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Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res
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Kdrri case study report nepali 2009 low res

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  • 1. 36gf cWoog k|ltj]bg ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0faf6 xouf] sfo{of]hgfdf of]ubfg " s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? km]a'|j/L,@))( EUROPEAN COMMISSION Nepal Red Cross Humanitarian Aid Society, Kailali
  • 2. gbL lsgf/ ;+/If0 sfo{
  • 3. n]vsM w'|j /fh uf}td :jtGq cg';Gwfgstf{ tyf k/fdz{bftf email: drgautam@wlink.com.np ;'bz{g vgfn ljBfyL{, jg tyf jftfj/0f cWoog :s"n on ljZjljBfno, ;+oQm /fHo cd]l/sf " ljz]if of]ubfg M pNnf 8f]G;, r]t axfb'/ tfdf·, ;fu/ kf]v|]n, lxdfn cf]emf kmf]6f] M ;fu/ kf]v|]n, r]t axfb'/ tfdf·, lxdfn cf]emf, w'|j /fh uf}td / pNnf8f]G; ;Dkfbs M s[i0f clwsf/L cfj/0f t:jL/ M ;d'bfo:t/sf] 5nkmn leqL cfj/0f M gbL lsgf/ ;+/If0f sfo{ leqL k5fl8 M jfnjflnsfn] ;"rgf ;fdfu|LnfO{ cjnf]sg ub}{ clGtd cfj/0f -z'?jft af6_ M ;Lk ljsf; tflnd, ;fO/g– k"j{ ;"rgf k|0ffnLsf] k|of]u, nfO{km Hofs]6sf] d2taf6 p4f/ ul/+b,} uflj;sf] ;xof]udf 8'¨fsf]] tof/L, hn tyf df};d lj1fg ljefusf k|fljlwsx?;šusf] 5nkmn, gbL lsgf/ ;+/If0f sfo{ . l8hfOg / k|sfzg M dfO08 ;]o/ ;~rf/ k|f= ln= k|sfzs M d;L{ sf]/ g]kfn, nlntk'/, g]kfn . o; k|ltj]bgdf pNn]lvt ljrf/x?n] o'/f]knL cfof]u;šu s'g} klg ;DaGw /fVb}gg / o; k|ltj]bgsf ;"rgf tyf ] hfgsf/Lx?sf] k|of]usf] ;DaGwdf klg cfof]usf] lhDd]jf/L /xg]] 5}g .
  • 4. ljifo ;"rL k|fSsyg s cfef/ v sfo{sf/L ;f/f+z u != ;Gbe{ ! @= ljlw @ #= xouf] sfo{of]hgf -;g @))%–@)!%_ @ " $= xouf] sfo{of]hgfsf] k|fylds nIox? xfl;n ug{ kl/of]hgfsf of]ubfgx? # " $=! k|fyldstf ! # $=@ k|fyldstf @ % $=# k|fyldstf # * $=$ k|fyldstf $ !# $=% Kf|fyldstf % !^ %= xouf] sfo{of]hgfsf] /0fgLlts nIox? xfl;n ug{ kl/of]hgfsf of]ubfgx? !& " %=! /0fgLlts nIo ! !& %=@ /0fgLlts nIo @ !* %=# /0fgLlts nIo # !* tflnsfx? tflnsf ! M ;d'bfo / uflj;df /x]sf] 3/ ;ªVof / hghfltsf] l:ylt ! tflnsf @ M k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltx?sf] n}ªl us tyf hftLo ;+/rgf # { tflnsf # M ljleGg If]qdf cfpg] af9Lsf] cg'dflgt ;do ^ tflnsf $ M vt/fdf /x]sf] kfgLsf] ;tx ^ tflnsf % M ljleGg tflndx?df ;xefuLx?sf] ;ªVof !! tflnsf ^ M Go"gLs/0fsf] sfo{, ;fd'bflos g;{/L / j[If/f]k0fsf] cj:yfrL !$
  • 5. Foreword k|fSsyg s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? kl/of]hgfaf6 o; 36gf cWoogn] s}nfnL lhNnfdf ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t xouf] sfo{of]hgfdf k'¥ofPsf] of]ubfg;DaGwL 36gf cWoog " k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ultljlwx?dfkm{t xo"uf] k|sfzg ug{ kfpšbf d;L{ sf]/ g]kfnnfO{ Hofb} v'zL sfo{of]hgfsf d"ne"t kIfx?df of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf] s'/fnfO{ nfu]sf] 5 . of] 36gf cWoog o"/f]knL cfof]usf] dfgjLo ] ljz]if lrq0f u/]sf] 5 . o; kl/of]hgfn] /fli6«o / :yfgLo ;xfotf ljefusf] blIf0f Plzofsf nflu rf} y f] k|fyldstf cg';f/ ;+:yfut ;'b9Ls/0fsf cfwf/df k|sf]k [ sfo{of]hgfcGtu{t d;L{ sf]/ g]kfn / g]kfn /]8qm; hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{ ;~rfng ePsf] ;'lglZrttf ;f];fO6L, s}nfnL zfvf4f/f ;~rflnt s}nfnL k|sf]k ug{] -k|fyldstf !_, k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd klxrfg, d"Nofªsg hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? kl/of]hgfsf] glthf xf] . of] / cg'udg ug]{ tyf k"j;rgf k|0ffnLnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg] { " 36gf cWoog :jtGq cg';Gwfgstf{ tyf k/fdz{bftf -k|fyldstf @_, 1fg, vf]h / lzIffsf] pkof]u u/]/ ;a} w'j /fh uf}tdn] tof/ kfg'{ ePsf] xf] . o; cWoogdf on | txdf ;'/IffTds ;+:s[lt / k|sf]k ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtf ljZjljBfno, jg tyf jftfj/0fLo cWoog :s"nsf ljBfyL{ clej[l4 ug{] -k|fyldstf #_, hf]lvdsf cfwf/e"t sf/s ;'bz{g vgfnsf] klg ;xof]u k|fKt ePsf] 5 . o; 36gf tTj Go"gLs/0f ug]{ -k|fyldstf $_ / ;a} txdf k|sf]ksf] cWoogsf] nflu o"/f]knL cfof]usf] dfgjLo ;xfotf k|efjsf/L ;Djf]wgsf nflu ;zQm k"jtof/L ug]{ -k|fyldstf { ljefusf] cfly{s ;xof]u pknAw u/fOPsf] lyof], ;fy;fy} %_ h:tf k|fylds sfo{x?sf] k"lt{ ug{df ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] dl;{ sf]/ g]kfnsf] ;Dk"0f{ kl/of]hgf 6f]nLsf] ;xof]u klg 5 . o;}u/L kl/of]hgfn] lbuf] ljsf; gLlt tyf of]hgfdf cWoogsf] qmddf k|efjsf/L /x]sf] lyof] . k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ PsLs[t ug]{ -/0fgLlts nIo !_ k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtf clej[l4sf] nflu /fli6«o of] 36gf cWoogn] kl/of]hgfaf6 cl3 ;fl/Psf d"ne"t tyf ;fd'bflos tx;Dd ;+:yfut ;+/rgfdf ;3fp k'¥ofpg] p2]Zox?sf] d"Nofªsg gu/]/ kl/of]hgfåf/f ;d'bfodf -/0fgLlts nIo @_ / k|efljt ;d'bfosf] ;xof]usf] nflu cfwfl/t k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ultljlwx?af6 xouf] " cfkTfsfnLg k"j{tof/L, p4f/, /fxt tyf k'g{:yfkgfsf] sfo{of]hgfdf k'¥ofPsf] of]ubfgnfO{ d'Vo ljifoj:t' agfPsf] k|Tofe"lt lbg hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf cEof;x?nfO{ cfTd;ft 5 . ;g @)!% ;Dd k|sf]k;DjGwL dfgjLo, ;fdflhs, ug]{ -/0fgLlts nIo #_ h:tf /0fgLlts nIox? xšfl;n cfly{s tyf jftfj/0fLo c;/x? sd ub}{ ljZjnfO{ k|fs[lts ug{ ;d]t d2t u/]sf] 5 . d;L{ sf]/sf] tkm{af6 o:f k|sf]kaf6 ;'/lIft ug{ ;+;f/el/sf !^* j6f /fi6«n] bzjif]{ cWoogdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] ;a}kl| t xflb{s cfef/ JoQm xouf] sfo{of]hgfnfO{ cg'df]bg u/]sf 5g . hfkfgsf] " ug{ rfxfG5' . vf;u/L o"/f]knL cfof]usf] dfgjLo ;xof]u ] xouf]df ePsf] ljZj ;Dd]ngn] o; sfo{of]hgfnfO{ kfl/t " ljefusf] blIf0f Plzofsf nflu rf}yf] sfo{of]hgf cGtu{t u/]sf] 5 / of] g} k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] lbzfdf d;L{ sf]/ g]kfn / g]kfn /]8qm; ;f];fO6L s}nfnL zfvf, ljZjs} dxTjk"0f{ b:tfj]h ag]sf] 5 . d;L{ sf]/åf/f :yfgLo, lhNnf / /fli6«o ;/sf/L lgsfox?, l8k]sf] g]kfnsf ;~rflnt sfo{qmdx?af6 ljleGg ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;šusf] ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx?, k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f kl/of]hgf ;dGjo dfkm{t xouf] sfo{of]hgfsf d"ne"t l;4fGtx?nfO{ " 6f]nL / ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ kl/of]hgfsf ;d'bfox? wGojfbsf k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ultljlwx?n] ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] kfq x'gxG5 . '' 5 . xfdLnfO{ s] ljZjf; 5 eg] :yfgLo, /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o ljsf; ;fem]bf/dfkm{t xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfsf] sfof{Gjogdf hf]; 8]jN8 yk ;xof]u k'¥ofpg d2t k'Ub5 . /fli6«o lgb]zs { d;L{ sf]/, g]kfn kl/of]hgfaf6 xo"uf] sfo{ of]hgfdf of]ubfg s s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx?
  • 6. cfef/ o; 36gf cWoogsf] k|sfzg / cfly{s ;xof]usf] nflu ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf]df / s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? kl/of]hgfnfO{ blIf0f Pl;ofsf nflu rf}yf] sfo{of]hgfcGtu{t cfly{s ;xof]u k|fKt ePsf]df o'/f]k]nL cfof]usf] dfgjLo ;xfotf ljefunfO{ wGojfb lbg rfxG5f}+ . o; 36gf cWoogsf] l;nl;nfdf ;"rgf / hfgsf/L dfq glbP/, leqL x[boaf6 ;xof]u k|bfg ug'xg] s}nfnL lhNnfsf kl/of]hgf ;d'bfox? vf;u/L ljzgk'/, hf]slxofk'/, nlntk'/, { ' dlgsfk'/, df]xgk'/ / lzj/tgk'/;šu xfdL Hofb} cfef/L 5f}+ . of] kl/of]hgfn] xouf] sfo{of]hgfnfO{ " s;/L of]ubfg ug{ ;s]sf] 5 eGg] a'emg k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldlt, ;d'bfosf ;b:ox? / { ;/f]sf/jfnfx?, lzIfs tyf ljBfyL{, uflj; tyf lhNnf:t/Lo ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] oy]i6 ;xof]u k|fKt ePsf] lyof] . To;sf/0f of] cWoognfO{ oy]i6 ;do, k[i7kf]if0f / ;'emfj lbP/ ;xof]u ug'xg] ;a} ju{ / txsf ;Dk"0f{ ;d'bfo wGojfbsf] kfq x'gxG5 . { ' ' ' s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? kl/of]hgf ;+oQm ?kdf sfof{Gjog ug'xg] d;L{ ' { ' sf]/ g]kfn / g]kfn /]8qm; ;f];fO6L s}nfnL zfvfk|lt klg xfdL cfef/L 5f}+ . 36gf cWoogsf] l;nl;nfdf lkmN8sfo{sf] ;Gbe{df / wgu9Ldf lhNnf:t/Lo ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;šusf] 5nkmnsf] qmddf pxfšx?sf] dxTjk"0f{ ;xof]u k|fKt ePsf] lyof] . of] 36gf cWoogsf] cjwf/0ffut ;+/rgf, cWoog ljlw / d:of}bf k|ltj]bgdf yk k[i7kf]if0f / ;'emfj lbg' ePsf]df d;L{ sf]/ g]kfn / kl/of]hgf Joj:yfkg 6f]nLnfO{ wGojfb glbO/xg ;Sb}gf}+ . cGTodf, of] 36gf cWoognfO{ k"/f ug]{ lhDdf xfdLnfO{ lbg' ePsf]df d;L{ sf]/ g]kfnk|lt xfdL cfef/L 5f}+ . w'j /fh uf}td / ;'bz{g vgfn | v 36gf cWoog k|ltj]bg
  • 7. sfo{sf/L ;f/f+; g]kfn /]8qm; ;f];fO6L;šusf] ;fem]bf/Ldf d;L{ sf]/ g]kfnn] tyf ;ªs6fled'vtfsf] klxrfg ul/Psf] 5 . hn tyf s}nfnL lhNnfsf ^ j6f ;d'bfodf s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd df};d lj1fg ljefusf] lkmN8 sfof{no;šusf] ;dGjodf Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? kl/of]hgf sfof{Gjogdf NofPsf] ;d'bfosf] nflu k"j;rgf lbg] Joj:yf ldnfOPsf] 5 / { " 5 . o; kl/of]hgfnfO{ o"/f]knL cfof]usf] dfgjLo ;xof]u ] k|To]s kl/of]hgf cGtu{tsf ;d'bfox?df ;d'bfo:t/Lo ljefusf] blIf0f Plzofsf nflu rf}yf] sfo{of]hgf cGt{ut k"j;rgf k|0ffnL ;d]t :yfkgf ul/Psf] 5 . af9Lsf] txsf] { " cfly{s ;xof]u pknAw u/fOPsf] xf] . of] 36gf cWoog af/] d f :yfgLo afl;GbfnfO{ ;" r gf lbgsf] nflu xouf] sfo{of]hgfsf] nflu nIo k|fKt ug{ s] , lsg / " ;d'bfo:t/df c3l/of -;d'bfosf] ;"rgf cfbfg–k|bfg s;/L o; kl/of]hgfn] of]ubfg lbPsf] 5 eGGf] af/]df ug]{ JolQm _ jf k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltn] JolQmx? 5gf}6 { s]Gb|Lt /x]sf] 5 . g]kfn /]8qm; ;f];fO6L / d;L{ sf]/sf ul/] kl/rfng u/]sf] 5 . x/]s ;d'bfodf cfsl:ds / sd{ r f/Lx?;š u sf] 5nkmn, d' V o ;" r gfbftf;š u sf] k|fylds pkrf/ ;fdu|Lx? pknAw u/fO;lsPsf] 5 / cGtjf{tfx?, nlIft ;d"x 5nkmn / ljZn]if0f Pjd :ynut ;L8LPdP kmf]g / xftn] g} rnfpg ;lsg] ;fO/gx?n] k|ltj]bgx?sf] cWoogsf] cfwf/df of] k|ltj]bg tof/ ul/Psf] dflg;x?nfO{ af9Lsf] hf]lvdaf6 aRg ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] 5. 5 . cfsl:ds ;dfrf/ / df};d;DaGwL a'nl] 6gx? ;do ;dodf :yfgLo PkmPdx?af6 ;Dk|if0f ul/Psf 5g, h;n] ] xouf] sfo{of]hgfsf] k|fyldstfnfO{ xfl;n ug{ kl/of]hgfsf] " k|sf]k k"jtof/Lsf] nflu lgs} k|efjsf/L ;xof]u k'usf] { ] of]ubfg M o; kl/of]hgfn] /fli6«o / :yfgLo k|fyldstf 5. cg';f/ ;+:yfut ;'b9Ls/0fsf cfwf/df k|sf]k hf]lvd [ Go"gLs/0fdf ePsf sfo{x?sf] ;~rfngsf] ;'lglZrttf 1fg, vf]h / lzIffsf] pkof]u u/]/ ;a} txdf ;'/IffTds ug{ vf]hsf] 5 -k|fyldstf !_ af9Lsf] hf]lvd / dflg;x?sf] ] ;+:s[lt / k|sf]k ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtf clea[l4 ug{ - k|fyldstf ;ªs6fled'vtfnfO{ sd ug{ kl/of]hgfn] k|To]s ;d'bfodf #_ kl/of]hgfn] ;"rgf, lzIff tyf ;~rf/ ;fdu|Lx? k|sfzg :ki6 e"ldsf / bfloTj;lxt k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltx? / { u/L Jofks ?kdf ljt/0f u/]sf] 5 . h; cGt{ut k|sf]k pk;ldltx? u7g u/]sf] 5 . ;fy} Jojl:yt ;fdflhs hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;šu ;DjlGwt lel8of] / ;8s gf6sx¿ n]vfk/LIf0fsf] dfWodaf6 ljQLo kf/blz{tf sfod ul/Psf] k|b{zgL ul/Psf 5g . 1fgsf] Joj:yfkgdf k"j{;"rgf 5 . cfsl:ds sf]if / ;fd'bflos k|sf]k Joj:yfkg k|of; k|0ffnLaf6 lgs} nfe k'usf] b]lvG5 . o:t}, :yfgLo hgtf, ] k|sf]khGo vt/fx?af6 aRg k"j{tof/Lsf nflu ;xof]uL ;/f]sf/jfnfx? / ljBfyL{x? u/L sl/a Ps xhf/ hgfn] ag]sf] 5 . oL sfo{x? ug{sf nflu ^ j6f ;d'bfon] k|sf]k ;DaGwL Ifdtf clej[l4sf ljleGg tflndx? k|fKt xfn;Dd ?= &$,#))÷– art klg ul/;s]sf 5g . u/]sf 5g . ljBfyL{ / lzIfsx? Kfl/jt{gsf ;Djfxs ;d'bfo:t/Lo k|sf]k k"j{tof/L of]hgfnfO{ uflj;:t/Lo ePsf]n] kl/of]hgfn] k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;šu} ;+/If0f k|sf]k k"j{tof/L of]hgf;šu cfj4 ul/Pkl5 ;d'bfox? lzIffnfO{ nlIft u/L ljBfno txdf ljleGg sfo{qmdx? of]hgf sfof{Gjogsf nflu cfjZos ;|ft h'6g]df 9'Ss ] ;d]t ;~rfng u/]sf] 5 . ePsf 5g . kl/of]hgfn] hf]lvdsf cfwf/e"t sf/s tTj Go"gLs/0f of] kl/of]hgfn] ;d'bfonfO{ k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd klxrfg, ug{ -k|fyldstf $_ sd vr{df g} ug{ ;lsg] afš; / d"Nofªsg / cg'udg ug]{ tyf k"j{;"rgf k|0ffnLnfO{ afn'jfsf] af]/f el/Psf y}nfx?sf] k|of]u ug]{ / jfof]– k|efjsf/L agfpg ;xof]u u/]sf] 5 -k|ffyldstf @_ . OlGhlgol/¨sf] af/]df klg hfgsf/L lbP/ ;d'bfonfO{ yk x/]s ;d'bfodf ;ªs6fled'v tyf Ifdtf ljZn]if0fsf] ;Ifd agfPsf] 5 . gbL] lsgf/sf] pAhfp hldg arfpg dfWodaf6 ;d'bfosf] ef}lts, wf/0ffut / ;fdflhs hf]lvd / jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨ k|ljlwnfO{ a9fjf lbg @&,#)) ju{ld6/ kl/of]hgfaf6 xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfdf of]ubfg s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? u
