+j[l4 ug]{ .t_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] sfo{nfO{ axkIfLo ;/f]sf/sf ¿kdf :yflkt u/L gful/s ;dfh / u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf lghL If]q Pj+ ;fdbflos ;d"xaLr ;xsfo{ / ;Dafbsf] dfWodaf6 cj;/ ;[hgf ug]{, pgLx¿sf] Ifdtf clea[l4 u/L a9L of]ubfg ug{ ;Sg] tNofpg], ;/sf/L lgsfo tyf ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo k|0ffnLnufot cGo cGt/fli6«o ljsf; ;dbfo;Fu ;d]t ;xsfo{ / ;fem]bf/Ldf sfo{ ug{ ;Ifd tNofpg cfjZos k|of; ug]{ . >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 4
  • 5. y_ ljkb Joj:yfkg;DaGwL axcfoflds /fli6«o cg;Gwfg k|0ffnLsf] ljsf;sf nflu k|oTg ug]{ . o; cGtu{t pkof]uL j}1flgs cjwf/0ff, ljlwut ;+/rgf / sfo{dns b[li6sf]0fsf nflu k|fT;fxg / ;xhsfo{ ug]{ . " ] b_ ljleGg dns ;lDdlnt If]qLo tyf cGt//f{li6«o:t/df :yflkt d~r (Regional and Global Platforms) ;Fu ;dGjo / ;Dks{ u/L ;xsfo{sf ;Defjgf klxrfg ug]{ / ;fd"lxs k|of;df ;lqmo ;xeflutf ug]{ . kl/R5]b # ;b:otf^= ;b:ox¿sf] juL{s/0f M d~rdf ;b:otf;DaGwL Joj:yf b]xfoadf]lhd xg5 M ] s_ sfo{d~rdf tLg k|sf/sf ;b:o /xg]5g M · ;+:yfut ;b:o · ljz]if1 ;b:o · dfgfy{ ;b:o ;?df d~rdf ;+:yfut ;b:osf] dfq Joj:yf ul/g]5 / klxnf] ;fwf/0f;efsf] a}7s kZrft cfk;L ;xdltdf ljz]if1 ;b:osf] Joj:yf ul/g]5 . v_ sfo{d~rsf] ;b:osf ¿kdf ljkb Joj:yfkg;DaGwL sfo{;Fu ;DalGwt b]xfosf If]qaf6 cfdlGqt ul/g]5 M != g]kfn ;/sf/sf dGqfno, cfof]u, ljefu, s]Gb|Lo:t/sf lgsfo, ;fj{hlgs k|lti7fg, @= /fli6«o tyf cGt//fli6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf, #= ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo Pj+ cGo cGt/f{li6«o lgsfo, $= j}1flgs, k|fl1s P+j cg;Gwfg ;+:yf, %= cfd;+rf/ hut, ^= :yfgLo lgsfo, &= ;fdbflos ;+:yf, *= cf}Bf]lus tyf Jofkfl/s ;ª3;+:yf&= ;b:otf k|fKtLsf nflu cfjZos of]Uotf M o; ;+:yfsf] ;b:osf] nflu b]xfoadf]lhdsf] of]Uotf kusf] xg kg]{5M ] s_ g]kfnL gful/s ePsf] . v_ @% jif{ pd]/ k"/f u/]sf] . u_ dfgl;s ;Gtng gudfPsf] . 3_ ;fj{hlgs ;DklQ lxgfldgf u/]sf] g7x/]sf] . ª_ g}lts ktg b]lvg] kmf}hbf/L / e|i6frf/sf] cleof]udf ;hfo gkfPsf] . r_ ;+:yfut ;b:o xgsf nflu ljkb Joj:yfkg;DaGwL dVo p2]Zo /xL sDtLdf # jif{ lg/Gt/ ¿kdf sfo{ u/]sf] cgej k|fKt k|rlnt sfggadf]lhd btf{ ePsf] ;ª3;+:yf xg kg]{5 . 5_ ;b:on] kfng ug{kg]{ bfloTj / cfrf/;+lxtf ;fwf/0f;ef /÷jf sfo{sf/L ;ldltn] lgwf{/0f u/]adf]hd xg]5 . >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 5
  • 6. h_ ;b:otf ;DaGwL of]Uotfsf cGo Joj:yf tf]lsP adf]lhd xg5 . ]*= ;+:yfsf] ;b:otf k|fKt ug{ jf axfn /xg g;Sg] cj:yf M b]xfosf] cj:yfdf sg} JolQm ;+:yfsf] ;b:otfsf] ;b:o kb k|fKt ug{ ;Sg] 5}g . s_ u}/ g]kfnL gful/s . v_ @% jif{ pd]/ k/f gu/]sf] . u_ duh lju|]sf] jf af}nfPsf] . 3_ ;fj{hlgs ;DklQ lxgfldgf u/]sf] 7x/]sf] . ª_ g}lts ktg b]lvg] kmf}hbf/L / e|i6frf/sf] cleof]udf ;hfo kfPsf] . r_ ;DalGwt ;+:yfsf] Joj;fodf gLlh :jfy{ ePsf] b]lvPsf] . 5_ ;fx"sf] bfdf;fxLdf k/]sf] . h_ sg} k|sf/sf] rf]/L, 7uL, lst]{ jf hfn;femL u/]sf] jf cfkmgf] lhDdfsf] wgdfn cglws[t tj/n] df;]sf] jf b?kof]u u/]sf] jf e|i6frf/ u/]sf] cleof]udf cbfntaf6 s;/bf/ 7x/L ;hfo kfPsf] . em_ ;+:yfut ;b:o xgsf nflu ljkb Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL dVo p2]Zo ePsf] ;+:yfdf sDtLdf # jif{ lg/Gt/ ?kdf sfo{ gu/]sf] . `_ ;b:on] kfng ug{kg]{ bfloTj egL ;fwf/0f;ef /÷jf sfo{sf/L ;ldltn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] cfrf/ ;+lxtf kfng gu/]sf] . 6_ ;b:otf;DaGwL tf]lsPadf]lhdsf] cGo of]Uotf gePsf] .(= ;b:otfsf] ;dfKtL != b]xfosf] cj:yfdf sg} JolQm o; ;+:yfdf jxfn /xg] 5}gM s_ o; ljwfgsf] bkmf * adf]lhdsf] ;b:o kb k|fKt ug{ g;Sg] ePdf . v_ ;fwf/0f;efsf] &% k|ltzt ;b:ox¿sf] axdtn] ;+:yfsf] ;b:o kbaf6 x6fpg] k|:tfj kfl/t u/]df . u_ ;b:on] cfkmgf] kbaf6 lbPsf] /flhgfdf :jLs[t ePdf . 3_ ;+:yfsf] sfd sf/jfxLdf a]OdfgL jf jblgot u/]sf] s/f cbfntaf6 k|dfl0ft ePdf . ª_ o; ljwfgadf]lhd ;+:yfn] ug{ gxg] egL tf]lsPsf] sg} sfo{ u/]df . r_ ;b:otf zNs aemfpg afFsL ePdf . 5_ ;+:yf lj36g eO{ vf/]h ePdf . @= sg} JolQm ;+:yfsf] ;b:otf k|fKt ug{ jf axfn /xg cof]Uo 7x¥ofpgeGbf cl3 ;+:yfn] lghnfO{ ;f] s/fsf] ;"rgf lbO{, ;kmfOsf] ;ab k]z ug]{ df}sf lbOg]5 .!)= ;+:yfsf] ;b:otf k|fKt ug{ jf axfn /xg;Sg] cj:yf M o; ljwfgsf] bkmf ^ adf]lhd ;b:ox¿n] b]xfoadf]lhdsf] pkbkmfdf tf]lsPsf] zNs lt/L, ;b:otf k|fKt ug{ ;Sg]5g . != ;+:yfut ;b:o M s_ of] ;+:yf btf{ xFbfsf] avtsf tby{ ;ldltsf ;b:ox¿ o; d~rsf ;+:yfks ;b:o xg5g . ] v_ ;+:yfut ;b:o k|fKt ug{ rfxg] ;+:yfn] k|jz zNsjfkt ?= !,)))÷ -Ps ] xhf/ ?k}ofF dfq_ / jflif{s zNsjfkt ?= !,%))÷ -Ps xhf/ kfFr ;o ?k}ofF >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 6
