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Kdrri case study report english 2009 low res

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    Kdrri case study report english 2009 low res Kdrri case study report english 2009 low res Document Transcript

    • CASE STUDY Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Contribution To Hyogo Framework Of Action KAILALI DISASTER RISK REDUCTION INITIATIVES February 2009 EUROPEAN COMMISSION Nepal Red Cross Humanitarian Aid Society, Kailali
    • Authors: Dhruba Raj Gautam Independent Researcher and Consultant E-mail: drgautam@wlink.com.np Sudarshan Khanal Student at the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, USA Email: sudarshan.khanal@yale.edu Special contributors: Ulla Dons, Chet Bahadur Tamang ,Sagar Pokharel, Himal Ojha Photo contributors: Sagar Pokharel, Chet Bahadur Tamang, Himal Ojha, Dhruba Raj Gautam and Ulla Dons Editor: Perry Thapa Cover Photos Front: Community Level Consultation, Front Inside: River bank protection work Back Inside: Observation of IEC posters Back: Clock-wise ; Skill Training, Use Of EWS Siren, Rescue using life Jacket, Boat Constructed with VDC support , Interaction with DHM Technician, River bank protection work Design and Printed by: Mind Share Communications Pvt.Ltd. River bank protection work Published by: Mercy Corps Nepal, Lalitpur, Nepal The views expressed in this document should not be taken in a way to reflect the European Commission; and it is not liable for any use that be made of the information contained herein.
    • Table of Content Foreword Mercy Corps Nepal is pleased to release the enclosed case study: Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction - Contribution to Hyogo Framework for Action. This case study is the result of an evaluation of a DG ECHO-supported project implemented by Mercy Corps and the Nepal Red Cross Society, Kailali District Chapter under the DIPECHO Fourth Action Plan for South Asia, Foreword I Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives. The case study was conducted by an independent Acknowledgements II researcher and consultant, Dhruba Raj Gautam, with contributions from a graduate student at Acronyms III Yale University’s School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Sudarshan Khanal. Support Executive Summary IV for the case study was provided by Mercy Corps’ disaster risk reduction team, while funding for the case study was provided by DG ECHO. 1. The Context 1 As opposed to evaluating the contributions of the project against its own stated objectives, 2. Methodology 2 this case study was designed to evaluate the contribution of the project’s community-based disaster risk reduction activities to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA), a 10-year plan 3. The Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-2015) 2 adopted by 168 governments to make the world safer from natural disaster by substantially reducing disaster-related human, social, economic and environmental losses by 2015. The 4. Project contributions in achieving the priority actions of HFA 3 HFA emerged from the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Hyogo, Japan, and is 4.1 Priority action 1 3 a global blueprint for disaster risk reduction efforts. In evaluating the effects of our disaster 4.2 Priority action 2 5 risk reduction work against the HFA, Mercy Corps is aiming to ensure that its actions are 4.3 Priority action 3 8 commensurate with, and contribute to, a coordinated, multi-stakeholder framework to re- 4.4 Priority action 4 13 duce the loss of lives and livelihoods as a result of natural disasters. As one of many local, 4.5. Priority action 5 15 national, and international relief and development actors, we believe that our efforts are much more relevant when adding value to this type of coherent, international action plan. 5. Project contribution in achieving the strategic goals of HFA 17 5.1 Strategic goal 1 17 The case study highlights that community-based disaster risk reduction activities in the Kailali 5.2 Strategic goal 2 17 district have contributed to the HFA’s strategic priorities and objectives by: a) ensuring that 5.3 Strategic goal 3 17 disaster risk reduction is a priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation (HFA Priority Action 1); b) identifying, assessing, and monitoring risks, and carrying out early warn- List of tables ing systems (HFA Priority Action 2); c) supporting knowledge, education and innovation to Table 1: Number of households and ethnic composition by community and VDC 1 build a culture of safety and resilience (HFA Priority Action 3); reducing underlying risk factors Table 2: Gender and ethnic composition of DPC 3 (HFA Priority Action 4); and, increasing preparedness for effective response and recovery Table 3: Lead-time of flooding for different locations 6 (HFA Priority Action 5). On behalf of Mercy Corps, I would like to thank all of those who made Table 4: Warnings based on water levels 6 these achievements possible: DG ECHO under its DIPECHO Fourth Action Plan for South Asia; Table 5: Number of participants in various trainings 10 Nepal Red Cross Society; local, district and national level Government of Nepal stakeholders; Table 6: Status of mitigation work, community nurseries and plantation 13 our DIPECHO Nepal colleague agencies; our own disaster risk reduction team; and, of course most importantly, the partner communities themselves. Josh DeWald Country Director Mercy Corps Nepal Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives I
    • Acknowledgements Acronyms and Abbreviations BASE Backward Society Education We would like to acknowledge the support of the European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid Department, which both helped produce this publication and CSSD Conscious Society for Social Development funded the Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives Project under the 4th DIPECHO Action Plan for South Asia. DDC District Development Committee We are grateful to the communities of Bishanpur, Jokahiyapur, Lalitpur, DoHM Department of Hydrology and Meteorology Manikapur, Mohanpur, and Shivaratanpur of Kailali District for their patience in DP Disaster Preparedness providing us with a wealth of information and for being so cooperative during the study. We benefited greatly from disaster preparedness committees, DPC Disaster Preparedness Committee community members and stakeholders, teachers and students, village development committees and district stakeholders in increasing our DRM Disaster Risk Management understanding of how the project contributes towards the Hyogo Framework of Action. We would further like to extend our sincere gratitude to all who helped DRR Disaster Risk reduction make this study a success by contributing their time, feedback and suggestions. DSCO District Soil Conservation Office We would also like to acknowledge the Kailali District Chapter of the Nepal Red DTO District Technical Office Cross Society and Mercy Corps Nepal, which together implemented the Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives Project, for their professional support during DWIDP Department of Water Induced Disaster Prevention our fieldwork as well at a consultation meeting with district level stakeholders in Dhangadhi. EWS Early Warning System FGD Focus Group Discussion We are grateful to Mercy Corps Nepal and to the project management team for their feedback on and suggestions about our conceptual framework and HFA Hyogo Framework of Action methodology as well as the draft report. We are indeed grateful that Mercy Corps Nepal entrusted us to conduct this case study. JRC Junior Red Cross Circles KII Key Informant Interview Dhruba Raj Gautam and Sudarshan Khanal S&R Search and Rescue SHP Sub-health Post VCA Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment VDC Village Development Committee VDMC Village Disaster Management Committee Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Case Study II February 2009 Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives III
    • Executive summary The context: In cooperation with the Nepal Red Cross field office, early warning information was made far 4.2 km have been completed) has helped people and continue to fill the knowledge gaps of the com- Society (NRCS) in Kailali, Mercy Corps is currently available to communities and community-based early reach these shelters or other safe places. Raising hand munities in terms of DP and DRR, thereby contribut- implementing the Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Ini- warning systems were established. At the commu- pumps has ensured a source of safe water and re- ing to the development of the knowledge and skills tiatives project in six communities. The European Com- nity level, either agharia (a local messenger who duced the risk of epidemics and the spread of water- needed to identify and assess risk and hazards, to mission supports this project through its Humanitar- circulates messages to local people) or other persons borne diseases during the monsoon season. build capacities and to disseminate early warning in- ian Aid Department (under the DIPECHO 4th Action assigned by the DPC monitor flood levels. Emergency formation. Interventions such as small-scale mitiga- Plan for South Asia). This case study was conducted and first aid kits were provided to each community. The project has positively contributed to increasing tion measures and nursery management have di- to demonstrate whether and how and to what ex- CDMA phones and hand-operated sirens helped alert preparedness for effective response and recovery rectly contributed to environmental and natural re- tent the project contributes toward achieving the goals people to and save them from flood risks. The dis- (priority action 5). By participating in national and source management and land-use planning. These towards the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA). Con- semination of emergency news and weather-related district-level trainings and workshops for sharing and efforts contribute to developing and strengthening sultations with NRCS and Mercy