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Inee nepal
 

Inee nepal

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    Inee nepal Inee nepal Presentation Transcript

    • jN8{ lehgjN8{ lehg afnaflnsf, ltgsf kl/jf/ / ;dbfox¿nfO{ u/LaL / cGofoaf6 dQm xg ;3fpg k|lta4 Ps O;fO{ /fxt,ljsf; / k}/jL ;+:yf xf] . O;fO{ dfGotfx¿af6 k|]l/t eP/ xfdL ;+;f/sf ;a}eGbf a9L hf]lvddf /x]sf dflg;x¿;Fuldn]/ sfd ug{ k|lta4 5f}+ . jN8{ lehgn] wd{, hfthflt, ;Dk|bfo jf lnËsf] e]befj gu/L ;a}sf] ;]jf ub{5 . cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 /sf]l/ofnL o4af6 kLl8t 6x/fx¿sf] cfjZostfnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ jN8{ lehg sf]l/ofdf ;g !(%) df :yfkgf ePsf] k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{xf] . clxn] of] ;+:yf Plzof nufot ;+;f/sf em08} ;o b]zdf la:tf/ eO;s]sf] 5 . lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08jN8{ lehg OG6/g]zgn g]kfnjN8{ lehg OG6/g]zgn g]kfnn] g]kfndf klxnf] k6s ;g !(*@ df :yfgLo nlIft ;d"xx¿nfO{ c:ktfn lgdf{0f ug{/ :jf:Yo ;]jf pknAw u/fpg] p2]Zon] cgbfg ;xof]u u/]/ ljsf; ;DaGwL sfdsf] z?jft u/]sf] xf] . ;g !(**sf] e"sDknfO{ nlIft u/L jN8{ lehgn] e"sDk kLl8tnfO{ ;xfotf pknAw u/fpg u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿nfO{ ;xof]uu¥of] . jN8{ lehg OG6/g]zgn g]kfnn] cf}krfl/s ¿kdf ;g @))! df ;dfh sNof0f kl/ifb;Fu ;fwf/0f / cfof]hgf;DaGwL ;Demf}tf u/L bL3{sfnLg ljsf; sfo{sf] z?jft u¥of] . ljut ( -gf}_ jif{df ;fdbflos ljsf;sf lglDt ;xfotfu/]sf 5f}+ / xfdL xfn eQmk/, ?kGb]xL, sf7df8f}+, sf:sL, s}nfnL, ndhª, nlntk/, df]/ª, 8f]6L, pbok/ / ;g;/L;lxt !@ j6f lhNnfdf sfo{zLn 5f}+ .cfef/M– k|sfzgM jN8{ lehg OG6/g]zgn g]kfn cgjfbM /d]z l3ld/] rameshghimi@yahoo.com ;+sng tyf ;DkfbgM /f]lxt k|wfg, rohit_pradhan@wvi.org t:jL/x¿ tyf n]cfp6M k|lt1f /]rn vflnË, pratigya_khaling@wvi.org ;+/rgf ;xof]uM lbk]z kn 7fs/, deepesh_paul_thakur@wvi.org 5kfO{M l;Udf hg/n ckm;]6 k|]; ;fFrn, ;fg]kf, nlntk/ kmf]gM %%%$)@(
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf nflu cGt/lgsfo z}lIfs ;+hfn -cfO{PgO{O{_ dfgjLo tyf ljsf; cjwf/0ff cGtu{t ;+oQm ?kdflqmofzLn /x]sf] cfktsfnLg cj:yf / åGåQ/ kgMlgdf{0f ;dodf lzIffsf] clwsf/ ;lglZrt ug{ !$)) JolQm tyf;F:yfut ;b:ox? /x]sf] Ps ljZjJofkL ;+hfn xf] . cfO{PgO{O{ -INEE) sf] sfo{sfl/l0f ;d"xn] o; ;+hfnsf nflu ;du|g]t[Tj / lgb]{zg k|bfg ub{5, jt{dfg sfo{sfl/0fL ;d"xdf s]o/, ls|lZrog afnaflnsf sf]if, cGt/f{li6«o p4f/ ;ldlt,;]e b lrN8«]g PnfPG;, ga]{lhog z/0ffyL{ kl/ifb, og]:sf], o=Pg=Pr=;L=cf/=, olg;]km / ljZj a}+s 5g .Go"gtd dfkb08sf nflu cfO{PgO{O{ sfo{;d"xn] cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf, hsl8Psf ;+s6df / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdfk|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08sf] ljZjJofkL sfof{Gjogdf ;xhLs/0fsf] sfo{ ub{5 . Go"gtd dfkb08sfnflu cfO{PgO{O{sf] sfo{;d"x -;g @))%-@))*_ df cfktsfnLg cj:yf / l56f] kgMlgdf{0fsf nflu ljz]if1tf xfl;nu/]sf @) j6f z}lIfs ;+:yfx? /x]sf 5g; ltgLx? z}lIfs ljsf; Ps]8]dL, a]kmf/L (BEFARe), s]o/ ef/t, s]o/cd]l/sf, Sofyf]lns /fxt ;]jf, z/0ffyL{ lzIffsf nflu kmfp08]zg sf]if, kmG8s]lzog 8f]; dG8f]; (Fundacion DosMundos), lhl6h]8, cGt/f{li6«o /fxt ;ldlt, k|mfG;sf] lzIff dGqfno, gj]{lhog rr{ P8, gj]{lhog z/0ffyL{ kl/ifb, ;]e blrN8«]g cd]l/sf, og]:sf], o=Pg=Pr=;L=cf/=, olg;]km, o=P;=P=cfO=8L= / ljZj a}+s 5g .@@ j6feGbf a9L ljleGg ;+3;+:yf tyf lgsfox?åf/f cfO{PgO{O{nfO{ o;sf] :yfkgfsfnb]lv g} pknAw u/fOPsf];xof]usf nflu cfef/ JoQm ub{5 . o;sf] k"0f{ ljj/0fsf nflu s[kof cfO{PgO{O{sf] j]a;fO{6 www.ineesite.org x]g{xf]nf .cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf nflu lzIff tyf kgMlgdf{0fsf ;Gbe{df ul/g] jsfnt, ;xof]u tyf sfof{Gjogsf nflu OR5sJolQm tyf ;+3;:yfsf nflu cfO{PgO{O{ vnf 5 . OR5sn] ;b:otf btf{sf nflu cfO{PgO{O{sf] j]a;fO{6 www.ineesite.org pkof]u ug{xf]nf . ;b:otfsf nflu sg} zNs jf ;b:otf jfkt sg} bfloTj Joxf]g{ kb}{g .yk hfgsf/Lsf nflu, cfO{PgO{O{df ;Dks{sf nflu O{d]nx?M McfO{PgO{O{ ;+hfn ;+of]hs, coordinator@ineesite.orgcfO{PgO{O{ Go"gtd dfkb08sf nflu ;Dks{ ljGb: minimumstandards@ineesite.orgcfO{PgO{O{ (INEE)©@))$kgMdlb|tM INEE©@))^ISBN 1-58030-034-0k|ltlnlksf ;Dk"0f{ clwsf/ ;/lIft ul/Psf] 5 . of] ;fdfu|L k|ltlnlk clwsf/ ;+/lIft 5 t/ z}lIfs p2]Zosf nflu sg}klg dfWodaf6 kgMdlb|t ug{ ;lsg]5 . pko{Qm ;a} k|of]usf nflu cf}krfl/s cgdlt cfjZos 5 t/ ;fdfGotofTo:tf] cgdlt t?Gt} k|bfg ul/g]5 . cGo p2]Zosf nflu k|ltlnlk lgsfNg jf sg} k|sfzgsf nflu kgM k|of]u ug{ jfcgjfb ug{ jf cgjfb :jLsf{g k|ltlnlk clwsf/ ;+/Ifsaf6 k"j{ lnlvt :jLs[lt lng clgjfo{ xg]5 .
    • Kff7s a[Gb,jsfnt, ljsf; / dfgjLotf, cfktsfn / 36gfx? jN8{ lehg OG6/g]zgng]kfn -8AneLcfO{Pg_ sf k|fyldstfk|fKt If]qx? xg . h;dWo] jsfntn] hgtfnfO{vf; kl/l:ylt k|lt ;hu / ;r]t agfpgdf dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Nb5 .8AnlecfO{Pgn] ljutdf sof
    • laifo ;rL kl/ro 1 cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf lzIffsf nflu Go"gtd dfkb08 1 1= ;a} ju{sf nflu ;femf Go"gtd dfkb08x? 9 ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf -;xeflutf / ;|f]tx?_ 12 ljZn]if0f -n]vfhf]vf, k|ltsfo{, cgudg / d"Nof+sg_ 19 kl/lzi6 !M ljZn]if0f 9fFrf 29 kl/lzi6 @M cfktsfnLg cj:Yffsf nflu of]hgf th{dfM 36gf ljZn]if0fsf nflu ;"rL 31 kl/lzi6 #M ;"rgf ;+sng / cfjZostfx? n]vfhf]vf k|ZgfjnL 35 2= kxFr / cWoogsf] jftfj/0f 41 kl/lzi6 !M dgf]a}1flgs ;"rL 52 kl/lzi6 @M ljBfno vfgf sfo{qmd ;"rL 54 3= cWoog / cWofkg 57 4= lzIfsx? / cGo lzIffsdL{x? 69 kl/lzi6 !M cfrf/ ;+lxtf 77 5= lzIff gLlt / ;dGjo 79 cg;"rLx? 88 cg;"rL !M zAbfjnL 88 cg;"rL @M ;Gbe{u|Gy / ;|f]t ;fdfu|L 92 cg;"rL #M cfef/ 101 k[i7kf]if0f kmf/fd 1066= jN8{ lehg OG6/g]zgn g]kfnsf cfktsfnLg dfgjLo p4f/ 1077= ;kmntfsf syfx? 108n]vfhf]vf kmf/fdx? / ;"rLx?sf] yk ;fdfu|Lx? / :km]o/ (SPHERE) dfgjLo a8fkq / :km]o/ dfkb08sf]PdP;O{O{ (MSEE) ;DalGwt ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L tyf o"=Pg=Pr=;L=cf/=sf] lzIff;DaGwL :yfgLo dfu{bz{gsfnflu s[kof http://www.ineesite.org/standards/msee.asp /÷jf MSEE l;l8/f]d x]g{xf]nf, hg cfO{PgO{Osf] {j]a;fO{6df pknAw 5 .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 1 kl/ro M cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 ;a} JolQm, afnaflnsf, ojf tyf jo:sx?sf] cfktsfnLg cj:Yffdf lzIffsf] clwsf/ /x]sf] tYonfO{ cfTd;ft u/L cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 Pp6f xft]kl:tsfsf] ?kdf dfq ge} k|ltj4tfsf] pb3f]if0f ;d]t xf] h;sf] ljsf; Jofks ;xsfo{sf] k|lqmof dfkm{t ePsf] 5 . o;n] :km]o/ cfof]hgfsf lgDg d"n ljZjfzx? k|ltWjlgt u/]sf] 5M sg}klg ;+s6 jf åGåsf sf/0f ;[hgf xg] dfgjLo kL8fnfO{ cGt ug{ ;a} ;+efAo pkfox? ckgfpg] / ljkbaf6 k|efljt ;dbfosf nflu dof{bf;lxt hLjgsf] clwsf/nfO{ ;lglZrt ug]{ .;f/f+z ljj/0f;a} JolQmx?nfO{ lzIffsf] clwsf/ k|fKt 5 . of] clwsf/ w]/} k|s[ltsf cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw / lnvtx?dfpNn]lvt 5, h:t}M dfgj clwsf/sf] ljZjAoflk 3f]if0ffkq, -;g !($*_ – z/0ffyL{x?sf] cj:yf;DaGwL;lGw -;g !(%!_ – h]g]ef ;lGw -rf+}yf]_ sf] o4sf] ;dodf lgxTyf JolQmsf] ;+/If0f;DaGwL k|fjwfg– cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;fF:s[lts clwsf/;DaGwL dxf;lGw -;g !(^^_, afn clwsf/;DaGwLdxf;lGw -;g !(*(_ – / ljZj lzIff kmf]/dsf] 8sf/ sfo{;+/rgf -;g @)))_ n] k|jl4{t ;a}sfnflu lzIffsf] cjwf/0ff, cflb .lzIff Ps clwsf/ dfq xf]Og ls o;n] cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / l56f] kgMlgdf{0fh:tf;dodf ef}lts, dgf]a}1flgs / 1fgd"ns ;+/If0f k|bfg ub{5 hg hLjg arfpg] / hLjg bLuf]agfpg] bj} ljifo;Fu ;DalGwt 5 . lzIffn] cWoogsf] ;/lIft :yfg pknAw u/fO{ hLjg bLuf]
    • 2 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08agfpgsf ;fy;fy} k|efljt JolQmx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ Ifdtf / ;xof]u ;d]t pknAw u/fpFb5-ljz]if u/L afnaflnsf tyf ao:sx?sf]_ . ;+s6sf] ;dodf lzIffn] l:y/tf, hLjgsf] ;fdfGoj:yf,;+u7g tyf eljiosf] cfzfd"vL efjgfx? phfu/ u/fO{ åGå tyf ljkbx?sf] dgf]j}1flgs k|efjclNks/0f u/fpFb5 / eljiosf] cfly{s l:y/tfsf nflu ;+/rgfTds cfwf/ tof/ kfb{5 . lzIffn]ljleGg zf]if0f tyf lj£gafwf lj?4 ljleGg dfWodåf/f ;+/If0f u/L hLjg klg arfpFb5, ;fy}yk pbfx/0fdf ckx/0f, ;z:q ;d"xdf aRrfx?sf] elt{ tyf of}ghGo tyf ln+uhGo lx+;flj?4sf];+/If0f klg k|bfg ub{5 . cGtdf, lzIffn] ;+s6sf] ;dodf s;/L afFRg] egL ;/lIft hLjg;DaGwLh:t} ljikmf]6s kbf{yx?af6 ;/Iff, PrcfO{eL P8;af6 arfj6, åGå lgjf/0f / zflGt lgdf{0f;DaGwLhfgsf/Lx? k|bfg u/L 1fg tyf zLk k|bfg ub{5 .cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf lzIffxfn}sf jif{x?df cfktsfnLg ;dodf cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf] sfo{qmdx? cfjZos 5gegL r]tgfx?sf] a9f]Q/L ePsf] 5 . nfvf}+ nfv afnaflnsf, ojf tyf jo:sx? z}lIfs lgsfox?tyf /fli6«o Pj+ cGt/f{li6«o dfgjLo ;+:yfx?sf k|of;x?af6 nfeflGjt eO{/x]sf 5g . lzIff If]qnfO{ljz]if hf]8 lbP cg?k, bO{ dxTjk"0f{ d2fx? cuffl8 cfPsf 5gM != s;}n] klg cfktsfnLg ;dodf lzIffsf] clwsf/nfO{ xgg gug]{ dfGotf / To:tf] lzIff dfgjLo ax;sf] dn k|jfxeGbf aflx/ /xg g;Sg] t/ dfgjLo k|ltsfo{sf] Ps k|fyldstf /xg], / @= ;+s6sf] cj:yfdf lzIffsf] nflu Go"gtd :t/sf] kxFr, u0f:t/ / pQ/bfloTj ;lglZrt ug{ Ps Jofks cfwf/;lxtsf] O{R5f / k|ltj4tf .o;}sf nflu cfktsfnLg ;dodf lzIffsf] nflu ljZjAofkL Go"gtd dfkb08 ljsf; ug{ ;xhLs/0fx]t ;g @))# df Pp6f sfo{;d"x :yfkgf ul/Psf] lyof] . of] k|of; cfO{PgO{O{-INEE_ leq z?cftul/Psf] lyof] hg ;+oQm /fi6«;+3Lo lgsfox?, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?, bftfx?, Joj;fosdL{x?,cg;Gwfgstf{x? tyf k|efljt ;dbfosf JolQmx? ;dfj]z /x]sf] vnf ;+hfn xf], h;n] ;+oQm?kdf lqmofzLn eO{ cfktsfnLg tyf åGåf]Q/ kgMlgdf{0fsf ;dodf lzIffsf] clwsf/nfO{ ;lglZrtub{5 . o; ;+hfn c;n cEof;x?, k4lt tyf cg;Gwfgx?sf] ;+sng / k|rf/ ug{sf nflulhDd]jf/ 5, ;fy} cfktsfnLg cj:yfåf/f kLl8t ;dbfosf] lzIffsf] clwsf/nfO{ jsfntsf] dfWodåf/fk|j4{g ug{ / o;sf ;b:ox? / ;fem]bf/x?aLr lgoldt ?kdf ;"rgfx? cfbfgk|bfg ug{ lqmofzLn5 . cfO{PgO{O{-INEE_ n] ;|f]t;fwgdf /x]sf sdLsdhf]/L klg klxrfg ub{5 / o:tf ;|f]t;fwgsf]cfO{PgO{O{ ;b:o ;+:yfx?åf/f ul7t ljz]if ;d"xåf/f clej[l4 ug{ k|f]T;fxg ub{5 .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 3o; xft]kl:tsfdf k|:tt ljZjAofkL dfkb08x? cfktsfnLg ;dodf lzIffsf Go"gtd dfkb08x? ljsf;ug{ Aofks tyf ;Nnfxsf/L k|lqmofaf6 cfPsf kl/0ffdx? xg . Go"gtd dfkb08sf] nflu cfO{PgO{O{sf]sfo{;d"xn] ;xhLs/0f u/L ;g @))# kZrft Aofks cfwf/;lxtsf] ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] sfo{af6 dfkb08,;"rs tyf dfub{zg{x? ljsf; u/L cfktsfnLg ;dob]lv k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0fsf] r/0f;Dd k|Tofe"ltu/fOg] lzIffsf] Go"gtd kxFr / ;Da4 Joj:yfx?nfO{ pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . o;sf] ljsf;sf dVok|lqmofut kIfx?df /fli6«o, pkIf]qLo tyf If]qLo k/fdz{x? cfO{PgO{O{sf] ln:6 ;e{ (List-Serve)af6 k|fKt cgnfO{g ;Nnfx ;dsIfL kg/fjnf]sg k|lqmofx? /x]sf lyP . k|To]s r/0fdf ;+slnthfgsf/Lx? csf]{ r/0fsf] k|lqmofsf] nflu ;"rgf lbg k|of]u ul/Psf] lyof] .%) /fi6«sf @,@%) hgf JolQmx?n] o; Go"gtd dfkb08 ljsf;sf nflu of]ubfg ug{ePsf] 5 . ;g@))$ sf] hgj/Lb]lv d] dlxgfsf] aLrdf Go"gtd dfkb08sf nflu cfO{PgO{O{ sfo{;d"xn] clk|msf,Plzof, Nofl6g cd]l/sf / dWok"j{ tyf o"/f]k u/L rf/j6f If]qLo:t/df ;Nnfx lng] sfd u/of] .o; If]qLo ;Dd]ngdf !#! k|ltlglwx? ;dfj]z lyP h;df k|efljt ;dbfo, cGt/f{li6«o tyf /fli6«ou}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?, ;/sf/L tyf ;+oQm /fi6«;+3Lo ;+:yfsf %! b]zsf] k|ltlglwTj /x]sf] loof] .If]qLo ;Dd]ng xgcl3 k|ltlglwx? tyf cfO{PgO{O{sf ;b:ox?af6 !!) j6feGbf a9L :yfgLo,/fli6«o tyf pkIf]qLo k/fdz{ $& j6f b]zx?df ;DkGg ul/of], h;af6 ljleGg ;Nnfx ;emfj /;"rgfx? u}=;=;+=, ;/sf/L tyf o"=Pg=sf k|ltlglwx?, bftfx?, lzIffljbx? / k|efljt ;dbfosf!,()) k|ltlglwx? nufot ljwfyL{, lzIfs tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x? dfkm{t ;+sng ul/of] . If]qLok/fdz{sf k|ltlglwx?n] dfkb08, ;+s]tx? tyf dfu{bz{g ljsf; ug{ /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo:t/df;Nnfx lng] sfd ug{sf ;fy;fy} If]qLo Go"gtd dfkb08 ljsf;sf nflu !)) eGbf a9L cfO{PgO{O{sf]ln:6 ;e{ (List-Serve) df k|fKt hfgsf/Lx? k|of]u ul/of] . ;dsIfL kg/fjnf]sg k|lqmof ;g @))$sf] u[idofddf ;DkGg ul/of] h;df $) hgf lj1x? ;dfj]z /x]sf lyP h;n] If]qLo dfkb08x?sf]ljZn]if0f / kl/dfh{g u/L ljZjAofkL dfkb08sf] :j?k lbPsf xg .o;/L ljsl;t ePsf Go"gtd dfkb08x?sf] cfwf/ afn clwsf/;DaGwL dxf;lGw, ;a}sf nflulzIff;DaGwL 8sf/ sfo{;+/rgf, o=Pg= ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIox? / :km]o/ cfof]hgfsf dfgjLoa8fkq xg . afn clwsf/;DaGwL dxf;lGw, ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIo / ;a}sf nflu lzIff cleofgn]sg} klg cfktsfnLg cj:yfaf6 k|efljtx?sf nflu ;d]t u0f:t/Lo lzIffsf] clwsf/sf] pb3f]if0fu/]sf] 5 . o; xft]kl:tsf lzIffsf] kFxr tyf lzIffsf] clwsf/sf] Go"gtd :t/df kl/k"lt{sf] nfluul/g] k|of;x?df Ps ;fwg xg]5 .
    • 4 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08:km]o/ cfof]hgfsf] ljkb k|ltsfo{sf] nflu dfgjLo a8fkq / Go"gtd dfkb08, hg ;g !((& dfdfgjLo u}=;=;+=x?, /]8qm;, /]8 lqm;s]G6 cfGbf]ngx?åf/f hf/L ul/Psf] xf], h;n] ljkbaf6 k|efljthgtfx?n] dfgjLo ;xfotfaf6 ck]Iff ug{;Sg] clwsf/nfO{ pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . :km]o/ xft]kl:tsfdfdVo If]qx? vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{, vfB ;/Iff, kf]if0f tyf vfB ;xof]u, SofDk Joj:yfkg,:jf:Yo ;]jf dfgjLo a8fkq tyf Go"gtd dfkb08df ;dflxt u/]sf] 5 . o;n] lzIff ;]jfsf] If]qnfO{;Daf]wg u/]sf] 5}g .of] dfgjLo a8fkq cGt/f{li6«o dfgjLo sfg"g, cGt/f{li6«o dfgj clwsf/ sfg"g, z/0ffyL{ sfg"g tyfcGt/f{li6«o /]8qm; / /]8lqm;s]G6 cleofgsf] cfrf/;+lxtf / ljkbsf] /fxtsfnflu u}=;=;+=x?sf l;4fGttyf Joj:yfx?df cfwfl/t /x]sf] 5 . a8fkqn] dfgjLo ;xfotf sfo{ ug{sf nflu cfwf/e"t l;4fGtx?sf]j0f{g ub{5 / ;s+6af6 k|efljt ;dbfosf] clwsf/ ;+/If0f / ;xfotf k|flKtsf] ljifonfO{ yk hf]8lbPsf] 5 . ;fy} o;df ljkb k|efljt hgtfsf] dofbf{k"0f{ hLjgsf] clwsf/nfO{ klg b[9tfk"j{s:jLsfl/Psf] 5 . of] a8fkqdf /fHo kIf tyf ljb|f]xL kIfn] ;xfotf tyf ;+/If0fsf] clwsf/ k|Tofe"ltug{kg]{ sfg"gL bfloTjx?nfO{ cf}NofOPsf] 5 . ha ;Da4 kIfx? bfloTj lgjf{x ug{ c;dy{ /÷jf c;Ifd xgkUb5g, ta ltgLx? dfgjLo ;+/If0f tyf ;xfotfsf nflu dfgjLo ;+:yfx?nfO{ cgdlt lbg afWo xG5g(www.sphereproject.org).cfO{PgO{O{ Go"gtd dfkb08 k|of]u ug]{ ;docfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf]Go"gtd dfkb08 cfktsfnLg k|ltsfo{df k|of]u ug{ agfOPsf] xf], / of] cfktsfnLg k"j{tof/L /dfgjLo jsfntsf nflu ;d]t pkof]uL xg ;Qm5 . logLx? k|fs[lts ljkbx? / ;z:q åGåx? h:tfa[xt k|s[ltsf cj:yfdf nfu" xg ;Qm5g . o; xft]kl:tsfdf k|oQm cfktsfnLg zAb bO{ lj:t[t cy{df lnOPsf] 5M k|fs[lts ljkbx? tyf h6Ln cfktsfnLg cj:yfx?, h;sf] AofVof tn lbOPsf]5. • k|fs[lts ljkbx? eGgfn] ;fdlb|s cfFwL, 6fOkmg, e"sDk, v8]/L / af9L nufotsf ljkbx? alemG5 . s]xL k|fs[lts ljkbx? h:t} e"sDk sg} r]tfjgLlagf cfpg] / 5]p5fpsf :yfgdf a;f]af; ug]{nfO{ ulDe/ k|efj kfb{5 . cGodf h:t} v8]/L lj:tf/} ljsl;t xg ;Qm5 t/ ;dfg ?kdf ljgfzsf/L k|efj kfb{5g . • h6Ln cfktsfnLg cj:yf eGgfn] dfgjl;lh{t xG5g / w]/}h;f] åGå jf ;fdflhs czflGtaf6 l;lh{t xG5g, hg k|fs[lts ljkbaf6 3lge"t xg ;Qm5g . To:tf] cj:yfdf hgtfsf] hLjg,
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 5 ;/Iff, ;d[l4 / dof{bfx? w]/} ;+s6k"0f{ sf/0fx? h:t} k|fs[lts jf dfgjl;lh{t ljkb / ;z:q åGåaf6 vt/fdf kg{ ;b{5g .o; xft]kl:tsfdf /x]sf ljifoj:tx? cf1fTds k|s[ltsf xf]Ogg . ljleGg txsf -kl/jf/ tx/ ;dbfo, :yfgLo clwsf/Lx?, dGqfnosf kbflwsf/Lx?, bftf ;+:yfx?, sfof{Gjogstf{x? cflb_;fem]bf/x?åf/f of] Go"gtd dfkb08x? ljsf; ul/Psf] / ljZjdf b]lvPsf] cfktsfnLg / l56f]kgMlgdf{0fsf] jftfj/0fdf ljsl;t ePsf] xf] . cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf s;/L /fli6«o ;/sf/, cGoclwsf/L / /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o ;+:yfx? cfktsfnLg l:yltdf k|ltsfo{ (Response) ubf{ lzIffsfsfo{qmdx? :yflkt ug]{ egL o; dfkb08n] dfu{bz{g pknAw u/fpFb5 . k|efljt hgtfåf/f lgwf{/0ful/Psf tTsfnLg lzIffsf] cfjZostf adf]lhd :yfgLo ;dbfox?, ;/sf/x?, cGo clwsf/Lx? tyfdfgjLo ;xfotfsdL{x?n] k|of]u ug{ ;sg egL of] dfkb08 tof/ kfl/Psf] xf] .;do;Ldfo; Go"gtd dfkb08df pNn]lvt ;do;Ldfsf] k|of]u clwsf+ztM kl/l:yltdf e/kb{5 . logLx? a[xtk|s[ltsf cfktsfnLg kl/l:yltdf nfu" xg ;Qm5g hg k"j{ k|ltsfo{b]lv l56f] kgMlgdf{0fsf] r/0f;Ddxg ;Qm5g / j[xt nlIft ju{n] k|of]u ug{ ;Qm5g . o; xft]kl:tsfdf k|oQm ;rsx? ljZjJofkL ?kdfx/]s cj:yfdf nfu" xg ;Qm}gg g t x/]s ;+efJo k|of]ustf{n] k|of]u ug{ ;Qm5g . pNn]lvt dfkb08 jf;"rsx?;DaGwL pknlAw xfl;n ug{ xKtf, dlxgf jf jiff}{ nfUg ;Qm5 . s]xL cj:yfdf Go"gtd dfkb08/ ;+s]tx?sf] pknlAw afxo ;xfotflagf klg xfFl;n xg ;S5g eg] s]xL cj:Yffx?df lzIff;Da4kbflwsf/L jf lgsfox?;Fusf] ;+oQm k|of; cfjZos klg xg ;S5 . ha lo dfkb08 jf ;"rsx? nfu"ul/G5g To;a]nf ;a} ;Da4 ;fem]bf/x? sfof{Gjog ug{ / kl/0ffd xfFl;n ug{ ;do;Ldfdf ;xdt xg h?/L5.Go"gtd dfkb08 s;/L k|of]u ug]{ <cGt/f{li6«o ;+:yf tyf u}=;=;+= x?n] w]/} yl/sf lgb]{lzsfx? / ;|f]t;fwgx? tof/kf/]sf5g h;n] lzIffsdL{x?nfO{ cfktsfnLg cj:yf tyf l56f] kgMlgdf{0fsf k|of;df cWoogtyf dgf];fdflhs lqmofsnfksf ljleGg ljljw kIfx?df Jojxfl/s dfu{bz{gx? pknAwu/fO/x]sf 5g . log} ;+:yfx?sf ;fy;fy} lzIff dGqfno / lzIff If]qsf cGo kbflwsf/Lx?n] gLlttyf lgb]{zgx? ljsf; u/L u0f:t/Lo lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? lgdf{0f u/L ;+rfng ub}{ cfPsf 5g . of]xft]kl:tsfn] :yfgLo :t/df sfof{Gjog ul/g] /0fgLltx? tyf sfo{qmdx? tof/ ug{ / sfof{Gjogug{ lj:t[t ljj/0f pknAw u/fPsf] 5}g . oBlk, o;n] Go"gtd dfkb08sf ljifoj:tx?, dVo
    • 6 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08;"rsx? tyf dfu{bz{gx? k|:tt u/]sf] 5 h;n] z}lIfs ;Gbe{df dfgjLo sfo{sf nflu ljsf; ul/g]z}lIfs sfo{qmd, ltgsf] sfof{Gjog / lg/Gt/tfsf ;fy;fy} ;/sf/L / ;dbfosf] ;xof]usf] af/]df;d]t ;";lrt ub{5 . Go"gtd dfkb08x? kfFr k|sf/df k|:tt ul/Psf 5g . ltlgx? lgDg 5gM ;a} ju{sf nflu Go"gtd ;femf dfkb08x? M of] kl/R5]bdf ;dbfosf] ;xeflutfsf] cfjZos If]qx?df k|sfz kfl/Psf] 5 / o; xft]kl:tsfdf pNn]lvt dfkb08x? sfof{Gjog ubf{ :yfgLo ;|f]t;fwg k|of]u ug{kg]{ s/fsf ;fy;fy} cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf z}lIfs k|ltsfo{x? k|fylds n]vfhf]vfdf cfwfl/t xgkg]{ hg pkoQm / lg/Gt/ cgudg Pj+ d"Nof+sg Joj:yf klg pNn]lvt 5g Ù cWoogsf] nflu kx“r / pkoQm jftfj/0f M o;df cWoogsf cj;/x? tyf cGt/If]qut cGt/;DaGwsf nflu kxFr clejl4 u/L ;xeflutfdf hf]8 lbOPsf] 5 . h:t}M :jf:Yo, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{, vfB ;xof]u tyf kf]if0f / cfjf;sf dfWodaf6 ;/Iff, ef}lts, af}l4s ljsf; / dgf]j}1flgs ;d[l4sf] clej[l4 ug]{Ù cWoog / cWofkg M o;df k|efjsf/L cWoog / cWofkg clej[l4sf ;Id tTjx?sf] ljifodf k|sfz kfl/Psf] 5 M !_ kf7oqmd @_ tflnd #_ lgb]{zg / $_ n]vfhf]vf lzIfs / cGo lzIffsdL{x? M lzIff If]qsf] k|zf;g tyf Joj:yfkgdfdf sfo{/t dfgj ;|f]tsf] kIfdf k|sfz kfl/Psf] 5 h;df egf{ tyf 5gf}6, ;]jf zt{x? / cgudg / ;xof]usf] ljifodf pNn]lvt 5 Ù lzIff gLlt / ;dGjo M gLlt th{df / kfl/t ug]{, of]hgf tyf sfof{Gjog, cgudg / ;dGjosf ljifodf k|sfz kfl/Psf] 5 .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 7 if0f–;dbfos ] lj Zn f] ; – sf] ;xeflutf kxFr tyf cWoog tyf xefl cWoogsf] cWofkg jftfj/0f utf–ljZ lzIfsx? tyf lzIff gLlt tyf lzIffsdL{x? ;dGjo fo n]i b 0f f ;d –dfkb08x? / ;"rsx?sf aLr km/sGo"gtd dfkb08x? k|efljt hgtfsf] dof{bfk"0f{ hLjgsf] clwsf/sf] l;4fGtdf cfwfl/t /x]sf]5 . logL x?n] dfgjLo ;xfotfsf] ;dodf xfFl;n ug{kg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd kxFr / cGo Joj:yfsfljifodf JofVof u/]sf] 5 . ltgLx? u0ffTds k|s[ltsf 5g / ljZjAoflk Pj+ sg} klg jftfj/0fdfsfof{Gjog of]Uo /x]sf 5g . x/]s dfkb08sf dVo ;"rsx?n] dfkb08x?sf] pknlAw xfl;n ePgePsf] ;+s]t ub{5g . ltgLx?n] dfkg ug]{ pks/0fsf] ?kdf sfo{ ug]{5g / sfo{qmdsf] k|efj -jfkl/0ffd_ x?sf ;fy;fy} k|oQm k|lqmof -jf ljlw_ x? ;+k|]if0f ug]{5g . o;df ;+VofTds jf u0ffTds bj}lsl;dsf] ljj/0f /xG5 . dVo ;"rsx? ljgfsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 c;n ljj/0f;lxtsf] 3f]if0ffafx]ss]xL xg g;Sg] xG5 h;nfO{ sfof{Gjog ug{ uf¥xf] xG5 . x/]s kl/R5]bdf /x]sf] dfu{bz{gx? lglZrtaFbfx?;Fu ;DalGwt /x]sf]n] ljleGg ;dodf k|of]u ubf{ Wofg lbgkg]{5 . ltgLx?n] k|fyldstf k|fKtd2fx?df / Jojxfl/s ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{ ;Nnfx k|:tfljt u/]sf 5g / ljleGg låljwf, ljjfbtyf ljBdfg 1fgdf /x]sf sdLsdhf]/L klg j0f{g u/]sf 5g . lglZrt dVo ;"rsx?;Fu ;DalGwtdfu{bz{gx? / To;;Fu ;Da4 ljifox? ;+s]t ul/Psf] 5 . dVo ;"rsx? ;Fw} ;Da4 dfubz{gx?;FuldnfP/ dfq cWoog ug{kg]{5 .
    • 8 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08cGt/;DalGwt d2fx?o; Go"gtd dfkb08 ljsf;sf] qmddf w]/} dxTjk"0f{ d2fx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ Wofg lbOPsf] 5 .logLx? dfgj tyf afn clwsf/, n}+lus, hgtfsf] ;xeflutfsf] clwsf/, PrcfO{eL P8;, ckf+utf/ ;+s6f;Ggtf;Fu ;DalGwt 5g . oL ljifoj:tx?nfO{ 566} cgR5]bdf /fVg] xf]Og ls ;DalGwtdfkb08x?df g} ;dflxt ul/Psf 5g .sfo{If]q tyf ;LldttfljleGg cgR5]bx?sf dfkb08x? 5§f5§} ?kdf k|:tt geO{ Pscsf{df cGt/;DalGwt /x]sf5g . oBlk ljZjJofkL dfkb08x? th{df ubf{ / ltgLx?nfO{ Jojxf/df nfu" ug]{ Ifdtfsf ;DaGwdfckl/xfo{ ?kdf tgfjx? /x]sf 5g . x/]s kl/l:ylt km/s 5g . To;} sf/0fn] dfkb08 th{dfsf]ljZjJofkL ljsf; k|lqmofdf dfgjLo ;xfotfsdL{, lzIffljb, ;/sf/, z}lIfs kbflwsf/L, gful/s;dfh, k|efljt ;dbfo cfbLsf] If]qLo, /fli6«o / :yfgLo txdf a[xt / Jofks ;xeflutf ;lglZrtul/Psf] lyof] .s]xL pbfx/0fx?df, :yfgLo tTjx?n] Go"gtd dfkb08x? cfTd;ft u/]sf] xg;S5 t/ dVo ;"rsx?xfFl;n ug{ g;lsg] xG5 . hj o:tf] cj:yf b]vfkb{5, tj dfkb08 / ;"rssfaLr /x]sf] vf8nx?xft]kl:tsfdf pNn]v ul/Psf 5g / Jojxf/df k|of]u ubf{ b]vfk/]df cjZo JofVof ug{kg]{5 /,vf8nx? pTkGg xgfsf sf/0f / dfkb08 nIfdvL agfpgsf nflu s] kl/jt{g ug{ pkoQm xG5 eGg]s/f klg JofVof ug{kg]{5 .cfO{PgO{O{ Go"gtd dfkb08n] z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf ;a} ;d:ofx? ;dfwfg ub}{g oBlk o;n] dfgjLo;xfotf ;+:yfx?, ;/sf/x? / :yfgLo hgtfnfO{ z}lIfs ;xfotfsf] k|efjsfl/tf / u0f:t/ clej[l4ug{ Pp6f pks/0fsf] k|:tfj u/]sf] 5 . t;y{ ljkbaf6 k|efljt ;dbfosf] hLjgdf ;f/e"t km/sNofpg ;lsof]; .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 9 ! ;a} ju{sf nflu ;femf Go"gtd dfkb08x? kl/ro of] kl/R5]bdf 5 j6f dVo dfkb08sf k|lqmofx?sf] ljifodf JofVof ul/Psf] 5, hg o; xft]kl:tsfsf cGo x/]s ju{x?sf cleGg c+usf ?kdf /x]sf 5g . oL dfkb08x?M !_ ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf, @_ :yfgLo ;|f]t;fwg, #_ k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vf, $_ k|ltsfo{ /0fgLlt, %_ cgudg / ^_ d"Nof+sg xg . ltgLx? bO{j6f pk–;d"xut zLif{sdf k|:tt ul/Psf 5g, klxnf] ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf -;xeflutf / ;|f]t;fwg_ / bf];|f] ljZn]if0f -n]vfhf]vf, k|ltsfo{, cgudg / d"Nof+sg_ xf] . oxfF pNn]lvt dfkb08x? sfof{Gjog u/L dfgjLo ;xfotfsdL{x? / ;dbfosf ;b:ox?n] kxFr / cWoogsf] jftfj/0f, cWoog / cWofkg, lzIfs / cGo lzIffsdL{x?, lzIff gLlt / ;dGjosf If]qx?sf dfkb08x?nfO{ cfTd;ft ug]{5g .cGt/f{li6«o sfg"gL pks/0fx?;“usf] ;DaGwk|To]snfO{ dof{bf;lxtsf] hLjgsf] clwsf/ xg5 / ltgLx?sf] lzIffsf] clwsf/ ;lxtsf] dfgj ]clwsf/sf] ;Ddfg ul/g]5 . cGt/f{li6«o dfgj clwsf/, dfgjLo tyf z/0ffyL{;DaGwL sfg"gdf pNn]vePadf]lhd dfgjLo ;xfotfsdL{x?n] dfgj clwsf/;Fu / ;xeflutfsf] clwsf/, e]befj gxg]clwsf/ / ;"rgfsf] clwsf/;Fu tfbfDotf sfod xg] u/L ;xfotf k|bfg ug]{ lhDd]jf/L xg5 . ]:km]o/ cfof]hgfsf] dfgjLo a8fkq, cGt/f{li6«o /]8qm;sf] cfrf/;+lxtf, /]8lqm;s]G6 cfGbf]ng, dfgjLo/fxtsf nflu u}=;=;+= / dfgjLo ;xfotfsf ;+:yfx?n] cfFkm} ;xfotf vf]Hg]nfO{ pQ/bfoL agfpg] lhDdflng]5g . ;femf dfkb08x?n] ;+:yfx? tyf JolQmx?n] k|bfg ug]{ z}lIfs ;xfotfsf nflu lhDd]jf/Lx?sf]/]vf+sg u/]sf] 5 .