  • 7. dfq_ aemfO{ tf]lsPsf] k|lqmofcg;f/ cfj]bg k]z ug]x¿dWo]af6 sfo{;ldltn] { ;+:yfut ;b:otf k|bfg ug{ ;Sg]5 . u_ pk/f]Qm v08 -v_ adf]lhd ;+:yfut ;b:o ag]sf] ;+:yfn] jflif{s gjLs/0f zNs ?= !,%))÷ -Ps xhf/ kfFr;o dfq_ aemfpg kg]{5 . 3_ ;+:yfut ;b:otf k|fKt ug]{ ;+:yfn] k|To]s jif{ c;f/ dlxgfsf] d;fGtleq ;b:otf gjLs/0f u/fO;Sg kg]{5 / To;kl5sf] xsdf tf]lsPadf]lhdsf] yk b:t/ aemfO{ gjLs/0f ug{ ;lsg]5 . @= ljz]if1 ;b:o M s_ ljkb Joj:yfkgsf If]qdf ljz]if1tf xfl;n u/]sf JolQmnfO{ sfo{;ldltn] tf]lsP adf]lhd o; ;+:yfsf] ;b:otf k|bfg ug{ ;Sg]5 o;;DaGwL cGo Joj:yf tf]lsP adf]lhd xg5 .] #= dfgfy{ ;b:o M ljkb Joj:yfkgsf If]qdf ljz]if of]ubfg k¥ofPsf ;+:yf jf JolQmnfO{ tf]lsPsf] k|lqmof adf]lhd ;fwf/0f;efsf] lg0f{on] dfgfy{ ;b:otf k|bfg ug{ ;lsg]5 . $= sg} cfj]bsnfO{ ;b:otf glbg] egL lg0f{o ul/Pdf sfo{;ldltn] ;f] sf] sf/0f ;lxtsf] hfgsf/L cfj]bsnfO{ lbg kg]{5 . % ;a} ;b:ox¿n] o; ljwfg / ljwfgcGtu{t ag]sf] lgod / ljlgdoadf]lhd ePsf] Joj:yfsf] kfngf ug{ kg]5 . { ^= ;+:yfn] k|bfg u/]sf] pkbkmf !, @, / # cg;f/sf] ;b:ox¿sf] tf]lsPsf] 9fFrfdf 5§} clen]v kl:tsf /fVg]5 . kl/R5]b $ ;fwf/0f;ef, sfo{;ldlt, ;lrjfno tyf a}7s;DaGwL Joj:yf!!= ;fwf/0f;efsf] u7g M;fwf/0f;efsf] u7g b]xfo adf]lhd xg]5M != o; ;+:yfsf] ljwfgsf] bkmf & cg;f/ ;b:otf k|fKt ug]{ dfgfy{ ;b:oafx]s cGo ;b:ox¿ /x]sf] ;+:yfsf] ;fwf/0f;ef u7g xg]5 . ;fwf/0f;ef ;+:yfsf] ;jf]{Rr cªu xg5 . ;fwf/0f;efsf] a}7sdf dfgfy{ ;b:ox¿ cfdlGqt xg]5g . ] @= o; ;+:yfsf] ;fwf/0f;efsf] a}7s b]xfoadf]lhd a:g]5 . s_ jflif{s ;fwf/0f;efM jif{sf] Psk6s jflif{s ;fwf/0f;ef a:g]5 . v_ ljz]if ;fwf/0f;efM ;+:yfsf] sn ;b:o ;ªVofsf] !÷$ -Ps rf}yfO_ ;b:ox¿n] sf/0f hgfO{ ljz]if ;fwf/0f;ef dfu u/]df sfo{;ldltn] sDtLdf & -;ft_ lbgleq ;f] ljifodf dfq 5nkmn ug{sf lgldQ ljz]if ;fwf/0f;ef clgjfo{ ¿kdf af]nfpg kg]{5 . t/ ;fwf/0f;ef jf ljz]if;ef a;]sf] 5 dlxgfleq kgM ljz]if ;fwf/0f;ef a:g ;Sg]5}g . >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 7
  • 8. #= o; ;+:yfsf] k|yd jflif{s ;fwf/0f;ef ;+:yf :yfkgf ePsf] cfly{s jif{ ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] bO{ dlxgfleqdf ul/g]5 / To;kl5sf jflif{s ;fwf/0f;efx¿ cfly{s jif{ ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] @ -bO_ dlxgfleq ul/g] 5 . { $= o; ;+:yfsf] jflif{s ;fwf/0f;ef ug{sf] nflu sDtLdf !% lbg cufj} / ljz]if ;fwf/0f;ef ug{sf nflu sDtLdf & -;ft_ lbg cufj} ;ef xg] :yfg, ldlt, ;do / 5nkmn ug]{ ljifo vf]nL ;a} ;b:ox¿nfO{ clgjfo{ ¿kn] ;"rgf lbOg]5 . %= pk bkmf $ adf]lhd af]nfOPsf] ;fwf/0f;ef jf ljz]if ;fwf/0f;efdf ljwfgsf] bkmf !* adf]lhdsf] u0f k"/s ;ªVof gkuL ;ef xg g;s]df sDtLdf & - ;ft_ lbgsf] Dofb lbO{ kgM ;fwf/0f;ef af]nfOg] 5 . ^= ;fwf/0f;ef / ljz]if ;fwf/0f;efsf] 5§f 5§} lg0f{o kl:tsfx¿ /flvg] 5 .!@= ;fwf/0f;efsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/M ;fwf/0f;efsf] sfd st{Jo / clwsf/b]xfoadf]lhd xg] 5 M s_ sfo{;ldltn] k]z u/]sf] of]hgf sfo{qmdx¿ / jflif{s ah]6 kfl/t ug]{ . v_ n]vfk/LIfsaf6 k|fKt ePsf] jflif{s n]vfk/LIf0f k|ltj]bgdfly 5nkmn u/L cgdf]bg ug]{ / n]vfk/LIf0f k|ltj]bgaf6 b]lvPsf clgoldt a]?h /sdx¿dfly 5nkmn u/L lgoldt ug{ gldNg] a]?h /sdx¿ c;n pk/ u/L km5of}{6 ug{sf] nflu sfo{;ldltnfO{ lgb]{zg lbg] . u_ cfufdL jif{sf] nflu n]vfk/LIfssf] lgolQm ug]{ . 3_ ;+:yfsf] jflif{s sfo{k|ult ljj/0f / ;+:yfn] u/]sf] sfo{x¿sf] d"Nofªsg u/L sfo{;ldltnfO{ cfjZos lgb]{zg lbg] . ª_ ;+:yfsf] sfo{;ldltsf kbflwsf/L Pj+ ;b:ox¿sf] kbfjlw ku]sf] cj:yfdf ljwfgadf]lhdsf] k|lqmofcGtu{t /xL ;f] kbsf] nflu lgjf{rg ug]{ . r_ sfo{;ldltåf/f k]z ePsf ljwfg ;+zf]wg, lgod tyf ljlgdo :jLs[t ug]{ . 