  • 8. hldgdf ljleGGf hftsf $#,))) la¿jfx? /f]lkPsf 5g . nIo ! -bLuf] ljsf; gLlt tyf of]hgfdf k|sf]k hf]lvd o:tf sfo{x¿n] af9L, klx/f] / u|fdL0f hgtfsf] s[lif If]q Go"gLs/0fnfO{ PsLs[t ug]_ xfl;n ug{ of]ubfg k'usf] 5 . { ] / ;d'bfosf] ;'/Iff ug{ 7"nf] ;xof]u k'usf] 5 . af9Lsf] ] ;d'bfo:t/df agfOPsf k|sf]k k"j{tof/L of]hgfnfO{ ufpš ;dodf ;fd'bflos 8'ªufn] ;'/Iffsf] cg'el" t u/fPsf] 5 ljsf; ;ldlt -uflj;_ / lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt-lhlj;_ eg] 8'jfgsf] ;dodf ;fd'bflos cf>o:ynx¿n] ;'/lIft x?;šusf] ;dGjoaf6 ;fd'bflos of]hgf sfof{Gjog ug{ 9¨af6 afšRg ;3fp u/]sf] 5 . o:t}, ;'/lIft dfu{sf] rflxg] ;|ftsf] Joj:yf ug{ ufx|f] x'g] 5}g . o;/L :yfgLo ] lgdf{0fn] hgtfnfO{ cf>o:ynx¿;Dd k'Ug cyjf ;'/lIft txsf k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? /fli6«o:t/df 7fpšdf hfg ;xof]u u/]sf] 5 . jiff{ofddf :jR5 vfg]kfgLsf] bLuf] ljsf; gLlt tyf of]hgf;šu PsLs[t x'g] cj:yf ;'lglZrttf u/fpg / cg]s kfgLhGo /f]ux? A.9g glbg 5 . ;fd'bflos 8'ªuf Pjd ;'/lIft 3/ tyf ;'/lIft cUnf xft] kDkx?sf] k|of]u Jofks ?kdf ePsf] kfOG5 . af6f]sf] Joj:yfaf6 ;d'bfosf] k|sf]k;šu n8g ;Sg] Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 . o;/L k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ kl/of] h gfn] k" j { t of/Lsf lqmofsnfkx?, /fxt / Ifdtf clej[l4sf] nflu /fli6«o tyf ;fd'bflos tx;Dd k'g:yf{kgsf sfo{df ;sf/fTds of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf] 5 ;+:yfut ;+/rgfdf ;3fp k'¥ofpg kl/of]hgfn] xouf] " - Kf|fyldstf %_ . /fli6«o tyf lhNnf:t/df cfof]lht tflnd sfo{of]hgfsf] /0fgLlts nIo @ -k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ / sfo{zfnfdf :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutfn] ;"rgf Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu /fli6«o / ;fd'bflos tx;Dd cfbfg–k|bfg, ;|ftsf] afš8kmfš8, gLltsf] jsfntsf] ;fy;fy} ] ;+:yfut ;+/rgfdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg]_ nfO{ xfl;n ug{ k|fljlws / ;fªu7lgs Ifdtf a9fpg ;xof]ul;4 ePsf] d2t u/]sf] 5 . ;~hfn lgdf{0f, ;dGjo / ;xsfo{af6 5 . jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨ k|ljlwaf6 pT;flxt eP/ ;d'bfon] kl/of]hgf If]qsf ;d'bfonfO{ k|efjsf/L k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf] { " lhNnf hnpTkGg k|sf]k sfof{non] :k/x? lgdf{0f ug{sf k|of]u ug{, k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k|sf]ksf] ;dodf nflu ?= %) xhf/ 5'6ofPsf] 5 . o;}u/L lhNnf /fxt / ;xof]u ug{ cem yk an k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . e"–;+/If0f sfof{non] klg jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨ k|ljlw lj:tf/ kl/of]hgfn] ;d'bfonfO{ k|sf]k k"jtof/Lsf cEof;dfkm{t { ug{ % j6f ;d'bfonfO{ yk ?= &) xhf/ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . pgLx?sf] Ifdtf a9fpg lg/Gt/ ;xof]u u/]sf] 5 . vfB tyf u}/vfB ;fdu|Lx?sf] ljt/0faf6 k|sf]ksf] a]nfdf xouf] sfo{of]hgfsf] /0fgLlts nIo xfl;n ug{ kl/of]hgfn] " tTsfn} /fxt / ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg ;Dej ePsf] 5 . k'¥ofPsf] of]ubfg M ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+:yfx?nfO{ k|sf]k oL ;Dk"0f{ ultljlwaf6 xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfsf] /0fgLlts hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ultljlwx? ;~rfng ug{ ;jn / nIo # -k|efljt ;d'bfosf] ;xof]usf] nflu cfkTsfnLg ;Ifd agfpg], 1fgsf] Joj:yfkg;DaGwL k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; k"j{tof/L, p4f/, /fxt tyf k'g:yf{kgfsf] k|Tofe"lt lbg ug]{ tyf ljQLo kf/blz{tf sfod ug]{ sfo{x? Pjd ;+:yfut hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf cEof;x?nfO{ cfTd;ft ug{_ nfO{ ] ?kdf ;'zf;g sfod ug]h:tf s'/fx?n] ;d'bfosf] Ifdtf { ;fsf/ kfg{ kl/of]hgfn]] dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf] 5 . clej[l4 u/]sf] 5 . o;af6 xouf] sfo{of]hgfsf] /0fgLlts " 3 36gf cWoog k|ltj]bg
  • 9. s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? kl/of]hgfaf6 xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfdf of]ubfg != ;Gbe{ tflnsf ! ;d'bfo / uflj;df /x]sf] 3/;ªVof / hghfltsf] l:ylt Ufflj; ;d'bfo 3/ ;ªVof hghflt ;g @))& gf]eDa/b]lv g]kfn /]8qm; ;f];fO6L;+usf] ] Yff? a|fDx0f÷If]qL blnt Kfj]/f dgsfk'/ &# &@ ) ! ;dGjodf d;L{ sf] / n] s} n fnL lhNnfsf rf/j6f lj;gk'/ ## ## ) ) uflj;x?sf ^ j6f ;d'bfodf s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Kf"mnjf/L nlntk'/ &* %) $ @$ Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? gfds kl/of]hgf ;~rfng ub}{ cfPsf] x;'lnof lzj/tgk'/ ^$ ^@ ! ! Df]xgk'/ &* &* ) ) 5 . o; kl/of]hgfnfO{ o"/f]knL cfof]usf] dfgjLo ;xfotf ] /tgk'/ Hff]vlxofk'/ %@ %@ ) ) ljefun] blIf0f Plzofsf nflu rf}yf] sfo{of]hgf cGtu{t s"n #&* #$& % @^ cfly{s ;xof]u u/]sf] 5 . >f] t M kl/of] h gf /] s 8{ @))&÷)* :yfgLo lgsfox? / cGo ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] ;fd'lxs k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf k|of;x?nfO{ nfu" ug{ ;lsg] k|of;df k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxndfkm{t ;d'bfonfO{ u/L ;d'bfo 5gf}6 ePsf 5g . ;Ifd Pj+ ;'/lIft t'Nofpg' o; kl/of]hgfsf] p2]Zo /x]sf] 5 . kl/of]hgfn] :yfgLo Ifdtf clej[l4 tyf tflnd, kl/of]hgf nfu" ePsf ;d'bfox?df (!=* k|ltzt cflbjf;L yf? hfltsf] j;f]jf; /x]sf] 5 . oxFf s]xL dfqfdf ljleGg k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf ;–;fgf sfo{x?, lzIff tyf ;xhLs/0f kxf8L lhNnfx?af6 a;fO{ ;/L cfPsf a|fDx0f, If]qL / Pjd ;dGjo h:tf If]qx?df ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] 5 . blntx?sf] klg j;f]jf; /x]sf] 5 . jx';ªVos dflg;n] lrq ! s}nfnL lhNnf / kl/of]hgf If]q P]nfgL cyf{t btf{ gePsf] hUuf cfjfbL u/]sf 5g . cfkmg} hldg x'g;u klg @ s77fb]lv # ljufxf;Dd hUuf ] š /x]sf] kfOG5 . k/Dk/fut kz'kfng, clwofš a6}ofaf6 hLjg lgjf{x ug]{ kl/jf/sf] ;ªVof klg k|z:t /x]sf] 5 . w]/h;f] } o'jfx? ef/tdf Hofnfbf/Ldf sfd ug{ >ldssf] ?kdf hfg] ub{5g . o;/L sdfPsf] k};faf6 pgLx?n] kl/jf/ sf b}lgs vfglkgsf nflu vfBfGgsf] Joj:yf ug'{sf] ;fy} ljleGGf rf8kj{df x'g] vr{ nufot 3/fo;L cfjZostf k"/f ug]{ ub{5g . kl/of]hgf nfu" ePsf ;d'bfodf af9Lsf] d'Vo vt/f /x]sf] 5 . df]xgf gbL / o;sf s6}gL, v'l6of, 3'/fxfh:tf ;xfos gbLx?n] cf;kf;sf pTkfbgof]Uo hldg s6fg ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . af9Ln] ubf{ dflg;x?sf]] Hofg} hfg] tyf 3/, ufO{j:t'nufot ax'dNo wg;DklQ u'dfpg' kg]{ x'G5 . af9Ln] " Psflt/ ;8s, s'nf], ljBfno, :jf:Yo rf}sLh:tf k"jf{wf/ x? gf]S;fg ug]{ ub{5 eg] csf]l{ t/ :jR5 vfg]kfgLsf kl/of]hgf nfu" ePsf uflj;x? ;'b/klZrd ljsf; If]qsf] " ;|ftx? tyf ;/;kmfO{df ;d]t ;d:of Nofpg] ub{5 . h;sf] ] s}nfnL lhNnfdf kb{5g . oL uflj;x? @*) #$’$^=#! kmn:j?k af9Ln] hgtfsf] hLljsf]kfh{gdf ;d:of Nofpg'sf] ;fy} pgLx?nfO{ ;ªs6fled'vtftkm{ ws]nsf] 5 . af9Ln] ] b]lv @*) #)’#(=&( cIff+z / *)) $$’%(=@! b]lv *)) lgDTofpg] gf]S;fgLn] ubf{ :yfgLo dflg;x? ;w}h;f] eo %)’%@=^# b]zfGt/df cjl:yt 5g . kl/of]hgf If]q ;d'b| / qf;df cfkmgf] hLjg Joltt ug{ jfWo 5g . ;txb]lv &) ld6/sf] prfO{df /x]sf] 5 . ljBdfg vt/ fx?, ;ªs6fled'vtf / hf]lvddf /x]sf j:tLx? / gbL d;L{ sf]/n] kl/of]hgfsf] d'Vo pknlAwx¿ / l;sfO{sf s6fgaf6 3/ / hldg Iflt ePsf] cfwf/df kl/of]hgfn] cg'ejx?nfO{ /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o:t/df k|;f/ ug{sf ;d'bfox?sf] 5gf}6 u/]sf] lyof] . ljutsf] Oltxf;, nflu 36gfd"ns cg';Gwfgdf cfwfl/t eP/ of] ;fdu|L tof/ u/]sf] 5 . o; k|ltj]bgn] xouf] sfo{of]hgftkm{ " ;d'bfosf] cfly{s–;fdflhs l:ylt tyf ;]jf k|bfos kl/of]hgfn] s] s;/L of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf] 5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ ;+:yfx?df pgLx?sf] kxšr Pjd l5d]sL ;d'bfodf ;d]t ' ;d]t phfu/ u/]sf] 5 . kl/of]hgfaf6 xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfdf of]ubfg s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? 1
  • 10. @= ljlw of] k|ltj]bg ^ j6f ;d'bfodf u/]sf] :ynut cWoogdf k'usf] lyof] . d'Vo hflgkmsf/x?;šusf] cGtjftf{ / nlIft ] cfwfl/t 5 . of] cWoog k|ltj]bg tof/ ug]{ qmddf k|ZgfjnL ;d"x 5nkmnh:tf ;xeflutfTds dfWod / ljlwsf] k|of]u / lgb]l{ zsf tof/ ul/g'sf ;fy} ;DalGwt ljifodf ul/Psf u/]/ k|fylds tYofªsx? ;ªsng ul/Psf] lyof] . ;fy} ljutsf cWoogx?sf] k'g/fjnf]sg ul/Psf] lyof] . h'lgo/ /]8qm; ;s{nx? / k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltx?;šu { nlIft ;d"x 5nkmn ul/Psf] lyof] . yf? ;d'bfosf :ynut sfo{ yfNg' cufl8 d;L{ sf]/ / g]kfn /]8qm; k/Dk/fut g]tf eNfdG;f / pgsf ;xof]uL c3l/of, ;f];fO6L;šu 5nkmn ul/Psf] lyof] . :yfgLo ;d'bfon] k|sf]k pk;ldltsf ;+of]hsx?, k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf :jo+;jsx?, { " ] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ckgfpšb} cfPsf ;kmn k|of;x?sf] ljBfnosf lzIfs / ljBfyL{x?;šusf] s'/fsfgLaf6 ;dLIff ul/Psf] lyof] . x;'lnofdf ePsf] kl/of]hgfsf :yfgLo pgLx?sf] k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0ftkm{sf] wf/0ff a'emg sd{rf/Lx?;šusf] ;+lIfKt e]63f6df c;n cEof; / ;kmn ;xof]u k'usf] lyof] . k|sf]k Joj:yfkg / g;{/L Joj:yfkg ] syfx?h:tf dxTjk"0f{ pknlAwx?af/] hfgsf/L k|fKt ePsf] ;ldltx?sf ;b:o;šusf] lx+8fOn] klg ;d'bfosf] oyfy{ lyof] . To:t}, lhNnf:t/Lo ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;šu ul/Psf] cj:yf a'emg ;xof]u k'usf] lyof] . ] a}7saf6 cfk;L ;dGjo / ;+oGq klxrfg ug{ lgs} ;xof]u #= xo"uf] sfo{of]hgf -;g @))%–@)!%_ xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfn] k|fyldstf k|fKt sfo{x? ug{df ;/sf/ / -$_ hf]lvdsf sf/s tTj Go"gLs/0f ug]{ . o;sf :yfgLo, If]qLo lgsfox? / cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L -%_ k|sf]ksf] k"j{tof/Lsf nflu k|efjsf/L ?kdf ;anLs[t ;+:yf;šusf] ;dGjoaf6 alnof] cfwf/ lgdf{0f u/]sf] 5 . xo"uf] ug]{ . sfo{of]hgf cGt{ut kfšrj6f k|fylds sfo{x? kb{5g . tL x'g– xouf] sfo{of]hgfsf tLgj6f /0fgLlts nIox? /x]sf 5g M " -!_ /fli6«o / :yfgLo k|fyldstf cg';f/ ;+:yfut -s_ lbuf] ljsf; gLlt / of]hgfdf k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;'b[9Ls/0fsf cfwf/df k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{ PsLs[t ug]{ . ;~rfng ePsf] ;'lglZrt ug{] . -v_ k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtf clej[l4sf] nflu /fli6«o tyf -@_ k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd klxrfg, d"Nofªsg / cg'udg ug]{ tyf ;fd'bflos tx;Dd ;+:yfut ;+/rgfdf ;3fp k'¥ofpg] . k"j{;"rgf k|0ffnLnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg] . -u_ k|efljt ;d'bfosf] ;xof]usf] nflu cfkTsfnLg k"j{tof/L, #_ 1fg, vf]h / lzIffsf] pkof]u u/]/ ;a} txdf ;'/IffTds p4f/, /fxt tyf k'g{:yfkgfsf] k|Tofe"lt lbg hf]lvd ;+:s[lt / k|sf]k ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{] . Go"gLs/0fsf cEof;x?nfO{ cfTd;ft ug]{ . 2 36gf cWoog k|ltj]bg k]ma|c/L, @))( '