    • 10 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08;a} ju{sf nflu ;femf Go"gtd dfkb08x?sf] dxTj;DalGwt k|fljlws v08 k9g cl3 ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf / ljZn]if0fsf] o; v08 k9g h?/L / dxTjk"0f{xg5 . oL v08x?df ;a} Go"gtd dfkb08x?sf nflu d"ne"t kIfx?sf] ;dli6 vfsf sf]l/Psf] xgfn] ]of] k|f;+lus 5 . cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf] ;a} r/0fx?sf nflu lzIff;DaGwL tYof+sx?sf] ;+sng /ljZn]if0f dxTjk"0f{ 5 . of]hgfx? agfpg / k|ToIf ;|ft;fwgx? Jojl:yt ug{ ;+s6 z?xbfsf] ;dodf ] Fg} ;|ft;fwg, cfjZostf / ck"0f{ cfjZostfx? klxrfg ug}{ kb{5 . ]cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf ;+rfng ul/g] k|efjsf/L z}lIfs sfo{qmdx? kl/l:yltsf] :ki6tfsf cfwf/dfdfq lgwf{/0f u/L ljkb–k|efljt ;dbfosf] cfjZostf k"/f ug]{ vfnsf] xgkb{5 . k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vfn] cfkTsfnLg 36gfsf] k|sl[ t / o;n] hgtfnfO{ kf/]sf] k|efj ljZn]if0f ugkb{5 . k|efljt ;dbfosf] {Ifdtfx? / :yfgLo ;|ft;fwgsf] pknAwtf klxrfg ugkg]5 / ;f]xL ;dodf ltgLx?sf] cfjZostf ] { {/ ;+s6f;Ggtfsf] cfFsng u/L cTofjZos ;]jfdf /x]sf ck"0f{tf klg cfFsng ul/g]5 . sfo{qmdx?sf]k|efjsfl/tf ;lglZrt ug{ ;+rfng ul/g] z}lIfs n]vfhf]vfsf nflu ;+s6af6 k|efljt ;dbfosf] clgjfo{;xeflutf dfq xf]Og ls :yfgLo ;/sf/ / lzIff tyf u}/–lzIffdf ;+nUg dfgjLo ;xfotfsdL{x?nfO{;d]t ;xefuL u/fpg kg]5 . n]vfhf]vfn] ljleGg k|sl[ tsf ;dbfosf nflu cf}krfl/s / cgf}krfl/s {bj} lzIffsf ;DaGwdf ljrf/ k¥ofpg} kb{5 . lzIffnfO{ cGo If]qaf6 cnu /fv]/ x]g{ ;lsFbg cyf{t }cy{zf:q, wfld{s jf k/D/fut ljZjf;, ;fdflhs cEof;, /fhg}lts jf ;/Iff;Da4 tTjx?, ;dfgug]{ ;+oGq jf eljiosf nflu ck]lIft ljsf;af6 cnUu} /fVg ;lsb}g . ;+s6sf sf/0f / k|efjx?sf]ljZn]if0f sfo{ h6Ln 5 . obL ;d:of ;xL tj/n] klxrfg ePg / alemPg eg] pkoQm tj/n] k|ltsfo{ug{ sl7gfO{ xG5 .k|ltsfo{ w]/} tTjx?df lge{/ ub{5, h:t} ;xfotfsdL{x?s]f Ifdtf, ljz]if1ftfsf] If]q-x?_, cfly{s;Lldttf, :yfg / cj:yfsf] 1fg, / sd{rf/L tyf l;sf?sf nflu ;/Iff hf]lvd . s;n], slxn], s]ug]{ egL :ki6 hfgsf/L lbg o; xft]kl :tsfdf k|ltsfo{sf dfkb08x? lj:t[t ?kdf tof/ kfl/Psf] 5 .ha pkoQm k|ltsfo{ ;+oGq lgwf{/0f ul/G5, nlIft ;+oGqx? :yflkt ul/G5 To;n] g} ;xfotfsdL{x?nfO{cfjZostfg?k lgikIf tyf ljgfe]befj ;xfotf ljt/0f ug{ ;xh xG5 .p2]Zog?k lg/Gt/ ?kdf k|ult dfkg ug{ ;"rgfsf] ;+sng / ljZn]if0fsf nflu k|lqmofsf] z?cftd}cgudg k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf ugkg]5 / h;af6 sfo{qmdsf] ;fGble{stfx? efjL kl/j]zdf lg/Gt/ hfFlrg] {5 . k|ltsfo{sf] ;dodf jf ;f]sf] ;dflKt kZrft d"Nof+sg sfo{ sfo{qmdsf] cjlw cg;f/ aLraLrdflg/Gt/ ?kdf ugkg]5 / sfo{qmdsf] ;du| k|efjsfl/tf tyf l;lsPsf kf7x? klxrfg ugkg]5 h;af6 { { { {
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 11eljiodf To:t} k|sl[ tsf sfo{qmdx?df ;wf/ xg;Sg]5 . ;DalGwt ;fem]bf/x? tyf l;Sg] JolQmx?nfO{d"Nof+sg k|lqmofdf ;lqmo ?kdf ;xefuL u/fpgkg]5 . d"Nof+sg tyf cgudgsf k|lqmofx?, ljifoj:tx? {/ kl/0ffdx? o;df ;+nUg ePsfsf] ;/Iffdf ;+emf}tf gu/L kf/bzL{ xg5g / nfeflGjt ;dbfo tyf cGo ];/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ Jofks?kdf ljt/0f ul/g]5 . s]xL cj:Yffx?df ;"rgfx? /fhgLlts jf ;fdflhs;fF:s[lts sf/0fn] ;+jbgzLn xG5g, t;y{ ;+ul| xt tYof+s jf hfgsf/Lx? thljhLk"0f{ tj/n] pkof]u ]ug}kb{5 . {cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf k|efjsf/L z}lIfs sfo{qmdx? ;+s6 k|efljt ;dbfosf] af/]df a[xt hfgsf/Ldf /sfo{qmdsf] tof/L r/0fdf g} ltgLx?sf] ;lqmo ;xeflutfdf cfwfl/t xG5 . ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf zAbn]k|lqmof / lqmofsnfkx? banfO{ hgfpFb5 h;n] k|efljt ;dbfosf] ;b:ox?sf] cfjfh ;gfpg cgdlt }lbG5, lg0f{o lgdf{0f k|lqmofsf cleGg c+usf] ?kdf ;+nUg u/fpg ;zQm kfb{5 / z}lIfs d2fx?df k|ToIflg0f{o ug{ ;an kfb{5 . w]/} tx / dfqfdf ;xeflutf xg;Qm5 -k|ltsfTds ;xeflutf, ;Nnfxsf/L /k"0f{ ;xeflutf_ . o;df k"0f{ ;xeflutfsf] k|flKt cfktsfnLg kl/l:ytdf w]/h;f] uf¥xf] xG5 hxfF ;Nnfx }lbg cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf] lzIffsf nflu nlIft xG5 / k"0f{ ;xeflutf g} p2]Zo /xG5 .cgejx?n] b]vfPcg;f/ k|tLs ;xeflutf Pp6f lal;{Psf] cj;/ xf] / bLuf] Pj+ u0f:t/Lo sfo{qmdJoj:yfsf nflu of] ck|efjsf/L 5 . ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xsf ;b:o / ;+s6af6 k|efljt ;dbfosf ;b:osf]n]vfhf]vf, of]hgf thdf, sfof{Gjog, Joj:yfkg / k|ltsfo{sf] cgudgdf ;xeflutfnfO{ clej[l4 {ugkb{5 h;n] ljkb k|ltsfo{sf] pkoQmtf, k|efjsfl/tf / u0f:t/Lotf ;lglZrt ug{ ;sf]; . ;dbfosf] {;lqmo ;xeflutfn] ;dbfodf cfwfl/t lzIffsf d2fx? / /0fgLltxx?nfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf ;Daf]wgug{ ;xh kfb{5 . cltl/Qm ?kdf ;dbfosf] ;xeflutfn] :yfgLo ;|ft;fwgsf] klxrfg u/L ;dbfoleq ]kl/rfng ug{ /0fgLlts p2]Zo k"lt{ ugsf ;fy;y} z}lIfs sfo{qmdsf nflu ;xdlt / ;xof]usf] lgdf{0f {;d]t ub{5 . ;dbflos ;xeflutfn] oyfy{ / bLuf] ;zlQms/0f Pj+ Ifdtf ljsf;nfO{ ;dfj]z ug}{ kb{5,/ :yfgLo txsf k|of;x?nfO{ ;d]t dhat agfpg} kb{5 .1fg tyf ;"rgfsf] k|ltsfo{df ;+nUg ;a}sfaLr Jojl:yt cfbfgk|bfg xg cTofjZos /x]sf] 5h;n] ;d:ofsf] ;femf aemfO{ / lgsfosfaLr k|efjsf/L ;dGjo :yflkt ub{5 . tYof+s ;+sng Pj+ljZn]if0f ug]{ ljlzli6s[t k|0ffnLsf] k|j4{g ul/g]5 . o;af6 ;"rgfx? ;an ?kdf clen]vLs/0f,cfbfgk|bfg / ljt/0f xg5 . ]
    • 12 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 Go"gtd dfkb08x? M logLx?sf] u0ffTds k|sl[ tsf] xg5g / z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf Joj:yfx?sf] ] Go"gtd pknlAwsf] :t/ lgwf{l/t xg5g . ] dVo ;"rsx? M logLx? ;+stx? xg h;n] dfkb08x? k/f eP jf gePsf] b]vfpFb5g . ] logLx?n] sfo{qmd / o;df k|of]u ul/Psf k|lqmof jf ljlwx?n] kf/]sf k|efj jf kl/0ffdx?sf] dfkg / ;+rf/ ug]{ pkfo b]vfpF5 . oL ;rsx? ;+VofTds jf u0ffTds xg ;Qm5g . dfu{bz{g M o;df ljleGg cj:yfx?df slxn] dfkb08 / ;rsx? k|of]u ug],{ Jojxfl/s ;d:of ;dfwgfy{ pkfox? / k|fyldstf k|fKt d2fx?sf ljifodf ;Nnfxh:tf Wofg lbgkg]{ vf; abfx? F ;dfj]z /x]sf 5g . ltgLx?df h6Ln dfkb08 jf ;"rs ;Da4 h6Ln d2fx? / låljwf, ljjfbx? jf jt{dfg 1fgsf ck"0f{ kIfx?sf] JofVof ;dfj]z 5 . cg;rL @ df 5flgPsf ;Gbe{ u|Gyx? " pNn]lvt 5g, h;n] ;fdfGo ljifox? / vf; k|fljlws ljifosf ;"rgfsf ;|ftx? k|i6ofPsf 5g . ] ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf dfkb08 ! dfkb08 @ ;xeflutf ;|ftx? ] cfktsfnaf6 k|efljt ;dbfosf lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? / cGo ;b:ox? ;lqmotfk"js lzIffsf { cWoogsf lqmofsnfkx? sfof{Gjog sfo{qmdx?sf] cfFsng, of]hgf ug{ :yfgLo ;|ftx? klxrfg, ] thdf, sfof{Gjog, cgudg / { d"Nof+sgdf ;xefuL xg] . kl/rfng / k|of]u ug]{ . cg;rL @ M ;Gbe{ u|Gy / ;|ft ;xfotf ;fdfu|L " ] ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf v08
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 13 ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf;DaGwL dfkb08 !M ;xeflutf cfktsfnaf6 k|efljt ;dbfosf ;b:ox? ;lqmotfk"js lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?sf] cfFsng, of]hgf { thdf, sfof{Gjog, cgudg / d"Nof+sgdf ;xefuL xg] . {dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { lzIffsf lqmofsnfksf] k|fyldsLs/0f Pj+ of]hgf tof/ ug{ cfktsfnaf6 k|efljt ;dbfoaf6 rlgPsf k|ltlglwx? ;xefuL /x]sf / lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ;lglZrt /x]sf] . -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL !–% x]gxf]nf_ { afnaflnsf / ojfx? klg z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? ljsf; / sfof{Gjogdf ;xefuL ePsf] . -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ^ x]gxf]nf_ { ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltn] z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? tyf ltgsf] ah]6sf] ;fdflhs k/LIf0fsf] nflu ;fj{hlgs a}7sx? u/]sf] -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL & x]gxf]nf_ { afnaflnsf tyf ojfx?;lxt ;dbfosf ;b:ox?sf] nflu z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? Joj:yfkg ug{ tflnd tyf Ifdtf ljsf;sf cj;/x? pknAw /x]sf] -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL * x]gxf]nf_ { dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?df ;dbfosf] k|ltlglwTjM ;a} Go"gtd dfkb08x?df pNn]lvt ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltn] ;dbfosf] lzIffsf] cfjZostf lgwf{/0f / ;Daf]wg ug{ :yflkt ;ldltnfO{ hgfpF5 h;df cleefjs /÷jf cleefjs lzIfssf] ;+3, :yfgLo lgsfox?, gful/s ;dfhsf] ;+:yfx?, ;fdbflos ;+:yfx? / ojf tyf dlxnfsf ;d"x, lzIfs / l;Sg] JolQmx? jf cGo ;Da4sf k|ltlglwx? -hxfF pkoQm xG5_ /xG5g . ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltsf pk;ldltx? xg ;Sg]5 h;sf ;b:ox? o;sf] ;+/rgfdf klg k|ltlglwTj ug]5g . s]xL pbfx/0fx?df { ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx? Pp6f lzIff sfo{qmdsf nflu lhDd]jf/ /xg]5g eg] sg} If]qdf eg] s]xL lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? /xg]5g . cWoogsf] jftfj/0f ljsf; Pj+ Joj:yfkg ug{sf] nflu kl/jf/, ;dbfo tyf ljBfnosf] ;DaGwx? cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf dftflktf jf cleefjsx?sf dfWodaf6 ;an agfOg]5 . kl/jf/, ;dbfo / ljBfnosf] ;DaGwx?sf] ;+/rgfx? ;xeflutfd"ns k|lqmofaf6 ljsf; ul/g]5 . of] k|lqmof ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx?, cleefjs, lzIfs ;+3 cflbsf ;fy;fy}
    • 14 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 :yfgLo kl/l:ylt / ;d:ofx? -aRrfsf] g]tTjdf /x]sf] 3/_ ;Fu ;fdgf ug{ ljz]if pkfox?df [ klg ckgfOg]5 . ;dbfodf cfwfl/t k|lqmofn] ;+/rgfx? -olb klxn] g} :yflkt ePsf 5}gg eg]_ lgdf{0f ug{ d2t ug]5g / :yfgLo ;+:s[lt tyf z}lIfs dfGotfx?nfO{ kfngf ug]{ jt{dfg { ;+/rgfx? ;an agfpg]5 / :yfgLo hWg] ;+oGq -;+s6;Fu_ klg kl/is[t xgkg]5 . ]{ @= ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx?M o;sf] k|ltlglwTj ;dfj]zL xgkb{5, ;xeflutf xgkg]{ ;d"x / ;+:yfx?df :yfgLo u}=;=;+=x?, wfld{s ;+:yfx?, k/Dk/fut g]tfx?, ljz]if z}lIfs cfjZostf ePsf ;d"xx?, ;LdflGts[t ;d"xx?, dlxnf tyf aflnsfx?, hftLo ;d"x Pj+ ljleGg pd]/;d"xx? / cGo kb{5g . k|ltlglwx? k|hftflGqs k4ltaf6 rlgg kb{5 . kgMlgdf{0fsf] r/0fdf ;fdbflos lzIff ;d"x a}wflgs ?kdf dfGotf k|fKt xgkb{5 / cf}krfl/s ;+:yfsf] ?kdf sfo{ ug{ sfg"gL ?kdf btf{ ugkb{5 . hxfF pxL sfo{ lhDd]jf/Lsf;fy klxn] g} :yflkt { ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx? lqmofzLn /x]sf 5g, To:tf] ;ldltx?nfO{ ckgfO{ ;dfgfGt/ ;+:yfx? agfpg xbg . F} ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx? ;dfj]zL / ;Gtlnt xgkb{5 Pj+ k|efljt ;dbfosf] ljljlwtf emlNsg] u/L n}l+ us, pd]/, hftLo, wfld{s / ;fdflhs ;+/rgfx?sf cnfjf cGo kIf;d]t ;dfj]z u/fpg kb{5 . dlxnf tyf aflnsfx?nfO{ ;xof]u ug{ dxTjk"0f{ eP cg?k ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx?df ltgLx?nfO{ ljsf;sf] ;dfg ;fem]bf/ agfO{ ;dtf ;lglZrt / clej[l4 ul/g kb{5 . #= e"ldsf tyf lhDd]jf/Lx?M ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltsf ;b:ox?sf] e"ldsf tyf lhDd]jf/Lx? :ki6 kl/eflift xgkb{5 / ;dbfonfO{ x/avt pknAw u/fpg kg]5 . o;df cGo s/fsf { cltl/Qm b]xfo s/fx? ;dfj]z xg;Qm5g M ljleGg rf;f]x?sf d2f;DaGwdf lgoldt a}7s / lg0f{ox? ug],{ a}7ssf] lg0f{ox?, ;dbfosf] cfly{s / lhlG; ;xof]u ljj/0f kl:tsfdf pNn]v ug],{ ;fF:s[lts ?kn] pkoQm k4ltx? pknAw u/fpg] -h:t}M nrsk"0f{ ljBfno ;fl/0fL, ;dbfosf] ;Gbe{ emNsfpg] z}lIfs sfo{qmdsf kf7oqmd / ;dbfosf ;b:ox?sf] ;xeflutf, cflb_, / ;dbfo;Fu ;+rf/ ug],{ lzIffsf sfo{qmd /÷jf /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo clwsf/Lx? dfkm{t ;dbfosf ;b:ox?sfaLr c;n ;DaGw ljsf; $= z}lIfs k|ltsfo{x? tof/ ubf{ ;dbfosf] ;xeflutfM ;a} ;/sf/L tyf u}/ ;/sf/L lgsfox? lzIffsf k|ltsfo{x? tof/ kfbf{ ;xdt xgkg]5 / ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf ;lglZrt ug{ {
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 15 sfo{ljlwx? lgdf{0f ugkg]5 . oL sfo{ljlwx? k|yd lbgb]lv g} tTsfnLg k|ltsfo{sf] Ps cleGg { { c+u xg5 / o;df ;xeflutfd"ns ljlwx?sf] pkof]u b]xfosf] s/f l56f] :yfkgf ug]{ s/f ] ;dflxt xgkg]5M { ljleGg pk–;d"xx? -afnaflnsf, ojf tyf k|f9x?_ sf] tTsfnLg z}lIfs cfjZostfx?, } pknAw dfgjLo Ifdtf / ;do, ;fy} cfly{s tf ef}lts ;|ft;fwgx?, ] ljleGg pk–;d"xx?sf ;fy} eflifs ;d"xx?aLrsf] zlQmsf] ultzLntf, ;/Iffsf] ;Lldttf, lzIffsf Joj:yfx?sf nflu ;/lIft :yfgx?, / hLjg arfpg] ;Da4 z}lIfs ;"rgfx? cfktsfnLg /fxtsf ;Dk"0f{ kIfx?df PsLs[t ug]{ /0fgLltx? . -ljZn]if0f dfkb08 @, dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL % k[i7 @$ tyf lzIff;DaGwL gLlt tyf ;dGjo;DaGwL dfkb08 @ k[i7 @$ klg x]gxf]nf _ . {%= :yfgLo lzIff sfo{of]hgfM ;dbfo / ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltn] k|fyldstf lgwf{/0f ug{ ;Qm5 / z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? tNnf]txsf] ;fwf/0f dflg;sf] ;xeflutfd"ns k|lqmofåf/f of]hgf lgdf{0f k|lqmofsf] lgwf{/0f u/L ljz]if u/L ;+s6f;Gg ;d"x / ;+s6af6 k|efljt hgtfsf] cfjZostfx?, rf;f] / d"Nox?nfO{ of]hgfdf k|ltljlDjt ul/gkb{5 . o; of]hgf k|lqmofsf] kl/0ffd ;dbfodf cfwfl/s lzIff sfo{of]hgf xf] . o; of]hgfn] cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIff ;]jf tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] u0f:t/ a9fpg Pp6f vfsf k|bfg ub{5 . lzIff sfo{of]hgfn] w]/} p2]Zox? af]ssf] xG5, hg lgDgadf]lhd 5g t/ o;df dfq ;Lldt 5}ggM ] ljleGg lqmofsnfkx?, ;"rs tyf nIfx?sf] dfWodaf6 cWoogsf] ;+efljt jftfj/0f o:tf] k|sf/sf] xgkb{5 egL ;xsdL{x?sfaLr Ps ;femf b[li6sf]0f ljsf; ug]{ . ;xsdL{x?sfaLr cWoogsf] jftfj/0fsf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ ;ljwfx?sf] ;wf/sf nflu k|fyldstfx? lgwf{/0f ug{ ;xdlt / ;femf k|ltj4tf lgdf{0f ug]{ . of]hgfdf lgwf{l/t nIox? xfFl;n ug{ sfo{of]hgfdf :ki6 ?kdf ljleGg ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf sfo{ / lhDd]jf/Lx? tf]lsPsf] ;dofjlw leq k"/f xg] u/L pNn]v ug]{ . :yfgLo lzIff sfo{of]hgfx?df ;a} ;fe]mbf/x? nufot ;xfotf k|bfg ug]{ lgsfox?, ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx? tyf cGo lzIff sfo{qmd ;+rfnsx?sf aLr ;xlqmofTds e"ldsfx? lgwf{/0f xgkb{5 . ;dbfosf] Jofks ;xeflutfnfO{ bLuf] agfpg ;+nUgtfsf] ;F:s[lt lgdf{0f u/L
    • 16 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 d2t ug{ / ;dbfon] lg/Gt/ cgudg tyf n]vfhf]vf ug]{ sfo{ ;lglZrttfsf nflu sfo{of]hgfx?df cfrf/;+lxtf ;dfj]z xgkb{5 . o;df cGo ljleGg If]qx? h:t}M of]hgf lgdf{0f, afnaflnsfsf] ;+/If0f, aflnsf, dlxnf tyf ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xsf JolQmx?sf] ;xeflutf, k|j4{g cWoog tyf cWofkgsf lqmofsnfkx?sf] sfof{Gjog, cgudg, ;|ft kl/rfng, sd{rf/L ] egf{ tyf tflnd, k"jf{wf/ ljsf; / dd{t;+ef/, ;Da4 afxo;+:yfaLr ;dGjo tyf :jf:Yo, ;/;kmfO{, vfg]kfgL Pj+ kf]if0fsf pkoQm :yfgdf PsLs[t ug]{ pkoQm Joj:yf kb{5g . ;a} ;dbfosf ;b:ox?nfO{ ;"rgfsf] kxFr /x]sf] 5 eGg] s/f dxTjk"0f{ xg5 h;n] ltgLx?nfO{ ] ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltnfO{ z}lIfs sfo{qmdx? s;/L k|efjsf/L tj/n] Joj:yfkg ug]{ egL ;Nnfx lbg ;Qm5g -lzIfs tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x?;DaGwL dfkb08 @ k[i7 &# / lzIff gLlt / ;dGjo;DaGwL dfkb08 @ k[i7 *$ klg x]gxf]nf_ { ^= z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx?df afnaflnsfsf] ;xeflutfM afnclwsf/;DaGwL ;+oQm /fi6«;3Lo + dxf;GwLsf] wf/f !@ n] ojfj:yfsf] lhDd]jf/L lgldQ tof/L xg afnaflnsfnfO{ ltgLx?sf] cfkmg} hLjgnfO{ k|efljt kfg]{ ljifodf egfO{ /fVg] clwsf/ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . of] wf/f cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf ;fy} hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0fsfndf klg nfu" xG5 . ljBfyL{x?÷lzsf?x?, ljz]if u/L ojf / jo:sx?nfO{ ltgLx?nfO{ k|bfg ul/g] lzIffsf] k|0ffnLut Joj:yfsf] ljsf; / Joj:yfkgdf ;xefuL u/fOgkb{5 . afnaflnsfx?nfO{ ljleGg cEof;x?df clgjfo{ ?kdf k|lzlIft ug}kb{5 h;n] ltgLx? cfkm}nfO{ / cGo afnaflnsfnfO{ ;dbfoleq { ;/lIft /fVg ;Qm5g . tflndn] ltgLx? /rgfTds ?kdf ;xeflu xg ;sg / ;sf/fTds kl/jt{gsf] z?cft ug{ ;sg egL hf]8 lbgkb{5, h:t}M ljBfnosf lqmofsnfkx? ;wfg{ ;Nnfx lbg] jf cWoogsf] jftfj/0fleq /x]sf zf]if0fx?sf] ljifodf hfgsf/L lbg] jf arfj6 ug]{ -kxrF tyf l;sfOsf] jftfj/0f dfkb08 @ k[i7 $* / lzIfs tyf cGo lzIffsdL{sf;DaGwL dfkb08 # k[i7 &% klg x]gxf]nf_ . cfktsfndf cfOkg]{ sfo{x? -h:t}M afnaflnsf tyf ojfx?sf nflu { dgf]/GhgfTds lqmofsnfk_ ug{ ojf ;dbfo ljz]if u/L ljBfno ghfg]nfO{ ;xefuL u/fpg ;lsG5 hg ;dbfosf nflu dxTjk"0f{ /x]sf xG5g . o;n] gsf/fTds k|efjx? h:t} ck/fw, ;z:q ;d"x cflbsf] lj?4df ltgLx?nfO{ ;sf/fTds ljsNkx? k|bfg ub{5 . &= ;fdflhs k/LIf0fx? z}lIfs sfo{qmdsf] ;dbfodf cfwfl/t d"Nof+sg xg . tL k/LIf0fx? dfgjLo, cfly{s tyf ef}lts ;|ftx?sf] cfk"lt{, cem} s] cfjZos 5 egL klxrfg ug{ ] / oyfy{df s] pknAw 5 egL cfFsng ug{ ;+rfng ul/G5 / o;n] cGo kIfx?sf ;fy} sfo{qmdsf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] klg cgudg ub{5 .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 17 ;fdflhs k/LIf0fx? ;+s6sf] z?d} jf dWo r/0fd} ;+rfng ug{ ;Fw} ;+ej gxg ;Qm5 . oBlk ha ;+s6 :yL/ cj:yfdf /xG5 -h:t} nfdf] ;dosf hsl8Psf ;+s6 jf l56f] kgMlgdf{0fsf] r/0f_ To:tf] ;dodf ;fdflhs k/LIf0fn] ;dbfox?sf nflu cfkmg} lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? cem k|efjsf/L ?kn] cgudg ug]{ Ifdtf ljsf; ug]{ cj;/ pknAw u/fpFb5 -ljZn]if0f dfkb08 $ k[i7 @^ klg x]gxf]nf_ . { *= Ifdtf ljsf;M k|of{ Kt / pkoQm tflnd jf ;Nnfx lagf ;dbfosf ;b:ox?n] z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? cfkmgf] k|fljlws Ifdtfaf6 Joj:yfkg u5{g jf :jfldTj u|x0f u5{g egL ck]Iff ug{ ;xL xbg . tflnd sfo{qmdx?n] ;dbfosf] Ifdtf Pj+ tflndsf cfjZostfx? klxrfg ug]{ / F} ltgLx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ tl/sf klg cfFsng ugkb{5 . ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltsf] Ifdtf { ljsf;sf] cltl/Qm, pknAw xg] ;xof]usf] u0f:t/ tyf bLuf]kgfsf nflu lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?n] ;dbfosf ;b:ox?nfO{ z}lIfs lqmofsnfksf sfo{df ;xefuL u/fpg] / tflnd lbg kb{5 . ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf;DaGwL dfkb08 @M ;|ft ] :yfgLo ;dbfosf ;|ftx? klxrfg, kl/rfng / k|of]u u/L lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? / cGo cWoogsf ] cj;/x? sfof{Gjog ug]{ .dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { ;dbfox?, lzIffsdL{x? / l;sf?x?n] ;dbfoleq /x]sf lzIffsf ;|ftx? klxrfg ug]{ -dfu{bz{g ] l6Kk0fL ! x]gxf]nf_ . { ;dbfodf /x]sf ;|ftx? lzIffsf] kxr, ;+/If0f / u0f:t/Lo lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? lgldQ kl/rfng ] F ug]{ -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL @–# x]gxf]nf_ . { ;fe]mbf/x?n] ;dbfox?sf] IfdtfnfO{ dfGotf lbg] / ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg]5g, ;fy} lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? tof/L ubf{ :yfgLo ;Lkx? / Ifdtfsf] cej[l4d"ns pkof]u ug]{ -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL $–% x]gxf]nf_ . {
    • 18 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != ;fdbflos ;|ftx? eGgfn] ;dfhdf /x]sf dfgjLo, af}l4s, cfly{s jf ef}lts ;|ftx?nfO{ ] ] hgfpFb5 . ;|ft kl/rfngnfO{ cWoogsf] jftfj/0f ;b9Ls/0f ug{ cfa4 ugkg]5 . o;df ] [ { { ef}lts jftfj/0f -h:t}M ljBfnosf] lgdf{0f, dd{t;Def/df ef}lts / >dsf] of]ubfg_ / af}l4s Pj+ efjgfTds jftfj/0f -h:t} lzIfs jf ;xhstf{sf nflu dgf];fdflhs ;xof]u jf ;+/If0fsf d2fx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg_ kg{ ;Qm5g . kf/blz{tf / pQ/bfloTj clej[l4 lgldQ clen]vx? /flvg]5 -kxFr tyf cWoogsf] jftfj/0f;DaGwL dfkb08 @–# k[i7 $*–%) klg x]gxf]nf_ . { @= kxr / ;/Iffsf] clej[l4 M ;dbfosf ;b:ox?nfO{ ;+s6f;Gg ;dxleqsf afnaflnsfnfO{ F d2t ug{ ;do / ;|ft k|bfg ug{ kl/rfng ul/g]5, h;af6 ljBfnodf egf{ eO{ lgoldt ] k7gkf7g xg5, h:t} dlxnf jf ojf ;d"xsf] k|of;åf/f u/Lj kl/jf/sf afnaflnsfsf nflu ] pkoQm nufx? lbg] jf aRrfn] g]tTj u/]sf] kl/jf/nfO{ vfBfGg lbg] . dlxnfn] aflnsfx?sf] [ ljBfnodf pkl:yltsf] nflu sIff ;xof]uL, lg?T;flxt ultljlwsf lj?4 ;/Iff k|bfg u/]/ Pj+ ;dbfosf ;b:ox?n] cfjZos kg]{ afnaflnsfnfO{ ljBfno;Dd k¥ofpg] / 3/ kmsf{pg] sfo{ u/]/ ;xof]u k¥ofpg ;Qm5g -kxr tyf cWoogsf] jftfj/0f;DaGwL dfkb08 @–# k[i7 F $*–%) klg x]gxf]nf_ . { #= bLuf]kgf lgdf{0f M ;dbfox?nfO{ nfdf] ;dosf nflu cWoogsf] jftfj/0f Joj:yfkg ug{, ;|ft kl/rfng / Joj:yfkg ug{ tyf bLuf]kgf -;]jfx?sf] dd{t;+ef/, ;+s6f;Gg ljBfyL{x?sf] ] ;xeflutf ;lglZrt ug{ ljz]if pkfox? ckgfpg_ sf nflu tflnd ;lxt e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lx? lbgkg]5 . { $= ;dbfosf] of]ubfgnfO{ dfGotf M bftfx?nfO{ lbOg] k|ltj]bgdf ;dbfosf of]ubfgx?sf] ;+VofTds / u0ffTds ;"rgfx? ;dflji6 /x]sf] xgkb{5 . ;zQm ;dbfosf] of]ubfgx? ;"rsd"ns k|ltj4tfsf] ?kdf phfu/ xg ;Sg]5g / sfo{qmdx?sf] bLuf]kgf k|flKt xgkb{5 . %= :yfgLo Ifdtf M ;+s6sf] ;dodf x:tIf]k jf sfof{Gjog ubf{ ;xeflutfn] hgtfsf] dof{bf / cfzfsf] efjnfO{ ;b9 agfpg kb{5 . sfo{qmdx? tof/ kfbf{ :yfgLo Ifdtfsf] cfwf/ bl/nf] [ xg] / hgtfsf] cfFkmg} hWg;Sg] /0fgLltx?nfO{ gh/cGbfh gug]{ xgkb{5 .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 19 ljZn]if0f dfkb08 ! dfkb08 @ dfkb08 # dfkb08 $k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vf k|ltsfo{ /0fgLlt cgudg d"Nof+sg PsLs[t / z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf ;a} ;fe]mbf/x?n] cEof;x? kl/dfh{g ;xeflutfd"ns nflu ;d:ofsf] z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf ug{sf nflu z}lIfs k|lqmofåf/f :ki6 ljj/0f lqmofsnfkx? tyf k|ltsfo{sf] Jojl:yt cfktsfnLg ;lxtsf] sfo{ut k|efljt ;dbfosf Pj+ lgikIf d"Nof+sg ljsl;t xb} cfPsf F cj:yfsf] z}lIfs /0fgLltx? pNn]lvt ug]{ / pQ/bfloTj cfjZostfx? n]vfhf]vf ug]{ Ps 9fFrf ljsf; lgoldt ?kdf clej[l4 ug]{ ug]{ . cgudg ug]{ . kl/lzi6 ! n]vfhf]vf 9fFrf kl/lzi6 @ cfktsfndf of]hgf M cj:yf ljZn]if0f ;"rL kl/lzi6 # ;"rgf ;+sng Pj+ cfjZostf klxrfg kmf/fd cg;rL @ M " ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L tyf ;|ft ;fdfu|L ljZn]if0f v08 ]
    • 20 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 ljZn]if0f;DaGwL dfkb08 !M k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vf PsLs[t / ;xeflutfd"ns k|lqmofåf/f cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf] z}lIfs n]vfhf]vf ug]{ .dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { zflGt ;/Iff / ;/lIft cj:yfsf] ljrf/ u/]/ Ps k|f/lDes b|t z}lIfs n]vfhfvf hlt;Sbf] rfF8f] ;DkGg ug]{ -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL !–# klg x]gxf]nf_ . { tYof+ssf] cfjZostfx? klxrfg u/L ;+sng ug{ Pj+ ;"rsx?sf] ljsf;, JofVof / kl/dfh{g ug{ tyf ;"rgf Joj:yfkg / k|rf/k|;f/ ug{ dVo ;fe]mbf/x? ;xefuL xg5g . -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL $–% ] klg x]gxf]nf_ . { cfktsfnLg k|efljt If]qx?sf] nflu ljleGg tx / k|sf/sf lzIffsf s] s:tf cfjZostfx? 5g tyf ;|ftx? ;DaGwL Ps k"0f{ n]vfhf]vf sfo{ dVo ;/f]sf/afnfx?sf] ;xeflutf ;DkGg ugkb{5 ] { / lgoldt ?kdf cBfjlws ugkb{5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL $ klg x]gxf]nf_ . { { lzIff cGt/ ljifout n]vfhf]vfsf] Ps c+u xf] h;n] k|efljt hgtfsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ ;]jf;ljwfx? lgwf{/0f ug{ /fhgLlts, ;fdflhs, cfly{s / ;/Iffsf] jftfj/0f hg;f+lVos ljt/0f tyf pknAw ;|ft ;DaGwL ;"rgf ;+sng ub{5 . -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ^ klg x]gxf]nf_ . ] { n]vfhf]vfn] ljBfyL{x?sf] ;+/If0fdf b]lvPsf jt{dfg jf ;+efljt rgf}ltx?sf] ljZn]if0f ub{5 . o:tf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ rgf}ltx?, ;+s6f;Ggtf / Ifdtfx?;DaGwL rgf}ltx?sf] Jojl:yt hf]lvd n]vfhf]vf dfWodsf] k|of]u ugkb{5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL & klg x]gxf]nf_ . { { cfktsfnLg cj:yf cfpgeGbf cufl8 / cfktsfnLg ;dodf cWoog tyf lzIffsf :yfgLo Ifdtfx?, ;|ftx? tyf /0fgLltx? klxrfg ul/g]5 . ] n]vfhf]vfaf6 lzIffsf] p2]Zox? / pkoQmtf;DaGwL :yfgLo dgf]efjx? / k|fyldstf k|fKt z}lIfs cfjZostf tyf lqmofsnfkx? klxrfg xg5 . ] n]vfhf]vfsf] kl/0ffdx? tyf lzIffsf tYof+sx? e08f/0f ug]{ k4lt ljsf; u/L cfbfgk|bfgsf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL * klg x]gxf]nf_ . {
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 21dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx?!= n]vfhf]vf ug]{ ;dodf n]vfhf]vf ug]{ 6f]nL / k|efljt ;dbfosf] ;/Iff / ;/lIft cj:yfnfO{ Wofg lbgkb{5 . hxfF kxrsf] ;d:of 5, To:tf] ;dodf j}slNks /0fgLltx? vf]hL u/L låtLo F ;|ftx? h:t} :yfgLo g]tTj / ;dbfosf] ;+hfn k|of]u ugkb{5 . hFxf vnf kxrsf] ;+efjgf ] [ { F 5, ToxfF k|f/lDes :t/d} n]vfhf]vf ug{ lj:t[t tYof+s / ;"rgf ;+sng Joj:yfsf] pkNnf] :t/sf] k|of; xgkb{5 . n]vfhf]vf cgudg tyf d"Nof+sg tYof+s, sfo{qmdsf] pknlAw tyf ;Lldttfsf] cWoog tyf ;"rgf / ck0f{ cfjZostfx?sf cfwf/df lgoldt -sDtLdf q}dfl;s ?kdf_ cBfjlws xgkb{5 . @= tYof+s ;+sng tyf n]vfhf]vf of]hgfa4 ?kdf xgkb{5 / of] sfo{ z}lIfs cfjZostf, Ifdtf, ;|ft / ck"0f{tfx? olsg ug{ ;+rfng ul/g]5 . ;a} k|sl[ tsf lzIff / :yfgx? ;d]6g] u/L ] ;du| n]vfhf]vf sfo{ oyf;+ej l56f]eGbf l56f] ;DkGg ul/g kb{5 t/ o;n] tTsfn} ugkg]{{ sfo{sf nflu cf+lzs n]vfhf]vf ug{ zL3| tof/Ldf 9LnfO{ ugxbg . ljleGg lzIff k|bfosx?sf] { F } :ynut e|d0fnfO{ ;dGjo ugkg]5 / oyf;+ej cfktsfnLg k|ltsfo{df ;+nUg sd{rf/Lx?n] { { k¥ofO/x]sf] ;]jfsf] Wofg e+u gxg] u/L ugkg]5 . { { u0ffTds tyf ;+VofTds n]vfhf]vfsf pks/0fx? cGt/f{li6«o dfkb08x?;Fu, ;a}sf nflu lzIff / clwsf/df clwsf/ dfu{bz{gdf tfbfDotf sfod ug]{ vfnsf] xgkb{5 . o;n] ljZjAofkL k|of;x?nfO{ :yfgLo ;dbfo;Fu hf]8g d2t ub{5 / :yfgLo :t/ b]lv ljZjAofkL 9fFrfx? / ;rsx?sf s8Lx?sf] k|j4{g ub{5 . cGt/lgsfo txdf kl/of]hgfx?sf] ;dGjodf ;xhLs/0f ug{ / ;"rgf ljt/0fstf{sf] dfu 36fpg /fHout ?kdf tYof+s ;+sng kmf/fdx? :t/Los/0f ugkg]5 . oL kmf/fdx?df :yfgLo pQ/bftf jf ;dbfon] dxTjk"0f{ 7fg]sf cltl/Qm ;"rgfx? { { yk ug{sf] nflu;d]t vfnL 7fpF pknAw xgkg]5 . { dfgjLo k|ltsfo{df sg} klg k|sf/sf] tYof+s ;+sng ug{ g}lts dfGotfx? ckl/xfo{ 5g . sg} klg p2]Zosf nflu ;+slnt ul/g] ;rgf jf cgudg, n]vfhf]vf jf ;e]If0fx?n] hgtfnfO{ { hf]lvddf kfg{ ;Qm5 lsgls ;+slnt ;"rgfsf] ;+jbgzLn k|sl[ t dfq xf]Og ls k|lqmofdf ] ;+nUg ePsf] cfwf/df ;d]t hgtf nlIft xg ;SQ5 jf hf]lvddf kg{ ;Qm5g . dof{bfsf cfwf/e"t l;4fGtx?, sg} xfgL gug]{ / e]befj/lxt h:tf dfGotfx? ;Fw} x[bodf /fVg clgjfo{ 5 / ;"rgfbftfx?sf] clwsf/sf] ljifodf ltgLx?nfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpg] / ;+/If0f ug]{ lhDd]jf/L klg ;+snsx?sf] /x]sf] 5 . ;+/If0f Ps k|fyldstfM dfgjLo ;xfotfsf nflu tYof+s ;+sngdf ;+/If0fnfO{ cfTd;ft ug]{ dfu{bz{g kl:tsf;Fu cfj4 cg;rL @ k[i7 (@ df lbOPsf " ljZn]if0fsf ;|ft;fdfu|Lx? x]gxf]nf . ] {
    • 22 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 #= ljZn]if0fsf] ljlwx?M k"jf{ux 36fpgsf nflu axkIfLo ;|ftx?af6 k|fKt ;"rgfx? ljZn]if0f u/L | ] lgrf]8 lgsfNg cl3 lqkIfLo sf]0faf6 x]gkb{5 . lqmkIfLo sf]0f tYof+s ;+sng / ljZn]if0fdf { /x]sf låcyL{ jf vlK6Psf ;"rgfx? dfkgug]{ Ps ldl>t ljlwsf ;fy;fy} u0f:t/Lo ;"rgfsf] ljsf; Pj+ ;lglZrttf xfFl;n ug{sf] nflu ljleGg wf/0ffut kf6fx? ;dflji6 kIf klg xf] . afxo dgf]efj jf k|fyldstfx?df dfq cfwfl/t xg] k|stlsf] dfgjLo k|ltsfo{nfO{ kl/Tofu [ ug{ :yfgLo dgf]efjx? ;d]t ljZn]if0fdf ;dfj]z xG5g . $= ;/f]sf/jfnfx?df k|efljt ;dbfosf ;d"x-x?_ dWo]af6 hlt;Sbf] w]/} JolQmx? ;dfj]z ugkb{5 . tYof+s Pj+ ;"rgf ;+sng, ljZn]if0f, ;"rgf Joj:yfkg tyf ljt/0fdf ;/f]sf/ { afnfx?sf] ;xeflutf k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vfsf] ;dodf kl/l:yltut sf/0faf6 ;Lldt xg;Qm5, t/ kl5Nnf ;dodf n]vfhf]vf, cgudg tyf d"Nof+sgdf clej[l4 ugkb{5 . { %= n]vfhf]vfsf] kl/0ffdx? hlt;Sbf] rfF8f] pknAw u/fpg kb{5 tfls lqmofsnfkx? of]hgfa4 xg ;S5g . ;+s6 k"jsf] tYof+s / ;+s6 kZrftsf] n]vfhf]vfx? h;n] z}lIfs cfjZostfx? { / ;|ftx? -h:t}M clwsf/Lx?, u}=;=;+=x?, dfgjLo ;dbfo leqsf ljlzli6s[t ;+:yfx? / ] :yfgLo ;dbfoaf6_ tof/L xfntdf ;a} lqmofzLn ;fem]bf/x?nfO{ pknAw u/fpg kg]5 . of] { ljz]if u/L cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf :ynut kxr gePsf lqmofzLn ;fe]mbf/x?s]f nflu F pkof]uL xG5 . ^= ;fdfGo cfktsfnLg n]vfhf]vfx? ubf{ cfktsfnLg ;d"xdf z}lIfs tyf afn ;+/If0fsf cfjZostf tyf ;|ftx?;DaGwL tYof+s ;+sng Ps lzIffljb jf afn ;+/If0f lj1 ;dfj]z ] u/fpgkb{5 . ljleGg lgsfox?n] lo lqmofsnfkx? ;+rfng ubf{ ;fwg;|ftx?, sd{rf/L Joj:yf ] / ;f+u7lgs Ifdtfsf] k|ltj4tf hgfpg kb{5 . &= hf]lvd ljZn]if0fM ljleGg kl/l:ytn] afnaflnsf tyf ojfsf] :jf:Yo tyf ;/Iffdf kfg{;Sg] k|efjx?sf] ;a} kIfx?df ljrf/ k/ofpg dxTjk"0f{ xg5, hxfF lzIffn] ;+/If0ffTds /÷jf ] hf]lvdd"ns k|efjx? l;h{gf ug{;Qm5 . n]vfhf]vfdf hf]lvdsf] ;"rL jf hf]lvdsf] vfsf klg ;dfj]z ugkb{5, h;df lgDg ljj/0fx? ;dfj]z ugkb{5M ljleGg pd]/ ;d"x / ;+sf6;Gg { { ;dxsf jftfj/0fLo tyf k|fs[lts k|sf]kx?;Fu hf]l8Psf hf]lvdk"0f{ tTjx?, hldgdf /x]sf ljikmf]6s tyf gkl8Psf ljikmf]6s kbfy{x?, ejg / k"jf{wf/x?sf] ;/Iff, afn ;+/If0f / ;/Iff, zf/Ll/s tyf dfgl;s :jf:Yosf rgf}ltx?, lzIfsx?sf] of]Uotf;DaGwL ;d:ofx?, ljBfyL{ egf{;Vof tyf kf7oqmd, / cGo ;Da4 ;"rgfx? -gdgfsf nflu hf]lvd vfsfsf] + PdP;O{O{ l;l8/f]d (MSEE CD-ROM) x]gxf]nf_ . {
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 23 n]vfhf]vf sfo{n] k|fs[lts jf cGo k|sl[ tsf] k|lts"n k|efjx? /f]syfd, clNks/0f Pj+ cfktsfnLg ;dosf sfo{x? -k"jtof/L, k|ltsfo{, kgMlgdf{0f / kgM:yfkgf_ sf nflu cfjZos kg]{ { hf]lvd Joj:yfkg /0fgLltx? pNn]v ugkb{5 . o;sf nflu s]xL kl/l:yltx?df cfktsfnLg { cj:yfaf6 hf]lug jf k|ltsfo{ ug{ x/]s z}lIfs ;+:yfx?df ljBfno / lzIffno e}k/L tyf ;/Iff of]hgf xg cfjZos 5 . cfjZos k/]df k|To]s z}lIfs s]Gb|n] ;DefAo hf]lvd :ki6 b]lvg] / ;+s6f;GgnfO{ k|efj kfg]{ tTjx? k|sfz kfl/Psf] Ps hf]lvd gS;f tof/ ugkg]5 . { { *= n]vfhf]vfsf] kl/0ffdx? cfbfgk|bfgM o;nfO{ :yfgLo / /fli6«o txdf ;Da4 lgsfox? åf/f ;dGjo xgkg]5 . obL ;dGjo ug{sf nflu bIf kbflwsf/Lx? jf lgsfox? pknAw 5}gg { eg] ;+oQm /fi6«;3Lo dfgjLo dfldnfsf] sfof{no (UNOCHA) nfO{ ;dGjo Pj+ ;"rgfx? + cfbfgk|bfg ug]{ ;+oGqsf] nflu g]tTj k|:tfj ugkg]5 . n]vfhf]vfsf] kl/0ffdx?sf] cfbfgk|bfg [ { { ubf{ tYof+sLo 9fFrfsf] ;6Ls kl/ro / ;a} ;/f]sf/afnfx?n] tYof+ssf] kl/0ffd pkof]u ug{ ;Sg] k|sl[ tsf] xgkb{5 -lzIff gLlt / ;dGjo;DaGwL dfkb08 # k[i7 *^ klg x]gxf]nf_ . { ljZn]if0f dfkb08 @M k|ltsfo{ /0fgLlt z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf nflu ;d:ofsf] :ki6 ljj/0f ;lxtsf] sfo{ut /0fgLltx? pNn]lvt Ps 9fFrf ljsf; ug]{ .dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { cfwf/e"t tYof+sx? sfo{qmdsf] z?cftd} Jojl:yt ?kdf ;+slnt ul/g]5 . cfktsfnLg z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf /0fgLltx?n] ;du| tYof+sx?sf] :ki6 ljj/0f k|ltljlDat ug]5 { -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL !–@ x]gxf]nf_ . { z}lIfs k|ltsfo{n] afnaflnsf, ojf tyf ;du| ;dbfodf kfg]{ k|efjx?sf] cgudg ug{ j}wflgs a]~rdfs{ (Benchmark) tyf ;"rsx? klxrfg ul/g]5 . k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vfsf qmddf ;+slnt ;"rgfx? gofF tYof+sx?åf/f cBfjlws ul/g]5 h;n] rfn" sfo{qmdsf] ljsf;;DaGwdf ;"lrt ub{5 . -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL # x]gxf]nf_ . { z}lIfs k|ltsfo{ /0fgLltx?n] ;+s6f;Gg /x]sf JolQm jf ljz]if z}lIfs cfjZostfx? ePsf, afnaflnsf / ojfx?sf] ;/Iff / ;d[l4nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg]5 . ;dfj]zL / u0f:t/Lo lzIffsf nflu z}lIfs k|ltsfo{ /0fgLltx?n] ;+s6 k|efljt hgtfsf cfjZostfx? pGgt tj/n] k"lt{ ug]5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL $–^ x]gxf]nf_ . { {
    • 24 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != k|ltsfo{sf k|:tfjx?n] o;df pNn]lvt Go"gtd dfkb08x? k/f ug{ cTofjZos lqmofsnfksf nflu /sd cgdfg / k|of{Kt cfly{s ;|ftsf] Joj:yf ;lglZrt ugkg]5 . k|:tfjx?df s:tf] ] { { z}lIfs lqmofsnfk sg :yfgdf ;+rfng xg nfu]sf] xf], klxrfg ePsf cfjZostfx?sf nflu ljleGg tx / k|sf/sf lzIffx?n] slt xb;Dd ;d]6g] xf] ;f]sf] cfFsng / afFsL cfjZostfx? k"/f ug{sf nflu cGo ;+u7gx? k|lta4 /x]sf] s/f ;d]t O{lu+t ugkg]5 olb lzIffsf] jf:tljs { { dfu klxn] b]lvPsf] eGbf w]/} dfqfdf ePdf ;f] k"/f ug{sf] nflu nrstfsf] oyf;+ej hlt;Sbf] w]/} xgkb{5 . ljleGg tx / k|sl[ tsf cfktsfnLg z}lIfs vr{x? lgwf{/0f ubf{ ;+:yfx?sf aLr } bLuf]kgf / Ps?ktf clej[l4 xg] k|of;x? ul/g]5 . -h:t} tnj ;ljwf, ;fwgx?df, cflb_ @= tYof+s ;+nsg tyf ljZn]if0fsf nflu Ifdtf ljsf;M cfwf/e"t tYof+s ;+sng, ljZn]if0f / cgudg Pj+ d"Nof+sg sfo{ ;DkGg ug{ k|:tfjx?df vf;df /fli6«o sd{rf/Lsf] Ifdtf ljsf; kIf ;dfj]z xgkb{5 . of] ljifonfO{ k|:tfj k|lqmofdf w]/h;f] k"0f{?kn] Wofg lbO+bg . } } {} #= /0fgLltx? cBfjlws ug]M{ cfktsfnLg / l56f] kgMlgdf{0fsf] ;dodf k|ltsfo{sf k|:tfjx? sDtLdf q}dfl;s ?kdf kg/fjnf]sg / cBfjlws ul/g]5 . To;df xfn;Dd k|fKt ePsf pknlAwx?, cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf cfPsf] kl/jt{gx? / k/f gePsf cfjZostfx?sf] tfhf cfFsngx? k|:tt ugkg]5 . cfjZostfg;f/ o;sf] nIf eg] u0f:t/ / cf]u6g] If]qsf] { { pGgtzLn ;wf/sf ;fy;fy} bL3{sfnLg bLuf]kgf;Fu ;DalGwt xgkb{5 . $= bftfx?sf] k|ltsfo{M bftfx?n] lgoldt ?kdf cfktsfnLg k|ltsfo{n] cf]u6]sf] If]q / u0f:t/ bjsf] lgoldt ;dLIff ugkg]5 h;df ;s+6f;Gg ;dbfosf ljBfyL{ jf k|lzIffyL{x?sf] } { { egf{ tyf lgoldttf ;d]t kb{5g . ltlgx?n] ljleGg cfktsfn k|efljt If]qx?df z}lIfs cj;/x?sf] kxrsf] k|Tofelt ;lglZrt ugkg]5 . z/0ffyL{ jf cfGtl/s ?kdf lj:yflkt F { { hg;+Vofn] Go"gtd dfkb08 adf]lhd lzIff kfpg ;sg egL sf]if -/sd_ x? k|bfg ugkg]5 { { -kxr tyf cWoogs] jftfj/0f;DaGwL dfkb08 !, dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL * klg x]gxf]nf_ . F { %= /fli6«o sfo{qmdx?sf] ;b9Ls/0fM ljz]if u/L lj:yflkt gePsf hgtfsf nflu kgMlgdf{0f [ r/0fdf cfktsfnLg z}lIfs k|ltsfo{ ubf{ Ps?ktf xg] u/L / /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo lzIffsf of]hgf, k|zf;g, Joj:yfkg tyf lzIfssf] ;]jfsfnLg tflnd tyf ;xof]usf If]qsf /fli6«o z}lIfs sfo{qmdx? ;b9 xgu/L of]hgf agfpg kg]5 . [ ] { ^= ;+:yfut sfof{bzsf ;Lldttfx?af6 dlQmM ;Lldt sfof{bz ePsf -h:t} afnaflnsfsf ] ] nflu dfq sfof{bz ePsf, jf z/0ffyL{ / ltgLx?sf] ;kmn kmLlt{sf nflu dfq_ ;xfotfd"ns ]
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 25 ;+:yffx?n] ;/sf/L jf a[xt sfof{bz ePsf ;+:yfx?;Fu cleGg c+usf] ?kdf ;+oQm ?kn] ] z}lIfs k|ltsfo{ ugkg]5 h;af6 ;a} z}lIfs cfjZostfx? k"/f xg ;sg . k|To]s k|efljt { { If]qsf z}lIfs /0fgLltx?n] aRrfx?sf] z}zjsfnLg ljsf;sf cfjZostfx?sf ;fy;fy} ojfx?sf] dfWolds, pRr Pj+ k|fljlws lzIffsf] cfjZostf, lzIfsx?sf] ;]jfsfnLg tflnd / pkoQm j}slNks lzIffsf] klg Joj:yf ugkg]5 . z}lIfs ljsf;sf /0fgLltx?n] hg If]qsf { { z/0ffyL{x?n] ;]jf k|fKt ul//x]sf 5g, ltgLx?n] nfdf] ;dofjlwsf] ;xfotf sfo{qmdx? ljsf; ugkg]5, h;df dfgjLo ;+:yfx?n] ug]{ ;xof]u tf]lsPsf] ;do ;lxtsf] xg;Qm5 -h:t}M { { z/0ffyL{x?sf] k|f/lDes kgMPsLs/0f / :jb]z kmLlt{df ;xof]u_ . ljZn]if0f dfkb08 #M cgudg ;Da4 ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?n] z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf lqmofsnfkx? tyf k|efljt ;dbfosf ljsl;t xb} F cfPsf cfjZostfx? lgoldt ?kdf cgudg ug]{ .dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { cfktsfnLg cj:yfx?sf] lg/Gt/ cgudg ug]{ k4lt / k|lqmofut x:tIf]kx? :yflkt 5g / sfof{Gjog e}/x]sf] xg5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL !–@ x]gxf]nf_ . ] { ;a} k|efljt ;dbfox?sf] dlxnf, k?if, afnaflnsf tyf ojf;Fu lgoldt k/fdz{ lnOPsf] / cgudg lqmofsnfkx?df ;xefuL u/fOPsf] xg5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL @ x]gxf]nf_ . ] { lzIffsf tYof+sx? Jojl:yt / lgoldt ?kdf ;+sng, cfwf/e"t txsf] ;"rgfaf6 z? ul/Psf] / tTkZrft xg] kl/jt{g tyf k|jl[ Qx? cgudg eO/x]sf] xg5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL #–$ x]gxf]nf_ . ] { tYof+sx? e/kbf]{ / ljZn]if0fx? k|dfl0ftof]Uo Pj+ ljZj;gLo 5g egL ;lglZrt ug{ sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ tYof+s ;+sngsf] ljlwx? af/]df k|lzlIft ug]{ -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL % x]gxf]nf_ . { k"jl{ gwf{l/t lgoldt cGt/fndf lzIffsf ;"rgfx? ljZn]if0f ePsf] / ;fem]bf/x?aLr cfbfgk|bfg ePsf] xg5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL # x]gxf]nf_ . ] { gofF k|jl[ Qx? k|ltlalDat ug{ / ;";l" rt lg0f{o lgdf{0f k|lqmofnfO{ cgldt lbg k[i7kf]if0fsf cfwf/df cgudgsf k4lt tyf tYofs e08f/0fx? lgoldt ?kdf cBfjlws ug]{ . kl/jt{gx?, gofF k|jl[ Qx?, cfjZostfx? tyf ;|ftx? klxrfg ug]{ ;"rgfx? lzIff sfo{qmdsf ] Joj:yfksx?nfO{ lgoldt ?kdf pknAw u/fpg] . cfjZos ePdf cgudgsf glthf adf]lhd sfo{qmdx?df ;dfof]hg ug]{ .