5_ dfgfy{ ;b:otf k|bfg ug]{ . h_ sfo{;ldltaf6 ;+:yfsf] lxt cgsn ePsf sfd sf/jfxLx¿sf], cf}lrTo x]/L " cgdf]bg ug]{ . em_ ;+:yfsf] cfkmg} cfGtl/s ;|ftaf6 Joxf]g{] u/L sfo{;ldltn] k]z u/]sf] ] sd{rf/Lx¿sf] b/aGbL, kfl/>lds eQf, tyf cGo ;ljwfx¿df cfjZostf cg?k :jLs[lt k|bfg ug]{ .!#= ;ldltsf] u7gM != d~rsf] sfo{sf/L ;+oGqsf ¿kdf ;fwf/0f;efsf ;b:odWo]af6 a9Ldf !% hgfsf] Pp6f sfo{;ldlt /xg]5 . o; sfo{;ldltdf ;?sf] @ -bO{_ jif{sf nflu g]kfn ;/sf/, u[x dGqfnosf ;lrjsf] cWoIftfdf lgDgfg;f/ kbflwsf/L Pj+ ;b:ox¿ cfk;L ;xdltdf rog ul/g]5g . cWoIf ! pkfWoIf ! ;lrj ! sf]iffWoIf ! ;b:ox¿ !! >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 8
  • 9. @= pbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] sfo{;ldltsf] ;dofjlwkl5 o; ;ldltsf ;a} kbx¿df d~rsf ;b:ox¿dWo]af6 lgjf{rgsf] dfWodaf6 kbflwsf/L Pj+ ;b:o lgoQm xg5g . ] #= sfo{;ldltsf] sfo{sfn @ -bO_ jif{sf] xg5 . { ] $= jflif{s ;fwf/0f;ef xgeGbf cufj} sfo{;ldltdf /x]sf] sg} kbflwsf/L jf ;b:osf] kb l/Qm xg cfPdf afFsL cjlwsf nflu ;f] kbdf sfo{;ldltåf/f g} dgf]gog ug{ ;lsg]5 . o;/L dgf]lgt xg] JolQmn] ;f] kbdf lgjf{rg ePsf] kbflwsf/L jf ;b:osf] sfo{sfnsf]] afFsL cjlw;Dd dfq sfo{ ug{ kfpg]5g . %= sfo{;ldltsf] a}7s cfjZostfcg;f/ cWoIfn] af]nfpg] 5 . t/ sfo{;ldltsf] kbflwsf/Lx¿sf] hDdf ;ªVofsf] %! k|ltztn] a}7s af]nfpg dfu u/]df cWoIfn] sfo{;ldltsf] a}7s t?Gt af]nfpg kg]{5 . ^= sfo{;ldltsf kbflwsf/Lx¿sf] s"n ;ªVofsf] %! k|ltzt kbflwsf/Lx¿ pkl:yt geO{ sfo{;ldltsf] a}7s a:g] 5}g . &= sfo{;ldltsf] a}7sdf cWoIfn] cWoIftf ug]5 / lghsf] cgkl:yltdf pkfWoIfn] / { pkfWoIfsf] klg cgkl:ylt /x]df a}7sdf pkl:yt ;b:ox¿n] 5fg]sf] jf h]i7 ;b:on] cWoIftf ug]{5 . *= sfo{;ldltsf] a}7sdf axdtsf] lg0f{o dfGo xg5 / dt a/fa/ ePdf cWoIfn] ] lg0ff{os dt lbg]5 . (= sfo{;ldltsf] a}7sdf 5nkmn ePsf] ljifox¿sf] 5§} lg0f{o lstfadf n]vL /flvg] 5 / ;f] lg0f{o ljj/0fdf a}7sdf pkl:yt ;Dk"0f{ ;b:ox¿n] ;xL ug{ kg]5 t/{ lg0f{odf c;xdtL hgfpg]x¿n] s}lkmot vf]nL ;xL ug{ kg]{5 . !)= ;+:yfn] ug]{ eg]sf] ;Dk"0f{ sfo{ sfo{;ldltsf] lg0f{oaf6 xg5 . ] !!= dflysf bkmfx¿df hg;s} s/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg sfo{;ldltn] ug{ kfpg] sg} sfo{sf] ;DaGwdf sfo{;ldltsf ;a} kbflwsf/L Pj+ ;b:ox¿ lnlvt ¿kdf ;xdt ePdf To:tf] ;xdltnfO{ lg0f{o kl:tsfdf ;+nUg u/L To:tf] sfd a}7s lagf klg ug{ ;lsg] 5 . pk/f]Qm adf]lhdsf] ;xdltnfO{ sfo{;ldltsf] a}7ssf] lg0f{o ;/x dflgg] 5 .!$= sfo{;ldltsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/M sfo{;ldltsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/b]xfoadf]lhd xg5 . ] != sfo{;ldltn] ljkb Go"gLs/0f Pj+ Joj:yf;DaGwL /0fgLlts / k|a4{gsf/L e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ . @= ;+:yfsf] cfufdL jif{sf] jflif{s sfo{qmd tyf cgdflgt ah]6 agfO{ ;fwf/0f;efdf k|:tt ug]{ . #= ljwfgadf]lhdsf] Joj:yf kfngf u/L ;fwf/0f;efsf] lg0f{o sfof{Gjog ug]{ u/fpg] . $= ;+:yfsf] lxtdf xg] sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng ug]{ . %= ;fwf/0f;efk|lt pQ/bfoL /xg] . ^= ;+:yfsf] p2]Zo k|fKtLsf nflu pknAw ;fwg / ;|f]tsf] clwstd pkof]u / k|of]u ug]{ . &= ;+:yfsf] sfo{;Dkfbg ug{ sfo{of]hgf agfpg], ;|ft h6fpg], sfo{Gjog, ] ;k/Lj]If0f / cgudg ug]{ . >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 9
  • 10. *= ;+:yfsf] sf]if / ;DklQ ;/lIft tl/sfn] /fVg nufpg] / Aofªs vftf vf]nL ;~rfng ug]{ . (= ;+:yfsf] sd{rf/Lx¿sf] ;]jfsf zt{ / ;ljwf;DaGwL sd{rf/L lgodfjnL agfO{ ;fwf/0f;efaf6 :jLs[t u/fO{ nfu" ug]{ u/fpg] . !)= ;+:yfsf] p2]Zo kl/k"lt{sf] nflu cfkmgf] sfo{cjlwdf pkoQm JolQmx¿sf] ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldlt jf cGo ;ldlt, pk ;ldlt u7g ug]{ / cfjZostf cg?k sfo{sf] afF8kmf8 ul/lbg] . !!= ;+:yfsf] g]tTjbfoL e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ . [!%= ;lrjfno M /fli6«o d~rsf] ;Dks{ PsfO{ Pj+ Joj:yfksLo lgsfosf ¿kdf d~r;Fucfa4 ;Ifd lgsfonfO{ ;lrjfnosf ¿kdf sfo{ ug]{ u/L lhDd]jf/L k|bfg ul/g]5 . ;lrjfno5gf}6 Pj+ cGo Joj:yf sfo{;ldltn] ug]{5 .!