Corps staff, key in- bulletins by local FM stations was also very effective exchanging information and by sharing resources the the institutions, mechanisms and capacities to build formant interviews, focus group discussions, exit in providing advance preparation. project has helped strengthen policy, technical and resilience to hazards (strategic goal 2). The project meeting with project staff and analysis and report- institutional capacities. Inspired by the communities’ has held several dialogues and consultations to fos- ing were some of the main approaches used in car- For the proper use of knowledge, innovation, and bioengineering initiatives, the District Water Induced ter information sharing, technical backstopping, re- rying out the study. education to build a culture of safety and resilience Disaster Preparedness Office has allocated Rs. 50,000 source and idea and experience sharing and to take at all levels (priority action 3), the project published (EUR 490) to build spurs. The District Soil Conserva- immediate action in improving project initiatives. With Project contributions toward achieving the priority ac- IEC materials for widespread dissemination, showed tion Office allocated another Rs.70,000 (EUR 686) to the project’s provisions for disaster-preparedness ex- tions of HFA: The project has made several efforts to DRR video documentary, organised cross visits and five communities so they could replicate bioengineer- ercises, including evacuation drills and simulations, it ensure that DRR is a national and local priority with performed street dramas. Early warning system and ing techniques. was easy to enhance the capacities of local people. strong institutional basis for implementation (priority evacuation simulations are beneficial for knowledge Mercy Corps’ contribution of food and non-food items action 1). In each community, it established disaster management. So far, more than 1,000 local people, Project contribution in achieving the strategic goals to flood-affected communities from alternative fund- preparedness committees (DPCs) and sub-commit- schoolteachers and students have attended various of HFA: Increasing the ability of community-based ing sources has boosted immediate relief and re- tees with clearly defined roles and responsibilities capacity-building trainings. Viewing students and institutions to carry out DP and DRR activities, devel- sponse, thereby incorporating risk reduction ap- for reducing flood risks and people’s vulnerability. teachers as the key agents for change, the project’s oping knowledge-sharing mechanisms and commu- proaches into the implementation of emergency pre- Financial transparency is maintained through well- school-level programme focuses on DP and DRR as nity DP plans promotes the integration of DRR into paredness, response and recovery programmes (stra- established social auditing. Emergency funds, a com- well as conservation education. sustainable development policies and planning (stra- tegic goal 3). munity-managed initiative, have been instrumental tegic goal 1). Capacity-building initiatives have filled in initiating the disaster preparedness, response and The project has contributed to reducing the underly- maintenance activities. So far, the six communities ing risk factors (priority action 4) through introducing have saved a total of Rs. 74,300 (EUR 728). By low-cost, replicable and easily maintained bioengi- linking community-level disaster preparedness (DP) neering mitigation techniques including bamboo work plans to village development committee (VDC)-level and sand-filled cement sacks. To reinforce bioengi- DP plans, the villagers have secured the resources neering efforts and save productive land along they need to execute their plans. riverbanks, 43,000 plants have been planted over an area of 27,300 m2. These initiatives have signifi- The project has helped project communities to iden- cantly reduced riverbank erosion and increased the tify risks, assess, monitor and carry out early warn- local communities’ confidence in the possibility that ing initiatives (priority action 2). Physical, attitudi- agriculture land and communities can be saved. Com- nal, and social risks and vulnerability were identified munity boats have become a means for safe evacu- through vulnerability and capacity assessment ex- ation during flood, and provisions for community shel- ercises in each community. In coordination with the ters have effectively saved lives during periods of Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DoHM) inundation. The construction of evacuation routes (so Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Case Study IV February 2009 Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives V
    • Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Contribution to Hyogo Framework of Action 1. The Context In cooperation with the Nepal Red Cross Society (NRCS) Table 1 Number of households and ethnic composition by community and VDC VDC Community No. Ethnicity 2. Methodology in Kailali District, Mercy Corps has been implement- of HHs Tharu Brahmin Dalits /Chhetri ing the Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives in This report is based on field research conducted in six through resource sharing. Primary data was collected Pabera Manikapur 73 72 0 1 six communities of four village development com- project communities. Before checklists and guide- using participatory tools and techniques such as fo- Bisanpur 33 33 0 0 mittees (VDCs) since November 2007. The European lines for questions to ask in the field were prepared, cus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant in- Phulbari Lalitpur 78 50 4 24 Commission supports this project through its Humani- Hasuliya Shivratnapur 64 62 1 1 project documents and relevant literature were re- terviews (KIIs). FGDs were carried out with disaster tarian Aid department under the DIPECHO 4th Action Mohanpur 78 78 0 0 viewed. preparedness committees (DPCs) and Junior Red Cross Plan for South Asia. Ratanpur Jokahiyapur 52 52 0 0 Circles (JRCs) to provide insight into the project’s key Total 378 347 5 26 accomplishments. KIIs with bhalmansha2, agharia3, A consultation between Mercy Corps and the Kailali Figure 1 Kailali district with project area Source: Project record, 2007-08 coordinators of sub-committees4, early warning sys- Chapter of NRCS was held before the fieldwork be- The majority of the population of project communi- gan in order to identify the key areas of interven- tem (EWS) volunteers, schoolteachers and students ties (91.8%) is Tharu, the indigenous group of the tions, the emerging issues and the concerns of lo- were conducted to explore their perceptions of the western Terai. Brahmin-Chhetri and Dalit hill migrants cal people with respect to DRR and DP. A brief project’s contributions toward reducing disaster risks. are minority populations (see Table 1). The majority meeting with project field staff in Hasuliya revealed Transects walks with DPC members and nursery man- of these people own only aailani, or unregistered, some key outputs as well as good practices and agement committees helped reveal the extent of miti- land. Landholdings range in area from two katha1 to success stories. A sharing meeting with district-level gation work carried out by the communities, the pro- three bigha. Most are subsistence farmers who rear stakeholders helped to identify the level of coordi- cesses and procedures they followed during that work traditional livestock though sharecropping is also a nation and networking which exists for providing and the benefits in DRR they acquired from it. common practice. Many youths migrate seasonally technical backstopping and synergetic impacts to India for the jobs, as labourers they need to meet family needs for food and other household require- ments as well as to cover the expenses of various festivals. 3. The Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-2015) The project aims to build safer communities through Floods are a major hazard in the project communi- disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives in collabora- ties. The Mohana River and its tributaries, the Kataini, The HFA provides a strong basis for priority actions strengthen disaster preparedness for effective re- tion with communities, local governments and other Guraha and Khutiya, regularly inundate the adjacent by governments and governmental organisations sponse. The three strategic goals are (i) integra- key stakeholders. Local capacity building and train- areas and erode riverbanks and productive land. They as well as by local, regional and international non- tion of disaster risk reduction into sustainable de- ing, early warning systems, small-scale mitigation, cause the loss of life and important belongings, in- governmental organisations. It is designed to build velopment policies and planning, (ii) development education, and facilitation of coordination are the key cluding livestock and houses. Flooding damages in- the resilience of nations and communities to disas- and strengthening of institutions, mechanisms and areas of project interventions frastructure, including roads, irrigation canals, schools ters. The HFA has five priorities for action and three capacities to build resilience to hazards, and (iii) and health posts, and makes accessing clean drink- strategic goals. The five priorities for action are (i) incorporation of risk reduction approaches into the The project VDCs are located in Kailali District in the ing water sources and sanitation services difficult. It ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and implementation of emergency preparedness, re- Far- Western Development Region of Nepal at lati- also disrupts people’s livelihoods and makes them local priority with strong institutional basis for sponse and recovery programmes. tudes from 28°34’46.31"N to 28°30’39.79"N and increasingly vulnerable. Because floods are so dev- implementation, (ii) identify, assess and monitor longitudes from 80°44’59.21"E to 80°50’52.63"E). astating, people live in constant fear. disaster risks and enhance early warning, (iii) use This report is organised according to the broad cat- Their average altitude is 60 masl. Project commu- knowledge, innovation and education to build a egories set out in the HFA’s priorities for action (sec- nities were selected based on the extent of haz- Mercy Corps has documented this case study-based culture of safety and resilience at all levels, (iv) tion 4 of this case study) and its strategic goals (sec- ards, the vulnerability of and risk to settlements, research in order to share its key achievements and reducing the underlying risk factors, and (v) and tion 5 of this case study). and the damage to houses and cropland attribut- lessons with a national and global audience. This able to river erosion. The history, location, and report also tries to demonstrate whether or not and socio-economic status of communities, as well as how and to what extent the project contributes to- their access to services and institutions and the op- wards the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA). portunities for replicating good DRR practices in neighbouring communities were also taken into con- 2 A bhalmansha is a traditional Tharu leader or village guardian selected or elected every year during the Maghi festival (15 to run the village systems. It is a sideration. highly respected position found only in Tharu-dominated villages. 