    • 26 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != cgudg M hgtfsf kl/jlt{t z}lIfs cfjZostfx?sf ;fy;fy} hjfkmb]xLd"ns / ;d:of;Fu ;DalGwt hf/L sfo{qmdx?n] sg sg xb;Dd tL cfjZostfx? k/f ul//x]sf 5g / ;wf/sf ;+efjgfx?sf] hfgsf/L lng] ljifodf cgudgn] JoQm ugkg]5 . ;a} tYof+sx? Ps} { { /kmtf/df ;+sng ug{ cfjZos xg] 5}g . t;y{ tYof+s ;+sng of]hgfdf cfjZostfdf cfwfl/t eO{ slt k6s;Dd sg k|sl[ tsf tYof+sx? ;+sng ug]{ egL lg0f{ox? ;dfj]z xG5, / tYof+s ;+sng / k|zf]wgsf nflu vkt xg] ;|ft;fwgsf] dfqf ;d]t pNn]v xG5 . dfu ] tyf ;d:ofx? ;rsx? -h:t}M egf{ ;+Vof, ljBfno 5f]8g]sf] ;+Vof, ljBfno cfpg cl3 vfgf vfP gvfPsf], lstfjx?sf] ;+Vof, lzIf0f ;fdfu|L tyf kf7o;fdfu|Ls]f pknAwtf cflb_ sf dfWodaf6 tTsfn hfgsf/L lbO{ w]/} k|sl[ tsf ;"rgfx? gdgfsf] ?kdf ljBfnox? / lzIffsf cGo sfo{qmdx?af6 ;+sng ug{ ;lsG5 . ljBfno 5f]8g] afnaflnsfsf] ;+Vof / kgM egf{ xg grfxgsf] sf/0f jf ?h xflh/ gxgsf] sf/0fx? klg ;fgf] gdgfsf] ?kdf 5flgPsf] :yfgsf] 3/kl/jf/;Fuaf6 lngsf ;fy;fy} ;dbfosf ;d"x;Fu a}7s u/L cgudg ug{ ;lsG5 . @= cgudgdf hgtfsf] ;+nUgtf M k|efljt hgtfsf ;a} ;d"xx?af6 ;fF:s[lts ?kn] :jLsfo{ tj/df ;"rgf ;+sng ug{ ;Sg] AolQmnfO{ ;dfj]z u/fpg kb{5, ljz]if u/L n}lu+s / eflifs bIftf /fVg]nfO{ . :yfgLo ;fF:s[lts cEof; cg?k dlxnf jf cNk;+Vos ;dbfosf] ;d"x;Fu 566} k/fdz{ ugkg]{ klg xg ;S5 h;sf nflu ;dfhaf6 :jLsfo{ JolQm 5fGgkb{5 . { #= lzIff Joj:yfkg ;"rgf k|0ffnL M cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf klg cj?4 ePsf] xg;Qm5 . cfwf/e"t tYof+s ;+sng / ;fdGo k|zf]wg Joj:yfnfO{ k|fyldstfsf ;fy kgM;+rfng Joj:yf ;/sf/L lgsfox?nfO{ cGt/ lgsfo ;dGjo / ;xof]u dfkm{t ldnfpg kb{5 . pknAw ;"rgfx?sf] ;+sng, Joj:yfkg, JofVof, sfof{Gjog, ljsf; jf cfbfgk|bfg ug{sf nflu :yflkt /fli6«o lzIff Joj:yfkg ;"rgf k|0ffnLsf] kgM:yfkgf jf ljsf; ug{ Ifdtf ljsf; / /fli6«o, If]qLo / :yfgLo txdf ;|ftx? cfjZos xg;Qm5 . cfktsfndf of] sfo{ rfF8f]eGbf ] rfF8f] z?cft ul/xfNg kb{5, h;sf] nIo l56f] kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf cgudg k4lt sfdofj /xg xg5 . z}lIfs ;"rgf k|0ffnLsf] Ps h6Lntd kIf eg]sf] o;;Fu ldNbf] ;km6j]o/sf] ] pknAwtf xf] . /fli6«o / lhNnftxsf lzIffsf sfof{no jf lzIffsf cGo ;x–If]qx? -h:t} /fli6«o tflnd ;+:yfx?_ df k/s ;km6j]o/ (Software) pknAw xg ;Qm5 h;n] ldNbf]hNbf] tYof+s k|0ffnLsf] h8fg u/L ;"rgfsf] cfbfgk|bfg ug{ ;xh tNofpg ;Qm5 . $= ljBfyL{x?sf] cgudg ;+efjgf cg;f/ k9fO{ 5f]8L;s]kl5 jf k9fO{ ;lsPkl5 ugkg]5 . cgudgn] ;fIf/tf / ;f+VosLo bIftf Pj+ ;fIf/tf kZrft kf7o;fdfu|Lsf] kxrnfO{ { { F
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 27 ;dfj]z ugkb{5 . k|fljlws lzIffsf nflu ul/g] cgudgdf /f]huf/Lsf] cj;/x?sf] pknAwtf { / k"j{ tflnd lnPsfx?n] u/]sf] k|fljlws zLksf] pkof]ux? ;DaGwL cfFs8f cWoog jf sg} sd{rf/Låf/f vf]hL ug]{ ljlwsf] k|of]u ugkg]5 . sfo{qmd ;dflKt kZrftsf] cgudgn] gofF { { sfo{qmd tof/ ug{ dxTjk"0f{ k[i7kf]if0f k|bfg ub{5 . -cWoog tyf cWofkgsf dfkb08x? $ k[i7 ^* klg x]gxf]nf_ . { %= tYof+ssf] j}wflgstfM ;a} ljZn]if0fx?n] b]xfosf] JofVof lnlkj4 u/]sf] xgkb{5M !_ ;"rssf] kl/efiff @_ tYof+ssf] ;|ft #_ ;+sng ljlw $_ ;"rgf ;+sns / %_ tYof+s ljZn]if0f ] sfo{ljlw . tYof+ssf] k|zf;g, ;+sng jf ljZn]if0f sfo{df sg} clgoldttf ;[hgf ePsf] eP Tof] klg pNn]v xgkb{5 . ;"rgfbftfx?n] ;|ft clej[l4 -h:t} egf{;Vof jf pkl:yltsf] cfFs8fdf ] a9f]Q/L_ lgldQ jf sg} cf/f]kaf6 aRg tYof+sx? a+ufPsf] xg ;S5 . tYof+ssf] j}wflgstfnfO{ a9fpg sd{rf/Lsf] tflnddf c3f]lift cgudg e|d0f xg] gLlt klg hfgsf/L u/fpg kg]5 . { ljZn]if0f;DaGwL dfkb08 $M d"Nof+sg pQ/bfloTj clej[l4 / cEof;x? kl/dfh{g ug{sf nflu z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf] Jojl:yt / lgikIf d"Nof+sg ug]{ .dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { ;du| k|ltsfo{sf /0fgLltx?, ljlzi6 z}lIfs Pj+ afn ;+/If0fsf p2]Zox? tyf Go"gtdg dfkb08x?sf] cfwf/df sfof{Gjogdf /x]sf gLlt, sfo{qmd / kl/0ffdx?sf] d"Nof+sg pkoQm cGt/fndf ;DkGg ug]{ -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ! x]gxf]nf_ . { nfu" ul/Psf sfo{qmdaf6 k/]sf] cgk]lIft k|efjsf ljifodf ;"rgf vf]Hg] . ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx? Pj+ k|efljtf hgtf tyf ;a} If]qut ;xsdL{x?af6 ;"rgf ;+sng kf/bzL{ / lgikIf tl/sfaf6 ul/g]5 . d"Nof+sg lqmofsnfkdf ;a} ;fem]bf/x?M ;LdflGts[t ;d"xx?, ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx?, lzIffsf /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo kbflwsf/Lx?, lzIfs tyf ljBfyL{x?nfO{ ;dflxt ul/g]5 . c;n cEof;x? tyf l;lsPsf kf7x? /fli6«o, :yfgLo tyf dfgjLo ;dbfosf aLr Aofks ?kdf cfbfg k|bfg ul/g]5 / cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf] kl5Nnf] r/0fdf /fli6«o tyf ljZjAofkL lzIffsf nIox?df of]Ubfg k¥ofpg jsfnt, sfo{qmd tyf gLltx?df pkof]u ul/g]5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL # x]gxf]nf_ . {
    • 28 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != d"Nof+sgx?n] u0ffTds tyf ;+VofTds bj} k|sl[ tsf tYof+sx? ;+sng u/L PsLs[t :j?k k|bfg ugkg]5 . . ;+VofTds tYof+sn] ;Gbe{ cg;f/sf] ;"rgf lbg / ;+slnt tYof+sLo { { ;"rgfsf] JofVof ug{ d2t ub{5 . u0ffTds tYof+sx? cGtjftf{, cjnf]sg e|d0f / lnvtx?sf dfWodaf6 ;+sng ug{ ;lsG5; u0ffTds tYof+s ;e]If0f tyf k|ZgfjnLsf dfWodaf6 { ;+sng ug{ ;lsG5, d"Nof+sgn] dfgjLo, ef}lts tyf cfly{s nufgL, ljBfyL{sf] kxr, F lg/Gt/tf, ;dfj]zL tyf ;+/If0f, cWoog / cWofkg k|lqmofx?, cWoogsf] dfGotf / k|dfl0fs/0f, efjL lzIff / /f]huf/Lsf cj;/x? / ;dbfodf kg]{ k|efjx?;DaGwL k"0f{ n]vfhf]vf k|:tt ugkg]5 . { { @= d"NofÍgåf/f Ifdtf ljsf; M d"NofÍg cjwf/0ffx? nfu" u/fpg, d"NofÍg 9fFrf / k|lqmofx?sf] ;xeflutfTds cfwf/df ljsf; ug{ / gtLhfsf] ;+oQm ?kdf ;dLIff Pj+ JofVof ug{ d"NofÍg ah]6n] ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;Fu sfo{zfnf -uf]i7L_ ug]{ Joj:yf ;d]t ;dfj]z ugkg]5 . o;n] ltlgx?nfO{ eljiodf æ:jfldTjÆ sfnflu ;}4flGts cfwf/ ljsf; ug{ { { Pj+ ;emfjx?sf] sfof{Gjogdf ;xof]u ug{;Qm5 . cfof]hgfaf6 nfeflGjt xgx?n] h:t} ] lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x?n] cfkm"n] ef]usf Jojxfl/s sl7gfOx? / lglZrt ;emfjx?sf] ] kl/0ffd:j?k ;fdgf ugkg]{ sl7gfOx? ;d]t pNn]v ug{ ;Qm5g . { #= glthfx? Pj+ l;lsPsf kf7x?sf] cfbfgk|bfg M ;fj{hlgs If]qdf ljt/0f ug{ ;lsg] k|sl[ tsf ;"rgfx? k|ltj]bgsf] k|yd v08df ;dfj]z ug{ d"NofÍgstf{x?nfO{ cg/f]w ugkg]5 / uf]Ko jf { { cfGtl/s k|sl[ tsf glthfx? Aofks ?kdf ljt/0f gxg] u/L bf];f| ] v08df k|:tt ugkg]5 . { {
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 29;a} cfwf/x?sf nflu Go"gtd ;femf dfkb08x? Mkl/lzi6x?kl/lzi6–! ;+/If0f -zfl//Ls, sfg"gL / ef}lts_/dfgj clwsf//sfg"sf] zf;g ;dbfosf] hg;+Vof, lj:yflkt, a]kQf / pd]/ / ln+usf] ljt/0f cflb_ hg;f+lVos -hDdf hg;+Vof, vf; ;+s6f;Gg ;d"x, cf>o lbg] d[Tob/-h:t}M ln+u / pd]/sf] ljljwtf;lxtsf] n}+lus_ ;xeflutf ?U0ftf (Morbidity) kf]if0f l:ylt k|fylds :jf:Yo, cf>o Ifdtf tyf ;+s6f;Ggtfx?sf] ljZn]if0fdf ef8fFdf kf]if0f tyf vfOg] :ynsf] :j:y ;/;kmfO{sf] kfgL cf];fg]{ dgf];fdflhs ;]jfdf vfgf pknAwtf Jojxf/x? tx 7fpF;Dd kxFr kxFr kof{Kttf vfB ;/Iff :jf:Yo, kf]if0f tyf dgf];fdflhs ;]jfdf kxFrsf] sfo{;Dkfbg 3/kl/jf/x?sf] cfly{s lzIff ;fdflhs tyf c;dfgtfx? l:ylt tyf ahf/sf] ;fF:s[lts cj:yf ;Gbe{ /fli6«o ;Gbe{ /fli6«o ahf/x? /fhgLlts, cfly{s, ;fdflhs, P]ltxfl;s, o;sf] ;+rfng -/ To;af6 afxo ;/sf/sf] Ifdtf, k"jf{wf/, k|0ffnLx?, ;xfotfsf nflu dfu 36fpg]_ jf e"uf]n, df};d, k|fs[lts k|sf]kx?, cGt/f{li6«o csfof{Tds ;+:yfx?, cflb .sg} lglZrt hg;+Vofsf] ;femf cfjZostfx? aemg] p2]Zosf] nflu 5nkmn / ljZn]if0fsf]cfwf/sf] ?kdf lng n]vfhf]vfsf] 9fFrf k|of]u ul/G5 . o; ljZn]if0fn] k|df0f / lg0f{onfO{ hf]8b5 . of] n]vfhf]vfsf] 9fFrfn] ljleGg ljljwtfx?nfO{ ;d]6b5 hg cfFkm}df cfjZostfsf] ?kdf geO{ rf;f];Da4egfO{sf d4fx? xg . ljleGg cfwf/x?aLrsf] sf/0f–sfo{;DaGwdf ;Nnfx lbFbf o; 9fFrfn] :ki6;Fuo;df ;Nnfx lbFbg / n]vfhf]vf ;d"xsf nflu ;xof]u ug{ yk cf}hf/x? j[l4 ug{ cfjZos 5 . To:tf] }cf}hf/x? ljsf; gxGh]n;Dd ;d"xn] sf/0f–sfo{;DaGw AofVof s;/L ug]{ egL cfFkm} 5fGg ;Qm5 . o;9fFrfn] ;+s6df k|fyldsLs/0f u/L dfgjLo k|ltsfo{ of]hgf agfpg] nIfsf] nflu ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfg ug{Ps ;dfg / kf/bzL{ rf}tf/L k|bfg ub{5 . hals 9fFrfsf] k|To]s txdf rf;f]x?sf >[vnfx? k|ltljlDat +
    • 30 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08ePsf 5g, h;sf] cy{ qmdzM k|fyldstfk|fKt k|ltsfo{ eGg] xbg . 9fFrfn] ljleGg cj:yfx? cGt/cfl>t F}/x]sf] s/f k|sfz kfb{5 / To;nfO{ ToxL ?kdf dfq aemg kb{5 . 9fFrfleqsf k|To]s cfwf/x? 5§f5§}d"NofÍg ugkg]5 -h:t}M lzIff_ / PsLs[t n]vfhf]vfsf] Ps efusf] ?kdf -h:t}M lzIffdf kl/l:yltn] { {kf/]sf] k|efjn] 9fFrfsf cGo cfwf/x?df kf/]sf] k|efj_ . ;+/If0f÷dfgj clwsf/÷sfg"gsf] zf;gx?dne"t d2fx? xg hg 5§} / d"nk|jfxLs/0fsf b[li6n] ;Daf]wg xg cfjZos 5 . n]vfhf]vfsf] z?cftljGb" ef}uf]lns jf hg;f+lVos ;d"x xgk5{ . ;|ft M n]vfhf]vfsf] 9fFrf cGt/lgsfo :yfoL ;ldltn]sf] Sofk ;x–sfo{;d"xn] ljsf; u/]sf] xf] / ;g ]@))$ hgj/L @% df bftfx?, ;+oQm /fi6«;3Lo lgsfox?, /]8qm; / u}=;=;+=x?sf] sfo{zfnfn] kl/dfh{g +u/]sf] xf] .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 31kl/lzi6–@ cfktsfnLg cj:Yffsf nflu of]hgf thdfM 36gf {ljZn]if0fsf nflu ;"rLxfdLn] sfo{qmdsf] of]hgf agfpFbf / sfof{Gjog ug{ ljleGg sf/0fx?, d2fx? / hgtf Pj+ ;+:yfx?sf]ljifodf hfgsf/Lx? xfl;n u/]sf] xgkb{5 . h;sf ljj/0fx? b]xfo adf]lhd 5gM != cfwf/e"t n]vfhf]vf M cfwf/e"t cWoogsf nflu sg tYof+sx? cfjZos 5g < tkfO{nfO{ of]hgf sfof{Gjog ug{ sg tYof+sx? cfjZos 5g / s] pknAw 5g, h:t}M ljBfnox? /x]sf] 7fpF -;+Vof, :yfg_, ck]lIft ljBfyL{sf] ;+Vof, lzIfsx?sf] ;+Vof cflb < sfo{qmd z? ugeGbf cl3 g} tkfO{n] cfwf/e"t tYof+sx? ;+sng ug]{ cj;/ pknAw 5 < {@= 36gfsf] k|sl[ t M 36gfsf] k|sl[ t s:tf] 5 -lj:tf/} cfPsf] jf cs:dft_ < cfktsfnLg cj:yfaf6 k|efljt ePsf ;d"xx? -;fF:s[lts, pd]/, n}lu+s cflb_ jf sg} vf; ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xx? 5g <#= 36gfsf] l:y/tf M s] 36gf l:y/ 5 -5f]6f] cjlw÷dWod cjlw_ jf cem} al9/x]sf] 5 < s] cgdfg ug{ ;lsg] cGo ;+s6x? cufl8 b]lvG5g -gofF cfktsfnLg jf xfnsf] 36gfdf dxTjk"0f{ kl/jt{g_ < sg} tTjx? klxrfg ug{ ;lsG5 h;n] cs:dft jf ;f/e"t kl/jt{gsf] :j?kdf kl/0ft xg ;Qm5g <$= jt{dfg lzIff k|0ffnL M lzIff k|0ffnL Joj:yf;DaGwL M jtdf{g lzIff k|0ffnL ;+rflnt 5 < nlIft hg;+Vofdf PseGbf a9L ;+rflnt k|0ffnL 5 < jt{dfg cfktsfnLg cj:yfn] pknAw lzIff Joj:yf -x?_ nfO{ s;/L k|efljt kf/of] < s] ejgx? tyf k"jf{wf/x? Ifltu|:t ePsf] jf sdL ePsf] cj:yf -efG;f3/, ;/;kmfO{sf ;ljwfx?, e08f/ clfb_ 5 < jt{dfg cWoogsf] jftfj/0f s:tf] /x]sf] 5 -:yfg, ;fdfu|Lx?, sIff sf]7fx?, sd{rf/L cflb_ <
    • 32 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 ljleGg If]qLo÷hftLo÷cGo k[i7e"ldsf afnaflnsf jf s]6f jf s]6Lsf] cj:yf ;dfg 5 < s] afnaflnsfx? egf{ ePsf 5g / lg/Gt/ ljBfno cfO{/x]sf 5g < obL 5}g eg] lsg < s] afnaflnsfx? ljBfno cfpFbf ef]s} xG5g -h:t}M vfhf gxg, ljBfno;Dd kUg nfdf] b/L, cfd ?kdf skf]if0f_< s] afnaflnsfx? sg} vf; ;Id skf]if0fsf] sdLaf6 u|l;t 5g < 5g eg] Tof] sg xf] < kf7oqmd / lzIf0f;DaGwL M s] ;a}sf nflu ;dfg k|sl[ tsf kf7oqmd 5g < k9fpg] efiff -jf efiffx?_ Pp6} 5g < lzIfsx?, lzIf0f ;fdfu|Lx? /÷jf cWoogsf nflu cfjZos ;fdfu|Lx? pknAw 5g < lzIfssf nflu tflnd / kgM tflnd cfjZos 5 < cgf}krfl/s jf ;Lkd"ns tflnd sfo{qmdx? -k/fgf -afn_ n8fsx?, ljBfnoaf6 efu]sf afnaflnsf /÷jf cGo vf; lk5l8Psf ;d"xx?sf nflu_ cfjZos 5g <%= dVo ;/f]sf/jfnfx? M dVo ;/f]sf/jfnfx? klxrfg ug]{ s;n] s] sfd ul//x]sf] 5 < s] sfdsf] nflu sf] lhDd]jf/ 5 < s;n] s] of]hgf agfO{/x]sf] 5 < s] s:tf] ;fwg;|ftsf nflu sf] lhDd]jf/ 5 < ] sg lg0f{ox?sf nflu sf] lhDd]jf/ 5 < cGo cGt/f{li6«o ;+u7gx? u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx? -/fli6«o tyf :yfgLo_ ;/sf/L lgsfox? M /fli6«o tyf :YffgLo ;/sf/sf] jt{dfg cj:yf s:tf] -j}wflgs, cGtl/d_ /x]sf] 5 < lzIffsf] k|zf;g s;n] ub{5 < ljBfnox? -lzIfsx?, k|wfgfWofksx?, cleefjs lzIfs ;+u7gx?_ ;dbfo -g]tfx?, kfsfx?, wfld{s, dlxnf ;+u7gx?, :Jff:YosdL{x?, jf cGo ;fdbflos ;d"xx?_ kl/jf/ M ;dbfosf] k"jsfnb]lvsf] k|dv ;+/rgf s:tf] /x]sf] 5 < { s] cfktsfnLg cj:yfn] kfl/jfl/s ;+/rgfnfO{ k|efj kf/]sf] 5 < afnsflnsfsf] lzIffdf ;xeflutf -ljz]if u/L aflnsfsf] xsdf_ s;n] lg0f{o ub{5 <
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 33^= pknAw ;|ftx? ] lzIffsf] nflu -dfly pNn]lvt jt{dfg lzIff k|0ffnL klg x]gxf]nf_ { cWoogsf nflu ;/lIft :yfgx? pknAw 5g < ljBfnodf /x]sf ;ljwfx? k"0f{ ?kdf ;+rfngsf nflu pknAw 5g < b}lgs ?kdf ljBfno ;+rfng ug{sf nflu kof{Kt dfqfdf lzIfsx? tyf cGo sd{rf/Lx? 5g < vfB ;xfotsf nflu M vfB ljt/0f z? ug{ slQsf] h?/L 5 < vfgf tof/ kfg{ slt hgf JolQm pknAw 5g < vfgf tof/ ug{sf nflu s]s:tf] ;ljwfx? /x]sf 5g -ljBfnodf efG;fx?, e08f/0f u[x, ksfpg] / vfg] efF8fx?, 8f8kGo", O{Gwg, kfgL cflb_ < oL ;ljwfx? sfod ug{ ;+ej 5 < oftfoftf÷cfk"lt÷e08f/0fsf] k"jf{wf/ /x]sf] 5 < sg vfgfsf ;fdfu|Lx? pknAw u/fpg ;lsg] cj:yfdf 5 < sxfF / slt l56f] tL vfgfx? k|fKt ug{ ;lsg] / vfgf ljt/0f ug]{ s]Gb|;Dd k¥ofpg ;lsG5 < sg} ljBfno :jf:Yo sfo{qmdx? ;rfng xg nfu]sf] jf klxn] g} pknAw 5g ls < sg} bftfn] tTsfn sg} k|ltj4tf hfx]/ u/]sf] 5 ls < sfof{Gjogsf nflu sg} ;+efAo ;fe]mbf/ pknAw 5 ls <&= jt{dfg / ;+efljt afwfx? ;/Iff cWoogsf nflu ;/lIft :yfgx? pknAw 5g < lzIf0f :yfgx? afnaflnsf, lzIfsx? tyf ;xfotfsdL{x?sf nflu ;/lIft kxr pknAw 5 < F vfgf tof/ ug{ jf ljt/0f ug{sf nflu ;/lIft :yfgx? pknAw 5g < vfBfGg cf];f/k;f/ ug{ / ljt/0f ug{ ;/lIft 5 < vfB e08f/0f ;/lIft tj/n] /x]sf] 5 < n}l+ us÷hftLo afwfx? sg} klg n}lu+s ;d"xsf vf; afwfx?÷d2fx? /x]sf 5g ls < ljleGg ;d"xx? -hftLo, If]qLo_ sf vf; jfwfx?÷d2fx? /x]sf 5g ls < j}wflgstf sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng ug{sf nflu ;/sf/L ;fem]bf/ :ki6 ?kdf pknAw 5 <
    • 34 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? tof/ kfg{ / ;xof]u ug{ /fhg}lts÷:yfgLo g]tTjaf6 clwsf/ k|fKt 5 < [ obL 5}g eg] lsg < lo ;xof]u ljgf cufl8 a9g hf]lvd 5 ls 5}g < lo ;xof]u ljgf cufl8 a9bf Gofok"0f{ xG5 < ;fem]fbfl/tf ljsf; ug{ ;lsG5 < sfo{qmdx? ;xof]u cfsif{0f ug{ /÷jf ljsf; ug{sf nflu tof/ ug{ ;lsG5 <;|ft u|x0f M ljZj vfB sfo{qmd, cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf ljBfno vfgfsf] of]hgf–cj:Yff ljZn]if0f, ]of]hgf lgdf{0f, sfof{Gjog, ;g @))$, http://www.wfp.org
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 35kl/lzi6 #M ;"rgf ;+sng / cfjZostfx? n]vfhf]vf k|ZgfjnL:yfg -x?_M================================================================================================================================cfktsfnsf] k|s[ltM=====================================================================================================================dVo ;d:of -x?_M======================================================================================================================= s]xL ljBfnox? cem} ;+rfngdf 5g < 5g/5}gg < :yfg -x?_ k|efljt afnaflnsfx?sf] pkl:ylt s]6L s]6f!= ;d:of //jf lj:tf/Ls/0fsf] dVo sf/0f -x?_ M ljBfno ejgx? Ifltu|:t ePsf % olb kfl/>lds glbPdf lzIfsn] gk9fpg] ljBfno kl/;/df kfgL c;/lIft jf pknAw ofqf vt/foQm xFb} uPsf] % % gePsf] afnaflnsfx? gc6]sf÷ljBfnoaflx/ /x]sf % lzIfsx? ;]gfdf egf{ ePsf % OSokd]06÷;fwgx? cgknAw % s]xL ljBfyL{x? ulDe/ dgf]qf;df /x]sf % z}lIfs ;fdfu|Lx? vl/b ug{ kl/jf/x? c;dy{ % s]xL ljBfyL{x? czQm ePsf % lzIfsx?n] 5f]8]sf jf 8/fPsf % afnaflnsfx? ;]gfdf egf{ ePsf % lzIfssf] ;§fdf /fVg lzlIft JolQmx?sf] cefj %@= afnaflnsfsf] hg;+Vof klxrfg hDdf s]6L s]6fafnaflnsfsf] ;+Vof =================== ================== ===============)–% jif{ pd]/sf ===================% ==================% ===============%^–!# jif{ pd]/sf ===================% ==================% ===============%!$–!* jif{ pd]/sf ===================% ==================% ===============%afl;Gbfx? ===================% ==================% ===============%aflx/af6 cfPsfx? ===================% ==================% ===============%
    • 36 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08#= cfktsfneGbf cl3sf] cj:yf;Fu tngf hDdf s]6L s]6fafnaflnsfsf] ;+Vof sd pxL w]/} sd pxL w]/} sd pxL w]/})–% jif{ pd]/sf sd pxL w]/} sd pxL w]/} sd pxL w]/}^–!# jif{ pd]/sf sd pxL w]/} sd pxL w]/} sd pxL w]/}!$–!* jif{ pd]/sf sd pxL w]/} sd pxL w]/} sd pxL w]/}afl;Gbfx? sd pxL w]/} sd pxL w]/} sd pxL w]/}aflx/af6 cfPsfx? sd pxL w]/} sd pxL w]/} sd pxL w]/}n}lu+s cj:yfdf b]lvPsf] dVo km/sx? JofVof ug]{McGo sg} ;Daf]wg ug{kg]{ k|s[ltsf b]lvPsf d2fx? h:t} hftLo ;d"xx?sf] pkl:yt 5g ls < JofVofug{xf];$= afnaflnsfx?sf] lzIffsf] :t/ s:tf] /x]sf] 5 < afnr/0fsf] k"j{ lzIff k|fylds lzIff dfWolds txsf lzIff -k"j{ jo:s cj:yfdf_k"/f ul/;s]sf] ljleGgpd]/ ;d"xsf] k|ltzt ______________ __________ _____________%= afnaflnsfsf] af]Ng] efiff -x?_ sg xg < dft[ efiff af]Ng ;Sg] n]Vg ;Sg]:yfgLo efiffx? -gfd n]Vg]_ _________________ _________________ _________________cGo -gfd n]Vg]_ _________________ _________________ _________________^s= tkfO{;Fu ;dbflos ejgx? -h:t}M ljBfnox?, :jf:Yo s]Gb|, dlGb/, rr{x?_ b]lvg] If]qut gS;f pknAw 5 <^v= olb ^s=adf]lhdsf] gS;f gePdf, s] tkfO{n] sg} ;|f]taf6 k|fKt ug{ ;Sg xG5 <^u= olb ^v= adf]lhdsf] 5}g eg] s;/L To:tf] ;"rgf k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 pNn]v ug{xf]; .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 37&= sIffsf nflu sg 7fpF pkof]u ug{ ;lsG5 < ;f] :yfgdf k9fpg ;lsg] afnaflnsfx?sf] ;+VofljBfno÷sIff sf]7fx?kgM:yfkgf s]Gb|cf>o :ynaflx/L vfnL 7fFp -?vdlg cflb_3/wfld{s 3/x?lSnlgscGo -pNn]v ug]{_*= tnsf ;]jf ;ljwfx? ;xh ?kdf kxFr of]Uo 5g < 36gf:yndf cln 6f9f -ld6/df_ kxFr gePsf]kfgLsf] ;|f]t -pNn]v ug]{_zf}rfnox?gxfpg] 7fpFzf}rfno:jf:Yo ;ljwfx?c;xfosf nflu ;]jf;ljwfx?ljBt(= afnaflnsfx?n] sIff 3/;Dd slt ;do ofqf ug{kb{5 < )–@% % @^–%) % %!–&% % &^–!))% -ld6/df_ -afnaflnsfsf] ;d"xsf] %_%)) ld6/ jf ;f]eGbf sd%)) ld6/b]lv !))) ld6/;Dd!))) ld6/eGbf a9L -dfOndf_cfwfb]lv ! dfOn;Dd! dfOneGbf a9L!)= s] 3/kl/jf/sf afnaflnsfx? 3/sf] sfd jf cGo sfddf ;+nUg 5g < s]6L s]6f % 306f-k|lt lbg ljz]if u/L laxfg jf a]nsf!!= slt kl/df0fdf -sl/a_ cWoog ;fdfu|L -ljBfyL{sf nflu_ pknAw jf cfjZos 5 < -k|lt afnaflnsf_ pknAw /x]sf] cfjZos kf7ok:tsx? ljifo !