^= kb Tofu ug{ ;Sg]M cWoIfn] pkfWoIfdfkm{t sfo{;ldlt ;dIf / pkfWoIf tyf cGokbflwsf/Lx¿n] cWoIf ;dIf /flhgfdf lbO{ kb Tofu ug{ ;Sg]5g .!&= cGo ;ldltx¿M != o; ljwfgsf] kl/lwleq /x]/ ;+:yfsf] sfo{ ;~rfngsf] nflu sfo{;ldltn] cfjZostfcg;f/ cGo ;ldlt jf pk ;ldltx¿ u7g ug{ ;Sg]5 . @= sfo{;ldltnfO{ ljz]if1 ;Nnfx k|bfg ug{sf nflu ;Nnfxsf/x¿sf] Ps ;d"x /xg]5 / o; ;d"xdf ;DalGwt If]qsf lj1nfO{ sfo{;ldltsf] lg0f{oadf]lhd dgf]gog ul/g]5 . #= ;fwf/0f;ef / sfo{;ldltsf] sfo{;Dkfbgdf ;xof]u k|bfg ug{sf nflu cfjZstfcg;f/ ljleGg ljifout k|fljlws ;ldlt / pkl;ldlt /xg]5g . $= tL ;ldltx¿sf] sfo{x¿ sfo{;ldltn] tf]lslbP adf]lhd xg5 . ] kl/R5]b k|ltzt kbflwsf/Lx¿sf] sfd st{Jo / clwsf/!*= sfd st{Jo / clwsf/ M sfo{;ldltsf kbflwsf/Lx¿sf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/b]xfoadf]lhd xg5 M o; ;+:yfsf] ljwfgsf] bkmf & cg;f/ ;b:otf k|fKt ug]{ dfgfy{ ];b:ox¿ afx]s cGo ;b:ox¿af6 ;+:yfsf] ;fwf/0f;ef u7g xg] 5 . dfgfy{ ;b:ox¿cfdlGqt xg5g . ;fwf/0f;ef ;+:yfsf] ;jf]{Rr cªu xg5 . ] ] != cWoIfsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ s_ ;ldlt / ;efsf] a}7ssf] cWoIftf ug]{, a}7s ;~rfng ug]{ . v_ lg0ff{os dt lbg] . u_ ;+:yfsf] g]tTj lng] . [ 3_ cfjZostfcg;f/ a}7sx¿ af]nfpg ;lrjnfO{ lgb]{zg lbg] . ª_ cGo kbflwsf/L Pj+ ;b:ox¿nfO{ sfdsf] afF8kmf8 ug]{ . >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 10
  • 11. 5_ clen]v k|dfl0ft ug]{ . @= pkfWoIfsf] sfd, st{Jo clwsf/ M s_ cWoIfnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ . v_ cWoIfn] lbPsf] lhDd]jf/L k"/f ug]{ . u_ cWoIfsf] cgkl:yltdf lghsf] sfo{ ug]{ . #= ;lrjsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ s_ ;+:yfsf] ;lrjfnosf] /]vb]v / ;~rfng ug]{ . v_ cWoIfsf] lgb]{zgcg;f/ a}7s / ;ef af]nfpg] . u_ clen]v ;/lIft /fVg] . 3_ cWoIfn] lbPsf] cGo lhDd]jf/L k"/f ug]{ . $= sf]iffWoIfsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ s_ ;+:yfsf] sf]ifsf] /]vb]v / ;~rfng ug]{ . v_ ;fwf/0f;efdf jflif{s sfo{qmd / ah]6 k]; ug]{ . u_ n]vf b?:t /fVg] . 3_ lgoldt ¿kdf jflif{s n]vfk/LIf0f u/fpg] . %= ;b:ox¿sf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ s_ ;ldltsf] a}7sdf ;lqmo ;xeflutf hgfpg] . v_ ;+:yfsf] sfo{df /rgfTds e"ldsfsf] lgjf{x ug]{ .!(= u0fk"/s ;ªVof M !_ s"n ;b:o ;ªVofsf] %! -PsfpGg_ k|ltzt ;fwf/0f ;b:ox¿sf] pkl:ylt geO{ ;fwf/0f;efsf] sfd sf/jfxL xg5}g . ] @= t/ ljwfgsf] bkmf !! sf] -k|ltzt_ df pNn]v eP adf]lhd kgM af]nfOPsf] ;fwf/0f;efdf eg] u0fk"/s ;ªVofsf] cfjZostf kg]5}g . { kl/R5]b ^ cfly{s Joj:yf@)= ;+:yfsf] sf]if M != ;+:yfsf] cfkmgf] Pp6f 5§} sf]if xg5 / ;f] sf]ifdf b]xfoadf]lhdsf] k|fKt /sdx¿ ] hDdf xg5g M ] s_ ;b:otfjfkt k|fKt zNssf] /sd . v_ s;}n] :j]R5fn] lbPsf] cgbfg, ;xfotfjfkt k|fKt /sd . u_ ;+:yfsf] rn crn ;DklQ jf cGo j:tsf] laqmLaf6 k|fKt /sd . 3_ g]kfn ;/sf/af6 k|fKt cgbfg ;xof]u . ª_ ljb]zL ;+:yf, JolQm jf cGt{/fli6«o ;ª3 ;+:yfaf6 ;xof]ujfkt k|fKt /sd . >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 11
  • 12. r_ :yfgLo lgsfoaf6 k|fKt cgbfg jf ;xof]ujfkt k|fKt /sd . 5_ ;+:yfn] p2]Zofg?k sfo{ u/L cfh{g u/]sf] /sd . @= ljb]zL ;ª3 ;+:yf jf JolQmaf6 cfly{s ;xof]u tyf cgbfg lng] eP ;+:yfn] k|rlnt sfggadf]lhd g]kfn ;/sf/sf] :jLs[lt lng kg]{5 . #= ;+:yfdf k|fKt /sd :yfgLo Aofªs jf ljQLo ;+:yfdf hDdf u/L tf]lsPcg?k vftf ;~rfng ul/g] 5 .@!= vftf ;~rfng M ;+:yfsf] Aofªs vftf cWoIf / sf]iffWoIfsf] -clgjfo{_ ;+oQm b:tvtaf6 ;~rfng xg5 . k|rlnt P]g lgodcg;f/ vr{ ug]{ tyf vr{sf] >]:tf /fVg] ]Joj:yf ul/g]5 .@@= sf]ifsf] /sd vr{ ug]{ tl/sf M ;+:yfsf] sf]ifdf hDdf ePsf] /sd vr{ ubf{b]xfoadf]lhd tl/sf ckgfO{ vr{ ul/g] 5 . s_ ;+:yfsf] jflif{s ah]6 of]hgf / sfo{qmd :jLs[t gu/L sf]ifaf6 vr{ ug{ ;lsg] 5}g . v_ ;fwf/0f;efaf6 kfl/t ah]6 / sfo{qmdsf] clwgdf /xL sf]ifaf6 /sd vr{ ug{ ;lsg]5 . u_ sf]ifaf6 vr{ ePsf] /sdsf] cfly{s k|ltj]bg ;fwf/0f;efdf clgjfo{ ¿kn] k]z ug{ kg]{5 . 