3 An agharia is an assistant to a bhalmasha who circulates messages to local people as instructed by a bhalmash 4 The five sub-committees are 1) nursery management, 2) early warning and rescue, 3) procurement and accounting, 4) construction and 5) community 1 mobilisation. 20 katha=1 bigha = 0.67ha, and 1 katha = 0.0335 ha Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Case Study 1 February 2009 Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives 2
    • 4. Project contributions in achieving the community level: all expenditures are discussed at community gatherings both at the initial and final DPCs have adopted a pro-active approach to increas- ing their emergency funds. Mohanpur, for instance, the priority actions of HFA stages of project activities. All key decisions and trans- collected funds by operating a boat service during actions are displayed on community notice boards as the monsoon. For its part, Shivaratanpur collected well as on the walls of DPC offices. Both the DPC and Rs. 564 (EUR 5.5) by conducting Fagui5 and Deuso The project’s achievements demonstrate that the strength through capacity-building trainings and cross- procurement sub-committee members are involved and Bailo6 programmes. Though these programmes project has indeed contributed to bringing about learning visits. Now that they are equipped with suf- in procuring materials from outside, so financial trans- are traditional, using them to raise funds is a the priority actions of HFA. These achievements are ficient knowledge and skills, these committees inde- parency and risk-sharing is high. project-inspired initiative. Shivaratanpur also plans discussed briefly in the following sections. pendently carry out local-level initiatives to reduce to sell seedlings from its nursery. flood risks and various types of vulnerabilities. d. Translated community-agreed rules and 4.1 Priority action 1: Ensure that disaster risk regulations into action The six project communities have started to advo- reduction is a national and local priority with b. Developed knowledge-sharing mechanisms The DPCs have formulated and enforced rules and cate providing support to neighbouring vulnerable strong institutional basis for implementation The project has developed a powerful mechanism regulations governing DP and DRR activities. Rules communities during emergencies. Shivaratanpur and for building and sharing knowledge. The practice include restrictions on grazing near protected Mankapur communities, for example, gave 72 and a. Strengthened community-based institutions of selecting participants for trainings and orienta- riverbanks, safeguarding newly planted areas, and 75 kilogrammes of rice respectively from their emer- to carry out DP and DRR activities tions through DPC meetings boosts social solidarity allocating roles and responsibilities among the DPC gency funds to Basanta when a wild elephant to- Six gender- and socially-inclusive disaster prepared- and prevents bias. Because it is mandatory for train- and sub-committee members. Shivaratanpur com- tally destroyed its stored grain and damaged houses. ness committees (DPCs), one in each project com- ees to disseminate the new information, knowl- munity, for example, has agreed to fine members These communities were able to respond immedi- munity, were formed to promote DP-related activi- edge and skills they acquire to other DPC mem- who are habitually late to meetings and who refuse ately because they had an emergency fund. The ties and to mobilise local people to reduce flood bers, knowledge sharing is also strong. to get involved in weekly sanitation campaigns. Bisanpur DPC had agreed to contribute two quintals risks (see Table 2). Shivaratanpur community even Search and rescue sub-committee members are of wheat to Koshi flood victims, but they were forced included a differently- abled person and a widow c. Maintained financial transparency in each responsible for monitoring flood and blow sirens to drop this idea after they became flood victims among its DPC members and has elected a woman project activity as needed, while the procurement and accounting themselves in September. Their efforts show that bhalmansa. DPCs network, coordinate and build Each DPC has simple but effective measures to committee members are accountable for social au- collaborative efforts are beginning to reduce disas- rapport with village-level stakeholders. These net- maintain financial transparency. Each has its own diting. The translation of community-agreed rules, ter risks. These initiatives have helped build a sense works, in turn, promote resource sharing. For in- bank account through which it accesses whatever norms and values into action has helped commu- of social solidarity among villagers and should fos- stance, the coordination between the Lalitpur DPC resources the project and district agencies provide. nities adopt a consolidated approach to DRR. ter still more collaboration in DRR initiatives. and Phulbari VDC made it possible for the former The procurement and accounting sub-committee as- to secure life jackets for two boat operators who sists in maintaining all financial transactions in an e. Maintained equity in resource sharing to es- f. Prepared community- and VDC-level DP plans service the community and for local police for use orderly manner. Social auditing is fully established at tablish emergency funds Each DPC has prepared a community-level DP plan during emergencies. Five sub-committees under Equitable resource mechanisms are enforced to col- which incorporates a variety of activities like orienta- each DPC were formed in order to clearly allocate Box 1 Information, knowledge and skills are more important than material support lect cash and grain for emergencies. Each DPC has tions, evacuation, rescue and relief work, community roles and responsibilities and to increase account- In the beginning, we were quite unhappy with established an emergency fund to initiate, operate nursery management, riverbank protection, construc- ability in initiating DRR activities. The provision that project authorities. They kept inviting us to and maintain disaster preparedness and response tion of evacuation routes, allocation of roles and re- one DPC member be an ex-officio member of each trainings and orientations, but our interest lay in getting project resources to build gabion spurs activities. This fund serves as a local resource for sponsibilities for river monitoring, and operation and sub-committee has established a culture of shar- to protect the riverbank from floods. However, immediate relief and response during emergencies maintenance of early warning equipment. This was ing and understanding between DPCs and their sub- with the project’s persistence in building our as well as for mitigation initiatives. Locals see the the first time such plans had been prepared and lo- committees. These committees have grown in knowledge through trainings and exposure, we learned a lot about actions we can take locally to emergency fund as a ray of hope in reducing disas- cals are very enthusiastic about implementing them reduce the disaster risks. Because of the project’s ter risks. Different DPCs have agreed that each fam- by mobilising local resources. They also hope to get Table 2 Gender and ethnic composition of DPC continuous facilitation, very good practices like VDC Communties Members Ethnicity sharing knowledge after attending a training, ily will contribute between five and one hundred additional support from the VDC and district levels. M F T Tharu B-C Dalits Total maintaining financial transparency, ensuring rupees each month and contribute one kilogramme Phulbari Lalitpur 8 5 13 8 2 3 13 equity in resource sharing, and translating of wheat per katha of land held. The fact that the The project has facilitated the formation of village Hasuliya Mohanpur 8 5 13 13 0 0 13 community-agreed rules and regulations into Shivaratanpur 6 7 13 12 1 0 13 action have been ingrained in us. In the long run contribution in grain is based on landholding is an disaster management committees (VDMCs) in each Pabera Bisanpur 9 4 13 13 0 0 13 in, information, knowledge and skills are more indication that resource mobilisation is equitable. VDC whose role is to link community-level DP plans important than material support. Manikapur 7 6 13 12 0 1 13 So far, a total of Rs. 74,300 (EUR 728) has been with VDC plans. VDC stakeholders were inspired to Ratanpur Jokahiyapur 8 5 13 13 0 0 13 -Mr. Khoj Ram Chaudhari, Manikapur saved by all six project communities. Bisanpur has encourage such linkages after visiting the six project Total 46 32 78 71 3 4 78 (District Vice-Chairperson, Freed Kamaiya Society, Kailali) saved the most, Rs 25,708 (EUR 252), and communities. Community-level DP plans will even- Source: Project record 2007-08 /Note: B-C=Brahmin-Chhetri Jokahiyapur the least, Rs 5919 (EUR 58). tually be incorporated into VDC development plans. 5 A popular festival among Tharus in which people throw coloured powder and water balloons at each other. It usually falls in March. Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Case Study 6 A song and dance programme practiced from house to house by hill migrants during Tihar, 3 February 2009 the Festival of Lights, which falls in October or November. Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives 4