  • 11. $= xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfsf] k|fyldstf xfl;n ug{ kl/of]hgfsf] of]ubfg o; cWoog k|ltj]bgdf o; kl/of]hgfn] xouf] sfo{of]hgfn] " :ki6 e"ldsf / pQ/bfloTjsf] jf]w u/fpg / k|sf]k hf]lvd lnPsf cfkmgf k|fyldstf k|fKt sfo{ / /0fgLlts nIox?nfO{ Go"gLs/0fsf ultljlwx?df a9L lhDd]jf/ u/fpg k|To]s s;/L of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf] 5 eGg]af/]df oyfy{ lrq0f u/]sf] 5 . k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldlt cGtu{t kfšrj6f pk;ldltx? Uf7g { ul/Psf 5g . h;cGtu{t k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltsf] ;b:o { $=! k|fyldstf !M /fli6«o / :yfgLo pk;ldltsf] kb]g ;b:o /xg] k|fjwfg 5 . o;n] k|sf]k k|fyldstf cg';f/ ;+:yfut ;'b9Ls/0fsf] [ k"jtof/L ;ldlt / pk;ldltx?aLr hfgsf/L / cg'ejsf] { cfwf/df k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{ cfbfg–k|bfg ug]{ ;+:s[ltsf] ljsf; x'Gf] u/]sf] 5 . Ifdtf ;~rfng ePsf] ;'lglZrt ug{] . clej[l4 tflndx? / cGt/–;d'bfo e|d0fx?Dffk{mt oL ;ldltx?sf] ;anLs/0f ePsf] 5 . clxn] ;d'bfo / k|sf]k s_ k|sf]k k"jtof/L / k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f { k"jtof/L ;ldlt pgLx?;šu k|ofKt 1fg / ;Lk /x]sf] 5 eg] { ultljlwx? ;~rfngsf nflu ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t tL ;ldltx?n] :yfgLo:t/df af9Lsf] hf]lvd sd ug{ / ;+:yfx?sf] ;anLs/0f ;ªs6fled'vtf 36fpg ;Ifd ePsf 5g . Kfl/of]hgf nfu" ePsf ;d'bfodf :yfgLo dflg;x?nfO{ k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;DaGwL ultljlwx?df k|fT;fxg u/L ;d'bfodf { ] v_ 1fg cfbfg–k|bfg ;+oGqsf] ljsf; af9Lsf] hf]lvd sd ug{{ ^ j6f n}ªl us / ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLk"0f{ o; kl/of]hgfn] 1fgsf] l;sfO{ / cfbfg–k|bfgsf] nflu k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltx? Uf7g ul/Psf 5g -tflnsf @ { k|efjsf/L ;+oGqsf] lgdf{0f u/]sf] 5 . sfo{qmdx?sf nflu x]gf];_ . o;sf] cltl/Qm, lzj/tgk'/ ;d'bfon] ckfªutf { k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltx?sf a}7sn] g} ;xefuL] 5gf}6 ug]{ { ePsf] JolQm / Ps ljw'jf tyf Ps lgjf{lrt dlxnf endG;f k|lqmofn] ;fdflhs P]Soj4tf a9fpg'sf ;fy} lje]bLs/0fnfO{ ;lxtsf] k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldlt ;d]t u7g u/]sf] 5 . k|sf]k { sd u/]sf] 5 / tflnd tyf cled'vLs/0fsf nflu 5gf}6 k"jtof/L ;ldltn] ufpš:t/Lo ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;šu ;dGjo / { ePsf ;xefuLx?n] yfxf kfPsf gofš ;"rgf, 1fg / ;LknfO{ ;DjGw lj:tf/ ub{5g . oL ;+oGqx?n] kfn};šu ;|ftsf] ] k"jtof/L ;ldltsf ;b:ox?nfO{ cfbfg–k|bfg ug]{ ub{5g . { afš8kmfš8nfO{ k|fT;fxg ub{5g . o; jfx]s, nlntk'/ k|sf]k ] k"jtof/L ;ldlt / km"njf/L uflj;aLrsf] ;dGjoaf6 { u_ kl/of]hgfsf x/]s ultljlwx?df cfly{s ;d'bfonfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ @ hgf 8'ªuf rfnsnfO{ ;'/lIft kf/blz{tf sfod Hofs]6 k|bfg ug{ ;Dej ePsf] xf] . h;af6 cfsl:ds k|To]s k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltn] ;fwf/0f t/ k|efjsf/L { ;dodf ;d'bfonfO{ cfjZos ;]jf lbg ;xof]u k'usf] 5 . ] pkfoaf6 cfly{s kf/blz{tfnfO{ sfod /fv]sf 5g . x/]s ;ldltsf] cfÎg} a+s vftf /x]sf] 5 . ;f] vftfdf kl/of]hgf } tflnsf @ k|sf]k k"j{tof/L ;ldltsf] n}+lus / hghflt l:ylt jf lhNnfsf cGo lgsfox?af6 pkNfAw u/fOPsf] /sd uflj; ;d'bfox? ;b:ox? hghflt hDdf ul/Gf] ub{5 . vl/b tyf n]vf pk;ldltn] ;a} ljQLo k'?if dlxnf s'n Yff? Af|f÷If] blnt s" n km'njf/L nlntk'/ * % !# * @ # !# sf/f]jf/nfO{ kl/of]hgfsf] cfly{s lgod jdf]lhd Jojl:yt x;'lnof df]xgk'/ * % !# !# ) ) !# u/]sf] 5 . ;d'bfo:t/df ;fdflhs n]vfk/LIf0fnfO{ k"0f{ lzj/tgk'/ ^ & !# !@ ! ) !# kj]/f lj;dk'/ ( $ !# !# ) ) !# ?kdf :yflkt ul/Psf] 5 h:fdf kl/of]hgfsf ultljlwx?df dgsfk'/ & ^ !# !@ ) ! !# x'g] ;a} vr{sf] af/]df k|f/lDes / clGtd r/0fdf Jofks /tgk'/ Hf]lvofk'/ * % !# !# ) ) !# s"n $^ #@ &* &! # $ &* 5nkmn x'g] ub{5 . x/]s dxTjk"0f{ lg0f{ox? / sf/f]jf/x?nfO{ >f]t M kl/of]hgf /]s8{ @))&÷)* b|i6AoM af÷If]– a|fDx0f÷If]qL kl/of]hgfaf6 xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfdf of]ubfg s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? 3
  • 12. ;fd'bflos ;"rgfkf6Ldf tyf k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltsf { 5 . k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf o:tf] cfsl:ds sf]ifnfO{ sfof{nox?sf leQfdf 6fš:g] ul/Psf] 5 . k|sf]k k"jtof/L { cfzfsf] ls/0fsf] ?kdf ufpšnx?n] lnPsf 5g . ljleGg ] ;ldlt / vl/b pk;ldltsf ;b:ox? ;fdfg vl/b k|lqmofdf k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltx?nfO{ dfl;s ?kdf k|To]s kl/jf/n] { ;xefuL x'g] ub{5g . h;af6 ljQLo kf/bzL{tf / hf]lvd ?= % b]lv !)) ;Dd / k|lt s77f hldgsf] Ps s]hL ux'š afš8g] s'/f pRr x'G5 . ;xof]u ug{ :jLsf/ u/]sf 5g . o;/L ^ j6f kl/of]hgfsf ;d'bfox?af6 ?=&$,#)) art eO;s]sf] 5 . ;a}eGbf a9L lj;gk'/ ;d'bfon] ?= @%,&)* / ;a}eGbf yf]/} hf]vlxofk'/ aS; ! ;fdu|Lsf] ;xof]u eGbf ;"rgf, hfgsf/L, 1fg / ;d'bfon] ?=%,(!( art u/]sf 5g . k|sf]k k"jtof/L { ;Lk a9L dxTjk"0f{ x'G5g ;'?sf] ;dodf xfdL kl/of]hgfsf sd{rf/L;šu vf;} v';L lyPgf} . pgLx? ;ldltx?n] cfsl:ds sf] i fnfO{ a9fpg ljleGg xfdLnfO{ tflnd tyf cled'vLs/0f uf]i7Ldf ;xefuL x'g lgdGq0ff ub{y] . cjwf/0ffx?nfO{ cg'z/0f u/]sf 5g . df]xgk'/ ;d'bfon] hasL xfd|f] OR5f kl/of]hgfn] gbL lsgf/df tf/hfnLsf] 7f]Ss/ agfP/ ;xof]u ul/of]; eGg] lyof] . t/ kl/of]hgfn] ;~rfng u/]sf x/]s tflnd jiff{ofddf 8'ªuf ;~rfng u/]/ /sd ;ªsng ug]{ u/]sf] 5 tyf cled'vLs/0f uf]i7Ldf ;xefuL x'šbf xfdLn] :yfgLo:t/df pknAw . o:t}, lzj/Tfgk'/ ;d'bfon] klg kmfu', b]p;L–e}nf] sfo{qmdx? 1fg, ;|ft / ;fdu|Lsf] k|of]uaf6 s;/L k|sf]ksf] hf]lvdnfO{ sd ug{ ] ;lsG5 eg]/ j}slNks lqmofsnfkx?sf] af/]df a'‰g] df}sf kfof}+ . cem ;~rfng u/L ?= %^$ ;ªsng u/]sf] 5 . oBlk, o:tf o:tf sfo{qmdx?df ;xefuL x'g kfpšbf tflndaf6 k|fKt 1fg s;/L sfo{qmdx? k/Dk/fut ePklg kl/of]hgfsf nflu /sd cfbfg–k|bfg ug],{ ljQLo kf/blz{tf s;/L sfod ug],{ ;|ftsf] afš8kmfš8 ] ;ªsngdf pkof]uL x'g ;Sb5 . lzj/tgk'/ ;d'bfon] /sd s;/L ;dtfd"ns agfpg] / :yfgLo txdf agfOPsf gLlt lgodx?nfO{ s;/L sfof{Gjog ug]{ eGg] af/]df w]/} s'/f hfGg] df}sf kfof}+ . jf:tjdf h'6fpg g;{/Laf6 lj?jf laqmL ug{] of]hgf ;d]t agfPsf] 5 . ;fdu|Lsf] ;xof]u eGbf klg ;"rgf, hfgsf/L, 1fg, ;Lk a9L dxTjk"0f{ x'g] /x]5 . >L vf]h /fd rf}w/L, dgsfk'/ -pkfWoIf, d'Qm sd}of ;dfh, s}nfnL_ kl/of]hgf nfu" ePsf oL ^ j6f ;d'bfox?af6 k|sf]ksf] ;dodf l5d]sL ;ªs6fled'v ;d'bfox?n] ;xof]u kfPsf 3_ ;d'bfo:t/df :jLs[t gLlt lgodsf] cg';/0f 5g . pbfx/0fsf nflu, hªunL xfQLx¿n] ufpšdf cfP/ k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltx?n] k|sf]k k"jtof/Lsf ultljlwx? { { cGgafnL / 3/x¿ gi6 u/]kl5 kLl8t aGg k'usf l5d]sL ] ;~rfng ug{ ljleGg gLlt lgodx? Nffu" u/]sf 5g . gbL j;Gtf ufpšnfO{ lzj/Tfgk'/ / dgsfk'/ ;d'bfon] cfkmgf] lsgf/sf ;+/lIft If]q / j[If/f]k0f ul/Psf If]qdf rl/r/0f ug{ cfkTsfnLg sf]ifaf6 qmdzM &@ / &% s]hL wfg pkNfAw glbg k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldlt / pk;ldltsf ;b:ox?sf] { u/fPsf lyP . o;/L oL ;d'bfox? cfk"m;šu cfsl:ds lhDd]jf/L tf]lsPsf] 5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu, lzj/tgk'/ ;d'bfon] sf]if ePsf] sf/0f t'?Gt ;xof]u ug{ ;Ifd ePsf lyP a}7sdf l9nf] cfpg] / ;fKtflxs ?kdf ul/g] ;/;kmfO{ . lj;gk'/ k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltn] sf]zL af9LkLl8tnfO{ { cleofgdf ;xefuL c:jLsf/ ug]{ ;b:ox?nfO{ hl/jfgf b'O{ lSjG6n ux'š ;xof]u ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] lyof] t/ c;f]h ug]{ ub{5 . vf]h tyf p4f/ pk;ldltsf ;b:ox?sf] Aff9Lsf] dlxgfdf pgLx? cfk}m af9Laf6 kLl8t ePkl5 ;f] lg0f{onfO{ cg'udg tyf cfjZostf cg';f/ ;fO/g ahfpg' kg]{ bfloTj :ylut ug{ afWo ePsf lyP . o:tf k|of;x?n] pgLx?df k|sf]k /x]sf] x'G5 . To:t}, vl/b tyf n]vf ;ldltsf ;b:ox? hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ;fd'lxs efjgfsf] ljsf; ePsf] b]Vg ;fdflhs n]vfk/LIf0fk|lt pQ/bfoL x'g] ub{5g . ;d'bfo:t/df ;lsG5 . To:t}, oL k|of;x?n] ufpšnx?aLr ;fdflhs P]Soa4tfsf] ] :jLs[t d"No dfGotfsf] cg';/0faf6 ;d'bfox?nfO{ k|sf]k efjgf hfu[t x'g ;xof]u k'usf] 5 / k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf d2t k'usf] 5 . ] kxnx?df ;fd"lxs efjgfnfO{ cem a9fpg d4t k'usf] 5 . ] 8=_ ;dGoflos 9ªuaf6 ;|ftsf] af“8kmf“8 u/L ] r_ ;d'bfo / uflj;:t/df k|sf]k k"jtof/L { cfsl:ds sf]if :yfkgf of]hgfx?sf] th'df { ;dGoflos ;|ft ;+oGqn] cfkTfsflng cj:yfsf nflu gub ] x/]s k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltn] ;d'bfo:t/df k|sf]k k"jtof/L { { tyf lhG;L ;ªsng ug]{ sfo{nfO{ ;xh agfPsf] 5 . x/]s of]hgf th'df ubf{ ;'/lIft :yfgfGt/0f, p4f/ tyf /fxtsf { k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltx?n] k|sf]k k"jtof/L / p4f/sf { { sfo{, ;fd'bflos g;{/L Joj:yfkg, gbL lsgf/sf] ;+/If0f, ultljlwsf] ;~rfngsf nflu cfsl:ds sf]ifx?sf] :yfkgf ;'/lIft dfu{sf] lgdf{0f, gbL cg'udgsf] nflu e"ldsf u/]sf 5g . o:tf] sf]ifaf6 k|sf]ksf] ;dodf tTsfn p4f/ tyf pQ/bfloTjx?sf] afš8kmfš8 / k"j;rgf ;fdu|Lx?sf] { " tyf /fxtsf nflu :yfgLo ;|ftsf] k|of]u ug{ ;lhnf] ePsf] ] Joj:yfkg tyf dd{t h:tf ultljlwx?nfO{ ;dfj]z u/]sf 4 36gf cWoog k|ltj]bg k]ma|c/L, @))( '