3_ sf]ifsf] /sd vr{ ubf{ tf]lsP adf]lhd vr{ ug{ kg]5 . {@#= ;+:yfsf] n]vf / n]vfk/LIf0f M != ;+:yfsf] cfo Joosf] n]vf k|rlnt sfggadf]lhd :ki6 tj/n] /flvg] 5 . @= ;+:yfsf] n]vfk/LIf0f k|rlnt sfggadf]lhd /lhi68{ n]vfk/LIfsaf6 xg5 . ] #= g]kfn ;/sf/ jf :yfgLo clwsf/Ln] rfx]df hg ;s} avtdf klg cfkm}F jf dftxtsf sd{rf/Lx¿ v6fO{ ;+:yfsf] lx;fa lstfa hfFr ug{ u/fpg ;Sg]5 . $= n]vfk/LIfssf] lgolQm ;fwf/0f;efaf6 xg5 . t/ k|yd jflif{s ;fwf/0f;ef ] geP;Dd n]vfk/LIfssf] lgolQm sfo{;ldltaf6 xg5 . ] %= ;+:yfsf] n]vfk/LIf0f k|ltj]bg / jflif{s sfo{ k|ult ljj/0fsf] !÷! k|lt :yfgLo clwsf/L, lhlj;, ;dfh sNof0f kl/ifb / ;DalGwt lgsfodf k]z ul/g]5 . kl/R5]b & lgjf{rg, cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj, ljwfg ;+zf]wg;DaGwL Joj:yf@$= lgjf{rg;DaGwL Joj:yf M != sfo{;ldltsf] lgjf{rg k|of]hgsf] nflu a9Ldf k|ltzt hgfsf] Ps lgjf{rg ;ldlt sfo{;ldltsf] ;xdltåf/f u7g ul/g]5 . @= lgjf{rg ;ldltn] k|rlnt sfggsf] kl/lwleq /x]/ lgjf{rg sfo{ljlw cfkm}F Jojl:yt ug]{5 . >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 12
  • 13. #= lgjf{rg;DaGwL ljjfb pTkGg ePdf ljjfbsf] 6Ëf] nufpg lgjf{rg ;ldltsf] lg0f{o g} clGtd xg]5 . $= lgjf{rg ;DkGg ePsf] ef]lnkN6 lgjf{rg ;ldlt :jtM lj36g xg5 . ]@%= pDd]bjf/ xg] of]Uotf M sfo{;ldltsf] pDd]bjf/ xg ljkbsf If]qdf sfo{/tb]xfoadf]lhdsf] ;+:yfx¿ of]Uo xg5g M ] != g]kfn ;/sf/sf dGqfno, cfof]u, ljefu, s]Gb|Lo:t/sf lgsfo, ;fj{hlgs k|lti7fg @= /fli6«o tyf cGt//fli6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf #= ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo Pj+ cGo cGt/f{li6«o lgsfo $= j}1flgs, k|fl1s P+j cg;Gwfg ;+:yf %= cfd;~rf/ hut ^= :yfgLo lgsfo &= ;fdbflos ;+:yf *= cf}Bf]lus tyf Jofkfl/s ;ª3;+:yf@^= cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj M != cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj lnlvt ¿kdf sg sg kbflwsf/L jf ;b:osf] lj?4df xf] :ki6 vnfO{ b]xfoadf]lhdsf] l/t k¥ofO{ ;+:yfdf btf{ ug{ kg]{5 M s_ g]kfnL efiffdf lzi6 zAbsf] k|of]u u/L n]lvPsf] xgk5{ . v_ k|:tfjsf] ljifo :ki6 / Jojxfl/s xgk5{ . u_ ;fwf/0f;ef ;b:ox¿dWo]af6 sDtLdf !÷$ -Ps rf}yfO_ ;b:ox¿sf] k|i6 gfd y/ / 7]ufgf ;lxt vnfOPsf] xgk5{ . @= pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd ;+:yfdf btf{ ePsf] cljZjf;sf] k|:tfjsf] :ki6 ljifo vnfO{ ;fwf/0f;ef jf ljz]if ;fwf/0f;ef a:g] :yfg, ldlt, ;do;d]t tf]sL ;+:yfsf] ;fwf/0f;efsf] ;Dk"0f{ kbflwsf/L / ;b:ox¿nfO{ ljwfgsf] bkmf !! -$_ adf]lhd ;fwf/0f;ef jf ljz]if ;fwf/0f;ef a:g] ;"rgf lbOg] 5 . #= cljZjf;sf] k|:tfjdfly 5nkmnsf] k|lqmof M s_ ;fwf/0f;efdf cWoIftf ug]{ JolQmn] ;fwf/0f;efdf pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] k|:tfj k]z ug{ cgdlt lbg]5 / k|:tfj k]z ug]{ ;b:ox¿ dWo] Ps hgfn] cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj Nofpgkg]{ sf/0f;lxtsf] cfkmgf] cledt ;ef ;dIf k|:tt ug]{5 . v_ pkbkmf # -s_ adf]lhd cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj, kIfsf ;b:on] cfkmgf] cledt k|:tt u/]kl5 ;f] k|:tfjpk/ dt k|s6 ug{ rfxg] ;b:ox¿nfO{ cWoIfn] cledt k|s6 ug{ cgdlt lbg ;Sg]5 . u_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj hg kbflwsf/L jf ;b:ox¿ lj?4 k|:tt ul/Psf] xf], cWoIftf ug]{ JolQmn] tL kbflwsf/L jf ;b:ox¿nfO{ cfkmgf] ;kmfO k]z ug]{ df}sfsf] nflu cfkmgf] egfO /fVg cgdlt lbg]5 . $= cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj dfly lg0f{oM cljZjf;sf] k|:tfjpk/ cfkmgf] egfO k|:tt ug]{ qmd ;dfKt ePkl5 cWoIftf ug]{ JolQmn] ;f] cljZjf;sf] k|:tfjsf] axdt kIf jf ljkIfdf 5 eGg] lg0f{osf] nflu b]xfo adf]lhdsf] sg} Ps tl/sf ckgfO{ cljZjf;sf] k|:tfjsf] lg0f{osf] 3f]if0ff ug]5 M { >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 13