    • VDCs secretaries serve as VDCM coordinators and are flood warning information was circulated to project the community level, either the agharia or a person currently overseeing the formulation of VDC-level DP communities one to one-and-a-half hours earlier than assigned by the DPC monitors flood levels. This project plans which will consolidate community- level plans the calculated lead time (see Table 3). The commu- provision built on rather than interfering with tradi- and consider common issues pertinent to DRR. This nities thought that this information was very helpful tional EWS-based practices. Hazard monitoring prac- step has opened the way to mobilising VDC-level re- as it enable them to evacuate in time. tices vary across the communities. Shivaratanpur, for sources in the execution of community-level DP plans. instance, has allocated a team of people to monitor For instance, Hasuliya VDC provided Rs 5,000 to Table 3 Lead time of flooding for different locations floods twice a day, at 9 a.m. and 8 p.m., whereas Shivaratanpur DPC to construct a boat. Inspired by River Location Calculated Suggested Bisanpur requires that the EWS coordinator monitor hours hour Shivaratanpur, other DPCs also plan to solicit funds flood levels three times a day, at 5 a.m., 1 p.m. and Mohona Malakheti to Bisanpur 9 8 from their VDCs. Once community-level DP plans are Malakheti to Bhansar 3 2.5 9 p.m. Keeping safety and security in mind, each linked with VDC plans, they will automatically be Bhansar to Bisanpur 6 5 monitor has been provided with an umbrella, rubber linked to the plans of Kailali District and DRR will be Khutiya Khutiya Mudi Bhavar 10 9 boots, a torchlight and a raincoat. to Bisanpur mainstreamed in district policies, planning and imple- Gauri Ganga Highway to Lalitpur 3 2.5 mentation. Kataini Highway to Manikapur 4.2 3.5 Community-based local practices are designed to be VDC level stakeholders meeting Source: Project record, 2008 accessible to illiterate people. For instance, each com- In short, the establishment of strengthened commu- munity has established a wooden post marked with nity-based institutions to carry out DP and DRR activi- b. Hazard monitoring yellow and red bands at riverbanks. Such a marker is ties, the development of knowledge-sharing mecha- able to develop risk maps based on the level of risk The project has introduced both watershed and com- a very simple method of DRR: water reaching the nisms, the maintenance of financial transparency in identified. The categorised areas as being at low, munity-level approaches to hazard monitoring. In col- Box 3 We are proud that no one has died in our communities. each project activities, and the drafting of commu- medium or high risk. They identified areas at low laboration with five upstream rain gauge stations and With the careful use of EWS devices and nity- as well as VDC-level DP plans have ensured that risk as those inundated during a general flood. If six upstream and three downstream water-level application of the skills and knowledge we disaster risk reduction is a local priority with strong floodwaters enter areas at medium and high risk, gauging stations, project communities are able to gained through various trainings and exposures, institutional basis for implementation. preparations for evacuation to save lives and impor- monitor the extent of flood risks in their localities. we made sure that no human casualties were reported in our project communities although tant belongings are required. During the flood of Sep- The project has helped train gauge recorders to moni- 24 people died in adjoining communities. These 4.2 Priority action 2: Identify, assess and tember 2008, local communities used the skills and tor water levels hourly so that they can disseminate figures show that if locals are prepared sufficiently in advance, the extent of flood risks monitor disaster risks and enhance early knowledge they had acquired with great success to real-time data to downstream communities. DPC and can be reduced dramatically. warning reduce flood risks. EWS coordinators are responsible for maintaining com- -Mr Chhallu Ram Chaudhari, Teacher, Hasulia munications with upstream stations and for dissemi- a. Developed knowledge and skills to identify Box 2 No need to worry about getting resources nating information to communities. Cross-visits to four yellow band is a sign to get prepared; reaching the and assess risk Since learning that Shivratanpur got resources rain gauge stations and four water-level gauging sta- red, a warning to evacuate immediately. In terms of The project introduced vulnerability and capacity as- from Hasuliya VDC to construct a boat, we have tions clarified to DPC and EWS sub-committee mem- rainfall-based warnings, an intensity of 110-150 mm planned to visit our VDC to request some resources sessment (VCA) exercises in each community to iden- to replicate bioengineering work. We now know bers how rain and water levels are monitored and per hour is considered the first warning; 151-200 mm, tify physical, attitudinal, and social risks and vulner- that making such a request is our right. I am quite how information is communicated. They learned the second; and above 200 mm, the third. Warnings hopeful that once the VDC-level DP plan is abilities. It also facilitated the assessment of natural finalised, incorporating our community-level DP about average and warning levels and how this are issued through FM radio stations. and man-made hazards in line with communities’ plan, it will be easier to secure resources from knowledge can be translated into preparedness in perceptions of the associated risks. Local people have the VDC to execute the plan’s activities. I don’t their communities (see Table 4). c. Early warning dissemination think we need to worry about funds for the VDC identified and ranked flooding as the main hazard in either as its plan will automatically be linked with The project has coordinated with district-level stake- their area. The factors that increase their vulnerabil- the DDC plan. The mechanism for disseminating information about holders, and enhanced the capacity of communities ity include ignorance, social disunity, the location of -Mr Chheduram Chaudhari, DPC Coordinator, Jokahiyapur flood hazards is also well defined and functional. At settlements on low land near riverbanks and the lack Table 4 Warnings based on water levels of preparedness. These VCA exercises are beneficial People are well informed about the time it takes a in that they increase awareness and preparedness flood to reach their localities from different up- River Location Average flood level Warning flood level (1st stage) Warning flood level (2nd stage) Ready Get set Go and change the attitudes and behaviours of locals stream river gauge stations. Through coordination Mohona Malakheti 2.0 m 2.5 m 3.4 m with respect to risks and how they cope with them. with the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology Khutiya Mudi Bhavar 2.1m 3.6 m 4.8 m (DoHM7) field office, early warning information was Shiva Ganaga Highway Bridge 1.5 m 1.8 m 2.5 m Project communities are well aware of which areas made available to downstream communities. In or- Guruha Highway Bridge 1.2 m 1.5 m 2m Kataini Highway Bridge 1.8 m 2.2 m 2.8 m are vulnerable to flooding and inundation and were der to reduce the possibility of errors being made, Source: Project record, 2008 7 A department under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Case Study 5 February 2009 Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives 6
    • bulletins, both of which effectively enabled locals to and district stakeholders, including CARE Nepal and their prepare in advance. During the September 2008 local partner NGOs. In agreeing upon the themes and flood, project communities informed FM stations about the art for each item, the design team kept in mind their situation in order to pressure relevant authori- the Tharu’s social setup and culture. A local artist was ties into acting immediately to provide support. Work- employed to refine the sketches drawn up by the team. ing with local media is an effective way of fostering Each item was field-tested and the feedback of the EWS. community incorporated before it was finalised. De- sign sensitivity and testing have ensured that infor- Activity showing wooden post Box 5 Life jackets became friends during hard times mation about disaster risk, reduction and prevention We appreciated the project’s support in providing is readily understandable and that it encourages and through training and equipment and simulation ex- emergency kits. Life jackets felt like friends in hard enables people to take action to reduce risks and build times. During the last monsoon, Aitabari Chaudhari, ercises to develop local knowledge-based EWS. resilience. who lives on the other side of the Mohana, had to return home immediately because his wife Draupadi To facilitate the dissemination of early warning mes- had died unexpectedly. It was night and there was a high flood in Ghuraha River. He couldn’t find the The project’s approach to information dissemination is sages, the project provided nine CDMA phones at the boat but insisted that he had to get home. We innovative and interesting. Community facilitators dis- four downstream and five upstream rainfall and provided him with a life jacket to cross the river. He seminated the message of each IEC item using door-to- Use of life jacket during S&R reached home in time to attend his wife’s funeral. water-level gauges and a hand-operated siren to door campaigns