    • 38 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08ljifo @ljifo #kf6L -x?_rs -x?_an :kf]Gh -x?_cEof; sflk -x?_snd/k]lG;n -x?_k]lG;n O/]h/ -x?_/+uLg k]lG;n -x?_cGo -pNn]v ug]{_!@= slt kl/df0fdf -sl/a_ cWoog ;fdfu|L -ljBfyL{sf nflu_ pknAw jf cfjZos 5 <-k|lt sIff_ pknAw /x]sf] cfjZoslgb]{lzsfx?/]s8{ kl:tsfx?sfnf]kf6L -x?_v/L -x?_leQ] rf6{/gS;fx?snd/k]lG;n -x?_d;nGbcGo -pNn]v ug]{_dgf]/GhgfTds ;fdfu|Lx?!#= afnaflnsfnfO{ k9fpg sf] pknAw 5 jf pknAw xg ;S5 < ;+Vof dlxnf -%_ k?if -%_ tflnd lnPsf lzIfsx? cf+lzs tflnd lnPsf ljz]if1x? cGo If]qsf ljz]if1x? -h:t} :jf:Yo If]qsf_ cGo afnaflnsf ;dbfosf ;b:ox? u}=;=;+=sf ;b:ox? :jo+;]jsx? cGo -pNn]v ug]{_!$= lzIfsx?nfO{ ;xof]u ug{ slt jo:s hgzlQmx? pknAw 5g < ;+Vof dlxnf -%_ k?if -%_ lzIff jf of]Uotfsf] tx cw{ ljz]if1x? cGo If]qsf ljz]if1x? -h:t} :jf:Yo If]qsf_
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 39k/fgf afnaflnsf;dbfosf ;b:ox?u}=;=;+=sf ;b:ox?:j+o;]jsx?cGo -pNn]v ug]{_!%= s] afnaflnsf ;fydf 5g < afnaflnsf ;d"xsf] %pgLx?sf] k/} kl/jf/;FucfdfjjfdWo] sDtLdf Pshgf;FucGo kfsf glhssf gft]bf/;Fukl/jf/sf cGo ;b:ox?;Fu:jo+;]jsx?;FuPSn}!^= 3/sf] d"nL sf] 5 < afnaflnsf ;d"xsf] %cfdfajfcGo kfsf ;b:o -pNn]v ug]{_cGo aRrf -7"nL lbbL_cGo aRrf -7"nf] bfh_cGo -pNn]v ug]{_!&= afnaflnsfsf] kl/jf/sf] cfly{s k[i7e"ld -cj:yf_ < k|ltztls;fgx?sfnLu9x?hghftLx?kzkfnscGo -pNn]v ug]{_!*= afnaflnsfsf nflu s:tf] ljz]if ;Gb]zx? k|;fl/t ug{ cfjZos 5 <;/;/;kmfO{ tyf :jf:Yo ljifosf ;Gb]zx?________________________________________________________________________________________________________:jf:Yo ;Gb]zx?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    • 40 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08ljikmf]6s kbfy{x? h:tf sg} ;Defljt vt/f af/]df ;Gb]z______________________________hLjg afFRg] ;Lkx? -pNn]v ug]{______________________________________________cGo -pNn]v ug]{_______________________________________________________!(= k|efljt ;dbfox?df dVo ?kdf lqmofzLn ;+:yfx?sf] pkl:ylt -s]xLsf] gfd ;+s]t ug{xf];_;fdbflos ;ldltx? ;a{Joflk ;femf slxn]sfFxL cl:tTjdf g/x]sf] !_______________ % % % % @_______________ % % % %lzIff dGqfnosf] ;fwg;|f]tx? ;a{Joflk ;femf slxn]sfFxL cl:tTjdf g/x]sf]!_______________ % % % %@_______________ % % % %lzIfssf nflu tflnd lbg] ;a{Joflk ;femf slxn]sfFxL cl:tTjdf g/x]sf];+:yfx?!_______________ % % % %@_______________ % % % %lzIffsf nflu ;lqmo :yfgLo ;a{Joflk ;femf slxn]sfFxL cl:tTjdf g/x]sf]u}=;=;+=x?!___________________ % % % %@___________________ % % % %lzIffsf nflu ;lqmo cGt/fli6«o ;a{Joflk ;femf slxn]sfFxL cl:tTjdf g/x]sf]u}=;=;+=x?!___________________ % % % %@___________________ % % % %;+oQm /fi6«;+3sf lgsfox? ;a{Joflk ;femf slxn]sfFxL cl:tTjdf g/x]sf]!___________________ % % % %@___________________ % % % %cGo -pNn]v ug]{_ ;a{Joflk ;femf slxn]sfFxL cl:tTjdf g/x]sf]!___________________ % % % %@___________________ % % % %;|f]t M olg;]km
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 41 @ kxFr / cWoogsf] jftfj/0f kl/ro ;+s6sf] ;dodf dxTjk"0f{ clwsf/ / ;|f]tdf ljz]if u/L lzIffsf] kxFr w]/}h;f] Hofb} g} ;Lldt xG5 . oBlk lzIffn] cltl/Qm 1fg / ;Lk xfl;n u/fO{ ;fdfGo hLjgofkg ;rf? ug{ kl/l:ylt;Fu hWg k|efljt ;dbfonfO{ d2t u/L Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{;Qm5 . To;} u/L w]/}h;f] cfktsfnLg kl/l:yltx?df z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? ;+rfng ug{ w]/} h6Lntfx? b]vf kb{5g, / vf;u/L ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xx? k|:tfljt lzIff k|fKt ug{ c;kmn xg] vt/f /xG5 . ;/sf/, ;dbfox? / dfgjLo ;+:yfx?n] ;a} JolQmx?sf] ;Da4, u0f:t/Lo lzIffsf] cj;/ / cWoogsf] jftfj/0f ;/lIft /x]sf] ;lglZrt ug{kg]{ lhDd]jf/L xg]5, / ljwfyL{x?sf] bj} ;+/If0f tyf dfgl;s, efjgfTds Pj+ zf/Ll/s ljsf;sf] klg k|j4{g ug{kg]{5 .cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?n] ljBfyL{x?nfO{ ef}lts, ;fdflhs tyf dfgl;s ;+/If0fk|bfg ug{ ;Qm5, ljz]if u/L afnaflnsf tyf ojf / lzIffsdL{x?nfO{ . oBlk, ljwfyL{x? ljBfno cfpFbfjf hfFbf / cWoogsf] jftfj/0f leq ;d]t ef}lts tyf dgf]j1flgs vt/fx? w]/h;f] ef]lu/x]sf xG5g . } }oL ;d:ofx?n] c;dfgkflts ?kdf aflnsfx? tyf dlxnf lzlIfsfx?nfO{ k|efj kfb{5 . lzIffsf ;]jfx?k|bfg ubf{ Pp6f afWosf/L Joj:yf eg]sf] ljBfyL{x? ljBfno cfpFbf jf hfFbf ;/lIft /x]sf] ;lglZrtug{ xf] eg] cWoogsf] jftfj/0f cfFkm}df klg csf]{ dxTjk"0f{ kIf xf] .cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf cj;/x? klg a9f]Q/L xg] u/L pknAw u/fpg kg]5 . olb {cf}krfl/s lzIff cfktsfnLg l:yltsf] tTsfn} ;Dej 5}g eg] dgf]/GhgfTds lqmofsnfk -v]nsbv]Ng]_, cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf lqmofsnfkx?, 7"nf afnaflnsfx?sf nflu ;dfTg] sfo{qmdx?, ojfx?sf
    • 42 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08dVo cWoog ;Lk ljsf; / cBfjlws ug{sf nflu cj;/x? / a}slNks cgf}krfl/s lzIff jfafnaflnsf, ojf jf jo:sx? h;n] cfwf/e"t lzIff z? u/]sf 5|gg jf k/f u/]sf 5}gg ltgLx?sf }nflu ;Lksf tflndx? h:tf sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng ugkg]5 . { {s]xL ;d"xx? jf JolQmx?nfO{ cfktsfnLg kl/l:yltdf k|bfg ul/g] lzIffsf] kxr k¥ofpg vf; ;d:ofx? F/x]sf xg ;Qm5g . t/klg e]befjsf] sf/0fn] ubf{ s;}n] klg lzIff / cWoogsf cj;/x?sf] kxrnfO{ Fgsf{g ;Sb}gg . lzIff k|bfosx?n] c;xfo, jo:s aflnsfx?, n8fs ;d"x;Fu ;Da4 afnaflnsf,ckxl/t afnaflnsf, pd]/ gkusf cfdfx?, cflb h:tf ljz]if cfjZostf ePsf ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xx?sf] ]vf; cfjZostfx?sf] n]vfhf]vf clgjfo{ ?kdf ug}{ kb{5 h;n] ubf{ ltlgx? lzIffsf cj;/x?af6nfeflGjt ePsf] ;lglZrt xg ;sf]; . z}lIfs x:tIf]kx?n] cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf;]jfx?df dfq Wofg s]lGb|t gu/L, e]befj, ljBfno zNs, efiffsf cj/f]wx? h:tf lglZrt ;d"xNffO{afx]s ug]{ ljleGg Jojwfgx?nfO{ ;d]t ;Daf]wg ug{ kb{5 . :ki6 ?kdf eGbf lzIffsf kxr gePsf Fjf h;n] lg/Gt/ lzIff k|fKt ug{ cj/f]wx? ef]lu/x]sf 5g To:tf aflnsf tyf dlxnfsf cfjZostfx?;Daf]wg ug{ cltl/Qm cj;/x? cfjZos kb{5g – tL cf}krfl/s, cgf}krfl/s jf k|fljlws hg;s}If]qdf xg;Qm5g .;a} ju{sf nflu ;femf Go"gtd dfkb08x?sf] ;DaGwz}lIfs k|ltsfo{ ljsf; jf sfof{Gjog ug]{ k|lqmof o;sf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] nflu dVo zt{ xf] . of] v08sf]pkof]u ;a}sf nflu ;femf Go"gtd dfkb08x?;Fu tfbfTdotf xg] u/L ugkg]5, h;n] ;dbfosf] { {;xeflutf, :yfgLo ;fwg;|ft, k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vf, k|ltsfo{, cgudg tyf d"Nof+sgnfO{ ;dfj]z u/]sf] ]5 . vf;?kdf eGbf ljkb k|efljt hgtfsf] ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xx? ;lxtsf] ;xeflutfnfO{ a9f]Q/L u/Lo;sf] pkoQmtf / u0f:t/nfO{ ;lglZrt ug}{ kb{5 . Go"gtd dfkb08x?M lolgx?sf] u0ffTds k|sl[ tsf] xg5g / z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf Joj:yfx?sf] Go"gtd ] pknlAwsf] :t/ lgwf{l/t xg5g . ] dVo ;"rsx?M logLx? ;"rsx? xg h;n] dfkb08x? k/f eP jf gePsf] b]vfpFb5g . logLx?n] sfo{qmd / o;df k|of]u ul/Psf k|lqmof jf ljlwx?n] kf/]sf k|efj jf kl/0ffdx?sf] dfkg / ;+rf/ ug]{ pkfo b]vfpF5 . lo ;"rsx? ;+VofTds jf u0ffTds xg ;Qm5g . dfu{bz{gM o;df ljleGg cj:yfx?df dfkb08 / ;"rsx? k|of]u ug]{ ljlw, Jojxfl/s ;d:of ;dfwfgfy{ pkfox? / k|fyldstf k|fKt d2fx?sf ljifodf ;Nnfx h:tf Wofg lbgkg]{ eGg] vf; abfx? ;dfj]z /x]sf 5g . ltgLx?df hl6n dfkb08 jf ;"rs ;Da4 hl6n k|Zgx? / F låljwf, ljjfbx? jf jt{dfg 1fgsf ck"0f{ kIfx?sf] JofVof ;dfj]z 5 . cg;rL @ df 5flgPsf " ;Gbe{ u|Gyx? pNn]lvt 5g, h;df ;fdfGo ljifox? / vf; k|fljlws ljifosf ;"rgfsf ;|ftx? ] k|i6ofOPsf 5g .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 43 kxr / cWoogsf] jftfj/0f “ dfkb08 ! dfkb08 @ dfkb08 # dfkb08 $ ;dfg kxr F ;+/If0f tyf cgudg ;]jf;ljwfx? pGgtzLn hLjg ;a} JolQmx?nfO{ ;a} ;fe]mbf/x?n] lzIffsf cWoog l;sfOsf z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf ;]jf;ljwfx? ;Da4 / u0f:t/Lo jftfj/0fx? ;/lIft lqmofsnfkx? tyf ljBfyL{x?sf]lzIffsf] cj;/x?df /x]sf] / ljBfyL{x?sf] zf/Ll/s ljsf; k|efljt ;dbfosf kxr xg5 . F ] dfgl;s ljsf; ljsf; d}qLk"0f{ ljsl;t xb} cfPsf F tyf ;+/If0fsf] cfjZostfx? /xG5 . efjgf k|j4{g lgoldt ?kdf ug]5 . { cgudg ug]{ . kl/lzi6 ! dgf];fdflhs ;"rL kl/lzi6 @ ljBfno vfgf ;"rL cg;rL @ M kxr tyf cWoogsf] jftfj/0f v08 " F
    • 44 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 kxr tyf cWoogsf] jftfj/0f ! M ;dfg kxr “ “ ;a} JolQmx?nfO{ ;Da4 / u0f:t/Lo lzIffsf] cj;/x?df kxr xg5 F ]dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { e]befjsf] sf/0fn] sg} klg JolQmnfO{ lzIffsf] kxr / cWoogsf] cj;/af6 al~rt ul/g] 5|g F } -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL !-@ x]gxf]nf_ { egf{ xgsf] nflu sg} k|df0fkq jf cGo zt{x? afwssf] ?kdf /xg] 5|gg . -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL # } x]gxf]nf_ . { k|efljt ;dbfonfO{ cfkmgf] cfjZostf k"/f ug{sf] nflu cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf >[vnfa4 cj;/x? a9f]Q/L xg] u/L pknAw u/fpg kb{5 . -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL $–% x]gxf]nf_ . + { tflnd tyf ;r]lts/0fsf dfWodaf6 ;dbfosf ;b:ox?sf] clwsf/ tyf lzIffsf] u0f:t/ ;lglZrt ug{ ;dbfox?sf] a9bf] ;xeflutf -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ^–& x]gxf]nf_ . { cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf ;a} r/0fx?df / klxnf] r/0fsf] kgMlgdf{0fsf nflu lzIffsf] lg/Gt/tf / u0f:t/Lotf ;lglZrt ug{ kof{Kt ;|ftx? ljleGg lgsfo, bftfx?, u}=;=;+=x?, ljsf;sf cGo ] ;fe]mbf/x? tyf ;dbfox?n] pknAw u/fpg] -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL * x]gxf]nf_ . { cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf sf/0f cj?4 ePsf] cf}krfl/s lzIff k|0ffnLdf ljBfyL{x? hlt;Sbf] rfF8f] ;/Iffsf ;fy ;xefuL xg] jf kgM;xefuL xg] cj;/ ldnfpg] . lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? k|efljt b]z /÷jf z?cftstf{ b]zsf lzIffsf clwsf/Lx?åf/f dfGotf k|fKt xg] . dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != lje]bn] ljleGg cj/f]wx? nflbPsf]nfO{ ;+st ub{5 t/ of] oltdf dfq ;Lldt ge} ul/aL, ] n+l} us, pd]/, /fli6«otf, hfthftL, wd{, efiff, ;F:s[lt, /fhg}lts ;Da4tf, of}ghGo emsfj, ;fdflhs–cfly{s k[i7e"ld, ef}uf]lns :yfg jf lzIffsf ljz]if cfjZostfx?sf sf/0f;Fu ;DalGwt 5 . cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;fF:s[lts clwsf/;DaGwL cGt/f{li6«o cgaGwn] lgDg Joj:yf pNn]v u/]sf] 5 M
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 45 wf/f @ n] h:t} hft, /+u, ln+u, efiff, If]q, /fhg}lts jf cGo cf:yf, /fli6«o jf ;fdflhs pTklQ, ;DklQ, hGd jf cGo sg} cfwf/ h:tf sg} k|sf/sf e]befj ljgf lzIffsf] clwsf/nfO{ dfGotf k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . wf/f !# n] k|To]ssf] lzIffsf] clwsf/nfO{ dfGotf lbPsf] 5 hg dfgjLo JolQmTj tyf dof{bfsf] efjgfsf] k"0f{ ljsf;tkm{ lgb]l{ zt ug]5 / dfgj clwsf/ tyf cfwf/e"t { :jtGqtfx?sf] cfb/nfO{ ;b9Ls/0f ub{5 . lzIffn] ;a} JolQmx?nfO{ vnf ;dfhdf [ k|efjsf/L ?kdf ;xefuL xg ;an agfpF5 ;a} /fi6«x? aLrsf] ldqtf / hftLo Pj+ wfld{s ;d"xx?sf aLr ;dembf/L, ;xli0ftf clej[l4 ub{5 tyf zflGt sfod ug{sf nflu ;+oQm /fi6«;3sf lqmofsnfkx?nfO{ a9fjf lbG5 . ;fy} wf/f !# n] g} o; + clwsf/sf] k"0f{ k|Tofe"lt xfl;n ug]{ b[li6sf]0faf6 b]xfosf] Joj:yf :jLsf/ u/]sf] 5M !_ k|fylds lzIff clgjfo{ xg5 / ;a}sf nflu lgMzNs pknAw xg,] @_ dfWolds lzIff ] ljleGg :j?kdf /xg kg]{ h;df k|fljlws, P]lR5s dfWolds lzIff xg5 hg ;fdfGotof ] ;a}sf nflu pkoQm pkfoåf/f pknAw xg] / kxrof]Uo xg,] / vf;u/L qmdzM lgMzNs F lzIffnfO{ nfu" u/fpg] k|sl[ tsf] xg,] #_ k|fylds lzIff k"/f ugkg]{ cjlwdf To:tf] lzIff { k|fKt gu/]sf] jf k/f gu/]sf] JolQmx?nfO{ cfwf/e"t lzIffsf nflu oyf;+ej k|fT;flxt ] / 3lge"t agfOg]5 .@= cGt/f{li6«o pks/0f / dfu{bz{gx?n] cfktsfndf lzIffsf] clwsf/ k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ 3f]if0ff u/]sf 5g . o:tf b:tfj]hx? b]xfosf 5g hg oltdf dfq ;Lldt 5}ggM ljZj lzIff kmf]/dsf] 8sf/ sfo{;/rgfn] æ;a}sf nflu lzIffÆ nfO{ k|j4{g + ul//x]sf] 3f]if0ff u/] cg?k ;/sf/n] clgjfo{ ?kdf æåGå, k|fs[lts ljkb jf cl:y/tfaf6 k|efljtx?sf] z}lIfs cfjZostfx? k"/f ugkg]{ / cfk;L ;dembf/L, zflGt { tyf ;lxi0ftf clej[l4 xg] u/L lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng ugkb{5 h;af6 lx+;f / { åGåsf] arfj6 ug{ d2t kuf];Æ o4sf] ;dodf lgz:q gful/ssf] ;+/If0f;DaGwL h]gef sGe]G;g -rf}yf]_ sf] -wf/f %)_M ] æ/fli6«o tyf :yfgLo clwsf/Lx?;Fu ;xof]usf ;fy, afnaflnsfsf] lzIff tyf x]/rfxsf nflu k|ltj4 ;a} ;+:yfx?;Fu pkoQm sfo{;rfngdf lgoGq0f ug]{ clwsf/n] ;xhtf + Nofpg kg]5Æ { afn clwsf/;DaGwL ;+oQm /fi6«;3Lo dxf;lGwn] cfktsfnLg kl/l:yltdf lzIffsf] + ef}lts, dgf]j1flgs tyf dfgl;s ;+/If0f ug{ cf}krfl/s 9fFrfx? pknAw u/fPsf] 5 . }
    • 46 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 #= k|jz tyf egf{ M k|df0fkqsf] cfjZostf nlrnf] xgkg]5 / gful/stfsf] k|df0fkq, hGd ] { jf pd]/sf] k|df0fkq, klxrfgof]Uo k|df0fkqx?, ljBfnosf] k|ltj]bg cflb cfjZos kg]{ 5}gg lsgls cfktsfnaf6 k|efljt hgtf;Fu oL k|df0fkqx? gxg klg ;Qm5g . pd]/sf] aGb]h cfktsfnaf6 k|efljt afnaflnsf tyf ojfsf nflu cfslif{t xg ;Qm}g . ljBfno 5f]8sf ljBfyL{x?sf nflu bf];f| k6s egf{sf] df}sf k|bfg ugkb{5 . Hofb} ;LdflGts[t / ] ] ;+s6f;Gg ljBfyL{x?nfO{ nlIft u/L ;+nUg u/fpg ljz]if k|of;x? ug}{ kb{5 . ;/Iff rf;f]sf ljifox? ;dfj]z ePsf] cj:yfdf k|df0fkqx? / egf{sf ;"rgfx? uf]Ko ?kdf /fVg kg]5 .{ $= lzIffsf] cj;/x?sf] lj:tf/ M o:tf cj;/x?df ljBfnok"jsf] r/0f, k|fylds tyf dfWolds { lzIff, pRr lzIff, hLjg ;Lkx?, Joj;flos tflnd, cgf}krfl/s lzIff -;fIf/tf / ;f+lVos lzIff ;d]t_ / ultsf/s cWoogsf cj;/x? pkoQmtf cg?k /xg kb{5 . ljBfyLx?n] cfktsfnsf] kl/0ffd:j?k sg} dgf]qf;sf] cgej ul//x]sf] cj:yfdf lzIff dflysf] kxr F ;d]t cGt u/L cem h6Ln agfpg xbg . F} nlrnf] ;dosf] sfo{qmd ;lxtsf] ljBfnosf] ljleGg ;do / laxfg÷lbpF;f]÷a]nsf ;+rfng, afxo lzIffsf sfo{qmd, pd]/ gkusf cfdfx?sf nflu afn x]/rfx ;]jf, sIffsf]7fdf ] ;dfj]z xg cK7of/f] k/]sfnfO{ Jojl:yt ?kdf hf]8L ;xof]usf] Joj:yf / ;+oQm lzIffsf sfo{qmd jf ljbfsf nflu cWoog sfo{qmdn] z}lIfs cj;/x? a9fO{ w]/} ljBfyL{x?nfO{ nfeflGjt agfpg ;Qm5 . hah{l:t ?kdf kfsf ljBfyL{x?nfO{ ojf afnaflnsfx?sf dfem dnk|jfxLs/0f u/]df jf P]lR5s ?kdf lgoldt sIffx?df ojf ljBfyL{x?s} sIffdf cgdlt lbPdf To;n] bj} ojf tyf kfsf ljBfyL{x?df gsf/fTds kl/0ffdx? pTkGg u/fpg ;Qm5, h;n] ;a}nfO{ ck|efjsf/L cWoogsf] kl/0ffd lbG5 . a}slNks pkfox? h:t} kfsf ljBfyL{x?sf nflu 566} sIffsf]7fx? / zL3|ultsf/s kf7oqmdx?nfO{ pkoQmtf x]/L pkof]u ug{ kg]5 . lgoldt { ljBfnosf sfo{qmdx?sf cltl/Qm cGo a}slNks Joj:yf ubf{ ojf k|ltlglwx?, dlxnfsf ;d"xx?, ;dbfosf cGo ;b:ox? tyf ;dbfosf g]tfx?;Fu k/fdz{ ugkb{5 .{ cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf jf ;f] kZrft ljleGg 7fpFsf ;+efljt ljBfyL{x?sf] nfut k|efjsf/L kxrsf] of]hgf agfO{ cfktsfnLg k|ltsfo{ ug{ lzIffsf lqmofsnfkx? k"0f{?kdf lj:tf/ ug{ F ljleGg pkfox? h:t} ljBfno cjl:ylt gSzf+sg ckgfpg kg]5 . { %= ljleGg pd]/ ;d"x M lzIffsf cj;/x? pd]/ ;d"x -h:t}M afnaflnsf / ojfju{_ tyf ljifoj:t -h:t}M cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf] k|f/lDes r/0fdf ;a}sf nflu hLjg arfpg] ;rgf_ sf cfwf/df k|fyldsLs/0f ugkg]5 . ha cfktsfnLg cj:yfaf6 l:y/ cj:yfdf kluG5 ta { { lzIffsf cj;/x? ;a} k|sf/sf hg;f+lVos ;d"xx?sf] nflu pkoQm xg] ljleGg pkfox? ;lxt hLjg:t/ :t/ ;[b9 ug{ ;lsG5 . [
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 47^= æu0f:t/LoÆ / æpkoQm lzIffÆM cg;rL ! x]gxf]nfM cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf nflu lzIffsf] " { Go"gtd dfkb08x?M zAbfjnLx? k[i7 ** o;sf kl/efiff / ljleGg zAbsf] cy{sf nflu .&= ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf M lzIffsf k|lqmofx?df ;dbfox?nfO{ ;lqmo ?kdf ;xefuL u/fpg kg]5 . o;n] ;+rf/sf sdhf]/L x6fpg, cltl/Qm ;fwg;|ft kl/rfng ug{, ;/Iffsf { ] rf;f]x? ;Daf]wg ug{ / ;LdflGts[t ;d"xx?sfaLr ;xeflutf a9fpg d2t ub{5 -cg;rL ! " x]gxf]nfM cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf nflu lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08x?M zAbfjnLx? k[i7 ** df / { ;dbfosf] ;xefuLtfsf dfkb08x? !–@ k[i7 **–*(_ .*= ;|ftx? M bftfx? klxnf] r/0fsf cfktsfnLg cj:yfb]lv kgMlgdf{0f;Ddsf z}lIfs k|of;x?sf] ] lg/Gt/tfsf nflu nlrnf] xgkg]{ / w]/} yl/sf /0fgLltx?df ;xof]u k¥ofpg kb{5 . lzIff ;lglZrt ug]{ clGtd bfloTj /fli6«o ;/sf/sf] xG5 / ljleGg ;|ftx?af6 /sd k|fKt ug{ ] ;Qm5g . cGo bftfx?df cGt/f{li6«o ;dbfo -låkIfLo ty axkIfLo_, cGt/f{li6«o tyf k/Dk/fut u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?, :yfgLo clwsf/Lx?, cf:yfdf cfwfl/t ;+u7gx?, gful/s ;dfhsf ;d"xx? / cGo ljsf;sf ;fem]bf/x? -ljZn]if0f dfkb08 @ tyf dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? $ k[i7 @$ x]gxf]nf_ . { ;|ft of]hgfsf] Wofg bLuf] ?kdf tTsfnLg lzIffsf cj;/x? lj:tf/tkm{ s]lGb|t xgkb{5 ] tyf bL3{sfnLg of]hgf -cfktsfnLg cj:Yff nlDag ;Sg] ;+efjgf ljrf/ u/L_ / eflj kgMlgdf{0fnfO{ klg Wofg lbgkb{5 . ;DalGwt kbflwsf/Lx?;Fu ;xsfo{ / ;dGjon] l:y/tfsf] ;l glZrtfsf nflu d2t ug{ ;Qm5 - lzIff gLlt tyf ;dGjosf] dfkb08, k[i7 *$ df klg x]gxf]nf_ . cfktsfndf b|t z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf nflu cfly{s ;|ftdf zL3| kxr cfjZos xG5, { ] F h:t} cftsfnLg sf]if jf k|f/lDes cfly{s ;|ft . cfktsfnLg cj:yfkl5sf] r/0fdf ljBfno ] sfo{qmdsf dfWodaf6 afnaflnsf tyf ojfsf] ljsf;df d2t k¥ofpg kof{Kt cfly{s ;|ft ] xg} kb{5 . k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0fsf] r/0fdf /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo lzIff k|zf;g tyf of]hgfsf] ;b9Ls/0fsf nflu hxfF cfjZostf 5 ToxfF cfly{s ;|ft k|bfg ugkg]5 . bftfsf] ;|ftn] ;a} [ ] { { ] If]qdf c:yfoL cf>o :ynx?sf pkof]usf] dfWodaf6 / lzIf0f tyf cEof; ;fdfu|Lx?sf] Joj:yf u/]/ lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?nfO{ ;xh agfpg kg]5 . {
    • 48 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 kxr tyf cWoogsf] jftfj/0f;DaGwL dfkb08 @ M ;+/If0f “ tyf pGggzLn hLjg l;sfOsf jftfj/0fx? ;/lIft /x]sf] / ljBfyL{x?sf] dfgl;s ljsf; tyf ;+/If0fsf] efjgf k|j4{g ug]5 . {dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { ljBfnox? tyf cGo cWoogsf Joj:yfx?sf] cjl:ylt nlIft jf ;]jfu|fxL hgtfsf] glhs} xgkb{5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL !–@ x]gxf]nf_ { l;Sgsf nflu lgwf{l/t :yn;Dd kUg] kxrsf af6f]x? ;a}sf nflu ;/lIft /x]sf] -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL F # x]gxf]nf_ { cWoogsf jftfj/0fx? ljBfyL{x?nfO{ sg} xfgL xg;Sg] vt/faf6 dQm /x]sf] 5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL $–% x]gxf]nf_ { lzIfs, ljBfyL{ tyf ;dbfosf nflu ;+rflnt tflnd sfo{qmdx?df ;/Iff, ;Joj:yf / ;+/If0fsf] efjgf k|j4g xg] k|sl[ tsf] xgkb{5 . lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x?nfO{ ljBfyL{sf] ;+jufTds ljsf;sf] nflu dgf];fdflhs ?kdf ] d2t pknAw u/fpg ;Sg] ;Lkx? l;sfpg kb{5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ^ x]gxf]nf_ . { ljBfyL{x? ;/lIft cj:yfdf k9g kfpg] jftfj/0fsf nflu :yfgx? lgwf{/0f ug]{ / k4lt jf gLlt lgwf{/0fsf] lg0f{o k|lqmofdf ;dbfonfO{ ;xefuL u/fpg] . ljBfyL{x?sf] kf]if0f tyf 5f]6f] cjlwsf] ef]s d]6fpg cfjZostf kl/k"lt{nfO{ ;Daf]wg u/L lzIf0f :ynx?df k|efjsf/L ?kdf l;Sg k|fT;flxt ugkb{5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL & x]gxf]nf_ . ] { { dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != glhskgfnfO{ :yfgLo÷/fli6«o dfkb08sf] cfwf/df JofVof ugkg]5, o;/L JofVof ubf{ ;/Iff { { / cGo ;/lIft pkfosf rf;f]x?nfO{ Wofg lbgkb{5 . hxfF b"/L pNn]Vo dfqfdf /x]sf] 5, ToxfF ;xfos -pkzfvf_ sIffx? nfdf] b/L ofqf ug{ g;Sg]x? h:t} slnnf afnaflnsf jf jo:s aflnsfx?sf nflu 3/ glhs} sIff ;+rfng ug{ k|fT;fxg ugkg]5 . ] { { @= ;/Iff M olb ;Fw} k9fO{ xg] z}lIfs :ynx? pknAw gePdf jf c;/lIft ePdf ;/lIft a}slNks :yfgx?sf] vf]hL ugkg]5 . ljBfnox? ;/Iff kmf}håf/f c:yfoL cf>o :ynsf] nflu pkof]u { { ul/g] 5}g .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 49#= kxrsf af6f]x? M ;/Iff ;lglZrt ug{ /fHosf] bfloTj xg5, / ;/Iff k|of{Kt / hxfF pkoQm F ] Pj+ cfjZos 5 ToxfF pRr:t/Lo k|x/L Joj:yf Pj+ ;/IffsdL{sf] v6gk6g ldnfpg kg]5 . { ;a} ljBfyL{x? tyf lzIffsdL{x? -n+l} us, pd]/, /fli6«otf, hfthflt jf zfl//L/s czQmtfh:tf lje]b gu/L_ aLr o:tf] ;+/If0fsf] Joj:yf k|j4{g ug{ / ;8s af6f]x? ;/lIft /x]sf] k|Tofe"lt lbg ;dbfox?;Fu 5nkmn Pj+ /f]syfdd"ns pkfox?df ;xdlt ugkg]5, h:t}M jo:sx?n] { { ofqfqmddf ;xof]u ug]{ . of] ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltsf] sfo{;rLsf] Ps c+u xg ;Qm5 . "$= ;+/If0f M ljBfyL{x?nfO{ vt/fx?af6 xg] xfgLaf6 ;/lIft /fVg kg]5, h:t}M k|fs[lts { k|sf]k, xftxltof/, uf]nLu67f, ljikmf]6s kbfy{, ljikmf]6 xg afFsL kbfy{x?, xltof/wf/L ;d"xx?, bf]xf]/f] le8Gt xg] If]q, /fhg}lts tyf ;fdl/s rgf}ltx? / egf{ cflb s]xL sf/0fx? xg ;Qm5g . ljBfyL{x? ljz]if u/L w]/h;f] cNk;+Vos tyf aflnsfx? ljBfno hfFbf jf cfpFbf } bJo{jxf/, lx+;f, u}/sfg"gL egf{ jf ckx/0fsf lzsf/ xg] u/]sf 5g . o:tf] cj:yfdf ljBfyL{x?sf] ;/Iff ;fdbflos ;/Iff cleofg / ;dbfosf jo:sx?åf/f hfFbfcfpFbf ;xof]u u/]/ ;wfg{ ;lsG5 . To:tf] If]q hFxf ljBfyL{x? lxF8/} ljBfnoaf6 /ftL 3/ kms{bf af6f]df kof{Kt ljBt ] gxg] cj:yfsf] If]qdf ltgLx?sf] nufx?df / emf]nfx?df k|ltsfTds lrGx jf l:6s/x? /fVg kg]5 jf ;xfotf6f]nL;Fu 6r{nfO{6x? xgkg]5 . hxfF / hlxn] ;Dej 5, dlxnf ljBfyL{x?nfO{ { { a9fjf lbg z}lIfs :ynx?df dlxnfsf] pkl:ylt u/fpg} kb{5 . cltl/Qm ?kdf, lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?df aflnsf tyf dlxnfx?n] ef]usf] bJo{jxf/sf] tx cgudg ugkg]5 . ] { {%= lx+;fdQm sIffsf]7f Joj:yfkg M lx+;fTds lqmofsnfkdf cGo s/fsf cltl/Qm dfgl;s bafa, lx+;f, bJo{jxf/ / e]befjx? kb{5g . lx+;fhGo Jojxf/ gb]lvof]; eg]/ lzIfsx?nfO{ ;sf/fTds sIffsf]7f Joj:yfkgsf k|lqmofx? ;DaGwL] tflnd lngkg]5 . zf/Ll/s b08nfO{ { k|of]u ug{ / k|j4{g ug{ klg xbg . F}^= pGggzLn hLjg M efjgfTds tyf dfgl;s ?kdf pGggzLn hLjgnfO{ sg} JolQmsf nflu s] ubf{ /fd|f] xg;Qm5 eGg] k"0f{ cy{df aemg kb{5M ;/Iff, ;+/If0f, ;]jfsf] u0f:t/, ;v / lzIff k|bfos / u|x0fstf{aLrsf] ;DaGwsf] ;befjnfO{ o;df /flvG5 . of] lqmofsnfk ljBfyL{x?sf] pGggzLn hLjg ;lglZrt ug{sf nflu pkof]u ul/g]5 / :j:y dfgl;s ljsf;, 7f]; ;fdflhs cGt{lqmof tyf ;:jf:Yo clej[l4 ug]tkm{ s]Gb|Lt xg kg]5 . pGggzLn hLjgn] { { ljwfyL{sf] cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s sfo{qmdx? ;kmntfk"js ;DkGg ug{ ;d]t of]ubfg { k¥ofpFb5 . -kl/lzi6 ! sf] dgf];fdflhs ;"rL k[i7 @( df x]gxf]nf_ {&= kf]if0f M kf]if0f tyf 5f]6f] cjlwsf] ef]s d]6fpg cfjZostf kl/k"lt{nfO{ ljBfno vfgf sfo{qmd dfkm{t jf cGo vfB ;/Iffsf sfo{qmdx? ljBfnosf] jftfj/0feGbf aflx/ klg ;Daf]wg
    • 50 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 ugkg]5 . olb ljBfno vfgf sfo{qmd nfu" ug]{ xf] eg] cGo ;+:yfx?åf/f k|of]u u/]sf] { { dfGotfk|fKt lgb]l{ zsfx? k|of]u ugkg]5, h:t}M ljZj vfB sfo{qmd -ljBfno vfgf sfo{qmdsf] { { ;"rL kl/lzi6 @ k[i7 #! df x]gxf]nf_ { kxr tyf cWoogsf] jftfj/0f;DaGwL dfkb08 # M “ ;]jf;ljwfx? lzIffsf ;]jf;ljwfx? ljBfyL{x?sf] zf/Ll/s ljsf; d}qLk"0f{ /xG5 .dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { zf/Ll/s czQmtf afx]ssf nflu cWoogsf] ;+/rgfx? ;a}sf nflu kxr of]Uo /xg kb{5 . F pkoQmtfg;f/ l;Sg] :ynx? :ki6 lrGx tyf b]Vg ;lsg] kvf{nx?åf/f ;+st ugkg]5 . ] { { l;Sg] :ynx?sf] nflu k|of]u ul/Psf] ef}lts ;+/rgf kl/l:ylt cg?k pkoQm /x]sf] / o;df sIff sf]7fx? / k|zf;g, dgf]/Ghg tyf ;/;kmfO{sf Pj+ zf}rfno ;]jfx? kof{Kt /fVg] -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ! x]gxf]nf_ . { ;xeflutfd"ns ljlwx? / ljBfyL{ s]Gb|Lt k4ltnfO{ clej[l4 ug{ sIffsf]7fsf] 7fpF / a:g] l;6sf] Joj:yfk|lt ljBfyL{ / lzIfssf] cgkft ldNg] u/L Joj:yf xg5 . ] cWoogsf] jftfj/0fsf] lgdf{0f tyf cBfjlws ug{ ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf u/fpg] -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL @ x]gxf]nf_ . { cWoogsf] jftfj/0fdf cfwf/e"t :jf:Yo / ;/;kmfO{sf ljifonfO{ klg clej[l4 ul/g]5 . pd]/, n+l} us / lzIffsf ljz]if cfjZostf tyf cGo rf;f]x?nfO{ dWogh/ /fvL ;/;kmfO{sf ;]jf;ljwfx? k|bfg ugkg]5 h;df c;xfo JolQmx?sf nflu kxrsf] Joj:yf klg ;dfj]z xgkb{5 { { F -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL # x]gxf]nf_ { z4 vfg]kfgL tyf JolQmut ;/;kmfO{sf nflu ;d]t ko{fKt dfqfdf kfgL ljBfno If]qdf pknAw xG5 -dfub{zg l6Kk0fL $ x]gxf]nf_ { {
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 51dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx?!= ;+/rgfM ef}lts ;+/rgfsf] pkoQmtfdf o;sf] bL3{sfnLg pkof]u -cfktsfnkZrftsf] r/0f_, pknAw ah]6, ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf / pkoQm /sddf :yfgLo clwsf/Lx? /÷jf :yfgLo ;dbfon] dd{t;+ef/ ug{ ;Sg] jf g;Sg] h:tf kIfx?NffO{ Wofg lbgkg]5 . ;+/rgf c:yfoL, { cw{–:yfoL, :yfoL, lj:tf/ / 3DtL k|sl[ tsf] xg ;Qm5 . h;df tnsf tTjx?nfO{ ljrf/ ugkg]5M { { ejg ;+/rgf agfpFbf olb pknAw 5 eg] :yfgLo:t/d} vl/b ul/Psf] ;fdfu|Lx? jf >dzlQm pkof]u ugkg]5 . ;+/rgfx? nfut k|efjsf/L / ef}lts kIfx? -5fgfx?, { { e"Ox?_ bLuf] /x]sf] ;lglZrt ug{ cfjZos pkfox? ckgfpg kb{5 . F{ u0f:t/Lo cWoog tyf cWofkgsf] jftfj/0f k|j4{g ug{ kof{Kt k|sfz, 58s] e]lG6n]zg tyf tftf]kgf -hxfF cfjZos 5_ sf] Joj:yf pknAw u/fpg kg]5 . { ljBfyL{sf] clwstd ;+Vof lgwf{/0f ug{ :yfgLo:t/df oyfy{k/s xg] dfkb08x? lgwf{/0f ugkg]5 / olb egf{ ;+Vof a9]df w]/} l;km6df k9fpgkg]{ cj:yfnfO{ Go"g ug{ sIffsf]7fsf] { { nflu cltl/Qm ?kdf kof{Kt 7fpFsf] Joj:yf ugkg]5 . { { dfly pNn]lvt ;a} k"jf{wf/x? / kof{Kt :yfg k|fKt geO{ ;s]sf] egL lzIffsf sfo{qmdsf ] nflu kv]/ a:g] cfjZos 5}g . oBlk oL kIfx? hlt;Sbf] l56f] k"lt{ ug]{ jf Joj:yf { ugkb{5 . -PdP;O{O{ l;l8/f]ddf :km]o/sf ;DalGwt c:yfoL cf>o:yn;DaGwL dfkb08x? { cg;rLdf x]gxf]nf_ . " {@= cWoogsf] jftfj/0fnfO{ cBfjlws ul//fVg ;]jf;ljwfx? -h:t}M zf}rfno, xft]kDk cflb_ / kmlg{r/ -6]an, a]Gr, s;L{, sfnf]kf6L, b/fh, cflb_ sf] Joj:yf ugkg]5 . { {#= ;/;kmfO{sf ;]jf;ljwfx?df kmf]xf]/d}nf Joj:yfkg -sG6]g/, kmf]xf]/ kmfNg] efF8f]_, 9n lgsf; ] jf gnL Joj:yf -kfgL ;f]Rg], gfnfsf] lgsf;x?_ / JolQmut :jf:Yosf Pj+ zf}rfnox?sf nflu kof{Kt kfgL Joj:yf ugkg]5 . lzIf0f :yfgx?df dlxnf tyf k?ifsf nflu 566f 566} { { zf}rfno tyf To;df kof{Kt uf]klgotf sfod xgkg]5 . dlxnfx?sf nflu ;/;kmfO{sf { ljz]if ;fdfu|Lx? pknAw u/fpg kg]5 -PdP;O{O{ l;l8/f]ddf :km]o/sf ;Da4 ;/;kmfO{ { ;DaGwL dfkb08x? cg;rLdf x]gxf]nf_ . " {$= kfgLM cWoog :ynx?sf] 5]pdf jf glhs} :yfgLo jf cGt/f{li6«o dfkb08 cg?k kfgLsf] Joj:yf ugkg]5 -PdP;O{O{ l;l8/f]ddf :km]o/sf ;Da4 kfgL;DaGwL dfkb08x? cg;rLdf { { " x]gxf]nf_ . {
    • 52 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08kxr tyf cWoogsf] jftfj/0f M kl/lzi6x? Fkl/lzi6–! M dgf];fdflhs ;"rLlglb{i6 ;j]If0f k4lt :yfgLo kl/l:ylt / ;+:s[ltdf cfwfl/t /xG5 . b]xfosf ljifoj:tn] dgf];fdflhs {hLjg:t/ ;wf/ / kgMnfesf d2fx? ;Daf]wg ug{ pkof]uL ljleGg ;"rgfsf] k|sf/nfO{ k|ltlglwTjub{5 .;fdfGo cj:yfx? M s] dgf]qf;sf] ;dodf afn clwsf/ pNn+3gsf 36gfx? 36]sf lyP < bJo{jxf/sf 36gfx? aGb eO;s]sf] jf afnaflnsf / ltgsf kl/jf/x?sf nflu To:tf 36gfn] c;/Iffsf] jftfj/0fnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbO/x]sf 5g < kl/jf/x?;Fu} al;/x]sf 5g < s] ltgLx?nfO{ kof{Kt uf]kgLotf pknAw 5 < kl/jf/x?nfO{ dof{bfk"0f{ hLjg afFRgsf nflu / afnaflnsfsf] :ofxf/ tyf ;+/If0fsf nflu s] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 < cem w]/} s] ug{ ;lsG5 < ;d:ofx?df k/]sf afnaflnsfx?sf nflu ;xof]u k¥ofpg ;dbfosf s] s:tf ;fdfGo lqmofsnfkx? ;+rflnt 5g < ;dbfo;Fu dgf];fdflhs tgfj;Fu hWg / k|ltsfo{sf nflu s] s:tf ;+oGqx? pknAw 5g < ltgLx?sf] ;b9Ls/0f jf lgdf{0f s;/L ug{ ;lsG5 < [ k|efljt hgtfsf] ;fdfGo hghLjgsf] Joj:yf / ;fdflhs ;+u7gx?n] afnaflnsfx?sf] ;+/If0f / :ofxf/df s;/L k|efj kf/]sf] 5 < afnaflnsf tyf ltgsf] kl/jf/x?sf] hLjg:t/ ;wfg{ s] s:tf pkfox? ckgfpg ;lsG5 < s] ;dbfodf afnaflnsfx?sf nflu lgoldt lqmofsnfk -h:t}M cgf}krfl/s lzIff, v]nsb tyf dgf]/Ghg_ ;+rfng ug{ ;Sg] JolQmx? pknAw 5g <cfdfaaf M cfdfaafx?n] s:tf] k|sl[ tsf] s7LgfO{ tyf tgfjx? em]ln/x]sf] 5g h;n] ltgLx?sf] hLjg:t/sf ;fy;fy} afnaflnsfx?sf] :ofxf/;+ef/df k|efj kfl//x]sf] 5 < of] sl7gfO{ 36fpg s:tf] pkfox? ckgfpg ;lsG5 < ;dbfosf] k/Dk/fdf ;fdfGotof cgdlt lbOPsf] eGbf a9L xg] u/L s] cfdfaafn] afnaflnsfx?nfO{ lk6]sf] b]lvG5 <
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 53 s] cfdfaafx?nfO{ tgfjk"0f{ sl7gfO{x?sf ljifodf 5nkmn ug]{ / ;xof]u vf]hL ug]{ cj;/x? pknAw 5g h;sf] ltgLx? / ltgsf afnaflnsfn] ;dfwg vf]Hg} kb{5 <afnaflnsf M s] afnaflnsfnfO{ ckof{Kt :ofxf/ ;+ef/sf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 < afnaflnsfn] k|fKt ug]{ To:tf] :ofxf/ ;+ef/df ;wf/ ug{ s] s:tf] pkfox? ckgfpg ;lsG5 < PSn} /x]sf] afnaflnsfx? 5g < pR5[vn jf lx+;fTds z}nLdf Jojxf/ ul//x]sf afnaflnsfx? 5g < + s] afnaflnsfnfO{ ltgsf] rf;f]x?, ljrf/x? / k|Zgx? s/fsfgL ug{ ;fF:s[lts ?kn] pkoQm cj;/x? pknAw u/fOPsf] 5 < s] afnaflnsfx?nfO{ v]Ng] cj;/ pknAw 5 < s] Psn afnaflnsf, nfdf] ;do;Dd cf>o:yndf /x]sf / ;Lldt 3]/fdf /x]sf afnaflnsfx?sf] ljz]if cfjZostf ;Daf]wg ePsf] 5 <;]jfx? M s] lzIff tyf cGo lqmofsnfkx?sf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 h;n] afnaflnsfnfO{ lgoldt ljsf;df ;xefuL xg / lqmofsnfkx? b}lgs ?kdf xg] s/fsf] cgel" t lbnfpg ;Ifd agfPsf] 5 < s] z/0ffyL{ jo:sx? tyf afnaflnsfx?nfO{ sl7gfO{x? ;Daf]wg ug{ ;fdflhs ;]jfx?df kxr F /x]sf 5 < s] dgf];fdflhs bjfjx?sf] cgej ul//x]sf afnaflnsfx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ k|0ffnL / ;xfotf ug]{ Joj:yf 5 < s] lzIfsx?nfO{ tflnd tyf ;xof]u pknAw u/fOPsf] 5 < s] afnaflnsfx?nfO{ /fd|f] ;xfotf pknAw u/fpg k|fylds :jf:Yo ;]jf tyf cGo ;]jfsdL{x? pknAw 5g < s] ljlzli6s[t dfgl;s :jf:Yo ;]jfx? clt bafadf /x]sf elg l;kmfl/; ul/g ;Sg] afnaflnsfx?sf nflu :yflkt 5 <