  • 14. s_ cljZjf;sf] k|:tfjsf] kIfdf dt k|s6 ug]{ Ps ;d"xdf / ljkIfdf dt k|s6 ug]{ csf]{ ;d"xdf 56ofP/, jf v_ ;fwf/0f;efsf ;b:ox¿nfO{ cljZjf;sf] k|:tfjsf] kIf / ljkIfdf uf]Ko dtbfg u/fP/ . u_ ;fwf/0f;efsf] sn ;b:o ;ªVofsf] @÷# -bO{ ltxfO_ axdtsf] cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj kfl/t xg5 . To:tf] k|:tfj kfl/t ePdf k|:tfljt kIfsf JolQmx¿ ] kbdQm xg5g . ] -3_ lgjf{lrt ePsf] ^ dlxgf gkuL jf k|:tfj ljkmn ePsf] ^ dlxgf gkuL To:tf] JolQmpk/ kgM clj:jf;sf] k|:tfj Nofpg kfOg] 5}g .@&= ljwfg ;+zf]wg M pkl:yt ;b:o ;ªVofsf] @÷# -bO{ ltxfO_ ;fwf/0f;ef ;b:ox¿n]cgdf]bg u/]kZrft dfq ;+:yfsf] sg} bkmf ;+zf]wg jf vf/]hsf] nflu g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIfl;kmfl/; u/L k7fpg kg]{5 . g]kfn ;/sf/af6 :jLs[t ePkZrft dfq ;+:yfsf] sg} bkmf;+zf]wg jf vf/]h ePsf] dflgg] 5 .@*= lgod agfpg ;Sg] M != ;+:yfn] cfkmgf] sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug]{ ;Gbe{df cfjZos lgod agfpg ;Sg]5 / ;f] lgod ;fwf/0f;efaf6 kfl/t u/fO{ nfu" xg5 / :yfgLo clwsf/LnfO{ ;f] sf] ] hfgsf/L lbg kg]{5 . @= of] ljwfg / ljwfgcGt{ut ag]sf] lgodsf] clwgdf /xL ;+:yfsf] sfo{ ;~rfng / p2]Zo sfof{Gjogsf nflu sfo{;ldltn] sd{rf/L Joj:yf / cfly{s k|zf;g;DaGwL ljlgdo agfO{ nfu" ug{ ;Sg]5 . To:tf] ljlgdox¿ ;fwf/0f;efaf6 cgdf]bg u/fpg kg]{5 .@(= sd{rf/Lsf] Joj:yf M s_ ;+:yfsf] b}lgs sfo{ ;~rfng / of]hgf tyf sfo{qmd ;~rfngsf] nflu sd{rf/L b/aGbL l;h{gf, kfl/>lds, eQf tyf cGo ;ljwf / sd{rf/Lsf] ;]jf zt{x¿ ckgfpg kg]{ sfo{ljlw tf]lsPadf]lhd xg5 . ] v_ ;+:yfn] ljb]zL ;xof]u k|fKt u/L ;+:yfsf] ;~rfng ug]{ sfof{Gjog ljb]zL ;Nnfxsf/ jf :jod;]js /fVg] cj:yf ePdf lghn] sfd ug]{ cjlw, k¥ofpg] ;]jf, sfdsf] cf}lrTo, ;ljwf / ltgsf] of]Uotf;d]tsf] ljj/0f :yfgLo clwsf/L, lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt / ;dfh sNof0f kl/ifbdf ;d]t hfgsf/L u/fOg] 5 .#)= ;+:yf vf/]hL M != ;fwf/0f;efn] cfjZos b]v]df ljz]if k|:tfj kfl/t u/L ;+:yf vf/]hL ug{ ;Sg]5 . @= pkbkmf ! adf]lhd ;+:yfsf] vf/]hLsf] k|:tfj kfl/t ubf{ ;fwf/0f;efn] vf/]hLsf] sfdsf nflu Ps jf Ps eGbf a9L lnlSj8]6/x¿ / ;+:yfsf] lx;fa lstfa ug{sf] nflu Ps jf PseGbf a9L n]vfk/LIfsx¿ lgoQm ug{ ;Sg]5 . #= pkbkmf -@_ adf]lhd lgoQm lnlSj8]6/ / n]vfk/LIfsx¿sf] kfl/>lds ;fwf/0f;efn] tf]lslbP adf]lhd xg5 . ] $= o;/L sf/0fa; ;+:yf lj36g eO{ vf/]h ePdf ;+:yfsf] bfloTjsf] km/kmf/s u/L afFsL /xg] ;Dk"0f{ hfoh]yf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] xg]5 . >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 14
  • 15. #!= AofVof M of] ljwfg / ljwfgcGtu{t ag]sf] lgod ljlgodsf] AofVof ug]{ clwsf/sfo{;ldltnfO{ xg5 . ]#@= uf]Kotf eªu ug{ gxg] M o; ;+:yfsf sgklg kbflwsf/L jf ;b:on] ;+:yfsf] clxt xg] }sfo{ ug{ xFb}g . sfo{;ldltsf kbflwsf/L, ;b:o jf ;fwf/0f;efsf ;b:ox¿n] a}7s jf;fwf/0f;efdf c;Eo / cZnLn zAbsf] k|of]u ug{ kfOg] 5}g .##= P]gcg;f/ xg] M o; ljwfgdf pNn]v gePsf s/fx¿ sfggadf]lhd xg5 / ;+:yf btf{ ]P]g, lgod, / k|rlnt sfgg ;Fu aflemg uPdf aflemPsf] xb;Dd :jtM lgliqmo xg5g . ]#$= lgb]{zgsf] kfngf M g]kfn ;/sf/ jf :yfgLo clwsf/Ln] ;do, ;dodf lbPsf] lgb]{zgsf]kfngf ug{ ;+:yfsf] st{Jo xg5 . ]#%= tby{ ;ldlt M != of] ;+:yf :yfkgf u/L btf{ u/fpgsf] nflu ul7t tby{ ;ldltn] ^ dlxgfleq ;fwf/0f;ef af]nfO{ ljwfgcg;f/sf] lgjf{rg ;ldltsf] u7g u/L gofF sfo{;ldltsf] lgjf{rg u/fpg]5 / ;f] sf] hfgsf/L :yfgLo clwsf/LnfO{ lbOg] 5 . @= k|yd k6s lgjf{rg ;DkGg geP;Ddsf] cj:yfdf sfo{;ldltn] u/]sf sfd sf/afxLx¿ o;} ljwfg ;/x ePsf] dflgg] 5 .#^= xfdL ==================== sf lgDg ;+:yfksx¿ o; ljwfg adf]lhd sfo{ ug{ d~h/ eO{ lgDg;fIfLsf] /f]xa/df ljwfgdf ;xL5fk ub{5f} . ;+:yfkssf] gfd, y/ / 7]ufgf ;fIfLsf] gfd, y/, jtg / ;lx5fk!= gfd y/ M 8f= uf]ljGb s;d, ;lrj, u[x dGqfno != gfd y/ M =========================================== 7]ufgf M ================= lhNnf M ================ 7]ufgf M ================ lhNnf M ================ gu/kflnsf ========================================= gu/kflnsf M ====================================== uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============= Ans g+= ======== uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============ Ans g+= ========@= gfd y/ M ab|L vgfn, cWoIf, k|sf]k k"j{tof/L ;~hfn @= gfd y/ M ===========================================g]kfn 7]ufgf M ================ lhNnf M ================ 7]ufgf M ================= lhNnf M ================ gu/kflnsf M ====================================== gu/kflnsf ========================================= uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============ Ans