  • 13. 5g . o:tf of]hgfx? :yfgLo:t/df g} th'df eO{ :yfgLo { ;|ftsf] kl/rfng u/L sfof{Gjog ePsf] oxfšsf] ;d'bfosf] ] nflu of] klxnf] k6s xf] . tL of]hgfx?sf] sfof{Gjogdf uflj; / lhNnf txaf6 yk ;xof]u k|fKt ug]{ pgLx?n] cfzf /fv]sf 5g . kl/of]hgfn] x/]s uflj;df ufpš k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;ldltx?sf] u7g u/L uflj;sf of]hgfx?df ;d'bfo:t/sf k"j{tof/Lsf of]hgfx?nfO{ cfj4 ug]{ sfo{sf] ;xhLs/0f u/]sf] 5 . ^ j6f kl/of]hgf ;d'bfox?sf] e|d0fkl5 uflj;sf ;fem]bf/x? o; lsl;dsf] ;dGjo u/fpg pT;flxt ePsf 5g . lgZro g} eljiodf ;d'bfo txsf k|sf]k k"j{tof/L of]hgfx? Ufflj;sf ljsf; of]hgfx?df ;dfj]z x'g5g . uflj;sf ;lrjx? Uffpš k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ] ;ldltsf] ;+of]hssf] ?kdf /x]sf x'G5g / uflj;:t/sf] uflj;:t/Lo ;/f]sf/jfnfsf] a}7s k|sf]k k"jtof/L of]hgfx?sf] th{'df ubf{ ;d'bfo:t/sf { hf]lvd / ;ªs6fled'vtfsf] klxrfg u/]sf] 5 . :yfgLo of]hgfx?nfO{ Plss[t ul/g] Joj:yf ldnfOPsf] 5 . o; hgtfn] af9LnfO{ pgLx?sf] If]qdf k|dv vt/fsf] ?kdf ' k| o f;n] ;fd' b flos k| s f] k k" j { t of/L of] h gfx?sf] klxrfg ug{ yfn]sf 5g . pgLx?sf] ;ªs6fled'vtf a[l4 sfof{Gjogdf uflj; txdf ;|f]t kl/rfng ug]{ 9f]sf ug]{ d'Vo sf/0f pgLx?df /x]sf] c1fgtf, ;fdflhs cg]stf, v'nsf] 5 . x;'lnof uflj;n] lzj/tgk'/ k|sf]k k"jtof/L ] { xf]rf] e"efu, gbL lsgf/f glhs cJojl:yt a;fO, sdhf]/ ;ldltnfO{ 8'ªuf lgdf{0fsf nflu ?= %,))) /sd pknAw ;fdflhs ;ªu7g / k|ofKt k"jtof/Lsf] sdL /x]sf] 5 . { u/fPsf] lyof] . lzj/tgk'/af6 pTk|l] /t eO{ cGo k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltx?n] klg cfkmgf uflj;x?af6 /sd { aS; @ ;|f]tsf] vf]hL ug{ ca xfdLnfO{ 8/ 5}g Nofpg] of]hgf agfPsf 5g . Pp6f ;fd'bflos k|sf]k ha lzj/tgk'/ ;d'bfon] x;'lnof uflj;af6 8'¨f agfpg ;xof]u k|fKt u¥of], xfdLn] klg jfof]–OlGhlgol/Ësf] sfo{ yk 7fp“df ;~rfng ug{sf k"j{tof/L of]hgfx? Ufflj;sf] of]hgfdf cfj4 x'g'n] tL nflu uflj;;“u ;xof]u dfUg] t/v/df 5f}+ . o;af6 jf:tjdf uflj;sf] of]hgfx? :jtM s}nfnL lhNnfsf] of]hgfdf klg cfj4 ;|ftdf xfd|f] clwsf/ x'G5 eGg] klg xfdLnfO{ yfxf eof] . ha ;fd'bflos ] x'g]5g / k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ljifo lhNnfsf k|sf]k of]hgfx? Ufflj;:t/Lo of]hgfdf ;dflxt x'G5g, ta ;fd'bflos k|sf]k of]hgfsf] sfof{Gjog ug{ uflj;sf] ;|ft k|of]u ug{ ;lsg] l:ylt ] ] gLlt, of]hgf / sfof{Gjogx?df d"nk|jfxLs/0f x'g5 . ] /xg]5 . xfdLnfO{ ;|ftsf] vf]hL ug{ Tolt ufx|f] x'g] 5}g lsgsL uflj;:t/Lo ] k|sf]k of]hgfsf] ;DaGw lhlj;;“u x'g5 .] ;+If]kdf, ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+:yfx?sf] ;jnLs/0fn] k|sf]k >L 5]b/fd rf}w/L, ;+of]hs, k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldlt, hf]vlxofk'/ ' { hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{qmdx?nfO{ ;~rfng ug{, 1fg cfbfg– k|bfgsf] ljsf; ug{, kl/of]hgfsf x/]s ultljlwx?df ljQLo o;/L ;ªs6fled'v / Ifdtf klxrfgsf cEof;x¿af6 kf/blz{tf sfod /fVg tyf ;d'bfo Pjd uflj; txdf k|sf]k vt/fnfO{ sd ug]{ lbzfdf k|efjsf/L kmfObf k'usf] 5 . ] k"jtof/L of]hgfx?nfO{ ;dfj]z ug{ ;lhnf] ePsf] 5 . { kl/of]hgfsf ;d'bfox? af9L k|efljt If]qsf] klxrfg ug{ / ;Defljt af9Lsf] c;/nfO{ sd ug{ ;r]t ePsf 5g . $=@ k|fyldstf @ M k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd klxrfg, Ifdtf clej[l4af6 ;d'bfodf af9Lsf] lx;fjn] sd, dWod / d"Nofªsg / cg'udg ug]{ tyf k"j{;"rgf pRr vt/fo'Qm If]q klxrfg ug{ ;Dej ePsf] 5 . k|0ffnLnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg] . s= hf]lvdsf] klxrfg / kx'rsf nflu 1fg / “ olb af9Lsf] kfgL dWod / pRr hf]lvd If]qdf k:of] eg] ;Lksf] ljsf; hLjg / dxTjk"0f{ wg;DklQ arfpgsf] nflu tof/Lx¿ z'? kl/of]hgfn] x/]s ;d'bfodf ;ªs6fled'v / Ifdtf ljZn]if0f ug{ cfjZos x'G5 . ;g @))* ;]K6]Da/sf] af9Lsf] ;dodf cEof;sf] dfWodaf6 ;d'bfosf] ef}lts, wf/0ffut / ;fdflhs :yfgLo jfl;Gbfx¿n] af9Lsf] hf]lvdnfO{ sd ug{ l;s]sf kl/of]hgfaf6 xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfdf of]ubfg s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? 5
  • 14. tflnsf # ljleGg If]qdf cfpg] af9Lsf] cg'dflgt ;do cg'udg s;/L ug{ ;lsG5 / To;af/] s;/L ;"rgf ;Dk|if0f] gbL :yfg cg'dflgt 306f ;'emfj lbOPsf] x'g] ub{5 eGg]af/]df :ki6 ePsf 5g . ltgLx?n] jiff{sf] ;do Dff]xf]gf Dfnfv]tLb]lv lj;gk'/ ( * ;fdfGo / vt/fsf] txsf af/]df hfGg'sf ;fy} s;/L Dfnfv]tLb]lv aG;f/ # @=% eG;f/b]lv la;gk'/ ^ % ;d'bfonfO{ k"jtof/Lsf cj:yfdf k'¥ofpg ;lsG5 eGg] af/]df { v'6Lof v'l6of d'8L aG;f/b]lv !) ( klg ;r]t ePsf 5g . -tflnsf $ x]gf];_{ la;gk'/ Uff}/L uªuf /fhdfu{bl] v nlntk'/ # @=% s6}gL /fhdfu{bl] v dlgsfk'/ $=@ #=% af9Lsf] vt/fsf] af/]df ;"rgf ;Dk|if0fsf] ;+oGq tof/ ePsf] ] ;|ft M kl/of]hgf /]s8{ @))* ] 5 . ;d'bfo:t/df c3l/of jf k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltn] { ;Lk / 1fgx¿sf] clwstd k|of]u u/]sf lyP . :yfgLo ;d'bfo tf]ssf] s'g} JolQmn] af9Lsf] txaf/] cg'udg ug]{ ub{5 . ] dflyNnf] hnfwf/ If]qdf cfPsf] af9L kl/of]hgf If]qdf cfO{ k'Ug k/Dk/fut k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf cEof;x? ljkl/t sfo{ ug'{ { " slt ;do nfU5 eGg] af/]df ;d]t hflgkmsf/ ePsf 5g . hn kl/of]hgfsf] k|fjwfg xf]Og . x/]s ;d'bfodf vt/f cg'udgsf tyf df};d lj1fg ljefu lkmN8 clkm;;šusf] ;xsfo{df af9L cEof;x? km/s km/s x'g] ub{5g . h:t} M lzj/tgk'/ ;DaGwL k"j;rgf tNnf]t6Lo ;d'bfosf] nflu pknAw u/fPsf] { " ;d'bfodf ljxfg ( ah] / a]nsf * ah] u/L lbgdf b'O{ k6s ' 5 . vt/fsf] ;Defjgf sd ug{sf nflu af9Lsf] ;"rgf af9Lsf] cg'udg ug{ Pp6f 6f]nL g} u7g ul/Psf] 5 eg] cg'dfg ul/Psf] ;doeGbf cfwf 306f klxn] kl/of]hgf /x]sf] lj;gk'/ ;d'bfodf ljxfg % ah], lbp;f] ! ah] / /flt ( ah] ;d'bfodf Psaf6 csf]{ ub}{ km}nfOPsf] lyof] . oL ;"rgfx?n] u/L b}lgs # k6s k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf ;+of]hs cfkm}n] af9Lsf] { " + ;dodf g} ;Dk|if0f ePdf pgLx?nfO{ ;'/lIft :yfgdf hfg w]/} ] cg'udg ug]{ ub{5g . cg'udgstf{sf] ;'/Iffsf] nflu Pp6f ;xof]uL x'g] ;d'bfon] ;f]rsf 5g . ] 5ftf, Knfli6ssf] h'Qf, 6r{nfO6 / jiff{bL pknAw u/fPsf] 5 . clzlIft JolQmn] klg a'‰g] u/L ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t v= vt/f cg'udg :yfgLo cEof;x? th'df ul/Psf 5g . x/]s ;d'bfon] gbL { kl/of]hgfn] vt/f cg'udgsf nflu hnfwf/ / ;d'bfo:t/Lo lsgf/df kx]nf] tyf /ftf] /ªu nufOPsf] sf7af6 lgld{t cjwf/0ffnfO{ cufl8 a9fPsf] 5 . kfšrj6f dflyNnf]t6Lo vDafsf] :yfkgf ul/Psf] 5 . If]qdf jiff{dfkg s]Gb| / ^ j6f dflyNnf]t6Lo tyf tLgj6f tNnf]t6Lo hndfkg s]Gb|sf] k|of]u u/]kl5 af9Lsf] hf]lvdx?sf] kx]nf] lrGxdf kfgLsf] ;tx k'ukl5 k"jtof/L ug'kg]{ ;ªst + ] { { ] cg'udg ug{ ;d'bfosf jfl;Gbfx? ;Ifd ePsf 5g . ub{5 eg] /ftf] lrGxdf k'ukl5 t'?Gt ;'/lIft :yfgdf hfg'kg]tkm{ ] { kl/of]hgfn] tNnf]t6Lo ;d'bfox?nfO{ kfgLsf] ;txsf] af/]df ;r]t ub{5 . o:t}, k|lt 306f !!) b]lv !%) ldlnld6/ jiff{ 306}lkR5] tYofªsx? pknAw u/fpg ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] 5 . k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldlt / k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf ;+of]hsx?n]] { { " aS; # ljutsf af9Laf6 xfd|f] ;d'bfodf sf]xL xtfxt gePsf]df xfdLnfO{ uj{ 5 dflyNnf]t6Lo jiff{dfkg s]Gb|x?;šu ;"rgf lng / To;af/] k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf] ;kmntd k|of; / ljleGg Ifdtfd"ns ultljlwx?sf] ;o+Qm { " ' ;d'bfox?nfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpg lhDd]jf/ ePsf 5g . rf/j6f k|of;af6 kl/of]hgf If]qsf ;d'bfox?df ljut af9Lsf] ;dodf sf]xL klg xtfxt ePgg . hasL kl/of]hgfsf] l5d]sL ufpšx?df @$ hgfsf] af9Lsf] sf/0faf6 jiff{dfkg s]Gb| / rf/j6f hndfkg s]Gb|x?sf] cjnf]sg Hofg uof] . o;af6 s] :ki6 x'G5 eg] :yfgLo jfl;Gbf k"0f{?kdf tof/Lsf ;fy e|d0fkl5 k|sf]k k"jtof/L tyf k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf pk;ldltsf { { " /xg ;s]sf] v08df af9Lsf] hf]lvdnfO{ w]/} xb;Dd sd ug{ ;lsG5 . >L 5]b'/fd rf}w/L, lzIfs x;'lnof ;b:ox? Kflg s;/L jiff{kl5 kfgLsf] ;tx a95, To;sf] tflnsf $ vt/fdf /x]sf] kfgLsf] ;tx gbL :yfg ;/b/ af9Lsf] tx af9Lsf] r]tfjgL tx -klxnf] r/0f_ af9Lsf] r]tfjgL tx-bf]>f]r/0f_ tof/L cj:yf hfg z'? hfg] Dff]xf]gf Dffnfv]tL @=) ld @=% ld #=$ ld v'6Lof d'8L aG;f/ @=! ld #=^ ld $=* ld lzj uªuf /fhdfu{sf] k'n !=% ld !=* ld @=% ld u'?xf /fhdfu{sf] k'n !=@ ld !=% ld @ ld s6}gL /fhdfu{sf] k'n !=* ld @=@ ld @=* ld >f]t M kl/of]hgf /]s8{ @))* 6 36gf cWoog k|ltj]bg k]ma|c/L, @))( '
  • 15. af9Ldfks sf7]vDaf af9Lsf] hf]lvdsf] cj:yfdf ;'/lIft :yfgdf n}hfg ;lsG5 . oBlk, ;'/lIft jf;:yfgsf] b'/L, ;d'bfosf] cfsf/sf cfwf/df pgLx?nfO{ ;'/lIft :yfgdf n}hfg] ;do eg] km/s x'g ;S5 . h]xf];, ^ j6} ;d'bfox? pgLx?sf ;a} ;b:ox?nfO{ To:tf vt/fsf] cj:yfdf klg ;'/lIft :yfgdf n}hfg ;Ifd ePsf 5g . aS; % nfO{km Hofs]6 b'Mvsf] a]nfsf] ;fyL ;fljt ePsf] 5 . cfkTsfnLg afs; pknAw u/fpg]h:tf] kl/of]hgfsf] sfo{nfO{ xfdLn] ePdf dflg;nfO{ klxnf] ;r]t u/fpš5 eg] !%! b]lv @)) ;x|fxgf u/]sf 5f}+ . To;df klg nfO{km Hofs]6 b'Mvsf] a]nfsf] ;fyL ldlnld6/;Dd k/]df bf];f| ] / @)) ldlnld6/ eGbf a9L jiff{ ;fljt ePsf] 5 . ut jif{sf] jiff{tsf] /ftsf] ;do ePsf]n] 3'/fxf ePdf t];f| ] k6s ;r]t u/fOG5 . o:tf] ;r]ttf :yfgLo gbLdf 8'ªuf rnfpg ;Dej lyPg . >LdtLsf] clGtd ;+:sf/ ug]{ ;do;Dd pgL 3/ k'Ug ;kmn eP . ha pgL;+u xfd|f] e]6 x'G5, Tof] PkmPd /]l8of]dfkm{t u/fOG5 . lbg Hofs]6n] k'¥ofPsf] d2tnfO{ pgL ;+Demgf u5{g . jf:tjdf nfO{km Hofs]6n] af9Lsf] avtdf w]/} JolQmsf] Hofg arfpg'sf] ;fy} o:tf] k|sf]ksf] ;dodf k|x/LnfO{ p4f/ ug{ ;d]t ;xof]uL ag]sf] 5 . u_ k"j;rgf ;Dk|if0f { " ] >LdtL /fhs'df/L rf}w/L nlntk'/, km'njf/L lhNnf:t/Lo ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;šusf] ;dGjodf kl/of]hgfn] tflnd tyf ;fdfu|L Pjd :yfgLo 1fgdf cfwfl/t k"j;rgf{ " k|0ffnLx?sf cEof;x?dfkm{t ;d'bfosf] Ifdtf clej[l4df ;"rgf ;Dk|if0fdf :yfgLo PkmPd /]l8of]x? lgs} k|efjsf/L ] hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . k"j;rgfsf ;Gb]zx? ;Dk|if0fnfO{ ;xh { " ] /x]sf 5g . kl/of]hgfn] cfkTsfnLg ;dfrf/x? tyf df};d agfpgsfnflu kl/of]hgfaf6 rf/j6f tNnf]t6Lo / kfšrj6f ;DaGwL a'nl] 6gx? :yfgLo ;d'bfox?df k|efjsf/L 9ªuaf6 dflyNnf] t6Lo jiff{ tyf kfgLsf] ;tx dfkg s]Gb|df gf} j6f ;Dk|if0f ug]{ sfo{df :yfgLo PkmPdnfO{ kl/rfng u/]sf] 5 . ] ;L8LPdP kmf]g / x/]s ;d'bfodf Ps÷Psj6f xftn] ;~rfng la=; @)^% c;f]hdf cfPsf] af9Lsf] ;dodf klg kl/of]hgf ug{ ;lsg] ;fO/g klg pknAw u/fOPsf] 5 . la=; @)^% ;~rflnt ;d'bfosf dflg;x?n] ;d'bfosf] cj:yfsf af/]df c;f]hdf cfPsf] af9Lsf af/]df k"j;rgf ;Dk|if0f ug{ oL b'O{ { " ] PkmPd, /]l8of]x?dfkm{t ;DjlGwt cflwsfl/s lgsfox?df k|ljlw lgs} k|efjsf/L ePsf] lyof] . To:t}, af9Lsf] k|sf]k k'¥ofpg / tTsfn /fxt ;xof]usf sfo{x? ug{ bjfa lbPsf] cfPsf] cj:yfdf To;af/]df hfgsf/L u/fpg ;d'bfonfO{ lyof] . k"j;rgf k|0ffnLnfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf sfof{Gjog { " cfjZos 6]lnkmf]g gDa/ / ;~rf/ dfWodx?sf af/]df klg ug{sf nflu :yfgLo ;~rf/ dfWodx?;šu ;xsfo{ ug'{ hfgsf/L u/fOPsf] lyof] . k|efjsf/L pkfo x'g;Sb5 . lhNnf:t/Lo lgsfox?;šusf] ;+oQm k|of;df hnfwf/ txdf k"j;rgf k|0ffnL :yfkgf ug{ ' { " o:tf ;fdfGo ;+oGqx?n] klg a'9fa'9L, uef{j:yfsf dlxnf, ' ;lhnf] ePsf] 5 . lhNnfsf ;DalGwt ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] :tgkfg u/fpg' kg]{ cfdfx?, jfnjflnsf, ufO{j:t'nfO{ k|ltlglwTj /xg] u/L lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nosf] ;+of]hsTjdf k"j;rgf l8hfOg ;ldltsf] u7g ul/Psf] lyof] . o; ;ldltn] { " aS; $ k"j{;"rgf k|0ffnLaf/] ;fgf 1fgsf k|j4{gfTds 1fg hnfwf/ txsf] k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf] ;jnLs/0fdf cfjZos { " cjnf]sg e|d0fdf uPsf] a]nf kfgLsf] ;tx / af9L cg'udg s]Gb| tyf hn tyf >f]tx? k|bfg ug'sf ;fy} tNnf]t6Lo ;d'bfox?sf] ;jnLs/0f { df};d ljefusf k|fljlws Pjd :yfgLo sd{rf/Lx?;šu cGt{lqmof ug'cl3;Dd { /]l8of] / 6]lnlehgaf6 k|zfl/t k|ltj]bgx?af6 dfq xfdLn] df};dsf] af/]df a'em]sf ug{ klg ;xof]u u/]sf] 5 . lyPgf}+ . tL k|ltj]bgx? xfd|f nflu pkof]uL 5}gg lsgsL xfdLn] o;sf k|fljlws zAbx?sf] cy{ a'embgf}+ . /ftf] / kx]nf] vfnsf sf7af6 lgld{t kf]i6x?sf] :yfkgf } + ePsf b]Vbf xfdL cfZro{rlst ePsf 5f}+ . h'g rfxL++ k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf] nflu { " kl/of]hgfn] ^ j6} ;d'bfox?nfO{ cfkTsfnLg tyf k|fylds ;"rgf ;ªsng ug{ pkof]uL /x]5g . cWoog e|d0faf6 af9Lsf] ;txaf/] a'emg pkrf/ ;fdfu|Lx? klg pknAw u/fPsf] 5 . tL ;fdfu|Lx? tyf dflyNnf] efudf cfPsf] 7"nf] af9L xfd|f] ;d'bfo;šu k'Ug nfUg] cg'dflgt ;dosf] af/]df klg xfdLnfO{ 1fg eof] . k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf] nflu o:tf ;"rgfx? { " Vff]h tyf p4f/ sfo{df ;lhn} n}hfg ;lsG5 . cfkTsflng ;fx|} pkof]uL x'G5g . jf:tjdf ;–;fgf kxnx? Kflg k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf] nflu ;fx|} { " ;dodf k|of]usf nflu nfOkm Hofs]6x?, ;'/lIft emf]nf, dxTjk"0f{ x'G5g . Sof/fljgf, 6oa, 8f]/L, x]Nd]6, xftn] rnfpg ;lsg] ;fO/g " >LdtL ufGwjLb]jL rf}w/L, ;+of]hs, k"j{;"rgf k|0ffnL pk;ldlt, dgsfk'/ / :6«r/h:tf ;fdfu|Lx? pknAw u/fOPsf] 5 . ut jif{sf] ] kl/of]hgfaf6 xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfdf of]ubfg s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? 7