    • 54 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08kl/lzi6 @M ljBfno vfgf sfo{qmd ;"rLolb z}lIfs x:tIf]ksf nflu vfBfGg Ps ;|ftsf] ?kdf /x]sf] 5 eg] b]xfosf k|Zgx? ;f]Wg dxTjk"0f{ ]xg5g M ]sfo{qmdsf] p2]Zox? M olb vfBfGg k|:tfj ul/Psf] 5 eg] o;sf] s;/L pkof]u ul/G5 < ljBfno vfgf, 3/df nlug] /f;g, sfdsf nflu vfBfGg, tflndsf nflu vfBfGg jf lzIfssf nflu vfBfGg < ljBdfg kl/l:yltdf ljBfno vfgf sfo{qmd -jf cGo_ lsg pkoQm /x]sf] 5 < sfo{qmdsf p2]Zox? s] s] 5g < s] vfBfGg pkof]usf] k|:tfljt Joj:yfn] lzIffsf klxrfg ePsf cfjZostfx? k"/f ug{ d2t k¥ofpF5 < s] vfBfGgn] pNn]v dfqfdf w]/} afnaflnsfx?nfO{ ljBfnodf hfg cfslif{t ug{ ;S5 < pNn]lvt p2]Zox?dWo] cfktsfnLg kl/l:yltdf sg rfFxL ljlzi6 5 < tL p2]Zox? ;Daf]wg ug]{ cfjZostfsf ;DaGwdf s] tkfO{;u cfjZos tYof+sx? -kf]if0f l:ylt, F egf{b/ / pkl:ylt tYof+s_ 5g <nlIft hg;+Vof M sfo{qmdsf] nlIft ;]jfu|fxLx? sf] xg < ljBfnox? jf clt k|efljt If]q jf ;xfotf -vfB ;/Iffsf] cj:yf, ;fIf/tf tYof+s / egf{ cflb_ sf] clt cfjZos ePsfx?sf] lgwf{/0f ug{ cfjZos ;"rgfx? tkfO{;u pknAw 5g < F 3/ n}hfg] /f;gaf6 s:tf ;d"xx? nfeflGjt xG5g -h:t}M aflnsfx?, cNk;+Vosx?, cflb_ <Ifdtf ljsf;, lbuf]kgf / ;dGjo M sfo{qmd z? ugeGbf cufl8 Ifdtf ljsf;sf] s:tf] lqmofsnfkx? cfjZos 5 < { s] ljBfnodf ljBfno vfgf sfo{qmdsf nflu pkoQm k"jf{wf/ -h:t}M kfgLsf] Joj:yf, vfgf ksfpg] ;ljwf, efF8fs8fx? cflb_ 5 < F ;dbfox?, cfdfaafx? tyf afnaflnsfx?sf nflu lzIffsf] jt{dfg dfu s] 5 < vfBfGgn] o;nfO{ s;/L kl/jt{g Nofpg ;S5 < vfBfGg nfu" xgnfO{ ;dbfox?, cfdfaafx?, lzIfsx?, ljBfyL{x? tyf lzIffsf kbflwsf/Ln] s;/L x]/sf 5g < s] vfBfGgsf] pkof]un] ;dbfox?sf aLrdf åGå jf tgfj a9fpg] ;+efJotf 5 ls < ] vfBfGg cfk"lt{ z? ugeGbf cl3 s:tf] k"jf{wf/x? tof/ kfg{ kb{5 < s:tf] s/f/ jf vl/b ;]jfsf] { Joj:yf ug{ cfjZos 5 <
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 55 ljBfyL{x?sf nflu vfgf tof/ kfg{ jf vjfpg eGbf cl3 s] s:tf] k"jf{wf/x? :yflkt ug{ kb{5 < sfof{nox?sf] :yfkgf, e08f/ u[x Pj+ oftfoft s]Gb|sf nflu s] s:tf] Joj:yf ug{ cfjZos 5 < ;+rf/ < ;jf/L ;fwg tyf ;8s dfu{ < s] kof{Kt ;+Vofdf lzIfsx? tyf ;fdfu|Lx? pknAw 5g / s] ToxfF cltl/Qm ljBfyL{x? ;dfj]z ug{ kof{Kt k"jf{wf/ 5 < vfgf nfu" ubf{ klxn] g} sfo{af]em ePsf] z}lIfs k|0ffnLdf s:tf] k|efj kg]{ ;+efjgf xG5 < s] vfBfGg lbuf] xf]nf < olb xG5 eg] s;/L < vfBfGg ;xfotfsf] cGt ug{sf nflu s] s:tf] r/0fa4 /0fgLlt ckgfpg ;lsG5 < o;n] lzIffdf s:tf] k|efj kfb{5 < lzIff If]qdf sfd ug]{ cGo dfgjLo ;+:yfx? ToFxL jf glhs}sf :yfgfdf sfo{/t 5g < s] ltgLx?n] vfBfGgnfO{ lzIff sfo{qmdsf] ;|ftsf] ?kdf k|of]u ug]{ of]hgf 5 < olb 5 eg] sg ] tl/sfaf6 < s] ltlgx? ;dGjo ug{ OR5s 5g < s] vfBfGg cfnf]kfnf] ldnfO{ Ps?ktf xg] u/L ljleGg ;+:yfx? afF8g ;S5g < cfnf]kfnf] Joj:yfn] ljBfyL{x? Pj+ lzIfsx?nfO{ Ps ljBfno÷ If]qaf6 csf]{ ljBfno÷If]qdf s;/L cfslif{t ug{ ;Qm5 < sd{rf/Lsf] Joj:yfn] xfdLx?nfO{ jf xfd|f ;fem]bf/x?nfO{ s:tf] k|efj kfl//x]sf] 5 < ljBdfg sd{rf/Lsf] ;+Vof jt{dfg lhDd]jf/Lx?df c;/ gkg]{ u/L vfBfGgsf cfwf/df lzIff sfo{qmdx?sf] Joj:yfkg ug{ kof{Kt 5g < s] pNn]Vo dfqfdf j[l4 cfjZos 5 <vfB ;fdfu|L 5gf}6 tyf kf]ifs tTj M sg vfgf k|bfg ub}{ xgxG5 < sfo{qmdn] 3/ n}hfg] /f;g ;dfj]z u/]sf] 5 < sfo{qmdsf] cgudg s;/L xG5 < s:tf vfg]s/fx? pknAw 5g < ljBfnosf afnaflnsfx?df sg} vf; /f]u, skf]if0f jf cGo ;d:ofx? 5g < olb 5 eg] vf; ;Id kf]if0foQm sdhf]/L pkoQm vfg]s/f jf ;anLs/0fsf dfWodaf6 ;Daf]wg ug{ ;lsG5 < k/Dk/f cg;f/ ljBfnosf afnaflnsfx?sf] sg vfgfsf] rfxgf ub{5g / :Jffb s:tf] 5 <vfB ;/Iff, :jf:y tyf ;/;kmfO{nfO{ ;Daf]wg s] ljBfnox?df ;/;kmfO{sf ;ljwfx? tyf vfg]kfgL pknAw 5 < vfB ;+rfnsx?sf nflu ;zQm Pj+ k|lzlIft agfpg sfo{qmd tof/ kfbf{ tflnddf s;/L pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 < k|bl ift xg] hf]lvdnfO{ s;/L clNks/0f ug{ ;lsG5 < ljBfnosf afnaflnsfx?df hsf kg]{ h:tf k]6hGo /f]usf ;d:ofx? 5g < olb 5 eg] ljBfno vfgf sfo{qmd cGtu{t lgoldt ?kdf hsf x6fpg] pkrf/sf] Joj:yf cfjZos 5 <
    • 56 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 ljBfnosf afnaflnsfsf nflu PrcfO{eL÷P8; arfj6 sfo{qmd clxn] pknAw 5 < sfo{qmd tof/ kfbf{ PrcfO{eL÷P8; lg/f]wfTds lzIffnfO{ s;/L ;dfj]z ug{ ;lsG5 < obL lzIfs PrcfO{eL P8;af6 u|l;t ePdf s] s:tf] cfsl:ds of]hgf /x]sf] 5 <;do;Ldf M ;xfotf sfo{qmdsf] ;Defljt cjlw slt ;dosf] xg5 < ] k|To]s r/0f -k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vf, cfwf/e"t cWoog, cgudg tyf d"Nof+sg_ sf sfo{qmdsf nflu sg tYof+sx? pknAw 5g < vfBfGg slxn] pknAw xg5 <] sfo{qmd z? xgeGbf cl3 s:tf] Ifdtf ljsf;sf] lqmofsnfkx? xg cfjZos 5 / z?cft ug]{ ;Defljt ;do sg xf] < s;/L /fxt -/ kl5 kgnf{e_ ;xfotf cGt xg5 < / hxfF cfjZos 5 ToxfF tbg?k ljsf;sf] ] r/0fsf] nflu pkoQm ;+qmd0f s;/L xg ;S5 <bftfx? M ;+efljt bftfx? sf] xg < bftfx?sf] ;|ft slxn]af6 pknAw xg5 < ] ] bftfx?sf] nflu lj:t[t / k"0f{ sfo{qmdsf] k|:tfjaf/] cfbz{ sfo{qmdsf] k|f?k d:of}bf ul/Psf] 5 < bftfx?af6 slt ;do;Dd vfBfGg k|fKt xG5 < s]xL dlxgf !–@ jif{;Dd, %–!) jif{;Dd < -olb s]xL dlxgfsf] cjlw;Ddsf] nflu dfq bftfx?af6 vfBfGg pknAw xG5 eg] ljBfno vfgf sfo{qmd eGbf o;sf] pkof]u lzIfssf] k|fT;fxgsf] nflu ug{ /fd|f] xg5, h;sf nflu sDtLdf s]xL ;do ] ] nfUg ;S5_;|ft u|x0f M ljZj vfB sfo{qmd, cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf ljBfno vfgfsf] of]hgf–cj:Yff ljZn]if0f, ]of]hgf lgdf{0f, sfof{Gjog, ;g @))$, http://www.wfp.org, ;"rLM vfBfGgnfO{ ;|ftsf] ?kdf ]pkof]u ug]{ jf gug]{ egL lgwf{/0f, www.crs.org
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 57 # cWoog tyf cWofkg kl/ro s] k9fpg dxTjk"0f{ xg]5 egL lg0f{o ug{ ;a} lzIffljbsf nflu s7Lg 5 . cfktsfnLg ;dodf s:tf] k|s[ltsf] z}lIfs ;]jfx? pknAw u/fpg] egL dxTjk"0f{ lg0f{ox? ug{kg]{ xG5, rfx] cf}krfl/s jf cgf}krfl/s xg, kf7oqmdnfO{ nfu" ug{kb{5 rfx] Tof] pTklQ ePsf] /fHosf] xf]; jf k|fKt ug]{ b]zsf], / lzIf0fsf k|fyldstfx? rfx] hLljsf]kfh{gdf s]Gb|Lt jf Joj;flos ;Lk jf k|fl1s cWoog . hxfF kf7oqmd ;dLIff jf ljsf;sf] klg cfjZostf xg ;S5 .l;Sg] dflg;x?sf nflu lzIff dxTjk"0f{ /xg ;fGble{s 5 . o;sf nflu ltgLx?sf] z}lIfs cfjZostflgwf{/0f ug{ ;dbfo;Fu glhs a;]/ sfd ug]{ / lgb]zgx? k|fKt ug{ cfjZos xG5 . o;sf] cy{ {;fdfGotof olb ;Dej 5 eg] rfn" z}lIfs k|0ffnL;Fu} a;]/ sfd ug{ xf], 566} ;+/rgf :yflkt u/]/ xf]Og . o;n] ;a} z}lIfs k|of;df / l;Sg] ljifoj:tsf lg0f{osf ljifodf ;dbfosf] ;lqmo ;xeflutfnfO{hgfpFb5 . nfu" ul/Psf] kf7oqmd ljBfyL{x?sf] jt{dfg / ck]lIft eljiosf] dfu;Fu ;DalGwt xgkb{5 . h;n] ;+s6af6 kl/jt{g ePsf ;dbfosf cfjZostfx? h:t} hLjg ;Lkx?, zflGt lzIff, gful/slzIff, hgr]tgf, :Jff:Yo, kf]if0f, PrcfO{eL÷P8;, dfgj clwsf/ / jftfj/0f;Fu ;DalGwt ;"rgfx?;FucGt/;DalGwt xgkb{5 . afnaflnsf, ltgsf cfdfaaf, a9fkfsfx? / ;LdflGts[t ;d"xx?sf nflu cltl/Qm hLjg ;Lkx? ;DaGwL lzIff pknAw xgkg]5 . {
    • 58 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08cfktsfnLg lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? dgf];fdflhs x:tIf]ksf] Pp6f k|sf/ xf] h;n] kl/lrt lzIf0fsf]jftfj/0f lgdf{0f, lgoldt sfo{qmd tyf eljiosf nflu cfzfsf] efjgf ;+rf/ u/fpFb5 . lzIff pknAwu/fpg ;+nUg ePsf x/]s ljz]if u/L lzIfsx? tyf ljBfno k|zf;sx?n] cfkmgf] e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{dgf];fdflhs tyf ;dflhs k|efj clNks/0f ug]{ cledvLs/0f lng} kb{5 .lzIffsf ;]jfx?n] of] s/f aemg} kb{5 ls dflg;n] ljleGg tl/sfaf6 l;S5, ljleGg /kmtf/df l;S5/ lzIf0f k|lqmofdf ;lqmotfk"js ;xefuL u/fpg cfjZos xG5 eg]/ . k|efjsf/L ?kn] dflg;n] {l;Sgsf nflu ;xeflutfd"ns cWoog ljlw / cWofkgsf tl/sfx?, ljBfyL{ s]Gb|Lt ljlwx? ckl/xfo{5g . afnss]lGb|t k4ltn] k"0f{ JolQmsf] cfjZostfx? ;Daf]wg ug}kb{5, lzIf0f ;Lkx? afFRg, JolQmTj {ljsf; ug{, ;fdflhs cGt/lqmof / k|fl1s cWoogsf nflu cfjZos 5 . jo:sx?sf nflu cWooghLjg e/sf] nflu / k|of]ufTds xG5 . ltlgx?sf cWoog clej[l4 Tof] a]nf xG5 ha ltgLx?nfO{p2]Zo, d"No / l;ls/x]sf] ljifosf] ;Da4tf aemfOG5 Pj+ cfFkm} cWoogsf] k|lqmofdf ;lqmo ;xefuL xg]cj;/ pknAw u/fOG5 .ha lzIf0f lqmofsnfkx? ck|lzlIft xG5g, To:tf] a]nfdf cfwf/e"t ljifodf dfq xf]Og ls cfktsfnLg {;do;Fu ;Da4 ljifodf;d]t pkoQm tflnd lbg dxTjk"0f{ xG5 . nlIft hgtfsf dgf];fdflhscfjZostfx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ yk tflnd klg h?/L xG5 . ;dbfox?n] hfGg rfxG5g ls ;/sf/x?n] ltgLx?sf] afnaflnsfx?sf] lzIffnfO{ dfGoTff b]cf]; . ;fy} pRr lzIffsf] kxr / /f]huf/Lsf Fnflu ltgLx?n] k|fKt u/]sf] lzIffnfO{ pkof]u ug{ ;Ifd xf]pg eGg] ;d]t rfxG5g . dVo rf;f] eg]sf];/sf/x?n] z}lIfs ;+:yfx?n] / sd{rf/Lx?n] kf7oqmdnfO{ dfGotf lbP ls lbPgg jf k|df0fkqsf]pknAwtf g} xf] . ;kmntfsf] k|df0fkqn] ljwfyL{sf] sfo{;Dkfbg k/LIf0fsf] a}wtfsf cltl/Qm ljwfyL{sf]pknlAwx? tyf ljBfno cfpg pTk|/0ff lbG5 . z/0ffyL{x?sf] cj:Yffdf, k|df0fkqsf nflu z/0ffyL{ / ]dft[el" d basfaLr 7f]; jftf{sf] ;+nUgtf cfjZostf /xG5 . cfb{z ?kn] eGbf nfdf] cjlwsf] z/0ffyL{ }cj:yfdf kf7oqmdn] bj} k|sf/sf] ;fdgf ugkg]{ cfjZostf / :jLsf/ ugkg]{ xG5 – pTklQ ePsf] { {/fi6«sf] / z/0ffyL{ :jLsfg]{ /fi6«sf] . o;sf nflu z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? PsLs[t ug{ / ljleGg b]zdfz/0ffyL{sf] ;+Vofsf nflu kof{Kt If]qLo tyf cGt/lgsfo ;dGjosf] cfjZostf kb{5 .;a} ju{sf nflu ;femf Go"gtd dfkb08x?sf] ;DaGwz}lIfs k|ltsfo{ ljsf; jf sfof{Gjog ug]{ k|lqmof o;sf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] nflu dVo zt{ xf] . of] v08sf]pkof]u ;a} ju{sf nflu ;femf Go"gtd dfkb08x?;Fu tfbfTdotf xg] u/L ugkg]5, h;n] ;dbfosf] { {;xeflutf, :yfgLo ;fwg;|ft, k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vf, k|ltsfo{, cgudg tyf d"Nof+sgnfO{ ;dfj]z u/]sf] ]5 . vf;?kdf eGbf ljkb k|efljt hgtfsf] ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xx? ;lxtsf] ;xeflutfnfO{ a9f]Q/L u/Lo;sf] pkoQmtf / u0f:t/nfO{ ;lglZrt ug}{ kb{5 .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 59Go"gtd dfkb08x? M logLx? u0ffTds k|sl[ tsf] xg5g / z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf Joj:yfx?sf] Go"gtd ]pknlAwsf] :t/ lgwf{l/t xg5g . ]dVo ;"rsx? M logLx? ;+stx? xg h;n] dfkb08x? k"/f eP jf gePsf] b]vfpFb5g . logLx?n] ]sfo{qmd / o;df k|of]u ul/Psf k|lqmof jf ljlwx?n] kf/]sf k|efj jf kl/0ffdx?sf] dfkg / ;+rf/ug]{ pkfo b]vfpF5 . lo ;"rsx? ;+VofTds jf u0ffTds xg ;Qm5g .dfu{bz{g M o;df ljleGg cj:yfx?df dfkb08 / ;"rsx? k|of]u ug]{ ljlw, Jojxfl/s ;d:of;dfwfgfy{ pkfox? / k|fyldstf k|fKt d2fx?sf ljifodf ;Nnfx h:tf Wofg lbgkg]{ eGg]vf; abfx? ;dfj]z /x]sf 5g . ltgLx?df h6Ln dfkb08 jf ;rs ;Da4 h6Ln k|Zgx? / Flåljwf, ljjfbx? jf jt{dfg 1fgsf ck"0f{ kIfx?sf] JofVof ;dfj]z 5 . cg;rL @ df 5flgPsf ";Gbe{ u|Gyx? pNn]lvt 5g, h;df ;fdfGo ljifox? / vf; k|fljlws ljifosf ;"rgfsf ;|ftx? ]k|i6ofOPsf 5g . cWoog tyf cWofkg dfkb08 ! dfkb08 @ dfkb08 # dfkb08 $ kf7oqmd tflnd k|lzIf0f d"Nof+sg vf; cfktsfnLg cfjZostf tyf k|lzIf0f cWoogsf kl/l:yltdf kl/l:ylt cg?k ljBfyL{–s]Gb|Lt, pknlAwx? d"Nof+sg cf}krfl/s tyf lzIfsx? tyf ;xeflutfd"ns ug{ / k/LIf0f ug{ cgf}krfl/s lzIff cGo lzIffsdL{x?n] / ;dfj]zL xG5 . pkoQm k4ltx? k|bfg ug{sf nflu cfjlws, ;Da4 tyf pkof]u ul/g]5 .;fF:s[lts, ;fdflhs Jojl:yt tflnd tyf eflifs ?kn] ;Da4 kf7oqmd k|fKt ug]5g . { k|of]udf NofOg]5 . cg;rL @M ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L tyf ;|ft ;fdfu|L " ] cWoog Pj+ cWofkg v08
    • 60 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 cWoog tyf cWofkg;DaGwL dfkb08 ! M kf7oqmd vf; cfktsfnLg kl/l:yltdf cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIff k|bfg ug{sf nflu ;fF:s[lts, ;fdflhs tyf eflifs ?kn] ;Da4 kf7oqmd k|of]udf NofOg]5 .dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { cfktsfnLg cj:yfaf6 k|elfjt ljBfyL{x?sf] pd]/, ljsf;sf] :t/, efiff, ;F:s[lt, Ifdtf tyf cfjZostfx?sf] pkoQmtf cg?k jt{dfg kf7oqmdsf] ;dLIff ul/g]5 . kf7oqmdsf] cfjZostf cg?k pkof]u, cgsng jf kl/dfhg{ ul/g]5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? !–# x]gxf]nf_ . " { hxFf kf7oqmd ljsf; jf cgsng cfjZos kb{5 ToxfF ;fem]bf/x?sf] cy{k0f{ ;xeflutf u/fOg]5 " " / ljBfyL{x?sf] c;n rfxgfx? / cfjZostfx?nfO{ ljrf/ k¥ofOg]5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? !–# x]gxf]nf_ . { kf7oqmdn] cfktsfnLg kl/l:yltsf r/0f ;Da4 hLjg ;Lkx?, ;fIf/tf, ul0ftLo / cfwf/e"t lzIffsf dVo bIftfx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ub{5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? $–% x]gxf]nf_ . { cfktsfnLg ;dodf / ;f] kZrftsf] kl/l:ylt;Fu hWgsf] nflu kf7oqmdn] lzIfs tyf ljBfyL{x?sf dgf];fdflhs hLjg:t/sf cfjZostfx? ;Daf]wg ub{5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ^ x]gxf]nf_ . { cWoogsf ljifoj:tx?, ;fdfu|Lx? tyf k|lzIf0f ljwfyL{x? tyf lzIfsx?sf] efiffdf g} pknAw u/fOg]5, ljz]if u/L z?sf jif{x?sf] cWoogx?df -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL & x]gxf]nf_ . { kf7oqmd tyf k|lzIf0fsf ljlwx?n] ljBfyL{x?sf] jt{dfg cfjZostfnfO{ x]g5 / eljiosf l;Sg] {] cj;/x?nfO{ clej[l4 ub{5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL * x]gxf]nf_ . { kf7oqmd / k|lzIf0f ;fdfu|Lx? n+l} us d}qL, ljljwtf cfTd;ft ug]{ / ljBfyL{x?sf] cfb/nfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ xg5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ( x]gxf]nf_ . ] { kof{Kt cWoog tyf cWofkgsf ;fdfu|Lx? ;DalGwt z}lIfs lqmofsnfkdf ;xof]u k¥ofpg cfjZostf cg;f/ / ;dod} pknAw u/fOg]5 . bLuf]kgfsf nflu :yfgLo:t/df pknAw xg;Sg] ;fdfu|Lx?nfO{ k|fyldstf lbOg]5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL !) x]gxf]nf_ . {
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 61dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx?!= kf7oqmdnfO{ ljBfyL{x?nfO{ ltgsf] 1fg tyf ;Lksf] cfwf/ km/flsnf] agfpg d2t ug]{ Ps sfo{of]hgfsf] ?kdf kl/efiff ug{ ;lsG5 . Go"gtd dfkb08sf] p2]Zox?sf] nflu, kf7oqmdnfO{ 5ftf zAbsf] ?kdf k|of]u ul/G5 h;nfO{ bj} cf}krfl/s / cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?df k|of]u ul/G5 . o;df cWoogsf p2]Zox?, cWoogsf ljifoj:tx?, lzIf0f ljlwx? tyf tl/sfx?, k|lzIf0fsf ;fdfu|Lx? tyf d"Nof+sgsf k4ltx? ;dflji6 /xG5g . bj} cf}krfl/s / cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? kf7oqmdaf6 lgb]l{ zt xg5 h;n] ljBfyL{x?sf] 1fg / ] cgej a9fpg] / tTsfnLg jftfj/0f;Fu ;DalGwt /xG5 . Go"gtd dfkb08x?sf nflu b]xfosf kl/efiffx? k|of]u ul/Psf 5gM cWoogsf] p2]Zon] 1fg, ;Lkx?, d"Nox? tyf k|jl[ tx?nfO{ klxrfg ub{5 hg z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx?åf/f ljsl;t xG5 cWoogsf ljifoj:tx? k9gkg]{ jf l;Sgkg]{ ;fdfu|L -1fg, ;Lkx?, dNox? tyf k|jl[ Qx?_ xg lzIf0f ljlwx?n] cWoogsf ljifoj:tx?sf] k|:tlts/0f ug{ pkof]u ul/Psf] k4lt jf tl/sfx?nfO{ hgfpFb5 cWofkg tl/sf / k4lt ljlwsf] Ps c+u xf] / o;n] ;du| ljlw pkof]u ug]{ k|lqmofx?sf] lgdf{0f ub{5 / k|lzIf0f ;fdfu|L eGgfn] k:tsx?, kf]i6/x? tyf cGo cWoog tyf cWofkgsf ;fdfu|Lx?nfO{ hgfpFb5 . ;DalGwt cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf] kf7oqmddf u0f:t/Lo cWoogsf ljifoj:t ;dfj]z xgkg]5 hg n}l+ us d}qL, cWoogsf] :t/cg?k pkoQm / ljBfyL{x? tyf lzIfsx?n] { aemg] efiffdf xgkb{5 . ljBfyL{n] l;Sg] qmddf ltgsf] ;lqmo e"ldsfnfO{ k|fT;fxg ug{ ] ;xeflutfd"ns ljlwx? klg kf7oqmdsf] c+u xg5 -cg;rL !M zAbfjnL k[i7 (), ] " u0f:t/Lo lzIff / ;DalGwt lzIffsf kl/efiffx? x]gxf]nf_ . {@= pd]/ cg?k / ljsf;sf] txM kf7oqmdsf] k/LIf0f ljBfyL{sf] pd]/ cg?k dfq xf]Og ls ljsf;sf] tx;Fu ;d]t tfbfDotf sfod /fVg] s/f ;lglZrt ug{sf nflu ugkg]5 . pd]/ / { { ljsf;sf] tx Jofks ?kdf cfktsfnLg ;dosf bj} cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?df km/s xg;Qm5 h;sf nflu kf7oqmd / k4ltx?sf] cgsng cfjZos kb{5 . " æpd]/ cg?kÆ eGgfn] l;nl;n]jf/ pd]/ ;d"xnfO{ hgfpFb5 eg] æljsf;sf] pkoQmtfÆ eGgfn] ljBfyL{x?sf] oyfy{ cfjZostfx? tyf dfgl;s ljsf;nfO{ aemfpFb5 .
    • 62 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 #= kf7oqmd ljsf; Ps nfdf] tyf sl7g k|lqmof xg;S5, t/ cfktsfnLg ;dodf w]/h;f] } kf7oqmd pTklQ ePsf] /fHo jf, lng] /fHo jf cGo cfktsfnLg :yfgaf6 NofP/ k|of]u ul/G5 . bj} cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s b|t z?cflt kf7oqmdn] ;a} ljBfyL{x?sf ljz]if cfjZostfx? h:t} n8fs ;d"x;Fu ;Da4 afnaflnsfx?, txeGbf pd]/ gfl3;s]sf ljBfyL{x?, ljBfno 5f]8sf / jo:s ljBfyL{x?sf cfjZostfx? ;lglZrt ug{ dxTjk"0f{ xg5 . ;fy} of] ] ] klg dxTjk"0f{ xg5 ls ;/f]sfnjfnfx? ;lqmo ?kdf kf7oqmd tof/Ldf ;+nUg /xgsf ] cltl/Qm lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?sf] cfjlws ;dLIffdf klg ;+nUg /xg]5g . w]/} ;+Vofdf ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;Fu k/fdz{ lnOg]5 h;df ljBfyL{x?, ;dbfosf ;b:ox?, lzIfsx?, ;xhstf{x?, lzIffsf clwsf/Lx? tyf sfo{qmd lgb]zsx? kb{5g . { hxfF cf}krfl/s lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? cfktsfnLg kl/l:yltsf] ;do / tTkZrft ;+rfng ubf{ dfGotfk|fKt k|fylds tyf dfWolds ljBfnosf kf7oqmdx? k|of]u ug{ k|fyldstf lbOg]5 / cfjZostfg;f/ To;nfO{ kl/dflh{t ul/g]5 . z/0ffyL{sf nflu cf}krfl/s lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?sf nflu pTklQ ePsf] /fi6«sf] kf7oqmd nfu" ug{ k|fyldstf lbOg]5 h;af6 :j]lR5s 3/kmLlt{nfO{ ;xh agfpg]5, oBlk of] ;Fw} pkoQm / ;Dej gxg ;Qm5 . o:tf] lg0f{odf z/0ffyL{ / o;sf] :jfutfyL{ /fi6«sf efjgfx?nfO{ k"0f{tM ljrf/ ugkg]5 . { { cfbz{ ?kdf, nfdf] cjlwsf] z/0ffyL{sf] kl/l:yltdf kf7oqmdn] bj} tl/sfsf kf7oqmdx?sf] ;fdgf ugkg]{ cfjZostf xg ;Qm5 / pTklQsf] /fi6« / :jfutfyL{ /fi6«sf nflu :jLsfo{ { xgkb{5 . o;sf nflu z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx?df Ps?ktf Nofpg / z/0ffyL{sf] ljleGg /fi6«df /x]sf] ;+Vofsf cfwf/df ;f/e"t If]qLo tyf cGt/ lgsfo ;dGjosf] h?/t kb{5 . vf; d2fx? h:t} eflifs bIftfx? tyf k/LIffsf kl/0ffdx?sf] k|dfl0fs/0fsf] dfGotfsf nflu lg0f{ox? ugkb{5 . { $= pkoQm k|lzIf0f ljlwx? ljsf; ul/g]5 / ljBfyL{sf] ;Gbe{, cfjZostfx?, pd]/ / Ifdtf cg?k ljz]if tof/L ul/g]5 . cfktsfnLg kl/l:yltsf] k|f/lDes r/0fx?df gofF ljlwx? nfu" ubf{ lzIfsx? nufot ljBfyL{, cfdfaaf, ;dbfosf ;b:ox?n] tgfjk"0f{ cgej ug{ ;Qm5g h;n] o;nfO{ Hofb} kl/jt{g ePsf] jf w]/} l56f] ePsf] eG7fGg ;Qm5g . cfktsfnLg kl/l:yltdf lzIff jf k|f/lDes kgMlgdf0fn] cf}krfl/s lzIffsf] jftfj/0fdf lzIfsx?sf nflu kl/jt{gsf] cj;/ k|:tfj ugkb{5, t/ cem w]/} ;xeflutfd"ns jf ljBfyL{ d}qL k|lzIf0f { Wofgk"js tyf ;+jbgzLn eO{ clgjfo{ ?kdf Nofpg} kb{5 . cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?df { ] :j+o;]jsx?nfO{ tflnd, ;+hLjs/x? (Animators) jf ;xhstf{x? dfkm{t ljBfyL{ s]Gb|Lt k4ltx? l56f] nfu" ug{ ;lsG5 .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 63%= dVo bIftfx? cWoogsf ljifoj:tx? jf lzIfssf] tflnd ;fdfu|L ljsf; jf cgsng ug{ " cl3 g} klxrfg ugkg]5 . sfof{Tds ;fIf/tf tyf ul0ftLo ljifoeGbf cem cufl8 cfwf/e"t { { lzIffsf] dVo bIftfx? eGGffn] ljBfyL{x?sf nflu cfktsfnLg k|efljt hgtfn] ;dbfo jf /fHosf] ;lqmo ;b:osf] x}lotn] ;lqmotfk"js / ;f/e"t ?kn] ;xefuL xg cfjZos kg]{ 1fg, { ;Lkx?, k|jl[ Qx? / cEof;nfO{ hgfpFb5 .^= ljBfyL{sf] ;fy;fy} lzIffsdL{x?sf] dgf];fdflhs cfjZostf tyf ljsf;nfO{ cfktsfnsf ;a} r/0fx?df / ;+s6 tyf kgnf{esf nflu ;d]t ;Daf]wg ugkg]{ / ljrf/ k¥ofpg clgjfo{ { xg5 . cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf ;a} lzIffsdL{x?nfO{ ljBfyL{x?sf] tgfjsf ] ;+stx? aemg ;Sg] u/L k|lzlIft ugkg]5 / lzIf0f jftfj/0fdf o:tf] Jojxf/nfO{ x6fpg ] { { cfjZos k|of;x? ug}{ kb{5 . sg} ljBfyL{af6 tgfjsf] ulDe/ l:ylt b]vfOPdf ltgLx?nfO{ cltl/Qm ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg lzIffsdL{x?nfO{ :ki6 xg] u/L l;kmfl/; ;+oGqx? ls6fg xgkg]5 . dgf]qf;df k/]sf aRrf jf ojf ju{sf nflu lzIf0f ljlwx? cgdfg of]Uo ;+/rgf, { 5f]6f] cjlwsf cWoogsf sIffx? h;n] Wofg PsLs[t ug{ d2t k¥ofcf];, ;sf/fTds cgzf;g ljlwx?, cWoogsf lqmofsnfkx?df ;a} ljBfyL{x?sf] ;xeflutf / ;dGjofTds v]nx? ;d]t ;dfj]z ugkg]5 . lzIffsdL{x?sf dgf]j1flgs cfjZostfx?nfO{ klg ljrf/ { { } k¥ofpg kg]5 lsgls sd{rf/Lx? klg k|efljt hgtfx?af6 lnOPsf] xG5 / ltgLx?n] ;d]t { ljBfyL{sf] h:t} k|sl[ tsf] tgfj jf dgf]qf;sf] ;fdgf ul//x]sf xG5g . tflnd, cgudg tyf ;kl/j]If0f ;xof]un] oL kIfx?nfO{ :ki6?kdf ljrf/ k¥ofpg kb{5 -dgf];fdflhs ;Gbe{ ;"rLsf nflu kxr tyf cWoogsf] jftfj/0f kl/lzi6 ! k[i7 %@ x]gxf]nf, kxr tyf cWoogsf] F { F jftfj/0f;DaGwL dfkb08 @ / lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{sf] dfkb08 tLg klg x]gxf]nf, { k[i7 $*–%) df _&= efiff M z/0ffyL{ k|fKt u/]sf /fHosf nflu of] c;fdfGo xf]Og ls ltgLx?n] z/0ffyL{sf z}lIfs sfo{qmdx? ltgLx?sf] dfkb08x? nfu" ug{sf ;fy;fy} cfkmgf] efiff / kf7oqmd klg k|of]u ug{ vf]H5g . oBlk, ljBfyL{x?sf] eljiodfly ljrf/ k¥ofpg dxTjk"0f{ xg5, ] ljz]if u/L h;n] cfktsfnLg cjlw kZRfft klg cfkmgf] cWoognfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg rfxG5g . dfgjLo ;xfostfsdL{n] z/0ffyL{x?sf] dft[efiff jf /fli6«o efiffdf k9gsf nflu cgdlt lbg 7f]; ?kdf :yfgLo ;/sf/nfO{ clek|l] /t ugkg]5 . olb of] cgdlt lbOof] eg] ;a} { { dVo cWoogsf ljifoj:t, lzIfs dfu{bz{g, ljBfyL{sf k:ts / cGo df}lvs tyf >Job[Zo ;fdfu|Lx? dft[efiffdf geP k|lzIf0fsf ;fdfu|Lx? pNyf ugkg]5 . olb o;/L cgjfb ug{ { { cgdlt gkfPdf, ljBfyL{x?sf] efiffdf k"/s sIffx? ;+rfng tyf lqmofsnfkx? ljsf; ugkg]5 . { {
    • 64 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 *= cWoogsf ljifoj:t tyf dVo cjwf/0ffx?M ha cWoogsf ljifoj:t lgwf{/0f ul/G5 ta ljwfyL{x?sf x/]s r/0fsf cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf nflu pkof]uL 1fg, ;Lkx? tyf efiff-x?_ df Wofg k¥ofpg kb{5 / hg ;Lkx?n] ltgLx?sf] Ifdtf clej[l4 u/L cfktsfnLg kl/l:ylt jf tTkZrft cfTdlge{/, pTkfbgzLn hLjg afFRg ;sg / cWoogsf cj;/x?df lg/Gt/ kxr sfod /fVg ;Ifd agfpmg . F cWoogsf pkoQm ljifoj:t tyf dVo cjwf/0ffx?df lgDglnlvt tTjx?df cfwfl/t /xG5 M ;Lkdf cfwfl/t :jf:Yo lzIff -pd]/ tyf cj:yfsf] pkoQmtfg;f/M k|fylds pkrf/, k|hgg :jf:Yo, of}ghGo ;?jf /f]ux?, PrcfO{eL÷ P8; dfgj clwsf/ tyf dfgjLo d"No, ;lqmo gful/s, zflGt lzIff÷zflGt lgdf{0f, clx+;f, åGå /f]syfd÷Joj:yfkg÷;dfwfg, afn ;+/If0f, ;/Iff / ;/lIft pkfo ;fF:s[lts lqmofsnfkx? h:t} ;+uLt, g[To, gf6s, v]nsb gofF jftfj/0fdf afFRgsf nflu cfjZos ;"rgfM af?bL tyf gk8lsPsf ljikmf]6s kbfy{x?;DaGwL ;r]tgf, b|t :yfgfGt/0f / ;]jfx?df kxr F afn tyf jo:s ljsf; / hLljsf]kfh{gsf] ;Lkx? tyf Joj;flos tflnd . (= ljljwtfnfO{ cfktsfnsf ;a} r/0fx?sf z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? tof/ kfbf{ Pj+ sfof{Gjog ubf{ Wofg lbgkb{5, ljz]if u/L ljljwtfoQm ljBfyL{x?sf] ;dfj]zL, ljleGg k[i7e"ldsf lzIfsx?÷;xhstf{sf] ;dfj]zL / ;lxi0ftf / cfb/sf] efjgf ljsf; kb{5g . ljljwtfnfO{ k|fT;fxg ug]{ kIfx?df cGo s/fx?sf cltl/Qm n}l+ us, ;F:s[lt, /fli6«otf, hftLotf, wd{, l;Sg] ] Ifdtf, ljz]if cfjZostf ePsf ljBfyL{x? / ax–txut Pj+ ax–pd]/ut k|lzIf0fx? kb{5g . !)= ljBfyL{x?sf nflu :yfgLo :t/df pknAw xg;Sg] ;fdfu|Lx? cfktsfnLg l:ylt b]vf kgf{;fy vf]hL ugkg]5 . z/0ffyL{x?sf nflu pgLx? cfPsf] If]q jf /fHodf k|fKt xg;Sg] { { ;fdfu|Lx? xg . ;fdfu|Lx? vl/b, ljsf; jf cgsng u/L kof{Kt dfqfdf pknAw u/fpg " kg]5 . ;fdfu|Lx?sf] e08f/, ljt/0f tyf k|of]usf] d"Nof+sg ug{ cfjZos xg5 . ljBfyL{x?n] { ] cWoogsf ljifoj:tx?nfO{ cfFsng ug{;Sg] xgkb{5 / ;fdfu|Lx?n] ljBfyL{sf] ;F:s[ltnfO{ cfb/ u/]sf] k|ltljlDjt xgkb{5 .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 65 cWoog tyf cWofkg;DaGwL dfkb08 @ M tflnd cfjZostf tyf kl/l:ylt cg?k lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x?n] cfjlws, ;Da4 tyf Jojl:yt tflnd k|fKt ug]5g . {dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { tflnd;Fu k|fyldsLs/0f ul/Psf cfjZostf, lzIff lqmofsnfkx?sf] p2]Zox? / cWoogsf ljifoj:tx? ;DalGwt 5g -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL !–@ x]gxf]nf_ . { pkoQm cg;f/ ;DalGwt lzIffsf clwsf/Lx?n] tflndsf] lg0f{o / dfGotf k|bfg ug]5g -dfu{bz{g { l6Kk0fLx? #–$ x]gxf]nf_ . { of]Uo k|lzIfsx?n] tflnd sfo{qmd ;+rfng u5{g / lg/Gt/ ;xof]u tyf dfu{bz{g, :yfgLo :t/df pkoQm cgudg, d"Nof+sg / lg/LIf0f tyf kgtf{huL tflndsf] Joj:yf ul/g]5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL $ x]gxf]nf_ . { tflnddf lg/Gt/ cgudg / lzIfsx?nfO{ lzIf0f jftfj/0fdf ;xhstf{sf] e"ldsfsf] nflu k|fT;fxg ug],{ ;xeflutfd"ns lzIf0f ljlwx?nfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ / lzIf0f ;xfotf ;fdfu|Lx?sf] k|bz{g ] ;dfj]z /xG5 . tflndsf ljifoj:tx?n] lzIfsx?sf], ljBfyL{x?sf] / ;dbfox?sf] cfjZostf k"/f u/] jf gu/]sf] ljifodf lg/Gt/ d"Nof+sg ul/g]5 / cfjZostf ePdf kl/dfh{g ul/g]5 . tflndn] lzIfsx?nfO{ ;dbfosf ;b:ox?nfO{ cfjZos ePsf ;dodf g]tTjbfoL e"ldsfx?sf [ nflu ;Ifd agfpg pkoQm ;Lkx? k|bfg ub{5 . dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != ælzIfsÆ eGgfn] bj} cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIff sfo{qmdsf k|lzIfsx? / ;xhstf{x? jf ;+hLjsx?nfO{ hgfpFb5 -lgolQm, 5gf}6 tyf sfo{zt{ / ;xof]u tyf cgudg;DaGwL ;"rgfsf nflu lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x?sf] dfkb08 !–# k[i7 &# x]gxf]nf_ . { @= tflndsf] kf7oqmd / ljifo;"rL ljsf;sf] cfwf/ kl/l:yltsf] ;Gbe{ cg;f/ lzIffsdL{x?sf] vf; cfjZostf / ah]6 tyf ;do;Ldfdf cfwfl/t xgkb{5 . tflnd sfo{qmdx?n] cfksfnLg ;dodf d"Nodf cfwfl/t lzIffsf rgf}ltx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ugkg]5 / cfjZostf cg;f/ hLjg { { ;Lkx? tyf zflGt lzIff klg ;dfj]z ugkg]5 . { {
    • 66 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 tflnd kf7oqmddf cGo s/fsf cltl/Qm dVo ljifosf] 1fg, z}lIfs tyf lzIf0f ljlwx?, afn ljsf;, kfsf JolQmx?nfO{ k|lzIf0f, ljljwtfsf] cfb/, ljz]if cfjZostfsf ljBfyL{x?nfO{ lzIf0f k|lqmof, dgf];fdflhs cfjZostfx?, åGb /f]syfd÷;dfwfg / zflGt lzIff, dfgj clwsf/, afn clwsf/, cfrf/ ;+lxtf, lzIfssf nflu hLjg ;Lkx? -PrcfO{eL÷P8; ;lxt_, ljBfno / ;dbfosf] ;DaGw, ;dbfosf ;|ftx?sf] pkof]u, ;qmd0fdf /x]sf kmls{g of]Uo ] hgtf h:t} lj:yflkt ;dbfo tyf z/0ffyL{x?sf] cfjZostfx? klxrfg / k"/f ug]{ s/fx? kb{5g . #= tflnd ;xof]u tyf ;dGjo M ha cfktsfnLg cj:yfn] l:y/tf kfpF5 ta /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo lzIff clwsf/Lx? / ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx? cfjZostfg;f/ cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIfs tflnd lqmofsnfksf] tof/L tyf sfof{Gjogdf ;+nUg /xgkg]5 . ;]jfdf { sfo{/t /x]sf lzIfs tflndsf] kf7oqmd ljsf; / k|fKt u/]sf] tflndnfO{ dfGotf k|bfg ug{ cfktsfnLg k|ltsfo{sf] z?cftd} ;+jfb z? ug{ ;Nnfx lbOG5 . oBlk, w]/} z/0ffyL{x?sf] cj:yfdf ;bfh;f] z/0ffyL{sf] ;dbfo / lzIff sfo{qmdx? Pj+ :yfgLo lzIff k|0ffnLsf aLr sg} ;DaGw xbg . F} ;Defjgf cg;f/ pkoQm k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f sfo{qmd ug{ :yfgLo k|lzIfsx? klxrfg ugkg]5 h;n] ltgLx?sf] ;xhLs/0f Pj+ tflnd ;Lkx?sf] cfjZostfg?k Ifdtf ljsf; { { ug{ ;sg . hxfF ;Lldt ;+Vofdf k|lzIfsx? pknAw /x]sf5g jf ckof{Kt tj/df k|lzlIft /x]sf5g eg] afxo ;+:yfx? -h:t}M ;+oQm /fi6«;3, cGt/f{li6«o u}=;=;+=_ / :yfgLo, /fli6«o tyf + If]qLo ;+:yfx?;Fu ;dGjofTds k|of;x? u/L jt{dfg jf ;+qmd0fsfnLg ;+/rgf / ;+:yfx? dfkm{t ;]jfsfnLg jf k"j;jfsfnLg lzIfs tflnd ;b9Ls/0f ugkg]5 . { ] [ { { $= dfGotf tyf ;Da4tf M /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo lzIffsf clwsf/Lx?af6 tTsfnLg cj:yfdf u0f:t/ / dfGotfsf nflu :jLs[lt tyf ;Da4tf vf]Hgkg]5 / o;df cfktsfnLg { l:ylt kZrftsf] cj:yfnfO{ klg dWogh/ /fVgkg]5 . z/0ffyL{ lzIfssf] xsdf, lzIffsf { clwsf/Lx?n] :yfgLo b]z jf u[x /fHo÷If]q jf ltdWo] sg} Psn] tflndnfO{ dfGotf lbgkg]5 . o; p2]Zo k"lt{sf] nflu k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f kf7oqmdx? /fd|/L Jojl:yt / { k:tssf/df /xg kb{5 / lzIffsf clwsf/Lx?åf/f tf]lsPsf lzIfssf nflu cfjZos of]Uotf k"/f ugsf ;fy;fy} cfktsfn ;Da4 cGo cltl/Qm cfjZostfx? k"/f ug{ cfjZos xg5 . { ]
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 67 cWoog tyf cWofkg;DaGwL dfkb08x? # M k|lzIf0f k|lzIf0f ljBfyL{–s]Gb|Lt, ;xeflutfd"ns / ;dfj]zL xG5dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { ljwfyL{x?nfO{ ltlgx? cfFkm}n] ;lqmotfk"js ;xefuL eO{ l;Sg] k|of]hgsf] nflu cj;/x? pknAw { /xG5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL Ps x]gxf]nf_ . { lzIf0f jftfj/0f ;wf/ ug{ / ljBfyL{x? cfFkm} ;+nUg eO{ l;Sg] s/fdf ;xhtf k|bfg ug{ ;xeflutfd"ns k4ltsf] pkof]u ul/G5 . ljBfyL{x?;Fusf] cEof; tyf cGt/lqmofsf dfWodaf6 lzIfsx?n] kf7sf ljifoj:tnfO{ aemfpg / k|lzIf0fsf qmddf k|fKt ;Lkx? k|bz{g ug]5g . { k|lzIf0fdf ;a} ljBfyL{x?sf cfjZostfx? vf;u/L ljz]if cfjZostf ePsfx?sf] dfunfO{ cWoogsf cj/f]wx?nfO{ x6fO{ / ;dfj]zLkgnfO{ a9fO{ ;Daf]wg ul/g]5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL @ x]gxf]nf_ . { cfdfaaf tyf ;dbfosf cujfx?n] cWoogsf ljifoj:tx? / k|of]u ul/Psf] cWofkg ljlwx? aem5g / :jLsf/ ub{5g -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL @ x]gxf]nf_ . { dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != ;lqmo ;xeflutf M cWofkg cGt/lqmofTds / ;xeflutfd"ns xgkg]5 . o;n] cWoog tyf { cWofkgsf ljlwx? ljsf;fTds b[li6n] klg pkoQm /xgkg]5 . o;df cGo ljlwx?sf cltl/Qm { ;d"x sfo{, cfof]hgf sfo{, hf]8L lzIff, e"ldsf lgjf{x, j0f{gx?, v]nsb, rnlrq tyf syfx? ;dfj]z xg ;Qm5g . ;lqmo cWoogn] lzIfs tyf ljBfyL{aLr / ljBfyL{ laBfyL{aLrsf] cfk;L ;DaGw ljsf; ug{ d2t k¥ofpF5 / dgf];fdflhs pRr hLjg:t/ ;lglZrt ug{ klg d2t k¥ofpF5 -kxr tyf cWoogsf] jftfj/0f;DaGwL dfkb08 @, dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ^, k[i7 $( F x]gxf]nf_ { @= cWoogsf Jojwfgx? M cfktsfnLg kl/l:yltsf cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf lqmofsnfk ;DaGwdf lzIfsx? cfdfaaf, ;dbfosf ;b:ox? tyf z}lIfs g]tTj;Fu s/fsfgL [ ug{ k|lzlIft xgkb{5, ;fy;fy} ljljwtf, ;dfj]zL / afxo lj:tf/sf d2fx? klg 5nkmn } ug{;Sg] xgkb{5 . z}lIfs g]tTj, cfdfaaf tyf ;dbfosf ;b:ox?;Fu jftf{ pgLx?sf] aemfO{ [ / ;dfj]zLs/0fsf] nflu ;xof]u k|fKt ug{ Pj+ pkoQm ;|ft ;fdfu|Lsf nflu cfjZos 5 . ] #= k|lzIf0fsf ljlwx?sf] 5gf}6 / k|of]u lzIff, cgej, tflnd tyf lzIfsx?sf] cfjZostf;Fu tfnd]n xg] k|sl[ tsf] xgkb{5 . lzIfsx? kl/jlt{t ;Gbe{sf kl/lrt /xgkg]5, ;fy;fy} { lzIfsx?sf] r]tgf tyf Jojxf/df vf]lhPsf] kl/jt{gk|lt klg ;r]t xgkb{5 . cfdfaaf, ;dbfo tyf k/Dk/fut / wfld{s g]tfx?sf] ;xeflutf / :jLsfo{tf k|lzIf0f ljlwx? Pj+ lqmofsnfkx?sf] :t/j[l4 ug{sf nflu ;xof]uL xG5g h;af6 ;dbfosf] rf;f]x? k"lt{ xG5g .