g+= ======== uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============= Ans g+= ========#= gfd y/ M zªs/k|;fb sf]O/fnf, ;x;lrj, u[x #= gfd y/ M =========================================== dGqfno 7]ufgf M ================ lhNnf M ================ 7]ufgf M ================= lhNnf M ================ gu/kflnsf M ====================================== gu/kflnsf ========================================= uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============ Ans g+= ======== uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============= Ans g+= ======== >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 15
  • 16. $= gfd y/ M cfdf]bd0fL bLlIft, e"sDk k|ljlw /fli6«o $= gfd y/ M =========================================== ;dfh, g]kfn 7]ufgf M ================ lhNnf M ================ 7]ufgf M ================= lhNnf M ================ gu/kflnsf M ====================================== gu/kflnsf ========================================= uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============ Ans g+= ======== uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============= Ans g+= ========%= gfd y/ M z/]; k|sfz cfrfo{, ;x;lrj, ef}lts %= gfd y/ M =========================================== of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfno 7]ufgf M ================ lhNnf M ================ 7]ufgf M ================= lhNnf M ================ gu/kflnsf M ====================================== gu/kflnsf ========================================= uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============ Ans g+= ======== uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============= Ans g+= ========^= gfd y/ M yL/axfb/ hL= ;L=, pk;lrj, u[x dGqfno ^= gfd y/ M =========================================== 7]ufgf M ================= lhNnf M ================ 7]ufgf M ================ lhNnf M ================ gu/kflnsf ========================================= gu/kflnsf M ====================================== uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============= Ans g+= ======== uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============ Ans g+= ========&= gfd y/ M pQd ?kfv]tL, k|ltlglw, g]kfnL ;]gf &= gfd y/ M =========================================== 7]ufgf M ================= lhNnf M ================ 7]ufgf M ================ lhNnf M ================ gu/kflnsf ========================================= gu/kflnsf M ====================================== uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============= Ans g+= ======== uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============ Ans g+= ========*= gfd y/ M cf]d zªs/ dNdL, k|ltlglw, ;+oQm *= gfd y/ M =========================================== /fi6«;ª3Lo ljsf; sfo{qmd g]kfn 7]ufgf M ================ lhNnf M ================ 7]ufgf M ================= lhNnf M ================ gu/kflnsf M ====================================== gu/kflnsf ========================================= uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============ Ans g+= ======== uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============= Ans g+= ========(= gfd y/ M bLk]Gb| k?if 9sfn, gful/s ;dfh tyf (= gfd y/ M =========================================== g]kfn ljkb Joj:yfkg s]Gb| 7]ufgf M ================ lhNnf M ================ 7]ufgf M ================= lhNnf M ================ gu/kflnsf M ====================================== gu/kflnsf ========================================= uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============ Ans g+= ======== uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============= Ans g+= ========!)= gfd y/ M k|f= 8f= hLj/fh kf]v/]n, >L OlGhgLol/ª !)= gfd y/ M =========================================== cWoog ;+:yfg, lqlj 7]ufgf M ================ lhNnf M ================ 7]ufgf M ================= lhNnf M ================ gu/kflnsf M ====================================== gu/kflnsf ========================================= uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============ Ans g+= ======== >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 16