  • 16. vf]h tyf p4f/sf] jvt nfOkm Hofs]6sf] k|of]u af9L ;DaGwL ljljw hfgsf/Lx?, af9Lsf] hf]lvd / To;af6 ;'/lIft x'g ckgfpg' kg]{ /0fgLltsf af/]df ;d]t ;"rgfx? ;Dk|if0f ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . ;"rgfsf] cfbfg–k|bfg / 1fg clej[l4sf ] nflu kl/of]hgfn] ljleGg hfgsf/Lx? Pjd ;"rgf, lzIff / ;~rf/ ;fdu|Lx?sf] k|sfzg u/]sf] 5 . To:t}, lel8of] k|bz{gL, cjnf]sg e|d0fsf] cfof]hgf, ;8s gf6sx? k|bz{gL / k"j;rgf k|0ffnL ;DaGwL k"jf{Eof;df ;xhLs/0f ;d]t { " ul/Psf] kfOG5 . s_ r]tgf clej[l4sf] nflu ;"rgf, lzIff / ;~rf/ ;fdu|Lx?sf] cxd e"ldsf x'G5 . ;"rgf Pjd 1fgsf] cfbfg–k|bfgsf nflu ;"rgf, lzIff / ;~rf/ ;fdfu|Lx?sf] dxÎjk"0f e"ldsf x'G5 . kl/of]hgfn] { rf/ k|sf/sf kf]i6/x?, b'O{ k|sf/sf rf6{x? k|sfzg / ljt/0f u/]sf] 5 . o:tf ;fdu|Lx?sf] l8hfOg ug'cl3 ;d'bfosf { cu'jfx?, kl/of]hgfsf sd{rf/L, s]o/ g]kfn / ltgsf :yfgLo ;fem]bf/ u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf nufot lhNnfsf ;/f]sf/jfnfx? dfem uf]i7Lsf] klg cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . pQm uf]i7Ldf jiff{ofddf o:tf ;fdfu|Lx? lgs} pkof]uL ePsf lyP . lj=; ;xefuLx?n] :yfgLo Hffltsf] /xg;xg / ;+:s[ltnfO{ Wofgdf @)^% c;f]hdf cfPsf] af9Lsf] ;dodf df]xgk'/sf /fvL ;"rgf, lzIff / ;~rf/ ;fdu|Lx?df /flvg'kg]{ lrq tyf afl;Gbfx?n] oL ;fdu|Lx?sf] k|of]u u/]/ cfˆgf] hLjg arfpg ;Gb]zsf] af/]df 5nkmn Pjd lrqx? lgdf{0f u/]sf lyP . ;s]sf lyP . lzj/tgk'/df Pshgf JolQm nfOkm Hofs]6sf] ;f]xL uf]i7Lsf ;xefuLx?4f/f lgdf{0f ul/Psf lrqx?nfO{ ;xfotfn] 8'Agaf6 aRg ;kmn ePsf lyP . af9Lsf] ;dodf ;xL ?kdf ptf/ ug{sf] nflu Ps :yfgLo Ps snfsf/nfO{ k|fylds pkrf/ ;fdu|Lx?sf] klg lgs} k|of]u x'g] ub{5 . ;d]t lgo'Qm ul/Psf] lyof] . o;/L o:tf ;fdu|Lx? tof/ k|fylds pkrf/ ;fdu|Lx?sf] Joj:yfkgsf] lhDdf dlxnf ug{eGbf cufl8 ;d'bfosf] k[i7kf]if0f klg lnOPsf] lyof] / k|sf]k ' :jf:Yo :jod;l] jsfnfO{ lbOPsf] x'G5 h;n] ubf{ :yfgLo hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / /f]syfdsf af/]df k9g / a'‰g ;lsg] tyf jfl;GbfnfO{ ;]jf lbg ;lhnf] x'g hfG5 . dflg;x?nfO{ k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug{ pTk]/0ff lbg] / | pT;flxt ug]{ vfnsf ;fdu|Lx? tof/ ul/Psf]] lyof] . ;ªIf]kdf, k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f Pjd k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd ;fdgf af9Lsf] k"j{tof/L ;DaGwL ;~rf/ ;fdfu|L ug]af/] 1fgsf] ljsf; / pko'Qm lbuf] /0fgLlt cjnDjg ugf{n] { k|sf]k hf]lvdsf] klxrfg Pj+ k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f ug{ lgs} ;lhnf] ePsf] 5 . ljz]if hf]lvd / vt/faf/] ljBdfg :yfgLo 1fgsf cfwf/df k"j;rgf k|0ffnLx? :yfkgf u/L ;"rgfx? ;fwf/0f { " tyf a'‰g ;lsg] efiffdf ;Dk|if0f ul/Psf] lyof] . ] $=# k|fyldstf # M 1fg, vf]h / lzIffsf] pkof]u u/]/ ;a} txdf ;'/IffTds ;+:s[lt / k|sf]k ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{ . ;"rgfsf] Joj:yfkg Pjd cfbfg–k|bfg M kl/of]hgf cGtu{tsf ;d'bfo / To;sf l5d]sL ;d'bfox?df ;d]t kl/of]hgfn] 8 36gf cWoog k|ltj]bg k]ma|c/L, @))( '
  • 17. kl/of]hgfn] ;"rgfsf] k|jfx gofš / rfvnfUbf] 9ªuaf6 ug]{ s]hLsf b/n] ;ªsng u/L_ af6 cGg j[l4 ug{ yfn]sf 5g . cjwf/0f agfPsf] 5 . ;fd'bflos ;xhstf{x?n] x/]s ;"rgf, ;fš:s[lts / wfld{s kj{x? h:t} df3df kg]{ kmfu' / sflt{sdf z}lIfs / ;~rf/ ;fdu|Lx?nfO{ k|f9 l;sfO{ ljlw cg';f/ 3/3/df } kg]{ b]p;L e}nf]af6 gub tyf cGgjfnL ;ªsng ug]{ k/Dk/fdf uO{ ;Dk|i] f0f u/]sf lyP . ;xhstf{x?n] o;af/]df kof{Kt hfgsf/L j[l4 x'g yfn]sf] 5 . u/fPsf lyP . o;/L cGt{lqmofTds 9ªuaf6 tL ;fdu|Lx?sf] d'Vo ;Gb]zsf af/]df lbOPsf] hfgsf/Ln] ;d'bfosf dflg;x?sf] u_ ;8s gf6s M r]tgf clej[l4sf] nflu Ps k|sf]k ;DaGwL a'emfO{ cem j[l4 ePsf] 5 . k|efjsf/L dfWod M ;8s gf6s clzlIft ju{nfO{ dxTjk"0f{ ljifodf ;';l" rt v_ cGt/–cjnf]sg e|d0f M :yfgLo hgtfsf] u/fpg Ps k|efjsf/L / dxTjk"0f{ dfWod xf] . ;8s gf6s, l;sfO{ k|of]uzfnf k|sf]k k"jtof/L / k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx?sf { cGo ;d'bfon] u/]sf /fd|f cEof; / cg'ejx? l;Sg / af/]df hfgsf/L u/fpg] ;zQm dfWod ePsf] :yfgLo cg';/0f ug{ cGt/ ;d'bfo cjnf]sg e|d0f lgs} k|efjsf/L hg;d'bfox? atfpš5g . :yfgLo k|lzlIft o"jf ufpšnx?af6} ] dfWod xf] . o; kl/of]hgf cGtu{tsf k|To]s ;d'bfonfO{ cGo :yfgLo efiffdf k|bz{g ul/g] ePsf]n] ;8s gf6s hLjGt b'Oj6f ;d'bfosf] e|d0f u/fO{ cGo ;d'bfon] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf { x'gsf] ;fy} To;sf] ;Gb]z ;lhn};šu u|x0f ug{ ;lsg] vfnsf] ' nflu u/]sf /fd|f cEof; / l;sfOnfO{ cg';/0f ug{ hf]8 x'G5 . ;8s gf6s 6f]nLn] :yfgLo lbg]z PkmPdaf6 klg lbOPsf] 5 . o:tf e|d0fx?nfO{ dflg;x?n] l;sfO{ k|of]uzfnfsf] k|sf]k;šu ;DalGwt ;Gb]zx? ;Dk|if0f u/]sf 5g . hf]vlxofk'/ ] ?kdf lnPsf 5g lsgeg] b]vsf] s'/f ljZjf; ug{ / cfTd;ft ] ;d'bfosf] k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltsf] ;+of]hssf cg';f/ ;8s { ug{ ;lhnf] x'G5 . /tgk'/ uflj;sf] kl/of]hgf eGbf aflx/sf] gf6sx?af6 l;s]sf] 1fgsf] sf/0fn] ubf{ @)^% ;fn c;f]h ;d'bfo df]xgk'/n] ka]/f uflj;sf] lj;gk'/df ul/Psf] afš;sf] dlxgfdf cfPsf] af9Laf6 hf]vlxofk'/ ;d'bfosf dflg;x? k|of]u4f/f gbL lgoGq0f sfo{sf] cg';/0f u/]/ cfˆgf] ;d'bfodf ;'/lIft :yfgdf hfg ;Ifd ePsf lyP . xfn;Dd ljZj vfB sfo{qmdsf] sfdsf] nflu vfBfGg sfo{qmddfkm{t kl/of]hgfaf6 @$ hgf :yfgLo o'jfx? ;8s gf6s k|:t'tLs/0f afš;af6 ;+/If0f sfo{sf] yfngL ;d]t u/]sf] 5 . ;fy}, ug{ k|lzlIft ePsf 5g . ;fy}, sl/a !^ xhf/ dflg;x?n] lj;gk'/df ePsf] cjnf]sg e|d0fsf] l;sfOaf6 km'njf/L ljBfno / ;d'bfox?df k|:t't ul/Psf] ;8s gf6sx? uflj;sf] nlntk'/ ;d'bfon]] jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨ sfo{sf] cjnf]sg ul/;s]sf 5g . ;+/If0fsf nflu sf7sf :k/x? lgdf{0f ug{ pT;flxt ePsf ;8sgf6s cjnf]sgsf] b[Zo 5g . o:tf jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨ sfo{af6 pT;flxt eO{ kl/of]hgf If]q jflx/ /x]sf] km'njf/L–& lzjtfnn] !)) ld6/sf] jfof]– OlGhlgol/¨ sfo{ u/]sf] 5 . o;}u/L s[i0fgu/ / let]l/of ;d'bfox?n] klg cfkmgf]] ;d'bfodf jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨ sfo{ sfof{Gjog ug{ lhNnf e"–;+/If0f sfof{no;šu /sd pknAw u/fpg cg'/f]w u/]sf 5g . lzj/tgk'/sf] pbfx/0faf6 pT;flxt eO{ cGo ;d'bfox?n] klg cfsl:ds sf]if -k|lt s¶f Ps aS; ^ :yfgLo ;|ft kl/rfng ug{ ;8s gf6s ;xof]uL ePsf] 5 ] dnfO{ ;fšRr} ;8s gf6s dg k¥of] . gf6sdf p7fPsf ljifoj:t'n] d]/f] d'6' 5f]of] . d]/f cfšvf Tolta]nf cfš;n] el/P, hlta]nf gf6ssf] ' Pp6f kfqsf] u}/lhDd]jf/Lk"0f{ Jojxf/n] p;sf] / p;sf] kl/jf/ s;/L 3_ lel8of] j[QlrqM c¿sf] cg'ejaf6 l;sfO{ ;ªs6u|:t cj:yfdf k'Uof] eg]/ b]vfOPsf] lyof] . c?sf] cfšvf klg cfš;n] el/Psf lyP . gf6s x]/kl5 jf:tjdf jfXo ;|ftsf] vf]hLdf ' ] ] lel8of] j[Qlrqx?n] bz{sx?nfO{ k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f dfq e/ gk/]/ :yfgLo:t/af6} klg ;|ftsf] vf]hL u/L k|sf]k hf]lvd ] ug{sf nflu clek|l] /t ub{5 . kl/of]hgf cGt{utsf x/]s Go"gLs/0fdf 6]jf lbg ;lsG5 eGg] l;sfO{ eof] . xfdLn] ;'gsf 5f},+ ] k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltx?n] cfsl:ds sf]ifsf] /sdaf6 { kl/of]hgf xfdL;šu ;w}el/ sfd ub}g . { >LdtL ljlgtf rf}w/L, sf]iffWoIf, k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldlt, x;'l} nof–$, df]xgk'/ " { cfkmgf] ;d'bfodf lel8of] j[Qlrq k|bzgL ug]{ u/]sf 5g . { o:tf j[Qlrqx?df k|sf]kaf6 pRr hf]lvdsf] cj:yfdf /x]sf kl/of]hgfaf6 xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfdf of]ubfg s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? 9
  • 18. ;d'bfosf dflg;n] cjnDag u/]sf k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf lzIff / tflnddfkm{t ;Lk / 1fgdf clej[l4 M kxnx?sf] af/]df hfgsf/L u/fOPsf] x'G5 . ;8s gf6sn] kl/of]hgfn] vf;u/L ;d'bfosf ;b:ox?, ljBfnosf lzIfs h:t} lel8of]n] klg k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf ljljw ultljlwx?nfO{ tyf ljBfyL{x?nfO{ k|sf]k k"jtof/L tyf k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f { /fd|f;u ;';l" rt ug]{ x'gfn] o;n] clzlIft ;d'bfoaLr hfu/0f ] š ;DaGwL 1fgx? k|jfx ug]{ nIo /fv]sf] 5 . o;n] ;fd'bfodf Nofpg ;kmn b]lvPsf] 5 . cfwfl/t tflndx?dfkm{t :yfgLo Ifdtf clej[l4 u/L ;d'bfosf] k|sf]k;šu ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ d4t u/]sf] 5 ª_ k"j;rgf k|0ffnL k"jf{Eof;M cfTdljZjf;df { " -tflnsf % x]gf];_ kl/of]hgf4f/f ;~rflnt ul/Psf s]xL { clej[l4 tflndsf] pknlAwx? tn pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . k"j;rgf k|0ffnL / ;'/lIft :yfgfGt/0fsf k"jf{Eof;x?n] { " ;d'bfosf dflg;x?sf] ;'/lIft :yfgfGt/0f x'g] / k"j;rgf { " c_ ;d'bflos kl/rfng tflnd M o; lsl;dsf] tflndn] k|0ffnL ;DaGwL 1fg / ;LknfO{ cem j[l4 ug'sf ;fy} { af9Lsf] hf]lvdnfO{ Go"g ug{ ;fdflhs Pstf / P]Soa4tfsf] :yfgLo of]hgf / cEof;x?df cfjZos kl/dfh{g ug{ vFfrf] cf}Nofpšb5 . h;sf] kl/0ffd:j?k, k|sf]k k"jtof/L{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpš5 . ;d'bfon] lgdf{0f u/]sf] ;fd'bflos ;ldltx? / ltgsf pk;ldltx?sf] u7g ePsf 5g . :yfgfGt/0f Pjd cfkTfsfnLg of]hgfsf r/0f cg';f/ / tflndsf ;xefuLx?n] cfkm"n] hfg]sf 1fg / ;LknfO{ cf– kl/of]hgfcGtu{t pknAw u/fOPsf ;/;fdfgsf] k|of]u u/L cfˆgf] ;d'bfodf o:t} vfnsf tflndx? cfof]hgf u/L kl/of]hgfsf x/]s ;d'bfon] o:tf cEof;x? ug]{ ub{5g . l;sfpg] ub{5g . o;af6 ;xefuLx?df Pstf g} zlQm xf] o:tf] k"jf{Eof;sf] klxnf] r/0fdf dflyNnf]t6Lo cg'udg eGg] cg'el" t x'gsf] ;fy} ;fdflhs P]Soa4tf / ;f}xfb|tfnfO{ ' { s]Gb|af6 af9Lsf] vt/fsf] ;Gb]z k7fpg] ul/G5 . To; a9fPsf] 5 . o;sf] Pp6f /fd|f] pbfx/0f nlntk'/df b]Vg kZrftsf r/0fx?df ;'/lIft :yfgfGt/0f, vf]h tyf p4f/, ;lsG5, hxfš ;fj{hlgs hUufsf] af/]df yf? / blnt k|fylds pkrf/, j;f]jf; Joj:yfkg, /fxt ;fdu|L ljt/0f ;d'bfoaLr Ps bzsb]lv /x]sf] ljjfb clxn] ;dfwfg ePsf] tyf k'glg{df{0f / k'g:yf{kgfsf k"jf{Eof;x? kb{5g . ;d'bfodf 5 . o:tf tflndx?af6 pT;flxt eO{ kl/of]hgf nfu" ePsf k"jf{Eof; ul/;s]kZrft dgsfk'/ / lj;gk'/ ;d'bfosf k|sf]k ;d'bfox?n] cfˆgf] l5d]sL ;d'bfox?nfO{ klg tflnd, ;8s k"jtof/L ;ldltx?n] pgLx?sf ;'/lIft :yfgfGt/0f of]hgfnfO{ { gf6s, ;"rgf, lzIff / ;~rf/;DaGwL 3/b}nf] cleofgdf kl/dfh{g u/L To;nfO{ oyfy{k/s agfPsf 5g . k"j;rgf { " ;dfj]z u/]sf 5g . o;}u/L, lzj/tgk'/ / hf]vlxofk'/ k|0ffnL ;DaGwL k"jf{Eof;n] ubf{ lj=;+= @)^% c;f]hdf cfPsf] k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltx?n] vf]gk'/ / letl/of ;d'bfonfO{ { af9Ldf vf]h tyf p4f/ sfo{df lgs} ;xh ePsf] lyof] . af9Lsf] hf]lvd lj?4 n8g ;fd'lxs ?kdf cufl8 a9g Tolta]nf ;'/lIft /xg lgs} cfTdljZjf; a9]sf] s'/f nlntk'/ ;d]t cfu|x u/]sf lyP . ;d'bfo kl/rfng tflndaf6 g} / df]xgk'/ ;d'bfosf jfl;Gbfx? atfpš5g . cfkTfsfnLg sf]ifsf] ;ªsngsf] dxTjsf] af/]df ;xefuLx? kl/lrt ePsf lyP . cf_ vf]h tyf p4f/ tflnd M o:tf tflndx? cK7of/f] vfnsf] ePklg af9Lsf] ;dodf :yfgLo afl;Gbfsf nflu pkof]uL x'g] ub{5 . nlntk'/df ePsf] tflndsf ;xefuLx?n] y|f] Jofu -8f]/L emf]nf_ / nfOkm Hofs]6sf] k|of]u u/]/ 8'ªufaf6 s;/L Pp6f JolQmsf] p4f/ ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] af/]df l;s]sf lyP . lzj/tgk'/ / hf]vlxofk'/ ;d'bfosf dflg;x?n]] 6oa " / sf7sf] kmNofsaf6 c:yfoL 8'ªuf agfO{ vfBfGg, afnaflnsf, ue{jtL tyf dlxnf / j[4j[4fnfO{ s;/L p4f/ ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] af/]df hfgsf/L xšfl;n u/]sf lyP . o:tf tflndx?n] af9Lsf] ;dodf pgLx?sf] hLjg arfpg / dxTjk"0f{ ;fdu|Lx?sf] ;'/Iff ug{ ;xof]u k'usf] ;d'bfox?n] cg'ej ] k"j{;"rgf k|0ffnL;DaGwL k"j{cEof; u/]sf 5g . 10 36gf cWoog k|ltj]bg k]ma|c/L, @))( '