    • 68 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 cWoog tyf cWofkg;DaGwL dfkb08 $ M n]vfhf]vf cWoogsf pknlAwx? d"Nof+sg ug{ / k/LIf0f ug{ pkoQm ljlwx? pkof]u ul/g]5 .dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { cfjlws ?kdf / pkoQm ?kn] cWoogsf] k/LIf0f ug{ ljljwtfoQm lg/Gt/ n]vfhf]vf / d"Nof+sg k4ltx? :yflkt ug]{ . oL ;"rgfx? pkof]u ug{ sfo{ljlwx? :yflkt u/L k|lzIf0fsf] u0f:t/ ;wf/ ug]{ -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ! x]gxf]nf_ { ljBfyL{sf pknlAwx?nfO{ dfGotf lbOPsf] / c+s jf kf7 ;dfKt ePsf] ljj/0f k7fOPsf] ;lglZrt ug]{ -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL @ x]gxf]nf_ { n]vfhf]vf tyf d"Nof+sgsf ljlwx? ljBfyL{x?sf nflu lgikIf, ljZj;gLo / rgf}ltk"0f{ g/xg] -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL # x]gxf]nf_ { dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != k|efjsf/L n]vfhf]vf tyf d"Nof+sg k4ltx? Pj+ k|of;x? ul/g]5 h;n] b]xfosf tTjx?nfO{ k|ltlglwTj ug]5M { ;Da4tf -h:t} k/LIffx? tyf ;xfos kl/Iffx? lzIf0fsf ;Gbe{;u ;DalGwt / pkoQm F /x]sf]_M Ps?ktf -h:t}M d"Nof+sg k4ltx? ;a}sf nflu kl/lrt xg5 / ;a} 7fpF tyf lzIfsx?sf nflu ] ;dfg ?kdf nfu" xg5g_ ] cj;/ -56sf ljwfyL{x?sf nflu csf]{ n]vfhf]vfsf] cj;/ pknAw u/fOg]5_ ] ;do -lzIf0fsf] qmddf / cGtdf n]vfhf]vf ul/g]5_ k6s -h;nfO{ cfktsfnn] k|efj kfg{ ;Qm5_ pkoQm cj:yf -pkoQm cj:yf jf ;ljwfx? cf}krfl/s n]vfhf]vfsf] ;dodf pknAw u/fpg] / pkoQm lzIffsdL{x?åf/f u/fpg]_ / ;/f]sf/jfnfx? / kf/blz{tf -d"Nof+sgsf] kl/0ffdx? ljBfyL{x? / ;DalGwt afnaflnsf tyf ltgLx?sf] cfdfaafx?sf aLr cfbfgk|bfg ul/g]5 . @= n]vfhf]vfsf] kl/0ffdx? M cf}krfl/s lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?sf] xsdf d"Nof+sg ubf{ ljBfyL{x?sf] pknlAw / k/LIffsf kl/0ffdx? :yfgLo ;/sf/ /÷jf u[x /fHosf lzIffsf clwsf/Lx?åf/f dfGotf k|fKt xg5g . z/0ffyL{sf] ;DaGwdf :yfgLo clwsf/Laf6 jf pTklQ ePsf /fHoaf6 dfGotf k|fKt ug{ k|of; ] ugkg]5 . kf7oqmd ;lsPsf] k|df0fkqsf] ?kdf cGo s/fsf cltl/Qm l8Knf]df, :gfts k|df0fkqx? { { cflb xg5g . ] #= n]vfhf]vfsf nflu cfrf/ ;+lxtf M d"Nof+sg tyf n]vfhf]vfx? ljsf; ubf{ jf nfu" ubf{ cfrf/ ;+lxtfsf cfwf/df ugkg]5 . n]vfhf]vf / d"Nof+sgx? lgikIf tyf ljZj;gLo tj/n] ;DkGg ugkg]5 { { { { h;n] 8/ / dgf]qf; ga9fPsf] xf]; . ljBfno jf sg} sfo{qmddf /fd|f] c+s jf sIff j[l4df ljBfyL{x? sg} lsl;dn] bJo{jxf/ gxf]; eg]/ Wofg lbgkg]5 . {
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 69 $ lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x? kl/ro dfgjLo ;xfotfsf ;a} kIfx? s7Lg tyf slxn]sfFxL c;/lIftf cj:yfdf vl6Psf sd{rf/L tyf :jo+;]jsx?sf] 1fg, ;Lk tyf k|ltj4tfdf lge{/ /xG5 . ltlgx?sf cufl8 k|:tt ul/Psf dfux? pNn]vgLo xg]5g / olb ltgLx?n] Go"gtd dfkb08 k"/f ug{kb{5 eg] ltgLx? pkoQm tj/n] k|lzlIft, Jojl:yt / cgudg Joj:yf ePsf] xgkb{5 tyf cfjZos pkoQm ;fdfu|L, ;xof]u pknAw u/fO{ ;f] sf] lg/LIf0f klg cfjZostf kg]{5 .cfktsfnLg kl/l:yltdf, lzIfsx? tyf lzIffsdL{x?sf] egf{ tyf 5gf}6sf k|lqmofx? ;xeflutfd"ns/ kf/bzL{ xgkg]5 / lglZrt dfkb08df cfwfl/t xgkb{5 . ;Dej eP;Dd lzIffsf sd{rf/Lx? { }k|efljt ;dbfo leq}af6 egf{ ug{kg]5 . h;n] lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?df ;fF:s[lts k/Dk/f, l/ltl/jfh tyf {cgejx? PsLs[t ug{ d2t k¥ofpF5 hg k|efljt ;dbfosf d"No dfGotf, cfjZostf tyf ;sf/fTdscEof;x?nfO{ cfb/ ug]{ k|sl[ tsf] xG5 . egf{ eO;s]kl5 lzIfs tyf lzIffsdL{x?n] ;dbfo;Fu ;xsfo{u/L ;]jfzt{x? lgwf{/0f ug{ Ps cfrf/;+lxtfsf] ljsf; ugkg]5 . lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x? { {s/f/ Joj:yf cGtu{t :ki6 ?kdf clgjfo{ ?kdf egf{ ugkb{5, h;df ltgLx?sf] ;ljwfx? -tna jf {eQf, sfd ug]{ lbg / 306f, ;]jfsf zt{x?, cflb_ / ltgsf lhDd]jf/L tyf bfloTjx? ;dfj]z /xG5g .cfrf/;+lxtfn] lzIfs tyf lzIffsdL{x?sf] Jojxf/sf nflu :ki6 ?kdf dfkb08x? lgwf{/0f ugkg]5 /{ {To;df sg} JolQmn] dfkb08 k/f gu/]df ef]Ugkg]{ kl/0ffdx? klg :ki6 pNn]v ugkb{5 . lzIffsf nflu {k|efljt ;dbfosf] ;xof]u k|fKt ug]{ Joj:yfn] egf{ k|lqmof Pj+ lzIfs tyf lzIffsdL{x?nfO{ oyfjt/flv/fVg / cfdfaafn] ltgsf] afnaflnsfnfO{ ljBfno k7fpg OR5s xg] bjnfO{ ;xof]u ub{5 . }
    • 70 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08;+s6sf] If]qdf, lzIff tyf lzIffsdL{x? ;dbfosf cGo JolQmn] cfkmgf] hLjgsf] kgMlgdf{0f ug{ef]usf cgejx?df ;dflxt xgkb{5 . cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s bj} lzIff sfo{qmdsf ] sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ cfktsfnLg cj:yf;Fu hWg / ljkb jf åGåsf] sf/0faf6 l;lh{t dgf]qf; Pj+ tgfjnfO{ 36fpg;xof]u cfjZos kb{5 . ;xfotf ;+oGqn] Pscsf{nfO{ ;xof]u ugsf ;fy;fy} ljleGg cf}hf/x?åf/f {;;lHht agfpg] / ljBfyL{x?sf] hLjg:t/ ;wf/ ug{ cfjZos ;Lk l;sfpg kb{5 .cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf ;+rflnt lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?sf] ;kmntfsf nflu lzIfs tyf lzIffsdL{x?nfO{pkoQm tflnd k|bfg ug{ ckl/xfo{ 5 . tflndsf dfkb08x? cWoog tyf cWofkgsf v08x?dfpNn]lvt 5g .lzIfs tyf lzIffsdL{x?nfO{ cgudgsf] klg csf]{ ;xof]usf] cfjZostf kb{5 . ;dbfosf] txdfcfkmgf If]qdf s;/L lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? s;/L cgudg u/L ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] ;DaGwdfcfdfjjf, ufpFsf g]tfx?, ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx? / :yfgLo ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx?nfO{ tflnd lbgcfjZos xG5 . ha k|efljt ;dbfox? cfkmgf] lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? lgoGq0f ug{ ;zQm xG5g, ltgLx?n]cfTdlge{/sf ;fy cfkmgf] ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg cfFkm} vf]Hg ;Qm5g . lzIf0f jftfj/0fdf lzIffsdL{x?nfO{;xof]u / cgudg ug{ ;fdbflos ;xeflutfn] lzIfsx? / ;dbfosfaLr pTkfbgzLn ;DaGwsf] k|j4{gub{5 . ljBfno Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{Ifdtf, lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x? k|efljt ;dbfosf] lg/Gt/;xof]uaf6 u0f:t/ ;lglZrt ug{ lg/Gt/ ?kn] cgudg, d"Nof+sg ugkg]5 . d"Nof+sg / cgudg { {lgoGq0fsf] ?kdf dfq geO{ dfu{bz{gsf] ?kdf ;d]t xg dxTjk"0f{ xg5 . lzIfssf] sfo{;Dkfbg tyf ]cEof;x? ;wf/ ug{ cgudg tyf ;xeflutfd"ns d"Nof+sg cleGg c+u xg5 . sd{rf/Lsf] sfo{;Dkfbg ]dfkg lzIfssf nflu hlt;Sbf] w]/} ;sf/fTds cWoogsf] cgej xg5 . ];a} ju{sf nflu ;femf Go"gtd dfkb08x?sf] ;DaGwz}lIfs k|ltsfo{ ljsf; jf sfof{Gjog ug]{ k|lqmof o;sf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] nflu dVo zt{ xf] . of]v08sf] pkof]u ;a}sf nflu ;femf Go"gtd dfkb08x?;Fu tfbfTdotf xgu/L ugkg]5, h;n] ;dbfosf] ] { {;xeflutf, :yfgLo ;fwg;|ft, k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vf, k|ltsfo{, cgudg tyf d"Nof+sgnfO{ ;dfj]z u/]sf] ]5 . vf;?kdf eGbf ljkb k|efljt hgtfsf] ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xx? ;lxtsf] ;xeflutfnfO{ a9f]Q/L u/Lo;sf] pkoQmtf / u0f:t/nfO{ ;lglZrt ug}{ kb{5 . Go"gtd dfkb08x? M logLx?sf] u0ffTds k|sl[ tsf] xg5g / z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf Joj:yfx?sf] ] Go"gtd pknlAwsf] :t/ lgwf{l/t xg5g . ] dVo ;"rsx? M logLx? ;"rsx? xg h;n] dfkb08x? k"/f eP jf gePsf] b]vfpFb5g . logLx?n] sfo{qmd / o;df k|of]u ul/Psf k|lqmof jf ljlwx?n] kf/]sf k|efj jf kl/0ffdx?sf] dfkg / ;+rf/ ug]{ pkfo b]vfpF5 . oL ;"rsx? ;+VofTds jf u0ffTds xg ;Qm5g .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 71dfu{bz{g M o;df ljleGg cj:yfx?df dfkb08 / ;"rsx? k|of]u ug]{ ljlw, Jojxfl/s ;d:of;dfwfgfy{ pkfox? / k|fyldstf k|fKt d2fx?sf ljifodf ;Nnfx h:tf Wofg lbgkg]{ eGg]vf; abfx? ;dfj]z /x]sf 5g . ltgLx?df h6Ln dfkb08 jf ;"rs ;Da4 h6Ln k|Zgx? / Flåljwf, ljjfbx? jf jt{dfg 1fgsf ck"0f{ kIfx?sf] JofVof ;dfj]z 5 . cg;rL @ df 5flgPsf ";Gbe{ u|Gyx? pNn]lvt 5g, h;df ;fdfGo ljifox? / vf; k|fljlws ljifosf ;"rgfsf ;|ftx? ]k|i6ofOPsf 5g . cWoog tyf cWofkg dfkb08 ! dfkb08 @ dfkb08 # egf{ tyf 5gf}6 sfo{zt{ ;xof]u tyf cgudg ljljwtf / ;dtf lzIfsx? tyf emNsg] u/L lzIffsdL{x?n] lzIfs tyf ;xeflutfd"ns / sfo{zt{x? :ki6 kf/bzL{ k|lqmofsf lzIffsdL{x?sf ?kdf lgwf{l/t nflu ;xof]u tyf dfWodaf6 kof{Kt / of]Uo lzIfsx? ug]5g / cfrf/ { cgudg ;+oGqx?tyf lzIffsdL{x?sf] ;+lxtfsf] :yflkt xg5 / ] 5gf}6 dfkb08sf kl/kfngf u/L lgoldt ?kdfcfwf/df egf{ tyf pkoQm kfl/>lds 5gf}6 ug]{ . pkof]u ul/g]5 . kfpg]5g . kl/lzi6 ! cfrf/;+lxtf cg;rL @ M ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L tyf ;|ft ;fdfu|L " ] lzIfs tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x? v08
    • 72 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x?;DaGwL dfkb08 ! M egf{ tyf 5gf}6 ljljwtf / ;dtf emNsg] u/L ;xeflutfd"ns / kf/bzL k|lqmofsf dfWodaf6 kof{Kt / of]Uo lzIfsx? tyf lzIffsdL{x?sf] 5gf}6 dfkb08sf cfwf/df egf{ tyf 5gf}6 ug]{ .dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { egf{ k|lqmofeGbf cufl8 g} :ki6 / pkoQm sfo{ ljj/0fx? ljsf; ul/g]5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ! x]gxf]nf_ { egf{ k|lqmofdf :ki6 lgb]l{ zsfx? agfOg]5 . ;dbfosf] k|ltlglwTj ;lxtsf] Ps 5gf}6 ;ldlt xg5 h;n] lzIfssf] 5gf}6 pDd]bjf/x?sf] ] bIftfsf] kf/bzL{ d"Nof+sgdf cfwfl/t /xL / n}l+ us, ljljwtf / ;dbfosf] :jLsfo{tf -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL @–% x]gxf]nf_ . { IfdtfeGbf a9L ef/ ePsf sIffsf]7fnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ cfjZos ;+Vofdf lzIfsx? egf{ u/L kof{Kt dfqfdf v6fOg]5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ^ x]gxf]nf_ . { dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != sfo{ ljj/0fdf cGo bIftfx?sf cltl/Qm, e"ldsf tyf lhDd]jf/Lx? / :ki6 k|ltj]bgsf] >[vnfsf ;fy;fy} cfrf/;+lxtf klg pNn]v ugkg]5 . + { { @= cgej tyf of]Uotfx? M cfktsfnLg l:yltdf of]Uo lzIfsx? dfGotfk|fKt z}lIfs of]Uotf ;lxt egf{ ug]{ p2]Zo xgkb{5 t/ s]xL cj:yfx?df sg} cgej gePsf] jf yf]/} cgej ePsf]nfO{ ljrf/ ugkg]5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf tflndx? cfjZos kb{5 . olb of]Uo lzIfsx?;Fu { { sg} k|df0fkq jf cGo sfuhkq 5}g eg] cGo a}slNks dfWodaf6 k/LIf0f ug{ dxTjk"0f{ xg5] h:t} pDd]bjf/sf] k/LIff . lzIfssf] nflu Gog"td pd]/ !* jif{sf] xgkb{5 / ojf lzIfsx? egf{ ug{ cfjZos xg ;S5 . ;lqmotfk"js dlxnf lzIfssf] lgolQm ug{ cfjZos xG5 / { cfjZostf / pkoQmtf cg?k egf{ dfkb08 jf k|lqmofx?df n}lu+s cgkft k|j4{g ug{ s]xL ;dfof]hg ug{ ;lsG5 . cNk;+Vos ljwfyL{x?sf] dft[efiff af]Ng;Sg] lzIfsx? egf{ ug{ cfjZos xg5 h;nfO{ cfkmgf] ] efiffdf gk9fO{ /fli6«o efiffdf k9fOG5 . ;Defjgf / cfjZostf cg;f/ /fli6«o /÷jf :yfgLo /fi6«sf] efiffdf ;3g kf7oqmdx? k|bfg ugkg]5 -cWoog tyf cWofkg;DaGwL dfkb08 !, { { dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL & x]gxf]nf_ . {
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 73 #= dfkb08x? b]xfoadf]lhd xg ;Qm5g M Joj;flos of]Uotfx? M z}lIfs, lzIf0f tyf dgf];fdflhs cgej, cGo ;Lk tyf cgej, ;DalGwt efiffsf] bIftfM JolQmut of]Uotfx? M pd]/, n}l+ us -egf{stf{n] n}l+ us ;Gtng ;Dej eP;Dd ldnfpg kb{5_, hftLo tyf wfld{s k[i7e"ld, ljljwtf -;dbfosf] k|ltlglwTj ;lglZrt ug{_M + cGo of]Uotfx? M ;dbfo;Fusf] cGt/lqmof / :jLsf/f]lQm, k|efljt ;dbfo;Fu ;DalGwt . $= 5gf}6 M lzIfs tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x? k|fylds ?kn] k|efljt hgtfdWo]af6} 5gf}6 ugkg]5, { { t/ olb cfjZos ePdf aflx/af6 klg 5gf}6 ug{ ;lsg]5 . olb z/0ffyL{ jf cfGtl/s ?kn] lj:yflkt hg;+Vofsf nflu cf>o:yn lgdf{0f ul/Psf] 5 eg] :yfgLo of]Uo pDd]bjf/sf] cfj]bg klg :jLsf/ ug{ ;lsG5, olb o;n] c;n ;DaGwsf] ljsf; xg ;Qm5 eg] . 5gf}6 sfo{ ;dbfo, :yfgLo afl;Gbf tyf :yfgLo clwsf/Lx?sf] k/fdz{df ugkg]5 . { { %= l;kmfl/;x? M ;+s6sf] cj:yfdf lzIfs tyf lzIffsdL{x?sf] egf{ubf{ l;kmfl/;stf{sf dfWodaf6 ljBfyL{x?df k|lts"n k|efj kfg{ ;Sg] /÷jf ltlgx?sf] clwsf/k|lt cfb/efj /fVg] g/fVg] hfFr ugkg]5 . { { ^= :yfgLo :t/df oyfy{jfbL dfkb08x? lgwf{/0f ugkg]5 h;df sIffsf] clwstd cfsf/ / { { o; dfkb08sf] ;f/ ljkl/t gxg] u/L kof{Kt lzIfsx? egf{ ug{ kof{Kt k|of; ul/g] ljifox? kb{5g . cgudg k|ltj]bgdf ljBfnosf ljleGg txsf clws Ifdtfsf sIffx?sf] ;+Vof pNn]v ugkg]5 . { { lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x?;DaGwL dfkb08 @ M sfo{zt{ lzIfs tyf lzIffsdL{x?n] sfo{zt{x? :ki6 ?kdf lgwf{l/t ug]5g / cfrf/ ;+lxtfsf] kl/kfngf u/L pkoQm { kfl/>lds kfpg]5g .dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { kfl/>lds tyf sfo{zt{x? gf]s/Lsf] ;+emf}tfdf pNn]lvt xg5g / kfl/>lds lgoldt ?kdf / ] Joj;fosf] tx tyf sfo{ bIftfsf] cfwf/df k|bfg ul/g]5 -dfub{zg l6Kk0fL !–@ x]gxf]nf_ . { { cGt/f{li6«o ;fem]bf/n] z}lIfs kbflwsf/Lx?, ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx? tyf u}=;=;+=x?;Fu ;dGjo u/]/ pkoQm /0fgLltx? ljsf; ug{ / ljleGg k|sf/ / txsf lzIfs tyf lzIffsdL{x?sf nflu lgikIf tyf :jLsfo{ Pj+ bLuf] kfl/>ldssf] b//]6df ;xdt xg ;Qm5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL @ x]gxf]nf_ . {
    • 74 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 cfrf/;+lxtf / lgwf{l/t sfo{zt{x? lzIffsdL{x? / ;dbfosf ;b:ox?;lxt ;xeflutfd"ns tj/df ljsf; ul/g]5 / :ki6 sfof{Gjog lgb]l{ zsfx? klg pknAw /xg]5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ! / # x]gxf]nf_ . { cfrf/;+lxtfdf lzIffsdL{x?af6 x:tfIf/ xg5 tyf kl/kfngf ug]5g, / olb cfrf/;+lxtfsf] ] { ljkl/t jf pNn+3g ePdf xg] ;hfox?;d]t lnlkj4 xg5g tyf ;f] nfu" xg5 . ] ] dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != sfo{zt{df sfo{ljj/0f, kfl/>lds, xflh/L, sfd ugkg]{ lbg jf 306f, s/f/sf] cjlw, ;xof]u { tyf cgudg ;+oGqx? / ljjfb ;dfwfgsf ;+oGqx? lgwf{l/t xgkg]5 -dflysf] dfkb08 !, { dfub{zg l6Kk0fL ! klg x]gxf]nf_ . { { @= kfl/>lds cfly{s / u}/ cfly{s xg ;Qm5g / pkoQm -;xdlt ePadf]lhd_ / lgoldt ?kdf eQmfgL ugkg]5 . ;+nUg ePsf ;fem]bf/x?;Fusf] ;dGjodfkm{t ;xeflutfd"ns k|lqmofaf6 { { kfl/>ldssf] pkoQm tx lgwf{/0f ul/g]5 . of] Joj;flostf ;lglZrt ug]{ / ;]jfsf] lg/Gt/tf Pj+ bLuf] xg] xb;Dd kl/nlIft xgkb{5 . vf;u/L, lzIfsx?n] cfwf/e"t cfjZostf kl/k"lt{ ug{ cGo cfo;|ftsf] vf]hL ug{ gkg]{ u/L ltgLx?sf] Joj;flos sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug{ kof{Kt ] xg] u/L pknAw u/fpg kg]5 . sfo{zt{ tyf cfrf/;+lxtf adf]lhd kfl/>lds Joj:yfkg { xgkg]5 . { ljleGg k[i7e"ld -h:t}M gful/s jf z/0ffyL{_ sf lzIfsx?n] ljleGg txsf] tna kfpg] cj:yfdf Wofg k/ofpg kg]5 . dVo lqmofzLn stf{x? bLuf] kfl/>lds Joj:yfsf] bL3sfnLg { /0fgLlt ljsf; ug{ ;nUg xgkg]5 . ;+oQm /fi6«;3Lo lgsfox?, u}=;=;+=x? tyf lzIffsf { + clwsf/Lx? / cGo ;+:yfx?sfaLr ;femf kfl/>ldssf] b/sf nflu ;dGjo xgkg]5 . { #= cfrf/;+lxtfdf lzIffsdL{x?sf Jojxf/sf] :t/x? :ki6 ?kdf kl/eflift xgkb{5 / h;n] tL :t/Ls[t dfkb08x?sf] kl/kfngf ub}g p;nfO{ xg] afWosf/L kl/0ffdx? klg pNn]lvt { xgkb{5 . cfrf/;+lxtf lzIf0f jftfj/0fdf tyf lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? jf lqmofsnfk jf cGo ;fgf sfo{qmddf ;d]t nfu" xg5 -kl/lzi6 !, k[i7 && gdgf cfrf/;+lxtf x]gxf]nf_ . ] { cfrf/;+lxtfn] lzIfsx? tyf lzIffsdL{x?n] ;sf/fTds lzIffsf] jftfj/0f tyf ljwfyL{x?sf] hLjg:t/ k|j4{g ug{ ug]{ s/f ;lglZrt ug]5 . cfrf/;+lxtfdf lzIffsdL{n] ug]{ cGo s/fsf { cltl/Qm b]xfo Joj:yf ugkg]5M { { pRr :t/sf] cfr/0f4f/f Joj;flos Jojxf/sf] k|bz{g, cfTdlgoGq0f / g}lts Jojxf/M ;a} ljwfyL{x? ;xefuL xgsf nflu :jLsfo{ jftfj/0fsf] >[hgf ug]M{ ;/lIft / :j:y jftfj/0f sfod /fV]g, bJo{jxf/ -of}ghGo bJo{jxf/ ;lxt_, hzh{l:tkgf,
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 75 lx+;f tyf bJo{jxf/ / lje]b dQmM lgoldt pkl:ylt / ;dosf] kl/kfngfM sfd ubf{ Joj;flostf / bIftf k|bz{gM / ;dbfo tyf lzIffsf ;fem]bf/x?åf/f ck]Iff ul/Psf cGo pkoQm Jojxf/x? k|bz{g ug]{ . $= cfrf/;+lxtf sfof{Gjog lgb]l{ zsfM lzIf0f jftfj/0fdf ;+nUg /x]sf] z}lIfs tyf u}/z}lIfs ;Dk"0f{ JolQmx?sf nflu cfrf/;+lxtfsf ljifodf tflnd lbgkg]5 . ;fdbflos lzIff { ;ldltsf ;b:ox?nfO{ tflnd tyf ;xof]u pknAw u/fpgkg]5 / lzIff cgudgstf{x? { tyf Joj:yfksx?nfO{ cfrf/;+lxtfsf] sfof{Gjog tyf cgudgsf] lgldQ ltgLx?sf] e"ldsf tyf lhDd]jf/Lx?sf ljifodf ;d]t hfgsf/L u/fpg kg]5 . ljBfno tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIff { sfo{qmdsf] sfo{of]hgfdf cfrf/;+lxtfsf dVo Joj:yfx? klxrfg u/L pNn]v ug{ ;xof]u k¥ofpgkg]5 . cgudg ;+oGqn] kf/bzL{ k|ltj]bg tyf cgudg sfo{ljlwx? :yflkt ugkg]5 { { { h;n] ;+nUg ;fem]bf/x?sf] uf]klgotfsf] ;+/If0f ub{5 -tnsf] dfkb08 # klg x]gxf]nf_ { lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x?;DaGwL dfkb08 # M ;xof]u tyf lg/LIf0f lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x?sf nflu lg/LIf0f tyf ;xof]u ;+oGqx? :yflkt ePsf] / lg/Gt/ ?kdf pkof]u ul/g]5g .dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { lg/LIf0f ;+oGqn] lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x?nfO{ lgoldt n]vfhf]vf, cgudg tyf ;xof]u pknAw u/fpFb5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? !–@ x]gxf]nf_ . { sd{rf/Lsf] sfo{Ifdtf n]vfhf]vfx? u/L lnlvt ?kdf /fvL / ;DalGwt JolQm -x?_ ;Fu lgoldt ?kdf 5nkmn ug{kb{5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL # x]gxf]nf_ . { pkoQm / kxrof]Uo dgf];fdflhs ;xof]u / k/fdz{x? lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x?sf nflu F cfjZostfg;f/ pknAw u/fpg kb{5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL $ x]gxf]nf_ . {
    • 76 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != lg/LIf0f ;+oGqx? M x/]s /fHo jf k|efljt If]qn] lzIfs tyf lzIffsdL{x?sf nflu dfkb08x? lgwf{/0f ugkg]5 / lg/LIf0f tyf ;xof]u ;+oGqsf] ljsf; Pj+ sfof{Gjog ugkg]5 . o:tf] { { { { ;+oGqdf ;dbfo -k/Dk/fut / wfld{s g]tfx? ;lxt_ sf, ;fdbflos ljBfnosf ;+u7gx? h:t} cleefjs lzIfs ;+3x?, :yfgLo clwsf/Lx?, k|wfgfWofksx? jf lzIfs ;+u7gx?sf k|ltlglwx? ;dfj]z xg ;Qm5g . lg/LIf0f ;+oGq ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldlt;Fu lgs6?kdf cfj4 xgkg]5 . o; ;ldltn] lzIffsdL{x?sf] sfo{zt{df cfrf/;+lxtf, Joj;flostfdf { s]lGb|t /xg], sfo{ bIftf tyf pkoQm Jojxf/sf] cgudg ug]{ s/f ;dfj]z ugkg]5 -;dbfosf] { { ;xeflutf;DaGwL dfkb08 ! k[i7=== klg x]gxf]nf_ . { @= tflnd M lzIffsf sd{rf/Lx?sf] tflnd;DaGwL ;"rgfsf nflu cWoog tyf cWofkg;DaGwL dfkb08 @ k[i7=== x]gxf]nf . { #= sd{rf/Lsf Ifdtfsf] n]vfhf]vf sfo{df ubf{ lzIfs tyf lzIffsdL{x?sf] k|efjsfl/tf tyf bIftfsf] n]vfhf]vf ;dfj]z xgkb{5 / lzIfsx?, k|wfgfWofks jf cGo ;Da4 JolQmx?;Fuaf6 ;Nnfx lng] cj;/x? pknAw u/fpgkg]5 h;af6 ;+oQm ?kdf ;xdt ePadf]lhd { rgf}ltx?sf] klxrfg tyf cfufdL lqmofsnfkx? ljsf; ug{kb{5 . pkoQm ePdf lzIffsdL{x?sf] pTk|l] /t agfpg] k|of]hgsf] nflu n]vfhf]vfx?nfO{ dfGotf lbgkg]5 / pknlAwsf] nflu Ps { ;df/f]x klg ugkg]5 . cgudg tyf ;xeflutfTds d"Nof+sgn] lzIfsx?nfO{ pTk|l] /t kfg{ { { ;Sg] / ltgLx?sf] bIftf j[l4 ug{ ;Qm5 . $= ;+s6df ;xof]u M tflnd lnPsf tyf cgelj lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x? klg sg} 36gfaf6 cfkm"nfO{ ;Gqf;df k/]sf 7fGg ;S5g jf goFf rgf}ltx? tyf lhDd]jf/Lsf ;fy;fy} ljBfyL{x?sf] ;Ddv kbf{ jf ltgsf] ;fdgf ug{ ;Sg] / sfo{ ug{;Sg] Ifdtfx? ;d]t pgLx?nfO{ pknAw u/fOPsf] ;xof]udf lge{/ ub{5 . lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x?nfO{ ;+s6sf] cj:yfx?;Fu ;fdgf ug{sf] nflu ;dbfoleq g} Ps ;xof]u ;+oGq :yflkt ugkg]5 . { {
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 77cWoog tyf cWofkg M kl/lzi6kl/lzi6 ! M lzIfssf] cfrf/ ;+lxtf;a} ;dodf lzIfsn] M Joj;fosf] dof{bf / cfb/ sfod xg] u/L sfd ug]5, { ljBfyL{n] uf]Ko ?kdf eg]sf] sg} klg ljifonfO{ uf]klgotfsf ;fy ;+/If0f ub{5, ljBfyL{sf] lzIffnfO{ x:tIf]k xg] sg} klg cj:yfx?af6 / ljBfyL{sf] :jf:Yo / ;/Iffdf xflg xg] s/fx?af6 ;d]t ;+/If0f k|bfg ub{5, p;sf] kbaf6 sgklg k|sf/af6 xg] kmfO{bfx? lng] 5}g } sg} klg ljBfyL{kl| t of}ghGo bJo{jxf/ ug]{ 5}g jf sg} klg tl/sfaf6 ljBfyL{;u of}ghGo ;DaGw F /fVg] 5}g Pp6f c;n / OdfGbf/ cfbz{ JolQmTj :yflkt ub{5 .sIff sf]7fleq lzIfsn] M ;sf/fTds / ;/lIft lzIf0fsf] jftfj/0f k|j4{g ub{5 ljBfyL{sf] clwsf/ / dof{bfnfO{ cfb/ u/L k9fpFb5 ljBfyL{sf] cfTd;Ddfg, ljZjf; / cfTdd"NonfO{ k|j4{g ub{5 ljBfyL{sf] pRr clenfiffnfO{ clej[l4 ub{5 / k|To]s ljBfyL{sf] Ifdtfdf kUg d2t ub{5 ljBfyL{x?nfO{ ;lqmo, lhDd]jf/ / k|efjsf/L l;Sg] JolQmsf] ?kdf ljsf; ug{ k|fT;fxg ub{5 ] ljZjf;sf] jftfj/0f >[hgf ub{5 .Joj;flos hLjgdf lzIfs M z}lIfs ljlwx?sf ;DaGwdf tyf p;sf] jf pgLsf] cfkmgf] ljifodf cfwf/e"t bIftfx? k|bz{g ub{5 . afnaflnsfn] s;/L l;S5g egL p;n] jf pgLn] aemfpg] Ifdtf k|bz{g ub{5 . ;Fw} ;dod} sIffsf]7fdf cfpg] / k9fpg tDtof/ /xG5 . p;sf] / pgsf] k9fpg] u0f:t/df k|lts"n xg] lqmofsnfkdf ;+nUg xbg . F} ;a} Joj;flos ljsf;sf cj;/x?af6 nfe p7fpFb5 / cfwlgs tyf :jLsfo{ lzIf0f ljlwx?sf] k|of]u ub{5 . c;n gful/s, zflGt tyf ;fdflhs bfloTjsf l;4fGtx?sf ljifodf l;sfpF5 . OdfGbf/Lk"js k|To]s ljwfyL{sf] sfo{Ifdtf / k/LIffsf] kl/0ffd pknAw u/fpF5 . {
    • 78 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08;dbfosf] ;Gbe{df lzIfsn] M cfkmgf afnaflnsfsf] cWoogsf nflu cfdfaafsf] ;xof]u tyf ;xeflutfnfO{ a9fpF5 ljBfnodf kl/jf/ tyf ;dbfosf] ;+nUgtfsf] dxTjnfO{ dfGotf k|bfg ub{5 ljBfnosf] ;sf/fTds 5ljnfO{ k|j4{g / ;xof]u ub{5oxfF pNn]lvt Joj:yfsf cltl/Qm ;du| jftfj/0f -cf>o:yn cflb_ sf] cGo ;a} gLlt tyf lgodx?af6;d]t lzIfs lglb{i6 xgkg]{ ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 . ;|ft M of] cfrf/;+lxtf o"PgPr;Lcf/ Ol/6«Lofdf k|of]u ul/Psf] Ps gdgf xf], hg ljBfnon] cfkmg} ]nflu agfPsf lyP .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 79 % lzIff gLlt tyf ;dGjo kl/ro cGt/f{li6«o 3f]if0ffx? tyf pks/0fx?n] ;a} JolQmx?sf] lzIffsf] clwsf/nfO{ 3f]if0ff u/]sf5g h;n] dfgj clwsf/sf] k|j4{g ug{ cfwf/ tof/ kf/]sf] 5 . :jtGqtfk"j{s ljrf/sf] clwsf/, ;dfgtfsf] clwsf/ / lg0f{o k|lqmofdf :j/ k¥ofpg] clwsf/x? ;fdflhs tyf z}lIfs gLltx?sf cleGg c+usf] ?kdf /x]sf 5g .cfktsfnLg l:yltdf o:tf clwsf/x? ;+/If0f ug{ cTofjZos xg5 . cfktsfnLg k|ltsfo{sf] Psefusf] ?kdf lzIffsf clwsf/Lx? / dVo ;/f]sf/jfnfx?n] Ps lzIff gLlt ljsf; ugkg]5 h;n] { {/fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o z}lIfs gLltx? cg?k lzIffsf] clwsf/nfO{ ;lglZrt ub{5 / k|efljt hgtfsf]cWoogsf] cfjZostfk|lt lhDd]jf/ /xG5 . o; vfsf lzIffsf] u0f:t/ clej[l4 ug{ / ljBfnosf]kxrsf nflu nlIft /x]sf] 5 / :ki6 ?kdf cfktsfnLg k|ltsfo{sf] r/0faf6 ljsf;df ;+qmd0f xg] FtYonfO{ :ki6 kf/]sf] 5 . sgklg cfktsfnLg k|ltsfo{sf] ;kmntfsf] nflu ;dbfosf] of]hgf thdf, } {sfo{qmd, gLltx?sf] sfof{Gjogdf ;+nUgtf dxTjk"0f{ xG5 .cfktsfnLg kl/l:yltdf, w]/h;f] ;dGjosf] cefj /xG5, h:t} ljleGg ;/f]sf/jfnfx?n] Psn} lzIffsf }sfo{qmdx?sf ;+rfng ub{5g . cGt/ lgsfo ;dGjosf] ;+oGqx? a:tL tyf ;dbfox?df, lhNnf,
    • 80 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08/fli6«o tyf If]qLo txdf xg cfjZos 5 / ltgLx? ;dfj]zL tyf kf/bzL{ xgkb{5 . To:tf] ;+oGqx? }cfjZostf n]vfhf]vf ug{, :t/Lo ljlwx?sf] ljsf; ug{ / ;a} lqmofzLn ;/f]sf/fjfnfx?sfaLr;"rgf tyf ;|ftx?sf] cfbfgk|bfg ug{ cTofjZos 5 . lzIffnfO{ Jofks dfgjLo k|ltsfo{sf vfBfGg, ]cf>o:yn, :jf:Yo, kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{sf x:tIf]kx?;Fu ;dGjofTds ?kdf n}hfg h?/L /x]sf] 5 .c;n cEof;x?df cfwfl/t z}lIfs k|ltsfo{x? cfktsfnLg kl/l:yltsf] ljlzi6 ;Gbe{ x]// ;dbfosf] ]cfjZostfx?nfO{ kl/nlIft ugkg]5 . afFRg] ;Lkx? h:t}M af?bL ljikmf]6s kbfy{, ;/;kmfO{, PrcfO{eL { {P8; ;r]tgf cleofgsf sfo{qmdx? ;a} pd]/ ;d"xnfO{ k|bfg ugkg]5 . { {;a} ju{sf nflu ;femf Go"gtd dfkb08x?sf] ;DaGwz}lIfs k|ltsfo{ ljsf; jf sfof{Gjog ug]{ k|lqmof o;sf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] nflu dVo zt{ xf] . of] v08sf]pkof]u ;a}sf nflu ;femf ju{sf Go"gtd dfkb08x?;Fu tfbfTdotf xgu/L ugkg]5, h;n] ;dbfosf] ] { {;xeflutf, :yfgLo ;fwg;|ft, k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vf, k|ltsfo{, cgudg tyf d"Nof+sgnfO{ ;dfj]z u/]sf] ]5 . vf;?kdf eGbf ljkbdf k|efljt hgtfsf] ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xx? ;lxtsf] ;xeflutfnfO{ a9f]Q/L u/Lo;sf] pkoQmtf / u0f:t/nfO{ ;lglZrt ug}{ kb{5 . Go"gtd dfkb08x? M logLx?sf] u0ffTds k|sl[ tsf] xg5g / z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf Joj:yfx?sf] ] Go"gtd pknlAwsf] :t/ lgwf{l/t xg5g . ] dVo ;"rsx? M logLx? ;"rsx? xg h;n] dfkb08x? k"/f eP jf gePsf] b]vfpFb5g . logLx?n] sfo{qmd / o;df k|of]u ul/Psf k|lqmof jf ljlwx?n] kf/]sf k|efj jf kl/0ffdx?sf] dfkg / ;+rf/ ug]{ pkfo b]vfpF5 . oL ;"rsx? ;+VofTds jf u0ffTds xg ;Qm5g . dfu{bz{g M o;df ljleGg cj:yfx?df dfkb08 / ;rsx? k|of]u ug]{ ljlw, Jojxfl/s ;d:of ;dfwfgfy{ pkfox? / k|fyldstf k|fKt d2fx?sf ljifodf ;Nnfx h:tf Wofg lbgkg]{ eGg] vf; abfx? ;dfj]z /x]sf 5g . ltgLx?df h6Ln dfkb08 jf ;"rs ;Da4 h6Ln k|Zgx? / F låljwf, ljjfbx? jf jt{dfg 1fgsf ck"0f{ kIfx?sf] JofVof ;dfj]z 5 . cg;rL @ df 5flgPsf " ;Gbe{ u|Gyx? pNn]lvt 5g, h;df ;fdfGo ljifox? / vf; k|fljlws ljifosf ;"rgfsf ;|ftx? ] k|i6ofOPsf 5g .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 81 lzIff gLlt tyf ;dGjo dfkb08 ! dfkb08 @ dfkb08 # gLlt th{df / " of]hgf tyf ;dGjo hf/L ug]{ sfof{Gjog cfktsfnLg cfktsfnLg cfktsfnLg lzIff lzIffsf ;Gbe{df ;dfj]zL lqmofsnfkx?n] sfo{qmdx?df / u0f:t/Lo lzIff k|j4{g ug{ lzIffsf /fli6«o tyf kf/bzL{ ;dGjo clwsf/Lx?n] cGt/f{li6«o lzIff ;+oGq xgsf ;a}sf nflu gLltx?, dfkb08x? ;fy;fy}ljBfnodf vnfkxr F tyf k|efljt ;dbfosf] cWoogsf] ;fem]bf/x?sf aLr lbg k|fyldsLs/0f / nlrnf] gLltx? cfjZostfnfO{ Wofg k|efjsf/L ;"rgf agfpg]5g . lbg]5 . cfbfg k|bfg xg5 . ] cg;rL @ M ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L tyf ;|ft ;fdfu|L " ] lzIff gLlt tyf ;dGjo v08
    • 82 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 lzIff gLlt tyf ;dGjo;DaGwL dfkb08 ! M gLlt th"df / { nfu" cfktsfnLg ;Gbe{df ;dfj]zL / u0f:t/Lo lzIff k|j4{g ug{ lzIffsf clwsf/Lx?n] ;a}sf nflu ljBfnodf vnf kxr lbg k|fyldsLs/0f / nlrnf] gLltx? agfpg]5g . FdVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { cfktsfnLg cj:yf / tTkZrftsf] bj} cj:yfdf lzIff sfg"gx? tyf gLltx?n] cGt/f{li6«o dfgj clwsf/sf lnvtx? tyf 3f]if0ffkqx? adf]lhd lzIffsf] clwsf/nfO{ cfTd;ft ub{5g -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? !–@ x]gxf]nf_ . { sfg"g, lgod tyf gLltx?n] ;+s6f;Gg tyf ;LdflGts[t ;d"x;Fu ;DalGwt e]befj lj?4 ;+/If0f k|bfg ug{5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL # x]gxf]nf_ . { sfg"g, lgod tyf gLltx?df ljBfyL{x?sf] ;Lldt ;|ft jf kl/jf/sf] sf/0fn] lzIffaf6 al~rt ] u/]sf] c:jLsf/ ug]{ k|fjwfgx? ;dfj]z /xG5g -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL $ x]gxf]nf_ . { sfg"g, lgod tyf gLltx?n] z/0ffyL{x?nfO{ pgLx?sf] u[x /fHo jf /fli6«o kf7oqmd k|of]u ug{af6 /f]Sg xbg . F} sfg"g, lgod tyf gLltx?n] cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf lzIffsf ;]jfx? :yfkgf ug{ cfZostf cg;f/ u}/ ;/sf/L ;/f]sf/afnfx?nfO{ cgdlt lbg]5 t/ lzIff clwsf/Lx?sf] dfu{bz{g / lg/LIf0f xg] u/L . sfg"g, lgod tyf gLltx? ;a}n] aemg] tl/sfaf6 ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ pknAw u/fOg]5 . gLltx?n] z}lIfs kxr / pknlAwsf] ljZn]if0f tyf kl/jt{glt/ kbfk{0f ug{ Ps pks/0fsf] ?kdf F lzIff Joj:yfkg ;"rgf k|0ffnL -O{PdcfO{P;_ sf] ljsf; / k|of]unfO{ k|j4{g ub{5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL % x]gxf]nf_ . { /fli6«o lzIff gLltx?n] sfg"gL tyf ah]6sf cfwf/x?af6 ;dly{t xg5g h;n] cfktsfnLg ] kl/l:yltdf b|t k|ltsfo{ ug{ cgdlt lbG5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ^ x]gxf]nf_ . { dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? dfgj clwsf/;DaGwL cGt/f{li6«o lnvt tyf 3f]if0ffx?sf] ;xfotf lngkg]5 h;df cGo { lnvtsf cltl/Qm b]xfosf lnvtx? kb{5gM ;+oQm /fi6«;3Lo afn clwsf/;DaGwL dxf;GwL + -;g !(*(_, dfgj clwsf/sf] ljZjJoflk 3f]if0ffkq -;g !($*_ cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;fF:s[lts clwsf/;DaGwL dxf;lGw -;g !(^^_, dlxnf lj?4sf ;a} k|sf/sf e]befj pGdng ug]{ dxf;lGw -;g !(&(_, / ljZj lzIff kmf]/dsf] 8sf/ sfo{;/rgf -;g @)))_ . +
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 83lnvtx? tyf sfg"gL cfwf/x?df hgtfsf] :ofxf/ / afnaflnsf tyf ojfx?sf] :jf:Yo,kf]if0f, dgf]/Ghg, ;F:s[lt, bJo{jxf/sf] /f]syfd tyf ^ jif{dl gsf afnaflnsfsf nfluk|f/lDes lzIff / cGosf ljifodf cGt/f{li6«o lgodx? ;d]t ;dflxt /x]sf 5g . -kxr tyf FcWoogsf] jftfj/0f;DaGwL dfkb08 !, dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL @, k[i7 $% df klg x]gxf]nf_ . {z/0ffyL{, lj:yflkt tyf :yfgLo afl;GbfM ;a} ;d"xx?nfO{ ;dfg ?kdf lzIffsf] kxr kuf]; Felg jsfnt ug{ ;a} ;Da4 ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;Fu ;xsfo{ ugkg]5 . o;df z/0ffyL{x?sf] { {cj:yf;DaGWL ;g !(%! sf] dxf;lGw sf] wf/f @@ -;fj{hlgs lzIff_ kb{5, h;n] u/]sf]3f]if0ffcg;f/ z/0ffyL{x?nfO{ gful/s ;/xsf] cfwf/e"t lzIff dflysf] clwsf/ k|fKt 5 / pRrtxdf klg k9gsf] nflu kxr xgkg]5, k|df0fkqx?M :gftsf]Q/, l8u|L, tyf k|df0fkqx?sf] F {dfGotf, zNsx?sf] lkmtf{ / 5fqj[lQdflysf] kxr h:tf kIfx?df ljb]zL gful/snfO{ k|fKt F;/xsf] ;ljwfeGbf sd xgxbg . olb ljz]if ;+/If0f k|bfg ug{ wfGg g;lsPdf cfGtl/s F }?kdf lj:yflktx?sf nflu eg] ;f]xL k|sl[ tsf] clwsf/x?sf] Joj:yf ugkg]5 . ;+:yfx?n] { {To;}u/L :jb]zL ljBfyL{x?sf] z}lIfs clwsf/x?sf] nflu z/0ffyL{ k|fKt ug]{ dns jf cGo If]q / o4af6 k|efljt b]zdf ;d]t jsfnt ug]5g . {;LdflGts[t ;d"xx? ;dfh jf ;dbfo leqsf To:tf ;d"xx? xg h;sf] xsxLtx? ;dfhsf]d"n Joj:yfn] k|ltlglwTj u/]sf] xbg . ;LdflGts[t ;d"xx? ;fdflhs cfly{s jf ;fF:s[lts F}ljz]iftfsf cfwf/df klxrfg xG5g h:t} JolQmsf] cfo;|ft jf ;DklQ, hft jf hftLotf, ]ln+u, ef}uf]lns If]q, wd{, gful/stfsf] x}l;ot, cfGtl/s ?kdf lj:yflkt jf zf/Ll/s jfdfgl;s cj:yf . z/0ffyL{sf] x}l;ot dfu ug]{ afnaflnsfn] lzIffsf] clwsf/ pkof]uug{ kfpg kb{5, hg afn clwsf/;DaGwL dxf;lGwadf]lhd /fHosf] eefuleq pkl:yt/x]sf ;a} afnaflnsf tyf !* jif{dl gsf jo:sx?sf nflu nfu" xG5 -kxr tyf cWoogsf] Fjftfj/0f;DaGwL dfkb08 !, dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL !, k[i7 $$ klg x]gxf]nf_ {lzIffsf] nflu /sdM sgklg ljwfyL{nfO{ lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?af6 jl~rt ug{ xbg h;n] sg} } F}sf/0fn] xflh/ ePafktsf] /sd lt{g g;sf]; jf dfl;s zNs jf ;Da4 cGo zNs, jflzIff ;fdfu|Lx? jf kf]zfsx? vl/bsf nflu k};f geP/ xf]; . ljBfnosf] ck|ToIf nufgLx?h:t} oftfoft / cGo cfo;|ft h:tf kIfx? 36fpg ;a} k|of;x? ugkg]5 h;n] ubf{ ;a} ] { {afnaflnsf, ojf tyf k|f9x? ;xeflu xg ;Ifd xf]pmg . }lzIff Joj:yfkg ;"rgf k|0ffnL (Education Management Information System - EMIS)O{PdcfOP; tYof+sx?nfO{ vf; k|sl[ tsf] cfktsfn;Fu pGdv /x]sf ;DalGwt If]q jf;dbfosf ;d"x?;Fusf] ;"rgf;Fu cfj4 ugkg]5 . of] Ps k"jtof/L /0fgLlt xf] h;n] { { {/fli6«o tyf :yfgLo lzIff of]hgfdf ;xof]u k¥ofpg]5 . hxfF ;Dej 5 ToxfF z}lIfs tYof+sx?