  • 17. uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============= Ans g+= ========!!= gfd y/ M ljb/ d}gfnL, k|ltlglw, g]kfn gu/kflnsf !!= gfd y/ M =========================================== ;ª3 7]ufgf M ================ lhNnf M ================ 7]ufgf M ================= lhNnf M ================ gu/kflnsf M ====================================== gu/kflnsf ========================================= uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============ Ans g+= ======== uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============= Ans g+= ========!@= gfd y/ M lji0fk|;fb v/]n, k|ltlglw, cS;kmfd hLaL !@= gfd y/ M ==piff k|wfg======= g]kfn 7]ufgf M =a6se}/j 6f]n==== lhNnf M nlntk/== 7]ufgf M ================= lhNnf M ================ gu/kflnsf M ===nlntk/========== gu/kflnsf ========================================= jf8{ g+ ===^=== Ans g+= ====$%&= uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============= Ans g+= ========!#= gfd y/ M Zofd ;Gb/ 1jfnL, k|ltlglw, PS;gP8 !#= gfd y/ M ====;Demgf l3ld/]== g]kfn 7]ufgf M ===sf7df8f}+== lhNnf M ==sf7df8f}+= 7]ufgf M ================= lhNnf M ================ gu/kflnsf M =sf7df8f}+================= gu/kflnsf ========================================= jf8{ g+ ==!=== Ans g+= ==@*^== uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============= Ans g+= ========!$= gfd y/ M sdf/ s]= ;L=, k|ltlglw, g]kfn /]8qm; !$= gfd y/ M =========================================== ;f];fO6L 7]ufgf M ================ lhNnf M ================ 7]ufgf M ================= lhNnf M ================ gu/kflnsf M ====================================== gu/kflnsf ========================================= uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============ Ans g+= ======== uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============= Ans g+= ========!%= gfd y/ M /fdrGb| Gof}kfg], k|ltlglw Osf] g]kfn ÷ !%= gfd y/ M zf/bf aZofn kof{j/0f dfl;s 7]ufgf M sf7df8f}+ ! lhNnf M sf7df8f}+ 7]ufgf M ================= lhNnf M ================ gu/kflnsf M ===sf= d= g= kf= gu/kflnsf ========================================= jf8{ g+ ==!=== Ans g+= =@*^ uf=lj=;= jf8{ g+ ============= Ans g+= ======== >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 17
  • 18. cg";l" r ! ;+:yfsf] 5fk / lrGxsf] ljj/0f;+:yfsf] 5fk / lrGxsf] ljj/0f cfsf/, k|sf/ Pj+ cGo ljj/0fx¿sf] ;DaGwdf pNn]v ug]{ >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 18
  • 19. >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d+rsf] ;ldlt -tby{_ kbflwsf/L lgsfo gfd y/ x:tfIf/qm=;+=! cWoIf ;lrj, u[x dGqfno, l;+xb/jf/ . 8f=uf]ljGbk|;fb s;d @ pkfWoIf cWoIf jf ;+:yfsf] k|ltlglw, >L ab|L vgfn l8lkg]6 g]kfn, sf7df08f}# ;lrj ;x ;lrj, u[x dGqfno -of]=tyf >L z+s/k|;fb sf]O/fnf ljz]if ;]jf dxfzfvf_$ sf]iffWoIf sfo{sf/L lgb]{z jf ;+:yfsf] >L cfdf]bdl0f bLlIft k|ltlgw, e"sDk k|ljlw /fli6«o ;dfh g]kfn, sf7df08f} .% ;b:o ;x ;lrj, ef}lts of]hgf tyf >L ;/zk|sfz cfrfo{ ] lgdf{0f dGqfno^ ;b:o pk ;lrj, u[x dGqfno, b}jL >L ly/axfb/ hL=;L= k|sf]k Joj:yfkg zfvf& ;b:o k|ltlglw, g]kfnL ;]gf >L pQd ?kfv]tL* ;b:o k|ltlglw, o=Pg=8L=kL=, g]kfn >L cf]dz+s/ dNdL( ;b:o k|ltlglw, gful/s ;dfh / g]kfn >L bLk]Gb|k?if 9sfn ljkb Joj:yfkg s]Gb|!) ;b:o k|ltlglw, >L OlGhlgol/+u cWoog 8f= hLj/fh kf]v/]n ;+:yfg, lq=lj=!! ;b:o k|ltlglw, g]kfn gu/kflnsf ;ª3 >L ljb/ k|= d}gfnL!@ ;b:o k|ltlglw, cS;kmfd g]kfn, >L lji0f k|= v/]n sf7df08f}!# ;b:o k|ltlglw, PS;g P8 g]kfn, Zofd;Gb/ 1jfnL sf7df08f}!$ ;b:o k|ltlglw, >L g]kfn /]8s|;, >L s[i0fsdf/ s]=;L= sf7df08f}!% ;b:o k|ltlglw, Osf] g]kfn÷kof{j/0f >L /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] dfl;s, sf7df08f} >L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] ljwfg, @)^% 19