  • 19. O_ k|fylds pkrf/ ;DaGwL tflnd M o; lsl;dsf tflndx?af6 ckgfO{ e"–Ifo x'g glbg l56f] a9g] vfnsf lj?jfx? l;s]sf] 1fgn] :yfgLojf;Lx? ;fdfGo vfnsf rf]6k6ssf] nufpg k|fT;flxt ul/Psf] lyof] . u'ndf]x/, vo/, a};, ] pkrf/ ug{ ;Ifd ePsf lyP . nlntk'/sf ;xefuLx?n] clDn;f], afš;, asfOgf], g]lko/, d'h, g/s6, a8x/ / $)÷%) j6f ;fwf/0f 3fOt]x?nfO{ :yfgLo:t/d} pkrf/ u/]sf] OlknOlknh:tf lj?jfx? g;{/Ldf pTkfbg u/L gbL lsgf/df / 7"nf rf]6k6s nfu]sfx?nfO{ yk pkrf/sf nflu lhNnf /f]Kg] sfd ePsf] 5 . nlntk'/,df]xgk'/ / la;gk'/n] ;d'bfonfO{ c:ktfndf k7fOPsf] atfpšb5g . lzj/tgk'/, la;gk'/ / cfjZos lj?jfx? cfkm} pTkfbg u/]sf 5g eg] cGo tLg dgsfk'/sf dflg;x?n] :yfgLo pk:jf:Yo rf}sLaf6 k|fylds ;d'bfox?n] s]xL lj?jfx? aflx/af6 ;d]t Nofpg' k/]sf] pkrf/ afs;df hu]8f /fVgsf nflu cfjZos k|fylds lyof] . dlgsfk'/n] ;'/lIft dfu{df klg ljleGg hftsf pkrf/sf ;fdu|Lx? k|fKt ug{ ;d]t ;Ifd ePsf 5g . lj?jf /f]ksf 5g . ] O{_ k|sf]k hf]lvd Joj:yfkg tflnd M kl/of]hgfsf :yfgLo dfly pNn]v ul/Psf tflnd afx]s n]vf Joj:yfkg / Uoflag sd{rf/Lx?n] ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t k|sf]k hf]lvd Joj:yfkg tf/sf] hfnL a'Gg] tflnd klg kl/of]hgf nfu" ePsf ;d'bfox?df ;DaGwL tflnd lnPkl5 :yfgLo:t/df klg k|sf]k hf]lvd k|bfg ul/Psf] lyof] . o;af6 ljQLo sf/f]af/ b'?:t ug{ tyf Joj:yfkg tflndx?sf] cfof]hgf u/]sf lyP . oL tflndx?n] hfnL a'Gg] ;Lk l;sfpg nfebfos ePsf] 5 . o:tf tflndx?n] ;d'bfosf] cfGtl/s ;|ft kl/rfng ;DaGwL wf/0ffdf kl/jt{g ] :yfgLo txdf sfdsf] cj;/ k|bfg ug{ ;d]t ;xof]u ldn]sf] Nofpg pkof]uLl;4 ePsf 5g . :yfgLo jfl;Gbfx? clxn] 5. k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu jfxo ;xof]usf] k|ltIffdf b]lvb}gg . pgLx?sf] 1fg, wf/0ff / cEof;df kl/jt{g cfPsf] x/]s tflnd tyf z}lIfs cj;/x?df dlxnf / ;ªs6fled'v 5 . o;afx]s k|sf]k eujfg l/;fP/ cfpš5 eGg] s'/fdf ;d'bfonfO{ a9L k|fyldstf lbg] ul/Psf] 5 . -x]gf]; tflnsf { ljZjf; ug]x? klg clxn] af9L k|fs[lts / dfgjLo ultljlwaf6 { %_ kl/of]hgfn] tflnd / cled'vLs/0fdf dlxnfx?nfO{ ljz]if cfpg] ub{5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ /fd|/L a'‰g yfn]sf 5g . dflg;x? ;xefuL u/fpg] /0fgLlt cjnDjg u/]sf] lyof] -vf]h tyf cem}klg k|fs[lts ljklQ, /f]uJofwL / e"tk|t x6fpg 8f]/jGbL, ] p4f/ tflnddf afx]s_ / o;/L k|bfg ul/Psf tlndx?n] x]//L / nfjfªuLh:tf k/Dk/fut sfo{x? ug]{ ub{5g . oBlk, ] w]/} JolQmx? nfeflGjt x'g k'usf 5g . x/]s tflnddf k|sf]k ] ca pgLx?nfO{ :yfgLo ;|ftsf] pkof]u tyf ;fd'bflos 1fgdf ] k"jtof/L ;ldlt jf pk;ldltaf6 Pshgf clgjfo{ ?kdf { cfwfl/t /f]syfdsf lqmofsnfkx?af6 af9Lsf] hf]lvd 36fpg ;xefuL u/fpg] /0fgLlt agfOPsf] 5 . kl/of]hgfn] lgdf{0f ;lsG5 eGg] s'/fdf ljZjf; ePsf] 5 . u/]sf ;"rgf, lzIff / ;~rf/sf ;fdfu|Lx?df n}l¨s / ;fš:s[lts ;Dj]bgzLntfnfO{ klg hf]8 lbOPsf] 5 . ;8s p_ g;{/L Joj:yfkg tflnd M kl/of]hgfn] k|To]s ;d'bfonfO{ gf6sdf :yfgLo k/Dk/f / ;+:s[ltnfO{ ljz]if dxTj lbOPsf] g;{/L Joj:yfkg ;DjGwL ;Lk k|bfg ul/ ;d'bfodf g;{/L 5 . o;sf ;fy}, PkmPd /]l8of]sf] k|;f/0fdf klg :yfgLo :yfkgf ug{ ;xof]u u/]sf] lyof] ;fYf} jfof]–OlGhlgol/ª k|ljlw efiffsf] k|of]u ug]{ ul/G5 . :yfgLo 1fg, ;Lk tyf cg'ejnfO{ tflnsf % ljleGg tflndx?df ;xefuLx?sf] ;ªVof Ufflj; ;d'bfo tflnd ! @ # $ % ^ & k' d k' d k' d k' d k' d k' d k' d km"njf/L nlntk'/ !* !$ !& !( $ ) ! ! ! ) !@ @# ( & x;'lnof df]xgk'/ !$ !% !% !^ $ ) ! ! ! ) !( !) !) * lzj/tgk'/ @@ !$ !( !^ $ ) ! ! ! ) @$ !# ( * kj]/f lj;dk'/ !( !# !& !% $ ) ! ! ! ) @! * * & dgsfk'/ !% !* !! @! $ ) ! ! ! ) !* !$ ( ^ /tgk'/ Hf]vlxofk'/ @@ !@ !^ !& $ ) ! ! ! ) !% @# * * s"n !!) *^ (% !)$ @$ ) ^ ^ % ) !)( (! %# $$ >f]t M kl/of]hgf /]s8{ @))&÷)* != k|fylds pkrf/, @= k|sf]k hf]lvd Joj:yfkg, #= vf]h tyf p2f/, $= g;{/L Joj:yfkg, %= tf/hfnL ^=;d'bfo kl/rfng, &= n]vf Joj:yfkg kl/of]hgfaf6 xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfdf of]ubfg s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? 11
  • 20. kf]lnAofu eg]{ sfo{df hg;xeflutf ;xefuL ePsf lyP . o;/L ljleGg tflnd tyf cled'vLs/0fdf ljBfyL{x?nfO{ ;xefuL u/fpgsf] p2]Zo ljBfyL{x?n] k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL 1fg ;xh ?kdf km}nfpg ;s"g eGg] /x]sf] 5 . k|sf]k hf]lvd Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL cled'vLs/0fkZrft lbk]Gb| pRr dfljsf ljBfyL{x?n] ;k{sf] 6f]sfO{sf] hf]lvdaf6 aRg ;/;kmfO{ cleofg ;~rfng u/]sf lyP . o:tf tflndx? ljBfyL{ / pgLx?sf cleefjsx?aLr k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/s0fsf nflu clek|l] /t ug]{ cf}hf/sf] ?kdf sfd u/]sf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} ljBfyL{x?nfO{ cfÎgf] ;xkf7L tyf kl/jf/hg vf;u/L cfdfx?df k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL yk 1fg / ;Lksf] ljsf; ug{ ;xof]u k'Ug] u/]sf] 5 . cfb/ ;Ddfg ug]{ kl/kf6Ln] ubf{ kl/of]hgfsf x/]s ultljlwx?df aS; & ljBfyL{x? k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf ;xof]u ;d'bfosf] :jfldTj a9]sf] kfOG5 . h;n] ubf{ ;d'bfosf ub{5g eGg] xfdLn] cg'ej u¥of}+ . ;b:ox?df ckgTj, ;xeflutf / :jod ;]jf ug]{ efjgfsf] kl/of]hgfn] xfdL ljBfyL{n] klg k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf ljsf; ePsf] 5 . v]Ng ;S5f} eGg] s'/fdf hf]8 lbG5 eGg] xfdLn] slxNo} ;f]rsf lyPgf}+ . ] jf:tjdf xfdLn] kl/of]hgfn] ;~rfng u/]sf ljleGg tflnd, cled'vLs/0f tyf ;fgf lzIf0f ;qx?af6 y'k}| 1fg, ;Lk, cg'ej xfšl;n ug{ ;kmn ePsf ljBfnosf ultljlwx¿Dffkm{t Jojxf/df kl/jt{g 5f}+ . o;n] xfdLnfO{ k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] 5 . xfd|f] 1fg clej[l4sf nflu ;+/If0f lzIff, g;{/L Joj:yfkg ;DjGwL hfgsf/L, ljBfyL{ / lzIfs kl/jt{gsf ;Djfxs x'g eGg] kl/k|Ifdf ] lrqsnf, lgjGw, js[Tjsnf k|ltof]lutf h:tf sfo{qmd lgs} dxTjk"0f{ /x]sf 5g . xfd|f] ljBfnodf k|sf]kaf6 x'g ;Sg] hf]lvd sd ug{ xfdLn] k|sf]k Kfl/of]hgfn] k|sf]k k"jtof/L tyf k|sf]k hf]lvd Joj:yfkgsf { k"jtof/L of]hgf agfPsf 5f} . h'lgP/ /]8qm; ;s{nsf] ;lqmotfaf6 :s"n { " ljljw ultljlwx? ;~rfng ug{ * j6f ljBfnox? Rfog jl/kl/sf] jftfj/0f ;kmf /fVg w]/} d4t k'usf] 5 . ] >L k|zfGt 7fs'/, cWoIf, h'lgo/ /]8qm; ;s{n, lbk]Gb| pRr dflj x;'lnof u/]sf] 5 . :s"ndf ;~rfng x'g] sfo{qmdx?sf] nIo ljBfnosf lzIfs / ljBfyL{nfO{ :yfgLo ;|ft JolQmsf] ?kdf ljsl;t ] ug]{ /x]sf] 5 . t;y{ ljBfyL{ Pjd lzIfsx?n] k|sf]k hf]lvd v_ ljBfnosf] lzIfsx?sf nflu k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL ;Gb]zx? k|zf/0fnfO{ cfˆgf] ljBfno;Dd Joj:yfkg tflnd dfq l;ldt g/fvL cGo a[xt If]qdf ;d]t lj:tf/ ug{ :yfgLo ;|ft JolQmsf] ?kdf kl/rflnt x'g ;s"g eGgsf] nflu ] ;Sg]5g . kl/of]hgfn] lzIfsx?nfO{ k|sf]k hf]lvd Joj:yfkg ;DalGw tflnd k|bfg u/]sf] lyof] . o;/L tflnd k|fKt lzIfsx?af6 s_ h'lgo/ /]8qm; ;s{nsf] u7g k|sf]k hf]lvd Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL hfgsf/L tyf 1fg h'lgo/ /]8qm; ;s{nsf ljBfyL{x?n] ;fyL lzIffsf] d2taf6 ljBfyL{x?;Dd / ljBfyL{x?sf] dfWodaf6 ;d'bfo:t/;Dd k|sf]k ;DjGwL 1fg / ;Lk km}nfpgsf] ;fy} ljBfno txdf k'¥ofpg ;lsPsf] 5 . pQm tflndkZrft kl/of]hgf cGtu{tsf k|sf]k k"jtof/L of]hgfdfkm{t k|sf]ksf] hf]lvdnfO{ sd ug{ { k|To]s ljBfnodf k|sf]k k"jtof/L of]hgf ag]sf 5g . @)^% { cxd e"ldsf v]nsf 5g . o:tf h'lgo/ /]8qm; ;s{n x/]s ] ;fn cflZjgdf uPsf] af9Ldf vf;u/L vf]h tyf p4f/ :s"ndf u7g ul/Psf] 5 . ljBfyL{x¿4f/f cfˆgf ;fyL Pjd sfo{df lzIfsx?n] lgjf{x u/]sf] e"ldsfnfO{ ;d'bfon] cem;Dd ;d'bfodf ;d]t k|sf]ksf sf/0f / c;/ / k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf klg la;]sf 5}gg . lzIfsx?n] ;Defljt vt/f / hf]lvd { pkfox?sf af/]df r]tgf clej[l4 ug{{ ;s'g eGgsf nflu klg 36fpg] k|of;df dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]nsf 5g . ] h'lgP/ /]8qm; ;s{nsf] u7g ul/Psf] xf] . x/]s h'lgP/ /]8qm; ;s{n lzIfs k|ltlglwsf ?kdf lzIfs gfos / ;xlzIfs o;}u/L kl/of]hgfn] k|sf]k hf]lvd Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL tLg gfossf] dftxtdf ;~rfng ePsf x'G5g . ;DalGwt ljBfnosf lbg] tflndsf] ljifoj:t' agfpg ;d]t d2t u/]sf] 5 . lzIfs tyf kl/of]hgfsf sd{rf/Laf6 ;xhLs/0f ul/Psf klxn]sf tflndsf ljifoj:t' tyf tflnd ;~rfng ljlwnfO{ cled'vLs/0f tyf tflndx?df ;s{nsf x/]s ljBfyL{x?, s]xL kl/dfh{g u/L ;d'bfon] k|sf]k k"jtof/L / k|sf]k hf]lvd { 12 36gf cWoog k|ltj]bg k]ma|c/L, @))( '
  • 21. Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL hfgsf/L ;lhn} a'emg ;Sg] vfnsf] cf7j6f :s"ndf k|sf]k, To;sf k|sf/, sf/0f / c;/nfO{ sd tflndsf ljifoj:t' tof/ ul/Psf] 5 . w]/} cEof;, 5nkmn ug{ ;lsg] yk k|of;x?sf] af/]df @ 306fsf] sIff ;~rfng tyf cGtlqm{ofaf6 tflndnfO{ a9L k|efjsf/L agfpg] k|of; ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . :s"nsf lzIfsx?sf] k|ToIf ;xeflutfdf ePsf] 5 . ;fy} a9L k|fljlws zAbfjnLx? x6fOPsf 5g . k|sf]k ;DaGwL xfnsf] kf7ok':tsnfO{ ;dLIff u/L @ 306fsf] sIffsf] nflu ljifoj:t' tof/ ul/Psf] 5 . o;df k|sf]k u_ :s"n] ljBfyL{x?sf] nflu ;+/If0f lzIffsf] 1fg Joj:yfkg rqmnfO{ ljz]if nlIft ul/Psf] 5 . k|sf]k;DaGwL ;+/If0f lzIffsf] 1fgaf6 ljBfyL{nfO{ ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t sIffx? ;~rfng ubf{ snf, lgjGw, efif0f, v]n, rf6{ / jftfj/0f Joj:yfkgsf nflu kxn ug{ Pjd ;f] sfo{df t:jL/x?sf] Jofks k|of]u ul/g] ePsfn] ljBfyL{x?nfO{ ;xefuL x'g d4t ub{5 . ljBfyL{x?nfO{ k|bfg ul/Psf] ljifoj:t'af/] a'‰g / l;Sg yk d2t k'usf] 5 . ] ;+/If0f lzIff tflnddf vf;u/L k|fs[lts ;|ft Joj:yfkg, ] g;{/L Joj:yfkgsf kmfO{bfx?, ;fd'bflos g;{/Lsf] dxTj ;du|df ;"rgfsf] cfbfg–k|bfg tyf Joj:yfkg Pjd tflnd / h:tf ljifoj:t'x? ;dfj]z ul/Psf lyP lsgeg] log} lzIffaf6 k|fKt 1fg / ;Lksf] d4tn] x/]s txdf ;'/lIft ljifoj:t'x? xfnsf] / eljiosf] k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;šu /xgsf nflu Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ dxTjk"0f{ ;xof]u k'usf]] 5 . ] ;DalGwt 5g . o; tflndsf] pknlAwsf] ?kdf kl/of]hgf cGtu{tsf ;d'bfodf af9L lgoGq0fsf nflu ul/Psf] g;{/L $=$ k|fyldstf $M hf]lvdsf cfwf/e"t :yfkgf Pjd j[If/f]k0f sfo{qmdsf a]nf g;{/Ln] v]Ng ;Sg] sf/stTj Go"gLs/0f ug]]{ e"ldsfsf] af/]df cfTd;ft ug{ ljBfyL{x? ;Ifd ePsf lyP . nlntk'/df ljBfyL{x?n] g;{/L Joj:yfkgsf] a]nfdf j[If/f]k0f s_ jfof]–OlGhlgol/· sfo{4f/f ;fgf] txsf ug]{ tyf lj;gk'/df kf]nLAofu eg]{ sfddf Jofks ;xeflutf Go"gLs/0fsf lqmofsnfkx? /x]sf] lyof] . o:tf lsl;dsf sfdx?df ljBfyL{x?sf] rf;f]nfO{ kl/of]hgfn] k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu ljleGg :yfgLo x]bf{ ljBfyL{x? klg k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfddf PslrQ ;|ft, ;fdu|L, ;Lk, k|ljlw / tf}/tl/sfx? cjnDag u/]sf] 5 ] eP/ nfu]sf 5g eGg] k'i6L x'G5 . . kl/of]hgfsf] k|fyldstf eg]sf] ;d'bfon] ;lhn} ckgfpg] ;fgf] nfutdf ;DkGg ug{ ;lsg] / :yfgLo ;Lk / cg'ejn] Eofpg ;Sg] k|ljlw leqofpg' /x]sf] 5 . kl/of]hgfn] d'VotM jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨sf sfdx? ;DkGg u/]sf] ePklg s]xL dfqfdf :k/h:tf ;+/rgfut OlGhlgol/¨ sfo{x? ;d]t ;DkGg ul/Psf] 5 . jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨ k|ljlw cGtu{t sd nfutdf g} ug{ ;lsg] afš;sf] sfd ug],{ af]/fdf afn'jf eg]{ / vf]nf lsgf/df j[If/f]k0f ug]{ sfd kb{5g . xfn;Dd gbLlsgf/sf a9L hf]lvd If]qdf sl/a !#(* dL6/ nfdf] jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨sf] sfd ;DkGg e};s]sf] 5 . o:tf] jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨ sfo{sf] lbuf]kgsf nflu tyf gbL lsgf/sf] v]tLof]Uo hldgsf] ;+/If0fsf nflu sl/a @&,#)) ju{ dL6/ If]qdf ljleGg hftsf $#,))) lj?jf nufOPsf] 5 -x]gf]; tflnsf ^_ { ljBfyL{sf] nflu k|sf]k k"j{tof/L ;DaGwL cled'vLs/0f o:tf Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{x?n] gbL lsgf/sf v]tLof]Uo hldg, 3_ ljBfondf k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;DjGwL { j:tL tyf :yfgLo k"jf{wf/sf] ;+/If0fdf lgs} ;xof]u k'usf] ] cled'vLs/0f cleofg 5 . nlntk'/df #)) dL6/ nfdf] jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨ sfo{jf6 ljBfyL{x? dfem k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;DaGwL r]tgf clej[l4 { gf} 3/kl/jf/n] sl/j !% ljufxf hldg arfpg ;Ifd ePsf cleofgx?n] pgLx?df ePsf] k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f 5g . o;}u/L df]xgk'/df o:t} k|ljlwdfkm{t @) ljufxf hldg ;DaGwL ljBdfg 1fgnfO{ a9fpg lgs} g} d2t u/]sf] 5 . gbL s6fgjf6 ar]sf] 5 . kl/of]hgfaf6 xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfdf of]ubfg s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? 13