based on the adult learning approach. Even now, whenever he meets us, he speaks of the each community. Both were found to be very effec- support the life jacket gave him in crossing the river. In short, endeavours in risk identification and assess- The facilitators provided enough room for locals to ex- tive EWS tools during the September 2008 flood. Com- Life jackets have saved the lives of many other local people, including police officials who perform rescue ment were made by increasing knowledge about risks press their understanding of and feelings about key munication channels and contact telephone numbers operations. and about suitable strategies for coping with and mea- themes and messages and to fill in any gaps if neces- were disseminated to communities through fliers. sures for reducing those risks. EWSs were established sary. This flexible, interactive approach increased -Ms. Raj Kumari Chaudhari, Lalitpur, Phulbari Because of these simple mechanisms, locals were by drawing upon the existing knowledge of locals people’s understanding of the main message of each able to evacuate the elderly, pregnant and lactating The joint efforts of district-level agencies have helped about specific hazards and risks. Information was IEC item. mothers, children and livestock before flood levels establish watershed-level EWS. The Mohana Water- disseminated by those systems in a timely fashion approached the level of risk. Although their response shed EWS was designed by a committee under the using simple and understandable language. and evacuation times differed according to the dis- chairmanship of the district techncial office (DTO) with tance to safe shelter and community size, all six com- representation from relevant district stakeholders. 4.3 Priority action 3: Use knowledge, munities were able to evacuate all their members This committee has given time, energy and other innovation, and education to build a culture safely. resources to strengthen watershed-level EWS and to of safety and resilience at all levels link it with downstream communities. FM radios have been very effective in disseminating Information management and exchange: The project information. The project mobilised local FM stations The project provided emergency and first aid kits to has disseminated information about floods and their to disseminate emergency news and weather-related all six communities so they could carry out EWS and risks as well as about various protection mechanisms search and rescue work. The emergency supplies in- and coping strategies both to locals within the project Box 4 Small initiatives promote knowledge about EWS clude life jackets, safety vests, throw bags, area as well as to those in neighbouring communi- Before we took exposure visits to upstream rain guage and flood monitoring stations and carabineers, inner tubes, rope, helmets, hand-oper- ties. It has also published information, education and IEC for flood preparedness interacted with technicians at the DoHM field ated sirens, and stretchers. These materials were communication (IEC) materials, shown video docu- office, we never understood the weather reports broadcast on radio and TV. Those reports were put to good use during the last monsoon. The people mentaries, organised cross visits, performed street b. Cross visits: learning laboratories for locals not useful for us because we did not know the of Mohanpur saved lives using their emergency ma- dramas, and facilitated EWS evacuation simulations To promote learning from others’ experiences and techical terms. We are surprised that with a terials during the flood of September 2008. In in order to share information and build knowledge. replication of good practices, cross visits are very ef- mechanism as simple as installing a red-and- yellow banded wooden post, so much information Shivaratnapur, a drowning person was rescued with fective tools. Each project community visited two can be collected and used for EWS. The exposure the help of a life jacket. The first aid kits were widely a. IEC materials are the key to raising awareness other project communities to observe and learn from visit helped us understand the meanings of flood levels and estimated time for water to reach our used during flooding. First aid kits are kept in the IEC materials are essential for imparting knowledge their efforts in DRR and to replicate good practices. communities. This information is very useful for houses of sudeni8) so that services can be instantly and information. The project published and distributed Locals perceived these visits as learning laboratories EWS. I think small initiatives are very important in provided to locals. four posters, two fliers, flip charts, and games. Before because “believing by seeing” is very convincing. making local communities aware. designing the IEC material, the project held an IEC ori- After their cross visits to Shivaratanpur, the Mohanpur -Ms. Gandhabi Devi Chaudhari, EWS Sub-committee Coordinator, Manikapur entation training for community leaders, project staff, communities of Ratanpur VDC started to make bam- 8 Traditional birth attendant Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Case Study 7 February 2009 Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives 8
    • boo protection work with assistance from WFP/Back- drama, thus creating local capacity for this important One particularly good example of progress was seen ward Society Education (BASE). Emulating Bisanpur, service. Altogether, more than 16,000 people have in Lalitpur, where a decade-long conflict between the Lalitpur community plans to make wooden spurs observed street dramas staged in schools and in com- Tharus and Dalits over public land was resolved. In- to protect their bio-engineering work. This same bio- munities. spired by this training, project communities have in- engineering work inspired Phulbari-7, Shivtal, which cluded neighbouring communities in trainings, orien- lies outside the project area, to establish 100 metres tations, street dramas and IEC material distribution of bio-engineering. Similarly, Krishnanagar and through door-to-door campaigns. For instance, Bhiteria communities have requested funds from the Simulation exercise on EWS Khonpur and Bhitariya communities were invited by District Soil Conservation Office (DSCO) to implement Shivaratanpur and Jokaiyapur DPCs respectively to bio-engineering in their communities. Inspired by and Bisanpur DPCs revised their evacuation plans to collaborate in their plans to fight against flood risks. Shivaratanpur’s example, other communities have make them more realistic. The locals of the Lalitpur The idea of emergency funds also emerged from com- started to raise grains for their emergency funds on and Mohanpur communities said that the EWS simu- munity mobilisation training. the basis of landholding (one kilogramme per kattha). lation exercises came in handy during rescue opera- There is a growing tendency to collect cash and grains tions in September 2008 and increased everybody’s b. Search and rescue training: These trainings were from cultural and religious events like Fagui in March confidence. very tough but also beneficial to locals for use during and Deusi and Bailo in October. floods. Trainees in Lalitpur learned to rescue a per- Mass observing street drama Increased skills and knowledge through edu- son by using a throw bag as well as to use life jack- cation and training: The project has targeted com- ets to pull a boat against current. Shivaratanpur and Box 6 Street dramas were helpful to explore local resources d. Video documentaries: learning from others’ munity members, particularly schoolteachers and stu- Jokahiyapur communities used inner tubes and I was impressed by the street drama. Its subject touched my heart. My eyes were filled with tears experiences dents, to be disseminators of knowledge about DP wooden planks to make temporary boats to carry when I saw how the irresponsibility of one character Video documentaries can sometimes galvanise view- and DRR. It has also promoted community-based train- grains and rescued children, pregnant and lactating increased his own vulnerability and that of his ers into reducing disaster risks. Using their emergency ing initiatives to enhance local capacities to cope with mothers, and elderly. Communities felt that this train- family. Most of the audience was sombre, and many were teary-eyed. We were inspired to use local funds, each DPC organized to show documentary films disasters risks (see Table 5). Some of the outcomes ing helps save the lives and important belongings resources rather than waiting for external about the various coping mechanisms people in high- of project trainings are described below. during a flood. resources, and now plan to assess local resources and start risks reduction initiatives. We have heard risk situations adopt. Like street drama, videos suc- that the project will not stay with us for much cessfully generated awareness among illiterate a. Community mobilisation training: This type of c. First aid trainings: With skills gained from these longer. people. Some of the particular risk reduction activi- training demonstrates that social unity and solidarity trainings, locals were able to handle minor cases of -Ms. Binita Chaudhary, Treasurer/DPC, Mohanpur, Hasulia -4 ties the videos communicated well and that have is needed if flood risks are to be reduced. It resulted injury. Trainees in Lalitpur said that they treated about been emulated on the ground include the enforce- in the formation of DPCs and their sub-committees. 