    • 84 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 ;dbfon] ;+sng ug]5g / /fli6«o O{PdcfO{; k|0ffnLdf pknAw u/fpg]5g . ;xof]u ug]{ { ;+:yfx?n] ;dbfonfO{ ljBfyL{sf] egf{, lg/Gt/tf / k9fO{ k/f ug]{ b/ s;/L a9fpg ;lsG5 egL klxrfg ug]{ pkfox?sf nflu d2t ug]5g -ljZn]if0f dfkb08 ! / # k[i7=========/ ======== klg { x]gxf]nf_ . { cfktsfnLg 9fFrfx?M lzIffnfO{ /fli6«o ljkb k"jtof/Lsf] of]hgfdf ;dfj]z ugkg]5 / k|efjsf/L { { { / ;dod} z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf nflu ;|ftx? ;/lIft ugkg]5 . /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo lzIff ljsf; ] { { sfo{qmddf ;xof]u k/ofO{/x]sf cGt/f{li6«o ;xof]uLx?n] o:tf sfo{qmdx?sf] Ps c+usf] ?kdf cfktsfnLg z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf] k"jtof/Lsf] k|j4{g ugkg]5 { { { lzIff gLlt tyf ;dGjo;DaGwL dfkb08 @ M of]hgf tyf sfof{Gjog cfktsfnLg lzIff lqmofsnfkx?n] /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o lzIff gLltx?, dfkb08x? tyf k|efljt ;dbfosf] cWoogsf] cfjZostfnfO{ Wofg lbg]5 .dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o sfg"gL Joj:yfx? tyf gLltx? /fxt tyf ljsf; ;+:yfx?sf lzIffsf] sfo{qmdx?df k|ltljlDjt ePsf] xgkb{5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ! x]gxf]nf_ . { lzIff If]qsf] bL3{sfnLg ljsf;df PsLs[t xgu/L cfktsfnLg lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?sf] of]hgf ] agfOg] / sfof{Gjog ugkb{5 . { lzIffsf clwsf/Lx? tyf cGo dVo ;/f]sf/jfnfx?n] jt{dfg tyf eljiosf] cfktsfnLg cj:yfnfO{ nlIft u/L /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo lzIffsf] of]hgf agfpF5g / ltgsf] lgoldt kl/dfh{g xg] k|0ffnL klg :yflkt ugkb{5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL @ x]gxf]nf_ { { cfktsfnLg cj:yf / tTkZrft ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx? z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf] of]hgf cg?k sfof{Gjog ug{ ;+oQm?kdf lqmofzLn xG5g hg cBfjlws ul/Psf] cfjZostfsf] n]vfhf]vf;Fu cfj4 /x]sf] xG5 / ljutdf lzIffsf cgejx?, gLltx? ty k|efljt ;dbfo-x?_sf] cEof;x?;Fu hf]l8Psf] xG5 . k|efjsf/L of]hgf thdf, sfof{Gjog tyf cgudgsf nflu z}lIfs k|ltsfo{x?df cfly{s, k|fljlws, { dfgjLo ;|ftx? lglb{i6 ul/sf xG5g . ;/f]sf/jfnfx?n] cfjZos ;fwg;|ftx? pknAw u/fpg] ] ] s/fsf] ;lglZrtf ub{5g -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL # x]gxf]nf_ { z}lIfs lqmofsnfksf] of]hgf tyf sfof{Gjog kIf cfktsfnLg k|ltsfo{sf cGo If]q;Fu PsLs[t?kdf ;+rflnt xg5g -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL $ x]gxf]nf_ . ] {
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 85dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx?!= z}lIfs clwsf/ tyf nIox?sf] k|flKtM lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?n] cGt/f{li6«o 9fFrfsf cfwf/df ;dfj]zL z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? agfpgkg]5 h:t} dfgj clwsf/sf] ljZjAofkL { 3f]if0ffkq, -;g !($*_ afn clwsf/;DaGwL dxf;lGw -;g !(*(_ ljZj lzIff kmf]/dsf] 8sf/ sfo{;/rgf -;g @)))_ / ;x;|flAb ljsf; nIox? -;g @)))_, o;sf + cltl/Qm ;Da4 lzIffsf clwsf/Lx?n] nfu" u/]sf gLlt tyf lgb]zgx? klg x]gkg]5 . { { {@= /fli6«o lzIff of]hgfn] jt{dfg tyf eljiosf] cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf rflng] sfo{qmdx?, ;/f]sf/jfnfx?, stf{x?, lg0f{o k|lqmof tyf ;dGjo;DaGwL sbdx? pNn]v u/]sf] xgkb{5, ;fy;fy} ;/Iff tyf ;+/If0fsf kIfx? Pj+ cGt/ If]qut ;dGjosf ;+oGqx? klg . of]hgfx? pkoQm lzIff gLlt Pj+ 9fFrfx?af6 ;dly{t xgkg]5 . ;+efljt k|fs[lts ljkbx? -h:t} af9L, { e"sDk, cfFlwa]/L_ ;Fu ;DalGwt ljifodf lzIff If]qsf] nflu e}k/L of]hgf tof/ ePsf] xgkb{5, / hxfF ;+efjgf 5 ToxfF ;+efljt z/0ffyL{ jf kms{gx?sf] cf]xf]/bf]xf]/sf] sf/0fn] :yfgLo jf ] /fli6«o lzIff k|0ffnLdf k|efj kfg{ ;Qm5g -;dbfosf] ;xeflut;DaGwL dfkb08 !, dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL %, k[i7 !# / dfkb08 # klg x]gxf]nf_ . {#= ;fwg;|ftx? M ;a} clwsf/Lx?, bftfx?, u}=;=;+=x? tyf cGo ;fe]mbf/x? kof{Kt cfktsfnLg ] cj:yfdf lzIffsf sfo{qmdsf nflu cfly{s ;|ft ;lglZrt ug{ ;+oQm ?kdf sfd ug]5g ] { hg cWoog, dgf]/Ghg, tyf ;DalGwt lqmofsnfkx? tof/ u/L dgf];fdlfhs cfjZostfx? k"lt{ ug{ s]Gb|Lt xg5 . ha cfktsfnLg l:ylt l:y/ xG5, lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?sf ] cj;/x?df lj:tf/ eO{ k"j{ afNoj:yf ljsf;, cf}krfl/s k|fylds tyf dfWolds lzIff, k|f9 } ;fIf/tf, Joj;flos sfo{qmd / cGo sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng xg ;Qm5g . ;|ft ljlgof]hg ubf{ ] ef}lts kIfsf] lj:tf/ -h:t} cltl/Qm sIffsf]7fx?, kf7ok:tsx? tyf cWoog tyf cWofkgsf ;fdfu|Lx?_ tyf u0f:t/Lo kIfx? -h:t} lzIff tyf tflnd sfo{qmdx?_ .$= :km]o/ Go"gtd dfkb08x? M lzIffsf sfo{of]hgf / o;sf] sfof{Gjog ug{ ljz]if k|of;x?nfO{ :km]o/sf] Go"gtd dfkb08sf b]xfosf If]qx?df cfj4 ugkg]5M { { kfgL, ;/;kmfO{ tyf :jf:Yo k|j4{g vfB ;/Iff, kf]if0f tyf vfB ;xfotf cf>o:yn, a;f]af; tyf u}/vfB ;fdfu|L / :jf:Yo ;]jf -:km]o/ dfkb08sf] cg;rL PdP;O{Osf] l;l8/f]ddf x]gxf]nf_ " { {
    • 86 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 lzIff gLlt tyf ;dGjo;DaGwL dfkb08 # M ;dGjo cfktsfnLg lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?df kf/bzL{ ;dGjo ;+oGq xgsf ;fy;fy} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sfaLr k|efjsf/L ;"rgf cfbfg k|bfg xg5 . ]dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { lzIffsf clwsf/Lx?n] cfktsfnLg z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx?sf nflu of]hgf tyf ;dGjofTds sfo{df d"Vo e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{ cGt/lgsfo ;dGjo ;ldlt :yflkt u/L jt{dfg tyf eljiosf] cfktsfnLg k|ltsfo{ k|efjsf/L agfpg]5g -dfubz{g gf]6 ! x]gxf]nf_ { lzIffsf clwsf/L pkl:yt gePsf] jf ;dGjo ug{ ;Ifd gePsf] cj:yfdf cGt/lgsfo ;dGjo ;ldltn] lzIffsf lqmofsnfk tyf sfo{qmdx?sf nflu dfu{bz{g tyf ;dGjo ug]5 -dfu{bz{g { l6Kk0fL ! x]gxf]nf_ { clwsf/Lx?, bftfx? tyf cGo ;+:yfx?n] cfly{s ;+/rgf :yflkt u5{g hg lzIffsf ;fem]bf/x?sf aLrsf lqmofsnfkdf ;xof]u / ;dGjofTds ?kdf /xg]5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL @ x]gxf]nf_ . { ;femf 3f]if0ff ;lxtsf] ;dGjon] nlIft u/]sf] s/fx?df ;"rsx? tyf cgudgsf sfo{ljlwx? :yflkt /x]sf], ;a} lzIffsf ;/f]sf/afnfx? ;femf 9fFrf cg;f/ sfd ug{ k|ltj4 /x]sf] / dVo ;"rgf tyf tYof+sx? ;fj{hlgs ?kdf pknAw u/fpg] kb{5g -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL # x]gxf]nf_ . { k|efljt ;dbfox? clwsf/;DkGg /x]sf] / cfFkm}nfO{ k|ToIf k|efj kfg]{ lg0f{o k|lqmofdf ;xefuL xg ;Ifd 5g ljz]if u/L gLlt tyf sfo{qmd thdf, sfof{Gjog / cgudgdf . { ;"rgfx?sf] ljleGg If]qx?sfaLr / /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o ;fe]mbf/x?sf aLr cfbfg k|bfg ug{ Ps kf/bzL{ / ;lqmo ;+oGq :yflkt xG5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL $ x]gxf]nf_{ dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? cGt/lgsfo ;dGjo ;ldltM Jofks If]qsf ;/f]sf/afnfx?nfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg k|ltlglwx? ;dfj]z u/fpg kg]5 / ;+efjgf cg;f/ lzIff clwsf/Lsf] g]tTjdf /xgkg]5 . ;dGjo { [ { ;ldltx? cfktsfnLg l:yltsf] k|sl[ t cg;f/ :yfgLo, lhNnf, If]qLo jf /fli6«o txdf cfjZos kg{ ;Qm5g . hxfF lzIffsf clwsf/Lx?df sd Ifdtf jf j}wtf gePdf ljleGg ;+:yfx?sf] ;xdltdf g]tTj 5fGg ;lsG5 t/ ;b:osf] ?kdf :yfgLo clwsf/Lsf] ;ldltdf [ k|ltlglwTj xgkb{5 . hj kl/l:yltn] cgdlt lbG5, tj ;dGjo lhDd]jf/L pkoQm clwsf/Lx?df } ;fgkg]5 . { { cfly{s ;|ftM cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf nflu lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? ;kmntfk"js / ;dod} ] { ;DkGg ug{ kof{Kt cfly{s ;|ft cfjZos kb{5 . kf/bzL{ / ;dGjofTds k|lqmofsf ]
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 87cfwf/df cfly{s ;|ft ;lglZrt ug{ x/;+ej k|of;x? ugkg]5, ljz]if u/L lzIfsx?sf] tnj eQmfgL ] { {ckof{Kt / csfof{Tds gxf]; . cfktsfnLg cfly{s Joj:yfn] :yfgLo >d ahf/sf] cj:yf /k/Dk/fx?nfO{ ljrf/ ugkg]5 / bLuf] gxg] vfnsf ghL/x?nfO{ x6fpg kg]5 . { { {dVo ;dGjosf rgf}ltx? klxrfg ugkg]5 / eljiosf] lzIffsf] nflu bLuf] tyf ;dGjofTds { {;]jfx? k|bfg ug]{ nfut k|efjsf/L k|lqmofx? ckgfpg To:tf ;d:ofx?nfO{ cfktsfnLgr/0fsf] k|f/lDes cj:yfd} ;Daf]wg ugkg]5 . rgf}ltx?df h:t} lzIfssf] tflnd, k|df0fkq { {tyf eQmfgL, kf7oqmd tyf o;sf ljifoj:t -kf7ok:ts tyf cWoog tyf cWofkgsf;fdfu|Lx?_ / ljBfno tyf k/LIffsf] ;+/rgf tyf dfGotfx? kb{5g .;+oQm gLlt ljsf; tyf tflnd uf]i7Lx?M lzIffsf clwsf/Lx? tyf afxo ;xfotfsdL{x?n] ;+oQm ?kdf ljsf; u/L /fd|f] ;+rf/, ;xsfo{sf] clej[l4 tyf ;femf b[li6sf]0fsf nflu k|lta4tf / ;du| lzIff k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ;d]t ;lglZrt ug]5g . {
    • 88 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 cg;rLx? "cg;rL ! M zAbfjnL "• kxFrM cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf sfo{qmddf egf{ xg, ;xefuL xg / k/f ug{ ck|ltalGwt cj;/ g} kxFr xf] . ck|ltjlGwt cj;/ eGgfn] Jojxfl/s, cfly{s, zf/Ll/s, ;+/rgfut, ;+:yfut, ;fdflhs ;fF:s[lts jf ;/Iff;DaGwL afwfx? gxg xf] h;n] afnaflnsf, ojf tyf k|f}9x?nfO{ ;xefuL xg /÷jf lzIff k/f ug{ cj/f]w k/ofpF5 .• cfwf/e"t lzIffM cfwf/e"t lzIff eg]sf] hLjgko{Gt cWoog tyf dfgj ljsf;sf nflu cfwf/zLnf xf] / o; leq bj} cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? kb{5g . k|To]s JolQm - afns, ojf tyf k|f}9 - n] ltgLx?sf] cfwf/e"t cWoogsf cfjZostfx? k/f ug{ tof/ kfl/Psf lzIffsf cj;/ x?af6 nfeflGjt xgkg]{5 . o:tf cfjZostfx?df dfgjsf nflu bj} cTofjZs cWoogsf pks/0fx? -h:t}M ;fIf/tf, df}lvs cleJolQm, ul0ft tyf ;d:of ;dfwfg_ tyf cfwf/e"t cWoogsf ljifoj:t -h:t}M 1fg, ;Lkx?, d"No tyf k|j[lQx?_ kb{5g . h;n] afFRg, hLjgsf nflu k"0f{ Ifdtfx? ljsf; ug{, lg0f{osf af/]df ;;"lrt /xg tyf lg/Gt/ cWoogsf nflu ;d]t ;Ifd agfpF5 . cfwf/e"t cWoogsf] cfjZostfx?, ltgLx? s;/L sg} /fi6«x? tyf ;+:s[ltx? cg?k ;+rfng ug]{ h:tf ljifox? ;dfofGt/df kl/jt{g eO/xG5g .1• n8fs ;dx;Fu ;Da4 afnaflnsfM cfktsfn tyf ;+s6x?sf] ;dodf afnaflnsfx? w]/}h;f] n8fs ;d"xx?;Fu ;Da4 xG5g - bj} /fHo kIf tyf u}//fHo kIf;Fu, rfx] ltgLx? ckx/0f, egf{, hah{l:t egf{ jf :j]lR5s sfo{åf/f ;DalGwt /xG5g . oL afnaflnsfx?n] ;Fw} xftxltof/ lnFb}gg t/ el/of, ;/fsL, efG;] jf ulDe/ of}g zf]if0fsf] ?kdf kLl8t eg] xg;Qm5g . o:tf ;a} aflnaflnsfx?n] n8fs ;d"xx?df sfdubf{sf] cgejx? jf lzIffsf] cj;/af6 al~rt xFbfsf] efjgfx? JoQm ub{5g . ckl/rfng jf kgMPsLs/0fsf] k|lqmofx?df To:tf afnaflnsfx?s]f ljlzi6 z}lIfs cfjZostfx?k|lt ljz]if Wofg lbg clgjfo{ xg]5 h;df cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIff, b|t cWoog, hLjg ;Lkx? tyf Joj;flos lzIff kb{5g . vf; Wofg aflnsfx? hf] lg/Gt/ ?kn] Wofg glbOPsf jf kgM:yfkgfsf sfo{qmdx?af6 x6fOPsf xg;Qm5g k|lt lbg cfjZos xg]5 .• ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltM ;dbfosf] z}lIfs cfjZostfx? klxrfg / ltgnfO{ ;Daf]w ug{ :yflkt ePsf] Ps ;ldlt xf] h;df cleefjsx? /÷jf cleefljs lzIfs ;+3x?, :yfgLo lgsfox?, gful/s ;dfhsf ;+:yfx?, ;fdbflos ;+u7gx? tyf ojf Pj+ dlxnfsf ;d"xx?sf ;fy;fy} pkoQmtfg;f/ lzIfsx? tyf ljBfyL{x? ;d]tsf] k|ltlglwTj /xG5 . o;sf] pk;ldltx? klg xg ;Qm5 h;sf ;b:ox? o;sf] ;+/rgf cg?k k|ltlglwTj xg]5g . s]xL cj:yfx?df ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx? Pp6f lzIffsf] sfo{qmdsf nflu lhDd]jf/ xg ;Qm5g eg] cGodf vf; If]qsf s]xL lzIffsf sfo{qmdsf nflu lhDd]jf/ xg ;Qm5g .1 ljZj lzIff kmf]/d -@^-@* clk|n @)))_ . lzIffsf] 8sf/ sfo{;+/rgfM ;a}sf nflu lzIff -;g @)!% leq_ .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 89• ;dbfosf] ;xeflutfM ;dbfosf] ;xeflutfn] bj} k|lqmofx? / lqmofsnfkx? hgfpFb5 h;n] k|efljt hgtfsf] cfjfhnfO{ ;gfpg], ltlgx?nfO{ lg0f{o lgdf{0f k|lqmofx?sf] c+usf] ?kdf ;zQm agfpg] / z}lIfs d2fx?df k|ToIf sfo{ ug{ ;Sg] u/L ;an agfpg]5 . ;dbfosf] ;lqmo ;xeflutfn] ;dbfosf] ljlzi6 z}lIfs d4fx? tyf /0fgLltx?nfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kn] ;Daf]wg ug{ ;xhLs/0f ub{5 . cltl/Qm ?kdf, ;dbfosf] ;xeflutfn] ;dbfoleqsf] :yfgLo ;|f]t;fwgx? klxrfg / kl/rfng ug]{ /0fgLltsf] ?kdf ;]jf ug{sf ;fy;fy} ;xdlt lgdf{0f u/L z}lIfs sfo{qmdx?df ;xof]u ub{5 . ;dbfosf] ;xeflutfdf oyfy{ / lbuf] ;zlQms/0f Pj+ Ifdtf ljsf; ;dfj]z ug}{ kb{5 / klxn] g} sfo{:t/df rfn" /x]sf sfo{sf nflu k|of;x? ug}{ kb{5 .• h6Ln cfktsfnM Pp6f cj:yf hxfF dflg;x?sf] hLjg, ;d[l4 / dof{bfsf kf6fx? ljleGg ;+s6k"0f{ tTjx?åf/f vt/fdf k/]sf xG5g, h:t}M k|fs[lts tyf dfgj–l;lh{t ljkbx?, u[xo4 jf ;z:q åGå .• kf7oqmdM Pp6f sfo{of]hgf xf] h;n] ljBfyL{x?sf] 1fg tyf ;Lkx?sf] cfwf/ km/flsnf] agfpg d2t ub{5 . Go"gtd dfkb08x?sf] p2]Zox?sf] nflu kf7oqmd Pp6f 5ftf zAbsf] ?kdf k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 hg cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s sfo{qmdx?df nfu" xG5 . o;df cWoogsf p2]Zox?, cWoogsf ljifoj:t, cWofkg ljlw tyf k|lqmofx?, lzIf0f ;fdfu|Lx? Pj+ n]vfhf]vfsf] ljlwx? ;dfj]z /xG5g . bj} cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? kf7oqmdaf6 lgb]{lzt /xG5g h;n] ljBfyL{x?sf] 1fg tyf cgej a9fpFb5 / tTsfnLg jftfj/0f;Fu ;Da4 /xG5 . Go"gtd dfkb08x?sf nflu b]xfosf kl/efiffx? k|of]u ul/Psf 5gM • cWoogsf p2]Zox?M 1fg, ;Lkx?, dNox? tyf k|j[lQx? klxrfg ug]{ hg lzIffsf lqmofsnfkx?sf dfWodaf6 ljsf; ul/G5 . • cWoogsf ljifoj:t eGgfn] cWoog ug{kg]{ jf l;Sg kg]{ ;fdfu|L -1fg, ;Lkx?, d"Nox? tyf k|j[lQx?_ xf] . • cWofkg ljlwn] cWoogsf ljifoj:t pkof]u ug]{ jf k|:tt ug]{ k|lqmofnfO{ hgfpFb5 . • lzIf0f ;fdfu|Ln] lstfax?, kf]i6/x? tyf cGo cWoog tyf cWofkgsf ;fdfu|Lx?nfO{ hgfpFb5 .• ljkb M ljkb Pp6f k|sf]khGo 36gf xf] h;sf] kl/0ffdx? d[To, Jofks ?kdf dfgjLo kL8f / tgfj / 7"nf] dfqfdf ;+/rgfTds Iflt xG5g .2• z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx?M z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s cWoog sfo{qmdx? xg h;sf] nIo b]Vg;lsg] cWoogsf kl/0ffdx? k|:tt ug{ xf] . ;fy} afnaflnsf tyf ojfsf nflu lg/Gt/ cWoogsf] Joj:yf jf k|f}9x?sf nflu pkoQm cWoogsf] cj;/x? pknAw u/fpg klg nIo xf] .• cf}krfl/s lzIff sfo{qmdx?M cf}krfl/s lzIff sfo{qmd eGgfn] lglZrt txsf] z}lIfs pkflwsf] nflu ljsf; ul/Psf] Ps lgwf{l/t sfo{of]hgf xf] h;af6 dfGotfk|fKt k|df0fkq ;d]t hf/L xG5 . o;n] ;fdfGotof lzIff dGqfnoåf/f ljsf; ul/Psf] /fHo jf /fli6«o lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?nfO{ hgfpF5, hg /fli6«o kf7oqmd jf :jLs[t kf7oqmdsf dfWodaf6 /fHosf] ;+:yfut k|0ffnL jf btf{jfn lghL ljBfnox?df ;+rfng xG5 / /fli6«o k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f ;+:yfx? -jf /fHoåf/f dfGotf k|fKt lghL ;+:yfx?_ df tflnd2 kl/efiff :km]o/ cfof]hgfM dfgjLo a8fkq tyf ljkb k|ltsfo{sf nflu Go"gtd dfb08af6 lnOPsf] .
    • 90 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 k|fKt lzIfsx?af6 k9fOG5 / ltgLx? dGqfnosf ;Nnfxsf/x? jf lg/LIfsx?sf] ;Nnfxaf6 nfeflGjt xG5g . oBlk w]/} cfktsfnLg kl/l:yltx?df cf}krfl/s lzIff h:t} z/0ffyL{ jf cfGtl/s ?kn] lj:yflkt hgtfsf nflu z/0ffyL{ lzlj/x?df ;+rfng xG5 / sfof{Gjog ;fem]bf/x?n] lzlj/ ;ldltx?af6 ;+rflnt xG5 jf ;dbfo leq jf wfld{s ljBfnox?df xg ;Qm5 h;nfO{ dfgjLo ;dbfon] z}lIfs ;fdfu|Lx?, lzIfs tflnd, ljBfno lgdf{0f jf kgMlgdf{0faf6 ;xof]u pknAw u/fpF5g .• ;dfj]zLM ;dfj]zL eGgfn] lzIffsf] sfo{qmddf ;a} ljBfyL{x?nfO{ :jLsf/ ug]{ tyf ltLgx?sf] lzIffdf ;dfg clwsf/ /x]sf]nfO{ dfGotf lbg eGg] alemG5 .• cgf}krfl/s lzIff sfo{qmdM cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf] sfo{qmd cfbz{ ?kn] cf}krfl/stf tyf ;+:yfut ljBfno k|0ffnLeGbf aflx/ ;+rflnt xG5 h;nfO{ sg} ;Da4tf jf k|df0fkqsf] cfjZostf kb}{g . oBlk, ltgLx?dWo] sg} ljBfnox?;Fu ;Da4 ePsf jf lzIff dGqfnosf] cgudgdf ;dfj]z ePsf] xg ;Qm5 / sg} ljBfyL{n] cgf}krfl/s lzIff sfo{qmdnfO{ cf}krfl/s lzIffsf ;dfj]z xg] Ps pkoQm ynf]sf] ?kdf pkof]u ug{ ;Qm5 . To:tf sfo{qmdx?df Ps sfo{of]hgf /xG5 h;df cWoogsf p2]Zox?sf] lgwf{/0f, cWoogsf] ljifoj:t tyf k|lzIf0f ;fdfu|Lx? / ltgLx?sf] ljljlwtf cg?ksf ljz]iftfx?, nrstf, ljlzi6 ;d"xsf] ljwfyL{x?sf] cfjZostf;Fu ;Da4 / afnaflnsf tyf k|f}9x?sf] gofF z}lIfs cfjZostfx? cg?k tTsfn ;Daf]wg ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtfx? ;dfj]z /xG5 . ltgLx?sf] kf7oqmd dGqfnosf] kf7oqmdaf6 tof/ kfl/Psf] xG5, slxn]sfFxL eg] ljz4 gofF kf7oqmd jf cWoogsf gofF ljlwx? cg?k b|t tl/sfaf6 ;+rfng ul/G5 .• u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx? -u}=;=;=x?_M u}=;=;=x? eGgfn] bj} /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o ;+:yfx?nfO{ hgfpF5 h;sf] :yfkgf /fHosf] ;/sf/åf/f 566} cfwf/df ePsf] xG5 .3• cGo lzIffsdL{x?M o;n] lzIfs afx]ssf JolQmx? hf] lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?df ;+nUg ePsf] xG5 jf h;n] ;xof]u ub{5 . To:tf JolQmx?df ljBfnosf lg/LIfsx?, lzIffsf] k|lzIfsx?, lzIff clwsf/Lx?, kf7oqmd ljsf;stf{, ljBfno k|zf;gsf sd{rf/Lx? tyf sf]iffWoIf, ;/IffsdL{x?, efG;], ;/;kmfO{sdL{, dd{t ug]{ sd{rf/L / cGonfO{ hgfpFb5 .• u0f:t/Lo lzIffM u0f:t/Lo lzIffdf axk|s[ltsf tTjx? ;dfj]z /xG5g . o;df b]xfosf kIfx? 5g t/ o;df g} ;Lldt xg eg] ldNb}gM !_ ;/lIft cWoogsf] jftfj/0f @_ ljifoj:tdf bvn /fVg] ;Ifd tyf k|lzlIft lzIfsx? #_ cWoog tyf cWofkgsf nflu kof{Kt ;fdfu|Lx? $_ ;xeflutfd"n k|lzIf0f ljlwx? %_ sIffsf] pkoQm cfsf/x? . h6Ln cfktsfnx?df u0f:t/Lo lzIffn] cWoogsf] jftfj/0f ;xh agfpg cfjZos /0fgLltx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ub{5 . dgf]/Ghg, v]nsb tyf ;[hgfTds lqmofsnfkx?sf] ljsf;sf ;fy;fy} k9g], n]Vg], ul0ftLo tyf hLjg zLkx?sf ljifodf hf]8 lbOG5 h;n] ljBfyL{x?n] cfkmgf] dfgl;s ;Lkx? j[l4 ug{ dfq xf]Og ls ;fdflhs tyf k:tfut txsf dfgjLo ljWj+;fTdstf jf 3[0ffsf] rqmaf6 arfpg ;d]t d2t ub{5 .• ;Da4 lzIffM ;Da4 lzIff eGgfn] s] l;Sg], s;/L l;Sg] / cWoogsf] k|efjsfl/tf tyf u0f:t/sf] dfqfnfO{ aemfpFb5 . lzIffnfO{ ;Da4 agfpg :yfgLo k/Dk/fx? tyf ;+:yfx?, ;sf/fTds ;f:Fs[lts cEof;x?, d"No dfGotfx? tyf ;dbfosf] cfjZostfx? lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?df PsLs[t ug{sf ;fy;fy}3 pxL .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 91 ;dfhdf eljiodf xg;Sg] afnaflnsfx?sf] bL3{sfnLg cfjZostfx? h;df k|efljt ;dbfoeGbf aflx/sf klg ;+efJotf xg ;Qm5g .• ljz]if z}lIfs cfjZostfx?M o; zAbn] ;fdflhs tyf ;fF:s[lts a]kmfO{bfx?sf] -;fdflhs, wfld{s tyf cfly{s lje]bx? ;lxt_ sf ;fy;fy} vf; czQmtf ePsfx? -dfgl;s, zf/Ll/s tyf dgf]j}1flgs c;Ifdtfx? ;lxt_ sf] cfjZostfnfO{ ;+s]t ub{5 .4• ;fe]bf/x?M ;fem]bf/x? vf; sfo{df ;fd"lxs lxtx? tyf o;sf kl/0ffdx? / o;af6 k|efljt xg] JolQmx? tyf ;d"xx? xg .5• lzIfsM cf}krfl/s tflnd lnPsf] jf glnPsf] cf}krfl/s lzIff sfo{qmdsf] k|lzIfs jf lzIffljb jf cgf}krfl/s lzIff sfo{qmdsf] ;xhstf{ jf Plgd]6/ xg;Qm5 .$ lzIff gLlt cWoog OlG:6Ro6M lzIff tyf dfgj ljsf;sf] u|fhP6 ljBfno, ;xeflut clej[l4, kxFr lj:tf/M bLuf] z}lIfs ljsf;sf]bf]xf]/f] cIf, http://wwww/edpolicy.gwu.edu/resources/enhancing/part_b.html% j]N; l6= / Dofslug, Pg=Pkm= -!((*_, ;/f]sf/jafnfx?sf] ljZn]if0fsf] ljlwtkm{, sf]l:6g Pr= -;+_ leq – /0fgLlt / /0fg}lts of]hgf ;+u|x,8«fO{8]g k|];, cf]/NofG8f], kmnf]l/8f .