  • 22. jfof]–OlGhgLol/¨sf] dxTjaf6 :yfgLo afl;Gbfx?nfO{ cfkmgf] aS; * v]tL / v]tLof]Uo hdLg arfpg ul/Psf] ;+/If0f ;'/Iff / v]tLof]Uo hldgsf] arfj6sf] nflu cfTdan a9]sf] sfo{af6 xfdL v';L 5f} . ut jif{;Dd af9L k:g] 8/n] /fd|f;šu gkfs]sf] wfgafnL leqofpg xfdL jfWo ] 5 . ;'?df ;d'bfox?nfO{ of] k|ljlwaf/]df vf;} rfv / lyof} lsgeg] af9Ln] s'g} klg a]nf afnL gi6 ug{ ;Sg] vt/f lyof] . o;/L ljZjf; lyPg t/ pgLx?nfO{ wgu9Lsf] klZrddf kg]{ /fd|f;šu afnL gkfSb} yGSofpg' kbf{ pAhgL /fd|f] x'bgYof] . ha gbL lsgf/sf] ] š" } ;+/If0fsf] sfd ul/of] To;kl5 xfdLnfO{ afnL l5§} leqofpg' kg]{ h?/L k/]g . >Lnªsf ufpšdf cWoog e|d0fdf nluPkl5 eg] pgLx?n] o:tf ;+/If0f sfo{n] ca af9Lsf] hf]lvd w]/} 36]sf] 5 . o:tf k|ljlwx? cem w]/} o; k|ljlwsf ;jn kIf / ;kmn k|of;x?sf] af/]df hfGg] If]qdf k'¥ofP/ v]tL / v]tLof]Uo hldgsf] ;+/If0f ug]{ xfd|f] rfxgf 5 . df}sf kfP / o;af6 pgLx?df cfTdjn klg a9of] . >L k|]d axfb'/ rf}w/L, ;+of]hs, k|sf]k k"j{tof/L ;ldlt, nlntk'/ >Lnªsf ufpšsf] e|d0fkl5 of] k|ljlwsf] k|of]u u/L v]tLof]Uo hldgsf] ;fy} ;d'bfonfO{ klg arfpg ;lsG5 eGg]af/]df :yfgLo afl;GbfnfO{ dfu{bz{g k|fKt ePsf] 5 . ;d'bfon] o; k|ljlwsf] dxÎjaf6 df]xgf gbLnfO{ csf]{ efult/ kmsf{pg ;kmn ePsf 5g . la;gk'/ ;d'bfodf sfe|,] afšs] jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨ k|ljlw÷k4ltnfO{ l5d]sL ufpšx?df klg / alb{ofaf6 ;f] ;d'bfon] k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf u/]sf cg';/0f ul/Psf] 5 . v]tLof]Uo hldg arfpg / gbLt6Lo kxnx?, sf7] :k/sf] k|efjsfl/tf / :yfgLo ;|ftx?sf] ] hUuf s6fgaf6 hf]ufpg o; k|ljlwsf] k|efjsfl/tf b]vkl5 ] kl/rfngaf6 s;/L sd vr{ nfUg] jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨ sfo{ nlntk'/ / df]xgk'/ ;d'bfon] o; k4ltsf] cg';/0faf6 !%) ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] af/]df hfGg a'emg cWoog e|d0fdf ;d]t dL6/ gbL lsgf/f arfpg ;Ifd ePsf 5g . la;gk'/ cfPsf lyP . jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨sf] o; k|ljlwaf6 hf]lug ;kmn ePsf] hUufdf xfn ls;fgx?n] j]df};dL t/sf/L v]tL, v/j'hf, abfd cflb nufP/ cfkmgf] j}slNks cfDbfgLnfO{ klg a9fpg z'? u/]sf 5g . jS; ( xfdLnfO{ af“;sf] sfdsf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] af/]df s'g} zªsf 5}g . jf9L Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu kl/of]hgfn] cufl8 ;f/]sf] afš;sf] k|ljlw af/]df ;'?sf lbgdf xfdLnfO{ w]/} zªsf lyof] . kl/of]hgfsf sd{rf/L;šusf] 5nkmndf klg xfdLn] afš;sf] ;§f tf/hfnLsf] 7f]Ss/ jgfpg w]/} k6s cg'/f]w u/]sf lyof}+ . xfd|f] ufpšdf Pp6f pvfg k|rlnt 5 æcfšwLsf] cufl8 kªvfsf] s] sfdÆ xfdLnfO{ afš;sf] k|ljlwsf] af/]df s'/f p7]kl5 o:t} pvfgsf] ;Demgf eof] . t/ jf:tjdf ha xfdLn] afš;sf] 7f]Ss/ jf6 klg gbL lsgf/fsf] hUuf arfpg ;lsG5 eGf]/ cfkm}n] b]vkl5 crDd k¥of}+ . clxn] xfdLx? lhNnf e"–;+/If0f sfof{nosf] ] ;xof]udf yk afš;sf] 7Ss/x? dflyNnf] efudf agfpg z'? u/]sf 5f} . ca xfdLx? cGo lgsfox?;šu klg jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨sf] k|ljlwnfO{ a9fjf lbg o:t} vfn] ;xof]usf] nflu cg'/f]w ug]{ ;f]r /fv]sf 5f} . lsgeg] of] k|ljlw xfd|f] kx'rleq / yf]/} k};fn] klg Eofpg] vfnsf] 5 . jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨ sfo{sf] š k|efjsfl/tf b]v/ xfn Uoflag tf/ ;DalGw sfo{df xfdLnfO{ Tolt rf;f] 5}g . ] >L dfof/fd rf}w/L, ;+of]hs, k|sf]k k"j{tof/L ;ldlt, df]xgk'/, x;f}lgog—$ ;d'bfoåf/f Joj:yfkg ul/Psf] h}ljs k|ljlw sfo{ tflnsf ^ Go"gLs/0fsf] sfo{, ;fd'bflos g;{/L / j[If/f]k0fsf] cj:yf Ufflj; ;d'bfo afof]–OlGhlgol/¨-dL6/_ g;{/L -ju{ dL6/_ a]gf{ ;+Vof j[If/f]k0f-ju{dL6/_ Kf"mnjf/L nlntk'/ #)) @%) !)))) *))) x;'lnof lzj/tgk'/ !)) !)) ^))) @))) dxgk'/ #)) !)) ^))) #))) Kfj]/f dgsfk'/ @*) !)) $))) @*)) lj;gk'/ !%) !%) %))) !%)) /tgk'/ Hff]vlxofk'/ @^* @&% !@))) !)))) s"n !#(* (&% $#))) @&#)) 14 36gf cWoog k|ltj]bg k]ma|c/L, @))( '
  • 23. ;d'bfoåf/f Joj:yfkg ul/g] 8'ªufsf] tof/L x'šb} !% 3/ kl/jf/ & lbg;Dd lj:yflkt ePsf] a]nf df]xgk'/ ;d'bfonfO{ ;'/lIft cf>o:ynsf] dxTjsf] af/]df cg'el" t ePsf] lyof] . 3_ ;'/lIft af6f]sf] lgdf{0f d'Vo vt/fsf] ;fdgf ug'{ cufl8 ;'/lIft :yfg;Dd k'Ug ;'/lIft af6f]sf] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf x'g] ub{5 . o:tf af6fx?sf] lgdf{0fdf kl/of]hgfn] ;d'bfonfO{ ;xhLs/0f u/]sf] 5 . sfdsf] nflu Hofnf sfo{qmd cGtu{t xfn;Dd $=@ ls=dL= af6f] -!=& ls=dL nlntk'/ / !=% ls=dL hf]lvofk'/_ lgdf{0f ul/;lsPsf] 5 . laut %) jif{sf] af9Lsf] prfO{nfO{ ;dLIff v_ k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf ;d'bfo4f/f u/L o:tf af6fx?sf] prfO{ sfod ul/Psf] 5 . lzj/tgk'/ Jojl:yt 8'ªufsf] k|of]u ;d'bfon] ef/tLo e"–efuaf6 au]/ cfpg] kfgLnfO{ ;d]t af9Lsf] ;dodf ;d'bfo4f/f Joj:yfkg ul/Psf] 8'ªufn] /f]syfd ug]{ lx;fjn] cUnf] af6f] agfPsf 5g . ;d'bfosf dflg;x?sf] hLjgnfO{ ;'/lIft ug{ w]/} d2t k'usf] ] 5 . kl/of]hgfsf] ;fgf] nfut / ;d'bfosf] k|ToIf of]ubfgdf ^ j6f ;d'bfon] o:tf 8'ªuf ;~rfng u/]sf 5g . gbL tg]h:tf ;fdfGo sfo{df dfq k|of]u geP/ o:tf 8'ªufx? { af9Lsf] ;dodf ;'/lIft :yfgdf k'Ug ;d]t nfebfos ePsf 5g . o;af6 afnaflnsf, j[4, ;'Ts]/L, ule{0fL / :tgkfg u/fpg] dlxnfx?nfO{ yk ;'/Iffsf] cg"el" t x'gsf ;fy} ;d'bfosf] ' dxTjk"0f{ ;fdfgx? klg ;'/lIft ePsf] 5 . lzj/tgk'/ ;d'bfosf] ljrf/df o:tf] 8'¨fsf] Joj:yf gePsf] eP v'Nnf ;'/lIft af6f]sf] k"j{cEof; sfo{df hg;xeflutf ufpšsf] !)÷!@ hgf JolQmnfO{ af9Lsf] ;dodf arfpg ;lsg] s'g} cfwf/ g} x'g] lyPg . o:tf] 8'ªufsf] ;xof]u aS; !) ;'/lIft j;f]jf;sf lglDt a;fO;/fO{ ug]{ xfd|f] ;f]rdf sdL cfPsf] 5 . kfpg'kj{ lzj/tgk'/ ;d'bfon] j:t' efpnfO{ vfgf lbg] " aif}l{ kR5] cfpg] af9Lsf] sf/0faf6 cfqmfGt eP/ xfdLn] x;'lnof–# sf] sdnkf]v/Lsf] sf7sf] efš8f]nfO{ 8'¨fsf] ?kdf k|of]u ug]{ ub{y] h'g s'gklg} klZrddf kg]{ vfnL efudf ;a} ufpš g} a;fO;/fO{ ug]{ ;f]rdf lyof}+ . o;sf] nflu ;do klN6g ;SbYof] / w]/} 3ghgsf] Iflt x'g ;SYof] . uflj;sf s]xL kbflwsf/Lx?;šu klg xfd|f] 5nkmn rn]sf] lyof] . hj kl/of]hgf xfd|f] ufpšdf z'? eof], xfdLn] s;/L a9L 8'afg x'G5 / s] u/]sf] v08df af9Laf6 af9Laf6 5f]6sL kflnofsf] cfˆgf] 8'ªuf 8'akl5 ljzgk'/ ] aRg ;lsG5 eGg] af/]df yfxf kfof}+ . xfdLn] ;'/lIft cf>o:yn / ;'/lIft af6f]sf] ' ;d'bfon] pQm ;d'bfonfO{ ;'/lIft :yfgtkm{ k'¥ofpg cfˆgf] dxTjsf] af/]df a'‰of}+ . ;fgf, :yfgLo 1fg ;Lk k|of]u u/]/ x'g] k|ljlwsf] ;xfotfaf6 af9Laf6 aRg ;lsG5 eGg] s'/fdf clxn] xfdLdf cfTdljZjf; a9]sf] 5 . To;sf/0fn] 8'ªufsf] ;xfotfaf6 d2t u/]sf] lyof] . nlntk'/ / la;gk'/ xfdLn] k"/} ufpš a;fO;/fO{ ug{] k'/fgf] ;f]rdf kl/jt{g u/]sf 5f}+ . ca :yfoL 3/ ;d'bfosf] egfOdf pgLx?n] s]xL k|x/Lx?nfO{ ;d]t ;'/lIft agfP/ oxL ufpšdf a:g ;lsG5 eGg] cfTdan a9]/ cfPsf] 5 . >LdtL h'dfgL b]jL rf}w/L, dnefG;f, lzj/tgk'/, x;'lnof—% 7fpšdf n}hfg d2t u/]sf lyP . u_ af9Lsf] ;dodf ;fd'bflos cf>o:yn Pp6f ª_ cUnf gNsfx?sf] lgdf{0f lzlj/sf] ?kdf k|of]u af9L / 8'jfgsf] ;dodf ;'/lIft kfgL kfpg / kfgLhGo af9L / 8'jfgsf] ;dodf 8/ qf; sd ug{ ;fd'bflos ;?jf /f]ux?sf] k|sf]k sd ug{ o:tf cUnf gNsf cToGt} cf>o:ynsf] dxÎjk"0f{ e"ldsf x'G5 . To;}n] df]xgk'/ / nfebfos x'Gf] ub{5 . kl/of]hgfsf] ;xof]udf % j6f ;d'bfodf lzj/tgk'/ ;d'bfon] ;fd'bflos cf>o:yn lgdf{0f u/]sf o:tf wf/fx? agfOPsf] 5 . @)^% ;fn cflZjgsf] af9Laf6 5g . yk ;'/Iffsf] b[li6sf]0faf6 o:tf cf>o:ynx? ;'/lIft nlntk'/ / df]xgk'/ ;d'bfo k"/} 8'afgdf k/]sf] lyof] t/ o:tf af6f]sf] d2taf6 ;d'bfo;šu hf]l8Psf 5g . ut jif{ af9Laf6 cUnf gNsfsf] lgdf{0f ul/Psf]n] af9L / 8'afgsf] ;dodf klg kl/of]hgfaf6 xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfdf of]ubfg s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? 15
  • 24. cUnf] u/L agfOPsf] gNsf -$() o'/f]_ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . o;}u/L ;f]xL sfdsf] nflu lhNnf e"–;+/If0f sfof{non] ?= &),))) -^*^ o'/f]_ ;xof]u u/]sf] 5 . o; sfof{noaf6 j[Iff/f]k0fsf] nflu a]gf{ klg ;xof]u ePsf] 5 . jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨sf] k4ltnfO{ kl/of]hgf ;d'bfosf jfl;Gbfn] cfTd;ft u/sf 5g . lhNnf e"–;+/If0f sfof{non] tflndsf ;xefuLx?nfO{ ;f] ;d'bfoaf6 k|ljlwsf]af/]df a'‰g ;d]t k7fpg] u/]sf] 5 . aS; !! xfdLn] :yfgLo 1fg / k4ltnfO{ ;Ddfg ug'kb{5 . { d]/f] ljrf/df :yfgLo k|ljlw 1fg / ;Lkdf cfwfl/t sd nfut / afš; :yfgLo 7fpšdf k|ofKt kfpg] ePsf]n] klg jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨sf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] af/]df ;d'bfonfO{ s]xL klg zªsf 5}g . ;d'bfosf] o; k|ljlwk|ltsf] rfv b]v/ xfdLn] kl/of]hgf ] cGt{utsf ;d'bfox?nfO{ o:t} k|ljlw cGo :yfgdf klg cg';/0f ug{ yk ?= &),))) lbg ah]6df 5'§fPsf 5f}+ . kl/of]hgf If]qdf o; k|ljlwsf] ;kmntfn] ubf{ xfdLnfO{ oxL k|ljlw cGo uflj;x?df n}hfg xf};nf k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . jf:tjdf :yfgLojf;LnfO{ ;'/lIft kfgL kfpg ufx|f] ePg . Tolta]nf :yfgLo 1fg / k4ltdf cfwfl/t gofš k|ljlw n}hfg ;s]sf] v08df ;d'bfon] ;a} JolQmut gNsfx? Aff9Lsf] 8'jfgdf k/]sf lyP . Tolta]nf To;nfO{ Jofks ?kdf cg';/0f ub{5g . >L gef]gf/fo0f ld>, k|d'v, lhNnf e"–;+/If0f sfof{no Pp6} ePklg cUnf] gNsf ;d'bfodf x'gkbf]{ /x]5 eGg] af/]df ' / o;sf] dxTjsf] ljifodf ;d'bfon] /fd|/L a'em]sf lyP . ;d'bfox?n] o:tf yk gNsfx? Afgfpg ;xof]usf nflu v_ 5nkmn cGtlqm{of, ;"rgfsf] cfbfg–k|bfg tyf uflj; / cGo lgsfox?nfO{ cg'/f]w ug{ z'? u/]sf 5g . ;dGjodf ;xof]u kl/of]hgfn] 5nkmn, cGtlqm{of, ;"rgfsf] cfbfg–k|bfg tyf lgisif{df, ;fgf :t/sf Go"gLs/0f sfo{, ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;dGjosf] nflu x/;Dej k|of;x? hf/L /fv]sf] 5 . o;sf] 8'ªuf Joj:yfkg, ;'/lIft cf>o:yn tyf af6f] lgdf{0f / cUnf kmn:j?k s]o/ g]kfn;šu ldn]/ d;L{ sf]/n] ;+oQm ?kdf ' gNsfsf] d2taf6 ;d'bfosf] hf]lvd a9fpg e"ldsf v]Ng] of]hgf ;+rfng ;ldlt agfPsf] 5 . ;f] ;ldltdf g]kfn cGtlg{lxt sf/s tTjx?nfO{ sd ug{ lgs} d2t k'usf] 5 . ] /]8qm; ;f];fO6L ;+of]hs /xg] u/L lhlj;, hn pTkGg k|sf]k lgoGq0f l8lehg sfof{no, a];, ;fdflhs ljsf;sf] nflu $=% k|fyldstf %M ;a} txdf k|sf]ksf] ;r]t ;dfh, g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3 nufotsf lgsfox? k|efjsf/L /f]syfdsf nflu ;zQm k"jtof/L { ;b:osf] ?kdf /x]sf 5g . o; ;ldltsf] ;xof]uaf6 k|fljlws ;xof]u, ;|ft / cg'ejsf] cfbfgk|bfg / tTsfn} s]xL ug{ ] ] s_ :yfgLo k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf] nflu gLlt, k/]df /fd|f] jftfj/0f agfpg yk d2t k'usf] 5 . :yfgLo ] k|fljlws tyf ;+:yfut Ifdtfsf] ;jnLs/0f ;fem]bf/ / ejg lgdf{0f ljefu;šusf] ;xsfo{df d;L{ sf]/ :yfgLo, If]qLo tyf /fli6«o:t/df ljleGg tflnd, uf]i7L, g]kfn / s]o/ g]kfnn] ;+oQm ?kdf e"sDk lbj; dgfPsf ' sfo{zfnf a}7sx?df pkl:yt eP/ kl/of]hgfn] :yfgLo lyP . ;"rgf ;fdfu|L agfpg] sfddf ;d]t d;L{ sf]/ / s]o/ k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf] nflu gLlt, k|fljlws tyf ;+:yfut g]kfnaLr k|ToIf ;Djfb / cGt{lqmof ePsf] lyof] . vf]h tyf IfdtfnfO{ dha't ug{ d2t k'¥ofPsf] 5 . ;d'bfosf p4f/ tflndsf] bf}/fg ;}lgs tyf k|x/L k|zf;g;+u k|ToIf dflg;x?aLr cg'ejsf] cfbfg–k|bfgx?af6 klg y'k}| s'/fx? ;dGjo ul/Psf] 5 . pgLx?sf] cg'ej tyf l;sfOx?n] l;Sg] jftfj/0f ldn]sf] 5 . :yfgLo txsf o:tf tflnd, tflndnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg d2t ldn]sf] lyof] . 