40-50 injured cases locally and referred other cases to c. Street drama: an effective tool for increasing ment of rules like zero grazing and the practice of All trainees conducted a similar training in their own the district hospital for further treatment. The people awareness agro forestry-based income-generating activities. communities to pass on the knowledge and skills they of Shivaratanpur, Bisanpur and Mankapur were able Street drama is an important way of communicating had gained. As participants realised “unity is power,” to convince sub-health post official to procure some key messages to illiterate communities. Locals said e. EWS simulations: increasing confidence they began to promote social solidarity and harmony. medicines for them to keep in their first aid kits. they found street drama effective in communicating The EWS and evacuation simulation exercises sharp- useful information about DP and DRR initiatives. Since ened people’s knowledge about and skills in EWS dramas were presented in the local language by and evacuation but also helped spawn necessary Table 5 Number of participants in various trainings trained local people, they were lively and their mes- amendments to local plans and practices. Each com- VDC Community Training sages accessible. The street drama team also dis- munity conducted these exercises in order to dem- FA DRM S&R NM GW CM AK seminated its messages through the radio station onstrate the steps of the community evacuation and M F M F M F M F M F M F M F Dinesh FM. That street dramas are effective in aware- emergency plan as well as the use of project-pro- Phulbari Lalitpur 18 14 17 19 4 0 1 1 1 0 12 23 9 7 Hasuliya Mohanpur 14 15 15 16 4 0 1 1 1 0 19 10 10 8 ness raising can be seen through the example of vided equipment and material. The steps demon- Shivaratanpur 22 14 19 16 4 0 1 1 1 0 24 13 9 8 Jokahiyapur: according to the DPC Coordinator, the strated included the communication of a flood warn- Pabera Pabera Bisanpur Bisanpur 19 13 17 15 4 0 1 1 1 0 21 8 8 7 community were prepared for the September 2008 ing message by upstream monitoring stations, basic Manikapur Mankapur 15 18 11 21 4 0 1 1 1 0 18 14 9 6 Ratanpur Ratanpur Jokahiyapur Jokahiyapur 22 12 16 17 4 0 1 1 1 0 15 23 8 8 flood and were able to evacuate and rescue com- preparation for evacuation, the operation of EWS, Total Total 110 110 86 86 95 104 95 104 24 24 0 0 6 6 6 5 5 0 109 0 109 91 91 53 53 44 44 munity members because of what they had learned evacuation, search and rescue, shelter management, Source: Project records, 2007-08 from street drama events. So far, 24 young people first aid, and distribution of relief materials for recov- Note: FA=First Aid; DRM=Disaster Risk Management; S&R=Search and Rescue; NM=Nursery Management; GW=Gabion Weaving; CM=Community Mobilisation; AK=Account Keeping have been trained to conceive and perform street ery and rehabilitation. After the simulation, Mankapur Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Case Study 9 February 2009 Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives 10
    • People's participation in polybag filling d. Disaster risk management training: Project field Box 7 We realized that students also contribute in linked with VDC plans. Communities recall the active staff organised local-level disaster risk management reducing disaster risks roles played by trained teachers during the search We never realized that the project would consider (DRM) trainings after themselves participating in com- us as a potential beneficiary to contribute in the and rescue efforts in the flood last September. They munity-based DRM trainings. These trainings were seen risks reduction work. However, it was otherwise. helped mobilise locals to reduce possible threats and We are able to get skills, knowledge and as instrumental in changing beliefs about internal re- risks. information through trainings, orientations and source mobilisation. Locals are now less likely to wait short sessions. The conservation education, for external assistance to reduce disaster risk; their knowl- nursery management and art, easy and speech The project has helped develop a simple curriculum competitions were particularly important for us edge, attitudes and practices have changed. For instance, for knowledge building. We have started to for a three-days training in DRR. The curriculum was those who believed that God was responsible for floods prepare school level DP plans to make our revised and its methodology amended to suit the for trainers10) and on facilitating trainings so that they surrounding risks free. The sanitation has been now understand that floods are the outcome of natural local people’s understanding of DP and DRR. More improved through the active efforts of JRC. and man-made phenomenon. People still celebrate reach a large audience. It has also made the partici- demonstrations, exercises, and interactions were -Mr Prashant Thakur, chairperson of JRC, Dipendra Higher Sec- Dorbandi, Hereri and Lawangi9 worships to please vil- pation of at least one DPC or sub-committees mem- ondary School, Hasuliya added to make the training action-oriented, and tech- lage and river gods, but they also understand that flood ber in each training mandatory. The IEC material it nical jargon was removed. risks can be reduced using local resources and commu- develops also exhibits gender and cultural sensitiv- Dipendra Higher Secondary School, Hasulia, started nity knowledge-based preventive activities. ity. Local traditions and culture are addressed in street conducting sanitation campaigns around the school c. Conservation education knowledge for school drama and radio programmes are broadcast in the in order to reduce the risk of snake bites. The trainings students e. Nursery management training: The projects has local language. By respecting local ideas and indig- are instrumental in establishing a student-guardian Knowledge about conservation education helps stu- provided basic nursery management skills and tech- enous knowledge in each project endeavour, the link to DRR and in enabling students to fill in the dents initiate and get involved in community-based niques to each community and helped it to establish a project has ensured that the locals’ sense of owner- knowledge and skills gaps among their fellow stu- environmental management. Conservation education nursery. Fast-growing, deep-rooted species are being ship, participation and spirit of voluntarism is high. dents and family members, particularly their moth- training focussed on natural resource management, promoted to control soil erosion in bio-engineering sites. ers. the benefits of nursery management, and the ratio- Gulmohar, khair, bains, amlisho, bamboo, bakaino, Changing practices through school-based activi- nale for community plantation as it relates to present sisoo, napier, moos, narkat, badahar, and Epil epil ties: The project has selected eight schools to carry b. DP and DRM trainings for schoolteachers and future DRR. An immediate outcome of the train- are some of the species grown in nurseries and planted out DP and DRM activities because it sees students The project provided DP and DRM trainings to school- ing was that students realised the role nurseries play along riverbanks. The communities of Lalitpur, and teachers as key agents for change. The school- teachers so that they can serve as local resource per- during nursery management and plantation Mohanpur and Bisanpur produced enough seedlings level programme focuses on developing teachers and sons and impart new information and knowledge to programmes conducted along riverbanks to promote to meet their needs, but the other three communities students into local resource persons who can dis- students and, through students, to the community, flood control. In Lalitpur, schoolchildren planted seed- have had to get additional seedlings from outside. In seminate key messages about DP and DRR at a and fill in gaps. In this way, schoolteachers serve as lings, while in Bisanpur students’ help speeded up Manikapur, people have also planted different spe- wider context than just within schools. local resource persons in disseminating DRR-related the process of filling polythene bags. Their keen par- cies of trees along their evacuation route. knowledge and information. Developing and en- ticipation in these activities suggests children are com- a. Formation of Junior Red Cross Circles forcing school-level DP plans has been one immedi- mitted to risk reduction initiatives. In addition to the trainings described above, trainings Junior Red Cross Circles (JRCs) s are crucial for impart- ate outcome of these trainings. These plans will be in account keeping and gabion weaving were also ing knowledge and information as well as for mak- d. DP awareness orientations and organised to make sure financial transactions are ap- ing school-level DP plans to reduce risks through peer campaigns in schools propriately recorded and to teach locals to produce education. A JRC was formed in each school so that DP awareness campaigns help fill gaps in knowl- gabion boxes. Trainings in skills like nursery training students could provide other students with knowl- edge about DP and DRR. A two-hour session on and gabion weaving have increased job opportuni- edge about the causes and effects of disasters and disasters and their types, causes (primary and sec- ties in an area without many such opportunities. ways to minimise their risks. JRCs act under the guid- ondary) and effects, and possible ways of manag- ance of sichhak nayak11 and saha-sichhak nayak ing them at the local level was organised in eight The project has prioritised equal access to trainings teachers to bring about effective DRM. The members schools. The session was designed after evaluat- and educational opportunities for women (see of each JRC participated in trainings and orientations ing the existing curriculum on disaster with school- Table 5) and vulnerable communities. It has focused facilitated by teachers and project staff to transmit teachers and identifying the gaps. The focus agreed on recruiting female participants for each training and DP-, DRM- and DRR-related knowledge and skills. upon was the disaster management cycle. Since orientation (except in the search and rescue training After it had acquired DRM knowledge, the JRC of the sessions used techniques such as art, essays, speeches, games, charts, and pictures, children en- 9 joyed themselves and learned a lot. These are traditional ceremonies held to protect villagers from natural calamities, diseases and ghosts 10 Though there were no women traninees, in community-level search and rescue exercises themselves, female were included DRR orientation to students 11 Sichhak nayaks (teacher sponsors) and saha-sichhak nayaks (co-teacher sponsors) provide good advice and moral support for the initiatives undertaken by JRCs. They assist JRCs in taking their issues, concerns and plans to their headmasters (sanrakshaks) for the proper implementation of their plans. Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Case Study 11 February 2009 Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives 12
    • In sum, through its provisions for information man- Box 8 We are happy with the river protection work safely, the boats facilitate safe evacuation during agement and exchange as well as for increasing skills carried out to save our crops and productive land floods. With these boats, children, elderly people, and knowledge through education and training, it Until last year, fearing flooding and riverbank pregnant and lactating mothers and important be- erosion, we felt compelled to harvest our paddy was possible for the project to use knowledge, inno- crops prematurely. Those of us who harvested in longings were saved. The locals of Shivaratnapur be- vation, and education to build a culture of safety time did have a crop but the harvest was less than lieve that they would have lost 10-12 people of the it could have been. Those who waited too late and resilience at all levels. lost their entire crop because of the flooding in Khalla community during the last flood if the project the Mohana River. Now that we have carried out had not provided boats. The locals of Shivaratnapur 4.4 Priority action 4: Reducing the protection work along the riverbanks, we do not need to harvest prematurely. There is no fear of underlying risk factors risks. We are also inspired to replicate the technology elsewhere through our own efforts and resources to protect crops along riverbanks. a. Small-scale mitigation through -Mr. Prem Bahadur Chaudhary, Coordinator, DPC of Lalitpur bio-engineering The project promotes the adoption of local resource and skill-based technologies and practices as part Because of bio-engineering activities, local communi- of DRR efforts. The priority of the project has been to ties are more confident about saving productive farm- introduce low-cost, easily-maintained and replicable land and ensuring their own safety. Initially, local people mitigation techniques which are accepted by the com- were sceptical about the use of bamboo to protect riv- munities. The project has implemented mostly bio- ersides until an exposure visit organised for some com- Community management bio engineering work engineering activities but also some structural engi- munity leaders to Srilanka village in the western part of Community managed boat neering work like spur construction. The bio-engineer- Kailali District helped to convince them that bio-engi- After reclaiming land along a riverbank through bio- ing work includes low-cost bamboo work, sand-filled neering work can effectively protect riverbanks and com- engineering work, people often start to farm off-sea- cement sacks and community plantation along munities. sonal vegetables, watermelon and nuts, to diversify used to use doond (wooden troughs used to feed live- riverbanks. So far, the project helped carry out 1398 local sources of income. stock) as boats though the risk of their overturning meters of bio-engineering work along crucial sections Bio-engineering is being replicated in surrounding was great. The rescuers of Bisanpur rescued some mem- Box 9 We are now fully convinced that bamboo works of riverbanks. To reinforce bio-engineering efforts and communities. After having seen its effectiveness in bers of Chotki Palia community after their boat was save productive land along riverbanks, 43,000 plants We were sceptical about the project’s proposal submerged. The community members of Lalitpur and preventing riverside erosion, the project communi- to use bamboo spurs for flood mitigation. After have been planted over an area of 27,300 m2 (see ties of Lalitpur and Mohanpur have protected 150 the project suggested we make them in our Bisanpur even managed to save some police officers. Table 6). metres of riverbank with bio-engineering techniques. community, I met project officials to request them to focus on gabion boxes instead of bamboo spurs. The Bisanpur and Mohana communities convince they c. Community shelters serve as a refuge I remember our community saying, ‘Aandhika The river mitigation work has prevented the loss of have successfully diverted the river to the other side agadi benako ke kam (What is the use of a fan in during flooding cultivable lands, housing and local infrastructures. front of a hurricane)?’ to the officials. When we Shelters play an important role in mitigating the fear through protection work. Local people of Kavre, saw what bamboo spurs can do, we were amazed. In Lalitpur, for instance, farmers estimated that Banke and Bardiya districts have visited Bisanpur to Now we are committed to making more bamboo of floods and inundation. Mohanpur and about 15 bighas of the cultivable land of nine fami- see and learn about the outcome of DRR initiatives, spurs upstream from the present bioengineering Shivaratnapur communities are constructing safe site with the support of the DSCO. We are thinking lies was saved through 300 metres of bio-engineer- the strengths of wooden spur work and how low- buildings linked to safe evacuation routes in order about requesting other agencies to support us in ing work. In Mohanpur, 300 metres of bio-engineer- cost bioengineering work can be initiated by introducing bio-engineering work because it has so serve as community shelters. In Bisanpur, people ing work prevented about 20 bighas of cultivable already demonstrated its strength and its realised the importance of such shelters after 15 mobilising local resources. functionality during heavy flooding. Gabion work land from being washed away. is no longer our main demand. households were displaced for seven days last year. -Mr. Maya Ram Chaudhari, Coordinator, DPC, Mohanpur Hausulia-4 d. Construction of evacuation routes Table 6 Status of mitigation work, community nurseries and plantation Evacuation routes are needed so that people can reach VDC Community Bio-eng sites Nursery area Seedlings (No.) Plantation area safe places before major risks arrive. The project has Phulbari Lalitpur 300 m 250 m2 10000 8000 m2 b. Using community- managed boats facilitated the effort to construct such routes. So far, a Hasuliya Shivaratanpur 100 m 100 m2 6000 2000 m2 to reduce risk total of 4.2 kilometeres (1.7 in Lalitpur and 1.5 in Mohanpur 300 m 100 m2 6000 3000 m2 Pabera Bisanpur 280 m 100 m2 4000 2800 m2 Community-managed boats can effectively save Jokahiyapur) have been completed with additional Manikapur 150 m 150 m2 5000 1500 m2 people’s lives and livelihoods during floods. With support from a “cash for work”12scheme. The heights Ratanpur Jokahiyapur 268 m 275 m2 12000 10,000 m2 project resources and community contributions, all six Total 1398 m 975 m2 43000 27,300 m2 of routes are determined by assessing the flood lev- communities run community boat services. Besides els of the last 50 years. The evacuation route at Source: Project record 2007-08 their regular function of helping people cross rivers Shivratanpur is high enough to serve as a dike and 12 This initiative was supported by World Food Programme prevent water from flowing in from the Indian side. Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Case Study 13 February 2009 Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives 14
    • people were still able to get safe and clean water to the project communities’ efforts, especially those Box 12 Making institutional arrangements to ensure the from their raised hand pumps. As all private hand in bio-engineering, the DSCO has sent its training par- continuity of EWS is important pumps were submerged, people have realized the ticipants to visit the six project communities and to We should make a genuine effort to take steps to replicate local practice-based EWS in neighbouring importance of having at least one raised community learn from them. The DSCO’s interest suggests that communities and to ensure the sustainbility of pump. People are trying to get VDC authorities and district-level stakeholders view project communities the good practices of this project in the future before the project phase is over. There is a need local NGOs to support them in the constructing more as learning laboratories. to discuss suitable institutional arrangements and such pumps. to make provisions for a basket fund. Only efficient b. Promote and support dialogue, exchange of EWS can save the lives and properties of people living along riverbanks as it is not possible to In sum, with its initiatives in small-scale mitigation work, information and coordination carry out bio-engineering work along the entire Evacuation simulation community-managed boats, raised hand pumps and The project has made an effort to promote dialogue length of the Mohana and other rivers to save people’s lives and livelihoods. safe shelters with evacuation routes, the project has geared toward exchanging information and increas- -Mr. Loknath Regmi, DTO, Kailali Box 10 The appeal of migrating has declined effectively contributed in reducing the underlying risk ing coordination. Project has facilitated the forma- Because we face flood-related problems every year, factors. tion of a joint steering committee with the CARE we were planning to move our whole village to a Nepal- supported DIPECHO project. The committee is As part of its EWS efforts and to the benefit of its own community forest site to the west of Kamal Pokhari 4.5. Priority action 5: Strengthen disaster chaired by the NRCS and includes representatives from as well as other communities, the project acquired at Hasulia–3. Most of us had visited the site and were ready to migrate there. We had even asked some preparedness for effective response the DDC, DWIDP, BASE, Conscious Society for Social rain- and flood-related data for broadcasting on lo- VDC executives to provide the