8sdL{ uf]i7Lx?n] afxo ;|ftsf] kl/rfng / Joj:yfkg ug{ tyf ] tflnd ;+rfng ubf{ klg a]nfotL ;xof]u lgof]usf] ;fd'bflos kl/of]hgfsf ;kmntd cEof;x?nfO{ lbuf] ?kdf lg/Gt/tf ;xof]u sfo{qmd;šu k|ToIf ;dGjo ul/Psf] lyof] . lbg yk d2t k'usf] 5 . jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨sf] ;kmntd ] k|of;af6 pTk|l] /t eP/ lhNnf hn pTkGg sfof{non] nlntk'/ k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf /fd|f cEof;x? tyf To;sf kmfObfx?sf { " / lj;gk'/ ;d'bfodf af";sf 7f]Ss/x? agfpg ?= %),))) af/]df Kfl/of]hgf cGtu{tsf jf jflx/sf cGo ;d'bfonfO{ 16 36gf cWoog k|ltj]bg k]ma|c/L, @))( '
  • 25. lhNnf:t/Lo ;/f]sf/fnf;+usf] a}7s ug{, k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug{ tyf k|sf]ksf a]nfdf plrt /fxt / ;xof]u ug{ cem yk an k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . aS; !@ k"j{;"rgf k|0ffnLsf] lg/Gt/tfsf] ;'lglZrttfsf nflu ;+:yfut ;+/rgfsf] dxTj of] kl/of]hgf ;dflKt x'g' cl3 g} xfdLn] :yfgLo txdf k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf { " /fd|f cEof;x?nfO{ l5d]sL ufpšdf klg cg';/0f ug{sf] nflu e/kbf]{ ;+:yfut ' ;+/rgf agfpg' cfjZos 5 . sf]if v8f u/]/ / pko'Qm ;+:yfut ;+/rgfdfkm{t klg k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf /fd|f cEof;x?nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg ;lsG5 . lsgeg] { " To:tf /fd|f cEof;x?af6 dfq gbL lsgf/df a:g] JolQm / ltgsf] ;DklQ arfpg ;lsG5 . k"/} gbL lsgf/df jfof]–OlGhlgol/¨ ug{ ;Dej klg 5}g . t;y{ k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf ug'{ cfjZos 5 . { " >L nf]sgfy /]UdL, lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no, s}nfnL hfgsf/L u/fpg jiff{ tyf af9L;DaGwL ;"rgfx? Hfn tyf df};d lj1fg ljefu;šusf] ;dGjodf :yfgLo PkmPd u_ k|sf]k k"jtof/Lsf cEof;x?sf] lgoldt k|j4{g ug{] { /]l8of]dfkm{t k|;f/0f ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf { " kl/of]hgfåf/f ;d'bfonfO{ pgLx?sf] Ifdtf a9fpg k|sf]k nflu ;d'bfon] ckgfpšb} cfPsf] /fd|f cEof;x?af6 l;Sg k"jtof/Lsf cEof;x?sf] lgoldt k|of]u ug]{ s'/fdf ;xof]u { k|flS6sn PS;g, 8]lg; /]8qm; / s]o/ g]kfnn] kl/of]hgf ul//x]sf 5g . j}slNks sf]ifsf] Joj:yf u/]/ af9Laf6 If]qdf cWoog e|d0f klg ul/;s]sf] 5 . e|d0fsf] a]nf k|efljt ;d'bfosf] nflu cfkTfsfnLg / k'gl{ gdf{0f;šu ;d'bfoaf6 s;/L sd nfutsf k|ljlwaf6 klg pj{/ ;DalGwt ;xof]u k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 . @)^% ;fn cflZjgdf hldg, 3/kl/jf/, ufpš arfpg ;lsG5 eGg]af/]df k|ToIf cfPsf] ljgf;sf/L af9Ln] Jofks ?kdf Iflt ug'sf] ;fy} { hfgsf/L k|fKt ePsf] lyof] . ;fy}, tflndx?, k"jtof/L { cGgkft / v]taf/Ldf 5g]{ lap;d]t aufP/ gi6 u/]kl5 ultljlwx?, ;'/lIft :yfg;Dd k'Ug] of]hgf, k"j{;"rgf kl/of]hgfn] o:tf] j}slNks sf]ifsf] cjwf/0ff cufl8 NofPsf] k| 0 ffnLsf cEof;x?n] s;/L hLjg arfpg / lyof] . of] Joj:yfaf6 vf;u/L sd cfo ePsf hLljsf]kfh{gdf ;'wf/ Nofpg k|efjsf/L e"ldsf v]Nb5g 3/kl/jf/nfO{ af9Lsf] c;/ sd ug{ klg lgs} g} /fxt eGg] af/]df cjnf]sg e|d0fsf cj;/df ;d'bfon] 6f]nLnfO{ k'usf] 5 . ] hfgsf/L u/fPsf lyP . dfgjLo ;xof]u ;dGjo ug]{ /fi6«;ª3Lo lgof]un] klg ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t k"j{tof/L o;/L :yfgLo ?kdf k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf] nflu gLlt, lqmofsnfkx? / k"j;rgf k|0ffnLx?sf] af/]df Jofks { " k|fljlws tyf ;+:yfut IfdtfnfO{ dha't agfO{ 5nkmn, k|rf/k|;f/ ug{ ;lsg] s'/f pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . cGtlqm{of, hfgsf/L cfbfg–k|bfg tyf ;xsfo{ / k|sf]k k"jtof/Lsf cEof;x?sf] lgoldt k|of]uaf6 kl/of]hgfn] { o; k|sf/sf ;~hfn, ;dGjo / ;xsfo{n] kl/of]hgf If]qsf k|sf]k k"j{tof/L / k|efjsf/L cGtlq{mofdf /fd|f] of]ubfg ;d'bfonfO{ k|efjsf/L 9ªuaf6 k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf] k|of]u { " ug{ ;Ifd ePsf] b]lvG5 . kl/of]hgfaf6 xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfdf of]ubfg s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? 17
  • 26. %= xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfsf] /0fgLlts nIo k|fKt ug{ kl/of]hgfn] k'¥ofPsf] of]ubfg %=! /0fgLlts of]hgf !M lbuf] ljsf; gLlt k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;ldltx? / h'glo/ /]8qm; ;s{nsf] Ifdtf tyf of]hgfdf k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ a9fpg klg yk d2t k'usf] 5 . jfof]–OlGHflgol/¨ k|ljlwsf ] PsLs[t ug]{ . ;fgf :t/sf Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{, g;{/L Joj:yfkgsf ultljlwx?af6 jftfj/0fLo tyf k|fs[lts ;|ft Joj:yfkg ug{ ] ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+:yfx?nfO{ k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf tyf e"–pkof]u of]hgf agfpg k|ToIf ;xof]u ldn]sf] 5 . ultljlwx? ;~rfng ug{ ;jn / ;Ifd agfpg], 1fgsf] Joj:yfkg;DaGwL k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug]{ tyf ljQLo kf/blz{tf ;fd'bflos 8'ªuf , ;'/lIft 3/ tyf ;'/lIft af6f]sf] Joj:yfaf6 sfod ug]{ sfo{x? Pjd ;+:yfut ?kdf ;'zf;g sfod ;d'bfosf] k|sf]k;šu n8g ;Sg] Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 . ug{h:tf s'/fx? kl/of]hgfsf d'Vo ;/f]sf/sf ljifox? x'g ] oL ;Dk"0f{ ultljlwx?n] xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfsf] bf];f| ] nIonfO{ . ;d'bfo:t/df agfOPsf k|sf]k k"jtof/L of]hgfnfO{ uflj; { k|ToIf ?kdf of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf] 5 . / lhlj;sf sfo{qmdx?df ;dGjo ul/g] ePsf]n] ;fd'bflos of]hgf sfof{Gjog ug{ cfjZos cfly{s ;|ftsf] Joj:yf ug{ ] %=# /0fgLlts nIo #M k|efljt ;d'bfosf] ufx|f] x'g] 5}g . o;/L :yfgLo txsf k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ;xof]usf] nflu cfktsfnLg k"jtof/L, p4f/, { kxnx? /fli6«o :t/df lbuf] ljsf; gLlt tyf of]hgf;šu /fxt tyf k'g:yf{kgfsf] k|Tofe"lt lbg hf]lvd PsLs[t x'g] cj:yf 5 . o;af6 sfo{of]hgfsf] /0fgLlts Go"gLs/0fsf cEof;x?nfO{ cfTd;ft ug]{ . nIo ! nfO{ of]ubfg ug{ kl/of]hgf ;kmn ePsf] 5 . kl/of]hgfn] gLlt, k|fljlws tyf ;+:yfut Ifdtf tyf :yfgLo %=@ /0fgLlts nIo @ M k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtf k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ug{ /fli6«o :t/sf tflnd, uf]i7L tyf clej[l4sf] nflu /fli6«o tyf ;fd'bflos tx;Dd ;]ldgf/x?sf] d4taf6 1fg tyf cg'ejsf] cfbfg–k|bfgdfkm{t ;+:yfut ;+/rgfdf ;3fp k'¥ofpg] . ;xof]u u/]sf] 5 . :yfgLo txdf ul/Psf o:tf lsl;dsf 5nkmn / ;dGjon] kl/of]hgfaf6 ;~rflnt ultljlwx?sf] Kfl/of]hgf If]qsf ;d'bfosf] k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? lgoldt sfof{Gjogsf] nflu :yfgLo:t/df jfxo ;|ft h'6fpg] ;DaGwL xfnsf] Ifdtf tyf 1fgnfO{ ;dLIff ub}{ cem k|efjsf/L / kl/rfng ug{ ;xof]uL ePsf] 5 . cGtlqm{of a}7s cfof]hgf ?kdf 1fgsf] Joj:yfkg ug{ Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{ sfddf ug],{ ;"rgfsf] cfbfg–k|bfg tyf ;dGjo ug{ ;xhLs/0f ug]{ hf]8 lbOPsf]] 5 . ;d'bfodf hf]lvd kQf nufpg, hf]lvdsf] h:tf ultljlwx?af6 ;d'bfonfO{ k|fljlws ;xof]u ug{, ;dLIff ug{, vt/fsf] cg'udg ug{ / k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf { " ;|ftsf] k|efjsf/L 9ªuaf6 ;|ftsf] afš8kmfš8 ug{ / ug'kg]{ ] ] { /fd|f cEof;x?nfO{ k|rf/ k|;f/ ug{ ;d'bfosf] 1fg / Ifdtf sfo{ tTsfn} sfof{Gjog ug{ yk d2t k'Ug] u/]sf] 5 . b'a} a9fpg kl/of]hgfn] ;xof]u hf/L /fv]sf] 5 . ;"rgf ;~hfn, ;dGjo / ;xsfo{af6 kl/of]hgf If]qsf ;d'bfonfO{ ;fdu|Lsf] k|of]u, cWoog e|d0f, ;8s gf6s, lel8of] k|bzg { k|efjsf/L k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf] k|of]u ug{, k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f { " / k"j;rgf k|0ffnLsf cEof;x?n] ;d'bfosf] 1fg, ;Lk / { " tyf k|sf]ksf] a]nfdf /fxt / ;xof]u ug{ cem yk an k|fKt cg'ejnfO{ cem kl/is[t ug]{ tyf cfTdan a9fpg ;xof]u ePsf] 5 . kl/of]hgfn] ;d'bfonfO{ k|sf]k k"jtof/Lsf { ePsf] 5 . k|sf]k k"jtof/L tyf k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] { cEof;dfkm{t pgLx?sf] Ifdtf a9fpg lg/Gt/ ;xof]u u/]sf] nflu hgr]tgfd"ns sfo{qmdx? / :s"nsf sfo{qmdx?n] yk 5 . vfB tyf u}/vfB ;fdu|Lx?sf] ljt/0faf6 k|sf]ksf] a]nf e"ldsf v]nsf] 5 . o:tf ultljlwx?af6 :yfgLo ;+:yfx? ] tTsfn} /fxt / ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg ;Dej EfPsf]n] vf;u/L k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;ldltx?, pk;ldltx?, Ufflj;:t/Lo { /0fgLlts nIo # k"/f ug{ of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf] 5 . 18 36gf cWoog k|ltj]bg k]ma|c/L, @))( '
  • 27. jfnjflnsf4f/f ;~rf/ ;fdfu|Lsf] cjnf]sg ub}{ kl/of]hgfaf6 xo"uf] sfo{of]hgfdf of]ubfg s}nfnL k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kxnx? 19
  • 28. l8k]sf], o'/f]knL cfof]usf] dfgjLo ;xof]u ljefu -ljZjsf] Psdfq ;a}eGbf 7"nf] dfgjLo bftf_ cGtu{tsf] k|sf]k k"jtof/L sfo{qmd xf] . o; sfo{qmd cGtu{t vf;u/L { gd"gf kl/of]hgfnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . ;fwf/0f, sd nfutsf] / vf;u/L ;d'bfodf ;~rfng x'g] d;L{ sf]/ g]kfn kl/of]hgfx? o;sf] k|fyldstfdf kb{5g . o;df k|sf]ksf] kf]=j= g+= @$#&$ IfltnfO{ sd ug],{ k|sf]ksf] c;/ k/]sf] ;d'bfosf] Ifdtf ;fg]kf rf]s, nlntk'/, g]kfn . k"j{ cj:yfdf Nofpg] / hLjgsf] ;'/Iff ug]{ kl/of]hgfx?nfO{ 6]lnkmf]g M (&& ! %%% %%#@ dxÎjsf ;fy x]g{] ul/G5 . kmofS; M (&& ! %%% $#&) email: info@np.mercycorps.org d;L{ sf]/ Ps cGt/fli6«o u}/;/sf/L, dfgjLo /fxt k|bfg ug]{ ljsf;d'vL ;+:yf xf] . o;sf] d'Vo sfof{no cd]l/sf d;L{ sf]/sf] o'/f]knL d'Vofno ] / a]nfotdf /x]sf] 5 . o;n] vf;u/L ?kfGt/0fsf] qmddf $) ;]Og];, O8gju{ # Pr ( ! Pgh], a]nfot /x]sf b]zx?nfO{ d2t ub{5 . d;L{ sf]/n] b'MvL, ul/aL / 6]lnkmf]g M $$-)_!#! ^^@ %!^) lyrf]ldrf]df kfl/Psf ju{nfO{ ;'/lIft / Gofok"0f{ ;d'bfo kmofS; M $$-)_!#! ^^@ ^^$* lgdf{0fdf ;xof]u ub{5 . o;sf] k|d'v sfo{ eg]sf] www.mercycorps.org cfktsfnLg /fxt k'¥ofpg', cfly{s ljsf; ug'{ / gful/s ;dfhsf] ;Dj4{g ug'{ /x]sf] 5 . d;L{ sf]/ g]kfnsf] k|dv' ISBN 993721361-4 nIo eg]sf] kL8fdf k/]sf] ;d'bfosf] IfdtfnfO{ k"j{ cj:yfdf Nofpg], cfly{s cj;/x?sf] lj:tf/ ug]{ tyf ;fdflhs ;dfj]zL cEof;x?nfO{ a9fjf lb+b} ul/aL lgjf/0f 9 789937 213615 ug'{ /x]sf] 5 . 20 36gf cWoog k|ltj]bg k]ma|c/L, @))( '

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