site to us. After the cal FM stations in coordination with the DoHM. Dan- Development (CSSD), the Nepalese Federation of Jour- project came, though, we learned more about flooding and how to prevent flood risks. We also a. Strengthen policy, technical and institu- nalists and other organisations as members. The com- ish Red Cross, Practical Action and CARE Nepal have learned about safe evacuation methods and routes tional capacities for local disaster manage- mittee has made it easy to coordinate technical organised cross visits to project communities to learn to safe shelters. We are confident that we can reduce ment backstopping and resource and idea/experience shar- from their initiatives. Locals were able to teach visi- the adverse effect of floods by applying preventive measures. Our desire to migrate has petered out, The project has helped strengthen policy, technical ing and to take immediate actions for the better- tors how low-cost technologies can save productive and we are positive that we want this area to be our land and settlements and how the various training and institutional capacities by participating in national, ment of the project’s initiatives. Mercy Corps and CARE home permanently. regional and local trainings, workshops and confer- Nepal, in cooperation with local partners, jointly cel- and preparedness activities, evacuation plans, and -Ms. Jumani Devi Chaudhari, Bhalmansa, Shivaratanpur, Hasulia-5 ences for sharing and exchanging experiences in lo- ebrated Earthquake Day in collaboration with the EWS simulations helped them to save their lives and cal disaster management practices. At the local level, Department of Urban Development and Building Con- their important belongings. The Office of Coordina- e. Raised hand pumps these workshops helped mobilise and manage ex- struction of the Ministry of Physical Planning and Con- tion for Humanitarian Assistance (OCHA) claims that Raised hand pumps can provide safe drinking water ternal resources for the sustainable continuation of struction of the Government of Nepal. While prepar- community-based preparedness activities and EWS and minimise the incidence and spread of water- project initiatives. Inspired by the communities’ ef- ing IEC materials, functional coordination with CARE are very useful for widespread dissemination. borne diseases during floods. With project support, forts in bio-engineering work, the Department of Nepal and CCSD was ensured. The aid of army and five communities have constructed hand pumps. Al- Water Induced Disaster Prevention (DWIDP) has al- police personnel was enlisted during the search and This sort of networking, coordination and collabora- though Lalitpur and Mohanpur communities were com- located Rs. 50,000 (EUR 490) to Lalitpur and Mohanpur rescue training sessions because of their proven tion has helped project communities to initiate effec- pletely inundated during the flood last September, for constructing bamboo spurs. Another Rs 70,000 knowledge and skills in these sectors. Similarly, while tive EWS, DRR and disaster response because they (EUR 686) was allocated by the DSCO. The DSCO also organising masonry training, the project collaborated foster a holistic approach. provided some seedlings for plantation. In response with DFID’s Community Support Programme. c. Promote regular disaster-preparedness exercises The project has assisted communities in promoting Box 11 We should honour local knowledge and practices regular disaster-preparedness exercises, including In my opinion, the people of project communities are convinced that bio-engineering techniques evacuation drills and simulations, in order to en- are effective in protecting riverbanks because bio- hance their capacities. By drawing upon alterna- engineering is a low-cost local technology which tive funds,13 emergency and recovery support was uses locally available resources. In response to people’s enthusiam, we allocated Rs 70,000 so provided to flood-affected communities. The idea of that project communities could replicate bio- providing such support was spawned after the flood engineeering work in the project area. The successes of the project communities have also of last September destroyed all their grain storage inspired us to replicate this technology in other containers and no seed was available for sowing in VDCs. It is essential to introduce new technology Consultative meeting with district the new season. This initiative helped compensate in full recognistion of local knowledge and level stakeholders practices. Raised hand pump -Mr. Nava Narayan Mishra, Head, DSCO 13 Non-food relief items and seed with the support of OdysseyRe Foundation Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Case Study 15 February 2009 Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives 16
    • low-income community members for their losses due through school-based interventions has played a re- to floods. markable role in sensitising locals to DP and DRR ef- forts. These efforts are fundamental to developing and With its provisions for strengthening policy, technical strengthening local institutions, including DPCs, VDMCs, and institutional capacities for local disaster manage- sub-committees, and JRCs. The interventions of small- ment; promoting and supporting dialogue, the ex- scale bio-engineering-based mitigation and nursery change of information and coordination; and endors- management have contributed directly to environmen- ing regular disaster-preparedness exercises at the local tal and natural resource management and land-use level, the project has contributed to strengthening planning. The provisions for boats and safe shelters disaster preparedness for effective response. with built-up evacuation routes have increased the resilience of locals. These initiatives collectively con- 5. Project contribution in achieving tributed to the achievement of the second strategic the strategic goals of HFA goal of HFA. 5.1 Strategic goal 1: Integration of DRR into 5.3 Strategic goal 3: Incorporation of risk sustainable development policies and reduction approaches into the planning implementation of emergency preparedness, response and recovery programmes The project’s provisions for strengthening the ability of community-based institutions to carry out DP and The project has helped strengthen policy, technical DRR activities, developing knowledge-sharing mecha- and institutional capacities as well as local disaster nisms and maintaining financial transparency in each management capacities by participating in national project activity have resulted in good organisational trainings, workshops and conferences for sharing governance. The mechanisms for linking community- and exchanging experiences in local disaster man- level DP plans with VDC and DDC plans will help com- agement. At the local level, these sharing workshops munities secure the resources they need to execute helped mobilise and manage external resources for their plans. Local-level DRR efforts are indeed inte- the continuation of project initiatives. With support grated with sustainable development policies and from the project, activities to promote dialogue, in- planning at the national level. Clearly, the project formation exchange and coordination are regularly helps meet the first strategic goal of HFA. organised with the aims of providing technical backstopping; sharing resources, ideas, and experi- 5.2 Strategic goal 2: Development and ences; and taking immediate actions for improving strengthening of institutions, mechanisms the project’s initiatives. The provisions for network- and capacities to build resilience to hazards ing, coordination and collaboration have helped the project communities initiate effective EWS, DRR and Through its careful analysis of the knowledge gaps disaster response by fostering a holistic approach. The of the project communities with respect to DP and project has assisted communities in conducting regu- DRR, the project has helped fill these gaps by imple- lar disaster-preparedness exercises, including evacu- menting capacity-building initiatives. It has been ation drills and simulations, in order to enhance their able to develop the knowledge and skills needed to capacities. In addition, the distribution of food and identify and assess risk, to monitor hazards and to non-food items to flood-affected communities has disseminate early warnings. IEC materials, cross vis- provided immediate relief and response. All these its, street drama, video documentaries and simula- interventions have jointly contributed to achieving tion exercises have further increased the knowledge, the third HFA strategic goal. skills and confidence of locals. The awareness built Observation of IEC posters Case Study 17 February 2009
    • DIPECHO is the Disaster Preparedness Programme of the European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid depart- ment, the largest single humanitarian donor in the world. The DIPECHO programme funds pilot projects Mercy Corps Nepal intended to demonstrate that simple, inexpensive pre- P.O.Box 24374 paratory measures, particularly those implemented Sanepa Chowk, Lalitpur, Nepal by communities themselves, can limit damage and Telephone: +977 1 555 5532 increase resilience and save lives. Fax: +977 1 555 4370 E-mail: info@np.mercycorps.org Mercy Corps is an international non-governmental humanitarian relief and development organization Mercy Corps European Headquarters with headquarters in the USA and UK that focuses on 40 Sciennes, Edinburgh, EH9 1NJ, UK providing support to countries in transition. Mercy Telephone: +44 (0)131 662 5160 Corps exists to alleviate suffering; poverty and op- Fax: +44 (0)131 662 6648 pression by helping people build secure, productive www.mercycorps.org and just communities. Mercy Corps is primarily focus- ing on emergency relief; economic development; and, ISBN 993721361-4 initiatives that strengthen civil society. The goal of Mercy Corps Nepal is to alleviate poverty by increas- ing resilience to shocks, expanding economic oppor- tunity, and fostering social inclusion. 9 789937 213615 Case Study 20 February 2009