    • 92 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 cg;"rL @M ;Gbe{ u|Gy / ;|f]t ;fdfu|Lolb oxfF pNn]lvt ;"rLx?n] sfd gu/]df s[kof cfO{PgO{O{ sf] dVo ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L tyf jsfnt ;fdfu|Lsf]k[i7 hxfF ;"rgfx? cBfjlws ul/Psf] xG5 ;f] x]g{xf]nfM http://ineesite.org/core/default.asp;fwf/0f ;|f]tx? McfuO{lno/, lkn/ / uf]Ghfnf] /]6fdn -!((*_, h6Ln cfktsfnLg cj:yfx?df b|t z}lIfs k|ltsfo{, h]g]efMcGt/f{li6«o lzIff Jo/f], http://ineesite.org/core/default.aspa]ys], lngL / :s6 a|fpg:jfO{u -@))$_, cfktsfnLg cj:yfx?df lzIffsf] ljZjJofkL ;j]{If0f, z/0ffyL{dlxnf tyf afnaflnsfnflu dlxnf cfof]u, http://www.womenscommission.org/pdf/ed_emerg.pdfaf]ofbfg, hf] kn /fO{8/ ;lxt -!((^_, ;z:q åGåsf If]qx?df lzIffsf] clwsf/ sfof{Gjog, cS;kmf]8{,http:meltingpot.fortunecity.com/lebanon/254/boyden.htma|ls+u OlG:6Ro;g -!(((_, cfGtl/s lj:yfkgsf nflu dfub{zs l;4fGtx? nfu"ug]{ ;DaGwL xft]kl:tsf,http://www.brook.edu/fp/projects/id/articles/guiding.htm lqmik, h]km, ls|i6f]km/ 6fNaf]6 / 8fogflskf]nfg] -;+=_ -@))!_, eljiosf nflu cWoogM ljsf;f]Gdv /fi6«df z/0ffyL{ lzIff, h]g]efMo"=Pg=Pr=;L=cf/= .http:www.unhcr.ch/pubs/epau/learningfuture/learningtoc.htmcfktsfnLg cj:yfx?df lzIff - dfuf{/]6 l;gSnfo/ljBfnosf] u0f:t/ / :t/ - h]D; Pr= ljlnoD;z/0ffyL{ ljBfnox?df u0f:t/ / :t/ ;wf/M g]kfndf /x]sf e6fgL z/0ffyL{{x?sf] gdgf - l6df]yL a|fpgzflGt lzIff tyf z/0ffyL{ ojf - dfs{ ;f]d{;z/0ffyL{x?sf nflu Joj;flos lzIffM tfGhflgofsf] Ps cWoog - Pl/s lnlacfO{PgO{O{ cfktsfnLg lzIffsf k|fljlws ;|f]t;fdfu|L, http://ineesite.org/about/team_LMR.asp-l8lh6nk|ltsf nflu cfO{PgO{O{sf] j]a;fO{6 dfkm{t lgMzNs k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 / cfO{PgO{O{sf] k|fljlws ;|f]t;fdu|Lsf] l;l8/f]ddf pknAw 5 _ .cGt/ lgsfo :yfoL ;ldlt -@))@_, lzlj/x?sf] ;+hfn j[l4M dfgjLo sfo{sf dfWoaf6 clwsf/x?sf] ;+/If0f,Goof]s{M olg;]km, http://www.icva.ch/files/shelteringtree.pdflgsf]nfO{, ;;g -@))#_, cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf lzIffM cfktsfnLg cj:yfx?df lzIff z? / Joj:yfkg ug]{Ps pks/0f, ;]e b lrN8«]g o=s]=, http://www.ineesite.org/core/default.asp
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 93lgsf]nfO{, ;;g / sfn{ l6«knxf]g{ -@))#_, åGåsfndf afnaflnsfsf] ;+/If0fdf lzIffsf] e"ldsf, dfgjLocEof; ;+hfn sfo{kq g+= $@, http://www.odihpn.org/pdfbin/networkpaper042.pdflkuf]hL, d]/L h]g -!(((_, cfktsfndf lzIff / kgMlgdf{0fM Ps ljsf;fTds k4lt, sfo{kq >[+vnf, Goof]s{Molg;]km, http://unicef.org/girleducation/educEmerg.pdfl;Gsnfos, dfuf{/]6 -@))@_, cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf tyf tTkZrft lzIffsf] of]hgfM z}lIfs of]hgfsf] cfwf/e"t ljifox?, c+s &#, k]l/;M og]:sf] cfO{cfO{O{lk, www.unesco.org/iieep/eng/publications/pubs.html;Gsnfo/, dfuf{/]6 / sfn{ l6«knxf]g{ -@))!_, vfsf lqmofsnfk tyf cfktsfnLg lzIff sfo{qmdx?sfsfof{Gjogsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ ;xfotf, http://www.ineesite.org/core/matrix.aspl:dy, Pnfg / 6f]gL eS; -@))@_, lzIff / åGå, n08gM cGt/f{li6«o ljsf; ljefu, http://ineesite.org/core/default.asp;f]d;{ dfs{, ojfM cfktsfnLg cj:yfx?df afnaflnsfx?sf] :ofxf/;+ef/ tyf ;+/If0fM Ps sfo{:t/lgb]{lzsf, ;]e b lrN8«]g oP;P, http://ineesite.org/core/default.asp;f]d;{ dfs{ -@))@_, afnaflnsf, lzIff tyf o4M o4af6 k|efljt b]zx?df ;a}sf nflu lzIff -O{PkmP_ sf]nIfx?df kxFr, ljZj a}+s, åGå /f]syfd tyf kgMlgdf{0f OsfO{, www.eldis.org/static/doc15001.htm;f]d;{, dfs{ -@))#_, lzIffsf lgb]{zgx?, z/0ffyL{ afnaflnsfx?nfO{ lzIff, z}lIfs ljsf;sf nflu Ps]8]dLtyf z/0ffyL{ dlxnf tyf afnaflnsfsf nflu dlxnf cfof]u, http://www.aed.org/toolsandpublications/upload/educationImperative.pdf:km]o/ cfof]hgf -@))$_, dfgjLo j8fkq tyf ljkb k|ltsfo{sf nflu Go"gtd dfkb08x?, h]g]efM :km]o/cfof]hgf, http://www.sphereproject.orgl6«knxf]g{, sfn{ -@))!_, ojfM cfktsfnLg cj:yfx?df afnaflnsfx?sf] :ofxf/;+ef/ tyf ;+/If0fM Pssfo{:t/ lgb]{lzsf, ;]e b lrN8«]g oP;P, http://ineesite.org/core/default.asp;+oQm /fi6«;+3 -!(*(_, afn clwsf/;DaGwL dxf;lGw, Goof]s{, oPg=, http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/k2crc.htm;+oQm /fi6«;+3 -!(*(_, cfGtl/s lj:yfkgsf nflu dfu{bz{s l;4fGtx?, oPgsf lnvtx?, E/CN.4/199*/53/Add.2, !! km|]ac/L !((*,http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu2/7/b/principles.htm#*;+oQm /fi6«;+3 -@)))_, ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIox?, Goof]s{, o"=Pg=, http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/og]:sf] -@)))_, 8sf/ sfo{;+/rgfM ;a}sf nflu lzIffM xfd|f] ;fd"lxs k|ltj4tfsf] k|flKt, ljZj lzIffkmf]/dsf] sfo{qmdaf6 lnOPsf], 8sf/, k]l/;M og]:sf], http://www/unesco.org/education/efa/ed_for_all/dakfram_eng.shtmlog]:sf] -@))@_, ;a}sf nflu lzIffM ;a}sf nflu lzIffsf] 8sf/ sfo{;+/rgfnfO{ sfof{Gjog ug]{ cGt/f{li6«o/0fgLlt, k]l/;M og]:sf], http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001266/126631eo.pdf
    • 94 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08og]:sf] -@))#_, cfktsfnLg tyf ;+s6sf cj:yfx?df lzIffsf nflu dfu{bz{gM ;a}sf nflu lzIffsf]/0fgLlts of]hgf, k]l/;M og]:sf] cfktsfnLg lzIff ;xfotf OsfO{, www.unesco.orgoPgPr;Lcf/ -!(($_, z/0ffyL{ afnaflnsfM :ofxf/;+ef/ tyf ;+/If0fsf nflu dfu{bz{g, oPgPr;Lcf/,http://www.unhcr.cho"PgPr;Lcf/ -@))#_, sfo{:t/df lzIffsf] nflu ;+zf]lwt dfu{bz{g, h]g]efM oPgPrl;cf/, http://www.ineesite.org/core/default.aspoPgPr;Lcf/ -!((%_, z/0ffyL{sfx?sf nflu lzIff ;xfotf;DaGwL ;+zf]lwt dfu{bz{g, h]g]efM o"PgPr;Lcf/,http://www.unhcr.ch/o"PgPr;Lcf/ / ;]e b lrN8«]g -@)))_, afn clwsf/x?sf nflu sfo{of]hgfM lzIff, dVo d2fx?, h]g]ef,http://www.unhcr.ch/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home/opendoc.pdf?tbl=PROTECTION&id=3bb821334&page=PROTECTolg;]km -!(((_, dfgjLo l;4fGtx?sf] tflndM h6Ln cfktsfnx?df afnclwsf/ ;+/If0fsf] k4lt, olg;]km,http://coe-dmha.org/unicef/unicef2fs.htm;z:q åGå tyf lj:yfkgaf6 k|efljt ePsf afnaflnsfx?sf] nflu sfo{bn, ;z:q åGå tyf lj:yfkgaf6k|efljt ePsf afnaflnsfx?sf dfgl;s ;d[l4sf] k|j4{gM l;4fGtx? tyf k4ltx?, h]g]efM ;]e b lrN8«]gsf]cGt/f{li6«o ;+hfn, http://savethechildren.org/publications/psychsocwellbeing2.pdf;dbfosf] ;xeflutfcfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof;;DaGwL dfu{bz{g - n]vfhf]vf, cgudg tyf d"Nof+sg, http://www.ineesite.org/assess/default.aspcfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof;;DaGwL dfu{bz{g - n]vfhf]vf tyf lzIff sfo{qmd ljsf;df ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf,http://www.ineesite.org/assess/com_part.aspcfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof;;DaGwL dfu{bz{g - lzIffsf] ;+/rgfx? tyf Joj:yfkgM lzIff k|0ffnLx?sf] Joj:yfkg,http://www.ineesite.org/edstruc/manage.aspcfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof;;DaGwL dfu{bz{g - tflnd tyf Ifdtf ljsf;M ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx?,http://www.ineesite.org/training/committe.asph}g, P;=lk / kf]ndfg, ljd -@))#_, ;xeflutfd"ns :yfgLo ljsf;;DaGwL k|lzIfssf] xft]kl:tsf, blIf0fPzLof tyf Kofl;lkms If]qsf nflu PkmPcf]sf] If]qLo sfof{no, Aofs++s, yfO{Nof08, http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/006/AD346E00.HTM;]O{km/, ;]N8g -!(($_, z}lIfs kl/jt{gsf nflu ;xeflutfM cgejx?sf] Ps ;+Zn]if0f, cfO{O{O{lk, og]:sf],http://unesco.org/education/pdf/11_197.pdfoPd/f, ldT; -!(((_, lzIffdf ;dbfosf] ;xeflutfM xfdLnfO{ s] yfxf 5 < Prl8PgO{l8, ljZj a}+s, http://poverty.worldbank.org/libraray/view/14064/
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 95ljZj :jf:Yo ;+u7g -!(((_, ;fdbflos cfktsfnLg k"j{tof/LM Joj:yfksx? tyf gLlt lgdf{tf{x?sf nfluPs Dofgcn, 8AnPrcf], http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/9241545194.pdfljZn]if0fjf]ob]g, hf] / kn l/8/ -!((^_, ;z:q åGåsf If]qdf lzIffsf] clwsf/ sfof{Gjog, cS;kmf]8{, http://meltingpot.fortunecity.com/lebanon/254/boyden.htmuf]l:n+u, nl;of dfOsn P8jf8{ ;lxt -!((%_, cf}hf/x?sf] ;fdfu|LM n]vfhf]vf, cgudg, ;dLIff tyfd"Nof+sgsf nflu Jojxfl/s dfu{bz{g, n08g, ;]e b lrN8«]g .cfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof;x?;DaGwL lgb]{lzsf-n]vfhf]vf, cgudg tyf d"Nof+sg, http://www.ineesite.org/assess/default.asp • k|f/lDes cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf ;|f]tsf] cfjZostf tyf Ifdtfx?sf] n]vf]hf]vfM http://www. ineeesite.org/assess/needs.asp • ljBfno hfg] pd]/ ;d"xsf afnaflnsfx?sf] n]vfhf]vfM http://www.ineesite.org/assess/ schoolage.asp • ljBfnoeGbf aflx/ /x]sf ojf tyf ojf g]t[Tjx?sf] n]vfhf]vfM http://www.ineesite.org/ assess/ex_school.asp • ;dbfosf] cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf] cfjZostfx? n]vfhf]vf tyf ljZn]if0fM http://www.ineesite. org/assess/com_needs.asp • ;fem]bf/ n]vfhf]vf tyf 5gf}6M http://www.ineesite.org/assess/partner.asp • cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf lzIffsf nflu cgudg k|0ffnLM http://www.ineesite.org/assess/ monitor.asp • ljBfnosf] tYof+s tyf ;"rgf k|0ffnLx?M http://www.ineesite.org/assess/data.aspcGt/lgsfo ;+/If0f sfo{bn -@))$_, ;+/If0fnfO{ Ps k|fyldstf lgwf{/0fM ;+/If0fnfO{ dfgjLo ;xfotfsf]tYof+s ;+sngdf ;dflxt ug]{ lgb]{lzsf, OG6/ofS;g, http://www.interaction.org/protection/index.htmlOzfs, Plg6L -@))@_, lzIff, åGå tyf zflGt lgdf{0fM Ps lg?k0f cf}hf/, l;8f, http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/cida_ind.nsf/0/92e83504b7a1b1c085256bb900800f8b?opendocumenthf]xfg];g, Pef Dofl/og -@))!_, cfktsfnLg cj:yfx?df lzIff cfof]hgfx?sf] d"Nof+sgsf nfludfulgb]{zg, cf:nf], gj]{lhog z/0ffyL{ kl/ifb .lgsf]nfO{, ;;g -@))#_, cfktsfndf lzIffdf of]hgfsf r/0fx?M cfktsfndf lzIffsf] z?cft tyfJoj:yfkg lgldQ Ps cf}hf/ ;fdfu|Lx?, ;]e b lrN8«]g os]=, http://www.ineesite.org/core/steps.pdflgsf]nfO{, ;;g / sfn{ l6«knxf]g{ -@))#_, k|ltsfo{sf] tTsfn, rfF8f] / kl5Nnf] Dofl6«S;, cg;"rL ! åGåsf;dodf afnaflnsfx?sf] ;+/If0fdf lzIffsf] e"ldsf, ;+hfn sfo{kq $@, n08gM PrlkPg, http://www.odihpn.org/publist.asp.
    • 96 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08cf]O{l;l8 -@))@_, d"Nof+sgsf nflu dVo zAbx?sf] zAbfjnL tyf pknlAwd"ns Joj:yfkg, d"Nof+sg /;xfotf k|efjsfl/tf g+= ^, k]l/;M cf]O{l;8L .?ljg, Pkm= -!((%_ ljsf; sfostf{x?sf nflu d"Nof+sgsf nflu cfwf/e"t dfu{bz{g, cS;kmf]8{McS;kmfd .;]e b lrN8«]g -@))@_, lzIffdf kl/jt{gsf] dfkg, P;l; os] u0f:t/Lo lzIffsf] dfu{bz{g, n08g, ;]eb lrN8«]g .;]e b lrN8«]g -@)))_, cfktsfnLg k|ltsfo{ of]hgfsf nflu dfu{bz{g, n08g, ;]e b lrN8«]g .kxFr tyf cWoogsf] jftfj/0fju]{u]/g, lh / h]=8]n /f];f] -@))!_, lzIffsf nflu vfBfGgsf] ;"rs dfub{z{g, vfB tyf kf]if0f k|fljlws;xfotf cfof]hgf, jfl;+u6g 8L=;L=, lzIff ljsf;sf nflu Ps]8]dL, www.pronutrition.org/files/flood%29Education%20Indicators%20Measurement%20Guide.pdfa|fs]g, lk= / l;= k]6L -;+=_ -!((*_, o4sf] qf;x? kgMljrf/, ;]e b lrN8«]g . cfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof; dfu{bz{gM n]vfhf]vf, cgudg tyf d"Nof+sg, • ljBfno If]q/jftfj/0fLo n]vfhf]vf, http://www.ineesite.org/assess/site.asp cfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof; dfu{bz{gM lzIffsf ;+/rgfx? tyf Joj:yfkg, • sk8f tyf :jf:Yo, http://www.ineesite.org/assess/site.asp cfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof; dfu{bz{gM ;dfj]zL lzIff • k"0f{ ;xeflutf tkm{M http://www.ineesite.org/inclusion/participation.asp • n}+lus ;dfgtf/aflnsf tyf dlxnfx?sf] lzIffM http://www.ineesite.org/inclusion/gender. asp • k"j{ n8fs tyf afn ;}lgsx?M http://www.ineesite.org/inclusion/soldiers.asp • ljz]if s7Lg cj:yfx?sf afnaflnsfM http://www.ineesite.org/inclusion/difficult.asp • czQmtf ePsf JolQmx?M http://www.ineesite.org/inclusion/disabled.asp cfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof; dfu{bz{gM ljBfnosf] jftfj/0f tyf cfk"lt{x? • ljBfyL{sf nflu cWoogsf ;fdfuL|x?M http://www.ineesite.org/school/materials.asp • ljBfnodf a:g] 7fpF tyf kmlg{r/M http://www.ineesite.org/school/seating.asp • ljBfno tyf z}lIfs pks/0f : //www.ineesite.org/school/equip.asp • cf>o:yn tyf ljBfno lgdf{0fM http://www.ineesite.org/school/shelter.asp • afnd}qL :yfgx?M http://www.ineesite.org/school/friendly.asp • ;/Iff tyf ;/lIft pkfox?M http://www.ineesite.org/school/safety.asp
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 97 • kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{M http://www.ineesite.org/school/water.asp • ljBfnodf vfgfM http://www.ineesite.org/school/feeding.aspcfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof; dfu{bz{gM tflnd tyf Ifdtf ljsf; • /fli6«o u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfsf e"ldsfx?M http://www.ineesite.org/training/ngo.aspnf}/L, d]/LPgL / P=Pu/ -@))!_, z/0ffyL{sf] cgejM dgf];fdflhs tflnd df]8n, cS;kmf]8{, z/0ffyL{ cWoogs]Gb|, ;+zf]lwt k|sfzg, http://www.earlybird.qeh.ox.acl.uk.rfges/lgsf]nfO{ ;;g -@))#_, cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf lzIffx?df cfof]hgf k4ltx?M cfktsfndf lzIffsf] z?cft/ Joj:yfkgsf nflu cf}hf/;fdfu|Lx?, ;]e b lrN8«]g os], http://www.ineesite.org/core/approaches.pdf6f]nlk|m, 8]le8 -!((^_, v]nk0f{ cj:yfsf] kgM;+rfngM o4 jf lj:yfkgsf sf/0faf6 dgf]j}1flgs ?kdfk|efljt ePsf afnaflnsf ;xfotfsf nflu ljleGg k4ltx?, /fc88f afg{gg, :jL8]g .ljZj vfB sfo{qmd -@))!_, aflnsfsf] lzIffsf nflu ljBfno vfgf sfo{qmd, /f]dM 8AnPkmkL, www.wfp.orgljZj vfB sfo{qmd, cfktsfnLg l:yltdf ljBfno vfgf sfo{qmdsf] nflu of]hgf -kl/l:ylt ljZn]if0f,sfo{qmdsf] tof/L / sfof{Gjog, 8AnPkmkL, www.wfp.orgljZj :jf:Yo ;+u7g -@))#_, cfktsfnLg cj:yfx?df dfgl;s :jf:Yo, h]g]efM 8AnPrcf], http://www.who.int/disasters/repo/8656.pdfcWoog tyf cWofkgafS;6/, kfg]{nf -@))!_, cfO{PgO{O{ zflGt lzIff ;fdfu|L, cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf nflu k|fljlws ;|f]t leq,cfO{PgO{O{, http://www.iineesite.org/about/team_LMR.asp -lgMzNs ljBtLok|ltsf nflu cfO{PgO{O{sf]j]a;fO6df uP/ cg/f]w ug{ ;lsG5 / cfO{PgO{O{sf] l;l8/f]d k|fljlws ;fdfu|Ldf klg ;dfj]z 5_af]obfg, hf] / kn l/8/ ;lxt -!((^_, ;z:q åGåsf If]qdf lzIffsf] clwsf/ sfof{Gjog, cS;kmf]8{,http:meltingpot.fortunecity.com/lebanon/254/boyden.htma|f]rdfg, x]Nu / cGo -@))!_, dfgj clwsf/M lzIfs dfu{bz{g, cf]:nf], gj]{lhog z/0ffyL{ kl/ifb, http:ineesite.org/core/default.aspaz, s]g]y 8L= / 8fogf ;fN6/]nL -;+=_ -@)))_, hftLo åGåsfndf lzIffsf bO{ cgxf/x?M afnaflnsfx?sfnflu zflGt-lgdf{0fsf] lzIfftkm{, olg;]km Ogf];]lG6 Og;fO{6, http://www.unicef-icdc.org/publications/pdf/insight4.pdfcfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof; dfu{bz{gM z}lIfs ljifoj:t tyf ljlw
    • 98 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 • dgf];fdflhs cfjZostfx? kl/k"lt{ lgldQ lzIfs tflnd M http://www.ineesite.org/edcon/ psy_soc.asp • kf7oqmd tyf k/LIf0f M http://www.ineesite.org/edcon/curriculum.asp • kf7oqmd ;wf/ tyf ;+emf}tf M http://www.ineesite.org/edcon/revise_curr.asp • hLjg ;Lkx? tyf k/s lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? -:jf:Yo lzIff, ljikmf]6s kbfy{;DaGwL lzIff, zflGt lzIff_M http://www.ineesite.org/edcon/life_skills.asp • k|f/lDes afn ljsf; M http://www.ineesite.org/edcon/early.asp • dfWolds ljBfno lzIff M http://www.ineesite.org/edcon/second.asp • pRr lzIff - ljZjljBfno, sn]hx? tyf Joj;flos ljBfnox? M http://www.ineesite.org/ edcon/tertiary.asp • ;dbfodf ;"rgfsf] cleofgx? M http://www.ineesite.org/edcon/com_info.asp • k|f}9 lzIffM http://www.ineesite.org/edcon/adult.asp • ljBfno eGbf aflx/sf sfo{qmd, http://www.ineesite.org/edcon/out_school.asp cfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof; dfu{bz{gM lzIffsf ;+/rgfx? tyf Joj:yfkg • ljBfno k|zf;gM http://www.ineesite.org/edstruc/admin.asp cfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof; dfu{bz{gM ljBfnosf] jftfj/0f tyf cfk"lt{x? • ljBfnosf ;fdfu|Lx?sf] cfk"lt{ tyf lzIfs ;fdfu|Lx?M http://www.ineesite.org/school/ supplies.aspcfO{PgO{O{ l;sfO ;fdfu|L sfo{bn -@))!_, lzIf0f- cfktsfnLg tyf ;+s6sf cj:yfdf lzIffsf nflucWoogsf ;fdfu|Lx?M Ps ;dLIff, cfO{PgO{O{, www.ineesite.orgcGt/ lgsfo :yfoL ;ldlt -@))#_, cfktsfnLg l:yltx?sf nflu PrcfO{eL÷P8; x:tIf]ksf nflu;wfl/Psf] dfu{bz{g, ;+oQm /fi6«;+3, http://www.humanitarianinfo.org/iasc/IASC%20products/FinalGuidelines17Nov2003.pdfnf]/], dfs{ -@))!_, afn ;}lgsx?M cftsfngL cj:yfx?df afnaflnsfx?sf] :ofxf/;+ef/ tyf ;+/If0fM Pssfo{:t/ dfu{bz{g, ;]e b lrN8«]g, oP;P, http://ineesite.org/core/default.aspnf]ljls, h]g -@)))_, pkof]u gul/Psf ;+efAotfx?M ;z:q åGåaf6 k|efljt k|f}9x?, sfo{qmd tyf gLltx?sf]Ps ;dLIff, z/0ffyL{ dlxnf tyf afnaflnsfsf nflu dlxnf cfof]u, http://www.womenscommission.org/pdf/cap_youth.pdfnf]ljls, h]g -@))$_, ;z:q åGåaf6 k|efljt ojf hgtfsf] ;+/If0f tyf ;xeflutfsf ;DaGwdf ojfn] af]n]sfgofF cfjfhx?, z/0ffyL{ dlxnf tyf afnaflnsfsf nflu dlxnf cfof]u, http://www.womenscommission.org/pdf/cap_youth.pdf
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 99nf]ljls, h]g -@))$_, k|f}9 tyf ojf lzIffsf nflu ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L, z/0ffyL{ dlxnf tyf afnaflnsfsf nfludlxnf cfof]u, http://www.womenscommission.org/pdf/cap_ones.pdfDofssf]gf, O;f]j]n / P;= pkb{ -@))!_, afnaflnsf hf] ;}lgs xf]OggM n8fs ;d"xx? ;Da4 l;kfxLx?tyf afnaflnsfsf nflu dfu{bz{gx?, n08gM ;]e b lrN8«]g, http://www.reliefweb.int/library/documents/2002/sc-children-dec01.htmlgsf]nfO{, ;;g -@))#_, cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf lzIffsf nflu cWoogsf] nflu 9fFrfx?M cfktsfndf lzIff;+rfng tyf Joj:yfkgsf nflu Ps cf}hf/ ;dfu|L, ;]e b lrN8«]g os], http://www.ineesite.org/core/framework.pdfgj]{lhog z/0ffyL{ kl/ifb -og]:sf] lko/ ;lxt_ -@)))_, lzIfssf nflu cfktsfnLg Kofs]hM lzIfs dfu{bz{gMcfwf/e"t ;fIf/tf, ul0ft tyf b}lgs hLjgsf nflu l;4fGtx?, gj]{lhog z/0ffyL{ kl/ifb, cf]:nf], http://ineesite.org/about/TTLMBKLT.pdfgj]{lhog z/0ffyL{ kl/ifb -@)))_, lzIfssf nflu cfktsfnLg Kofs]hM tflnd ;xof]u Dofgcn, gj]{lhogz/0ffyL{ kl/ifb, cf]:nf], http://ineesite.org/about/TTLMBKLT.pdfgj]{lhog z/0ffyL{ kl/ifb -@))!_, /0fgLltx?M åGåsf r/0fx?df g]t[Tj lng] dVo lqmofsnfkx?, Ps ;+:yfsf]cfktsfnLg 36gfx?sf] kl/efiff / sfo{qmd cj;/x?, http://ineesite.org/core/core_act1.asp;e] b lrN8«]g -!(((_, af?b - ;ts{! afnaflnsfnfO{ ;/lIft Jojxf/ l;sfpg z?cft, /fc88f afgg{,:jL8]g .tfljn, ;f]eL / cn]Sh]08«f xfn]{ -@))@_, kf7oqmd kl/jt{g tyf åGå k|efljt ;dbfodf ;fdflhs ;befj,k|fljlws a}7ssf] k|ltj]bg, og]:sf] cfO{ljO{, http://www.see-educoop.net/education_in/pdf/curric_change_social_cohesion_bih_enl_t05.pdftfljn, ;f]eL / cn]Sh]08|f xfn]{ -;+=_ -@))@_, lzIff, åGå tyf ;fdflhs ;befj -tngfTds cWoog >+vnf_,h]g]efM og]:sf] cfO{ljO{ .og]:sf], lzIfssf nflu cfktsfnLg Kofs]h -6]k_ c+uf]nfsf] 6]ksf] ;Gbe{;lxt / olg;]km Pj+ og]:sf]?jf08fsf nflu 6]k sfo{qmd, http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php.URL_ID=1344&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.htmloPgPr;Lcf/ -@))!_, z/0ffyL{ ojfsf nflu PrcfOeL÷P8; lzIffM cfzfsf] ls/0f, h]g]efM oPgPr;Lcf/.olg;]km, af?bL z?+u tyf ljikmf]6 gePsf kbfy{x?;DaGwL ;r]tgf lzIffsf nflu cGt/f{li6«o dfu{bz{g,Goof]s{, olg;]km, http://members.iinet.net.au/~pictim/mines/unicef/mineawar.pdfolg;]km, og]:sf], 8AnPrcf] / ljZj a}+s -@)))_, k|efjsf/L ljBfno :jf:Yodf ;|f]tx? s]Gb|Ls[tMlzIffsf] u0f:t/ tyf ;dtfsf nflu gofF z?cft, Goof]s{M olg;]km, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001240/124086mo.pdfj]naf}d, Pln; -!((%_, 9+ufsf kfOnfx?M PrcfO{eL÷P8;sf nflu tflnd Kofs]h, ;+rf/ tyf ;DaGw ;Lkx?,n08gM PS;g P8, http://www.steppingstonesfeedback.org/index.htm
    • 100 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x?cfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof; dfu{bz{gM n]vfhf]vf, cgudg tyf d"Nof+sg,• lzIfs/;xhstf{sf] pknAwtf / Ifdtfsf ;fy} 5gf}6sf] n]vfhf]vf, http://www.ineesite.org/assess/ teacher.aspcfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof; dfu{bz{gM lzIffsf ;+/rgfx? tyf Joj:yfkg,• ljBfno k|zf;g, http://www.ineesite.org/edstruc/admin.asp• lzIffsf sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ kfl/>lds tyf eQmfgL, http://www.ineesite.org/edstruc/payment.asp• lkmtf{ / kgMPsLs/0f, http://www.ineesite.org/edstruc/repatriate.aspcfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof; dfu{bz{gM tflnd tyf Ifdtf ljsf;,• k|dfl0fs/0f tyf dfGotf, http://www.ineesite.org/training/certificate.aspcGt/ lgsfo :yfoL ;ldlt -@))@_, sfo{of]hgf / dfgjLo ;+s6sf ;dox?df of}g bJo{jxf/ / zf]if0faf6;+/If0fsf nflu dVo l;4fGtx? tyf cfrf/ ;+lxtfx?, ;+oQm /fi6«;+3, http://www.humanitarianinfo.org/iasc/poasexualexploitation.docgLlt tyf ;dGjocfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof; dfu{bz{gM lzIffsf ;+/rgfx? tyf Joj:yfkg,• ljBfno zNsx?, http://www.ineesite.org/edstruc/fees.asp• lkmtf{ / kgMPsLs/0f, http://www.ineesite.org/edstruc/repatriate.aspcfO{PgO{O{ c;n cEof; dfu{bz{gM tflnd tyf Ifdtf ljsf;,• k|dfl0fs/0f tyf dfGotf, http://www.ineesite.org/training/certificate.asp• ljBfnodf k"j{ ;]jf / ;]jfsfnLg, http://www.ineesite.org/training/service.asp• sfo{:t/df lzIfs tflnd / ;xof]u - 3lDt k|lzIfsx? tyf lzIfsx?, http://www.ineesite.org/ training/on_site.asp• /fli6«o ;/sf/sf] e"ldsf, http://www.ineesite.org/training/government.asp• cGt/f{li6«o u};;x?sf] e"ldsf, http://www.ineesite.org/training/int_ngo.asp• ;+oQm /fi6«;+3Lo lgsfosf e"ldsfx?, http://www.ineesite.org/training/un.asp;f]d;{, dfs{ -@))$_, cfktsfn tyf kgMlgdf{0fdf lzIffsf nflu ;dGjoM rgf}ltx? tyf lhDd]jf/Lx?,cfktsfnLg cj:yfx? tyf kgMlgdf{0fdf lzIffM ;}4flGts gLlt >+[vnf, k]l/;, og]:sf], cfOO{{O{kL .
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 101 cg;"rL #M cfef/cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08sf nflu cfO{PgO{O{sf] sfo{;d"xMs]o/ Sofgf8f -GofG;L 8|f]:t_ * s]o/ oP;P -x;g df]xDdb_* Sofyf]lns /fxt ;]jfx? -dfOs kf]hlgofstyf ls|li6g sf/lgon_ * cGt/f{li6«o p4f/ ;ldlt -/]j]sf ljgy|f]k tyf j]G8L l:dy_ * gj]{lhog rr{ P8-lj|lu6 lend:6f8_* gj]{ oPg Pzf]l;P;g/gj]{lhog z/0ffyL{ kl/ifb -x]Nu a|f]vDofg_* z/0ffyL{ lzIff 6«i6-6Ld a|fpg_ * ;]e b lrN8«]g os] -;;g lgsf]nfO{_ * ;]e b lrN8«]g oP;P -lqmli6g Sg8;g_ * og]:sf]-lqmi6f]km/ 6fNaf]6_ * oPgPrl;cf/ -g]ldof 6]Dkf]/n_* olg;]km -lkn/ cfuO{n/_ * ljZj lzIff/sG;f]{l6od-k|m]8 lnuf]g_cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08sf nflu cfO{PgO{O{sf] sfo{;d"xsf] tby{ ;d"xs]o/ oP;P -h]g a]Gjf]_ * Sofyf]lns /fxt ;]jfx? -dfOs kf]hlgofs_ * cfktsfnLg cj:yfx?sf nflucGt/lgsfo ;+hfn -GofG;L 8«f]:6_ * cGt/f{li6«o /fxt ;]jf -j]G8L l:dy_ * gj]{lhog z/0ffyL{ kl/ifb -PlN8«8ld86g_ * ;]e b lrN8«]g PnfPG; -;;g lgsf]nfO{_ * ;]e b lrN8«]g oP;P -lqmli6g Sg8;]g_Gogtd dfkb08sf] k|lqmofdf ;xefuL bftfx?Sofg]l8og cGt/f{li6«o ljsf; ;+:yf -l;8f_ * :jLl8; cGt/f{li6«o ljsf; ;xof]u ;+:yf -l;8f_* cGt/f{li6«o p4f/ ;ldlt * cGt/f{li6«o ;]e b lrN8«]g PnfPG; * ;]e b lrN8«]g gj]{ * og]:sf] * oPgPr;Lcf/* olg;]km * ljZj a}+scfOPgO{O{ sfo{sfl/0fL ;d"xsf ;b:ox?s]o/ cGt/f{li6«o * cGt/f{li6«o p4f/ ;ldlt * cGt/f{li6«o ;]e b lrN8«]g PnfPg * gj]{lhog z/0ffyL{ kl/ifb* og]:sf] * oPgPr;Lcf/ * olg;]km * ljZj a}+scfOPgO{O{ ;lrjfnoPlnzg P08/;g * Go"gtd dfkb08x?sf nflu ;Dks{ ljGb -cGt/f{li6«o p4f/ ;ldltaf6 sfd ul/Psf]_ *a]e{nL /f]a6{;, ;+hfn ;+of]hs -og]:sf]åf/f sfd ul/Psf]_ * uf]ol/n 6f]d/]g ;xfos ;+hfn ;+of]hs -og]:sf]åf/f sfd ul/Psf]_cfOPgO{O{ bftfx?s]o/ oP;P * cGt/f{li6«o ;]e b lrN8«]g PnfPG; * b ldnf]g kmfp08]zg * gj]{lhog ljsf; ;+:yf -gf]/f8_* gj]{lhog k//fi6« dGqfno * og]:sf] * oPgPr;Lcf/ * olg;]km * ljZj a}+sIf]qLo ;Nnfxsf/L k|ltlglwx?* = ;Nnfx sfo{-cf];L_ = If]qLo ;Nnfxsf/L Joj:Yfkg ;ldlt ;b:o
    • 102 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08clk|msf ;fd"lxs k/fdz{ -g}/f]aL, s]Gof, @!-@# hgj/L, @))$, s]o/ Sofgf8f / gj]{lhog rr{ P8sf];f}hGodf_M Sofyl/g cfg]{;]g, gj]{lhog z/0ffyL{ kl/ifb, nfOa]l/of; lhg–d]/L dsf]sf a]tsfd];f], ;le{;;]G6«fn P8s]zg cf nf le/oPgPkmlkP, l8cf/l;; dl8cfkf;fdL b]jfbf];, lk=Pr=l8, og]:sf] lko/, s]Gof; dfOskmf]nLof], h]l;o6 z/0ffyL{ ;le{;]h, ;8fg; dfyf{ x]ljhg, ljG8n 6«i6 OG6/g]zgn/xu lkns+u6g Rofl/6]jn6«i6, ouf08f; les lzj/GhL Osf]jf, oPgPr;Lcf/ s]Gof; hf]o;L O;]Guf]df, s]o/ tfGhflgof; 8]le8;gcf]jf]ofx hf]gfx, lqmli6og lrN8«]g km08 l;of/lncf]g; s]ln;l6g sfdf]/L a+uf, gj]{lhog z/0ffyL{ kl/ifbl8cf;L; Pd=cf/= af/]o sfl/ols -cf];L_, ;]e b lrN8|]g os], s]Gof; yf]d; gf]Unf] s6f, ojf lqmofsnfksfnflu ;dGjo s]Gb|, l;o/flncf]g; n]eL vfld;, gj]{lhog rr{ P8; of]jf]o Pg8f sf}jfl;, lzIff dGqfno,sf]6 l8 cfO{ef]/L; lg8«]lsof] Plnhfa]y lnuf6], blIf0f clk|msf lj:tf/ OsfO{, tfGhflgof; Olngf nf]sf6]nL,PleP;cfO{ -Pzf]l;oflrof]g ef]nf]G6f/L ;le{lhcf] OG6/g]hgfnL_ pQ/L ouf08f; luna6{ ;fGof nvf]jf, ljG8n6«i6 s]Gof; rfFu dfgfyf]sf] -cf]l;_, olg;]km, blIf0fL tyf k"jL{ clk|msf -clk|msf Joj:yfkg ;ldlt ;b:o_;afN6/ df6f]sL, ;Nnfxsf/; lqmli6og lrN8]«g; km08 c+uf]nf; lgdf gfboL;Lld, /fli6«o lzIff dGqfno,a?l08; df/f+u Pghf]u, s]o/ s]Gof; lddf k]l/l;s, olg;]km ;8fg; hfnL ?jfluhf, lsufnL lzIff OlG:6Ro6;Oj|flxd df]xDdb ;Ob, lzIff dGqfno, ;f]dfnLNof08; ;]GoL l;Nof, lzIff dGqfno, lulgof; lqmli6ofgfyf]k{c, clkm|sg dlxnf lzIffljbx?sf] kmf]/d, l;o/flncf]g; 8]le8 afNs/ -cf]l;_, cGt/f{li6«o p4f/ ;ldlt,l;o/flncf]g; hf]of; jflgsg, cGt/f{li6«o p4f/ ;ldlt, ouf08f, hf]g ou ltn]oL, Sofyf]lns /fxt ;le{;]h;8fg; sf;]oL lod/, s]o/ Oyf]lkof .cfPgO{O{ sfo{;d"x tyf sfo{sfl/l0f ;d"x k|ltlglwx?M Pln;g P08/;g, clgz};; kfd]nf afS;6/,oPgPrl;cf/; x]Nu] a|f]vdfg, gj]{lhog z/0ffyL{ kl/ifb; l6d a|fpg, z/0ffyL{ lzIff 6«i6; lqmli6og sflg{on,Sofyf]lns /fxt ;le{;]h;; GofG;L b|f]:t*, s]o/ Sofgf8f; a]enL{ /f]a6{;, clgz};; lj/lu6 Pr= lend:6f8,gj]{lhog rr{ P8 .Plzof Kofl;kms ;fd"lxs k/fdz{ -sf7df8f}+, g]kfn, @!-@# clk|n @))$, cGt/f{li6«o ;]eb lrN8«]g PnfPG;åf/f ;+rflnt_M OdfgPn cflj/f]oS; -cf];L_*, ;]e b lrN8«]g, g]kfn; km]lg l8 nf] PGuLn];-afl6:6f, ljBfyL{x?sf] ;fdbflos kmfp08]zg / lkmlnlkg afnaflnsfsf] 6]lnlehg kmfp08]zg; l:6e cfl:jg,olg;]km O08f]g]lzof, /flGhlg rlGb|sf hojb{g], sdgj]Ny lzIff km08, >Ln+sf; x]lngf Plnof bf]:t, cGt/f{li6«op4f/ ;ldlt, kfls:tfg; ocfO{kf]g{ bfcf]b"Ocf5fO{; sG;f]l6{od yfONof08 -ljZj lzIff tyf ljZj cWoog_;;Ldf ufOsjf8, :km]o/ ef/t; cAbn ukmkmf/, ;]e b lrN8|]g oP;P, kfls:yfg; 8f= cAbn ;fdbufkmf]/L, olg;]km ckmuflg:tfg; /f]hf un, cf];s]Gbg OG6/g]zgn,kfls:tfg; ld/ cAbn dflnsf xf;]ld,lhl6h]8 a]kmf/L -ckmufg z/0ffyL{x?sf nflu cfwf/e"t lzIff_, kfls:tfg; pGu Guf] xf]s, lzIff, ojf tyfv]nsb dGqfno, sDaf]l8of; P=h]8=Pd= zfvjt x}g, a|fs lzIff sfo{qmd, a+ufnb]z ;/sf/sf] ;fem]bf/LtfOsfO{; P=h]8=Pd= zfvjt x;}g, lzIff ljefu, lkmlnlkG; ;/sf/; zfls/ Ozfs, a]kmf/L kfls:tfg; OlGu|8Oe/;g, lzIff of]hgfsf nflu cGt/f{li6«o OlG:6Ro6 -cfO{cfO{O{lk_ og]:sf]; pd]zsdf/ s66]n, ljZj :jf:Yo;+u7g, g]kfn; nId0f vgfn, lzIff ljefu, g]kfn ;/sf/; lrxf? sf]G8, olg;]km g]kfn; ;fDk|m] nfn+ufkf,olg;]km g]kfn; pbo dfgGw/, ;]e b lrN8«]g oP;P, g]kfn; /fr]n DofslsGg] -cf]l;_, cGt/f{li6«o p4f/;ldt ckmuflg:yfg; Pg=ljgf]b rGb| ldgf]g -cf]l;_, olg;]km ef/t; lutf P;= d]gg, s]o/ ef/t; cAbn
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 103cflh; dl:nd, clx+;f OG6/g]zgn / cfr] zflGt lzIff sfo{qmd; hgfb{g g]kfn, lzIff ljefu, g]kfn;/sf/; Kofl6«l;of cf]ldlbofg, Sj]s/ ;]jf, ckmuflg:tfg; 8An= :6ln{u k]/]/f, lzIff ;Nnfxsf/, >Ln+sf; cGgflkG6f], sf]/ -;+u7g cg;Gwfg tyf lzIff s]Gb|_, ef/t; n]vgfy kf]v/]n, sfl/tf; g]kfn; Pg=Pd= k|li6, :km]o/ef/t / s]o/ ef/t; cn]Sh]08«f k/f, cD;kmfd u|]6 lj|6]g, lkmlnlkG; clkm;; s:t/L ;]guKt, Sofyf]lns /fxt;le{;]h, ef/t; x]n]g z]kf{, ljZj lzIff, g]kfn; clgn zdf{, lzIff ljefu, g]kfn ;/sf/; ;Gho l;+x,Sofyf]lns /fxt ;le{;]h, ef/t; lbk]z l;Gxf, ljkb clNks/0f OlG:6Ro6, uh/ft, ef/t, ;/fx l:dy, sG;g{a+unfbz]; dfs{ efg 8]/ :6f]ojL, h]8cf]P z/0ffyL{ x]/rfx, yfO{Nof08; 8f= ;lbgf], lzIff dGqfno, O08f]g]lzof;PgL yf]d;, lzIff tyf ;fdbflos ljsf; ;Nnfxsf/, sDaf]l8of; lnnf/fh pkfWofo, ljZj vfB sfo{qmd,g]kfn .cfPgO{O{ sfo{;d"x tyf sfo{sfl/0fL ;d"x k|ltlglwx?M Plnzg P08/zg, cfPgO{O{; x]Nu a|f]vdfg,gj]{lhog z/0ffyL{ kl/ifb, lqmli6og Sg8;g, ;]e b lrN8|]g oP;; k|]m8 lnuf]g, sG;f]l6{od yfONof08 -ljZjlzIff tyf ljZj cWoog_; ;;fg lgsf]nfO{*, ;]e b lrN8|]g os]; ld;fon kf]hlgofs, Sofyf]lns /fxt;le{;]h; sfn{ l6«knxf]g{, ;]e b lrN8|]g oP;* .Nofl6g cd]l/sf tyf Sof/]ljog ;fd"lxs k/fdz{ -kgfdf l;6L, kgfdf %-& @))$, olg;]kmaf6;+rflnt_M kmgf{g08f] lhcf]eflg cfl/of; df]/fn];, km08fl;of]g bf]; d08f];, sf]nlDaof; nO{; o]lh8a]N6«fg afpl6:6f, cfof]hgf k/fdz{ ;]jf, sf]nlDaof; sf/d]g lnlncfgf laO{a]/fv, km08fl;of]g Kof/f nfOun8f8 l8 ck/rlgf8f8];, kgfdf; /jfo jf]o]g, olg;]km a]lnh; hcfg kfAnf] a:6fdfG6], olg;]km OSj]8/;Snfpl8of ljol6«h sf8]{gf; a];]/f, P;lkPd nfl6gf]cd]l/sf sG;n6f]/]; P;=P= O:6«ft]lhof OG6/Goflsof]gfn;Snfpl8of P/g]li6gf Sofl/nf] /fd/]h, sldl6 l8 km]ldnf/]; de lel;l6df; 8]n "sf/fsfhf]" km]a|]/]/f] l8 !(*(,e]g]hcn; ldN6g h]leo/ sf:6]nfgf]; dl:sP/f, cfO{l;cf/l;, kgfdf; hf];]km df{s ;];f/, lzIff tyf;+:s[lt dGqfno, x}6L; /]g] sOhk;{, o"PgPr;Lcf/ kgfdf; Ol/; O;flnof sl/nf] 8] /]O{;, lzIff dGqfno,Pn ;fNef8f]/; leS6f]l/f luGhf, ljZj vfB sfo{qmd, kgfdf; l8o]uf] le8fn ul6/]h ;fGtf];, lzIff dGqfno, kgfdf;/sf/; lge]{o lhg-Hofs; -cf]l;_, x}l6og lghL lzIff kmfp08]zg -Pkcf]PgPrOkL_, x}6L; k|mflGs; hf];]km,lqmli6og afnaflnsf sf]if, 8f]ldlgsf / ;]G6 leG;]G6; u:tfe hf];]km, lzIff tyf ;+:s[lt dGqfno, x}6L; /]o];lhd]g]h, l;gfk|f]s, kgfdf; dfyf{ lnofgf];, lk=Pr=8L=; lzIff tyf dfgj ljsf; lj1, uf/]g nDklsg -cf]l;_*,olg;]km 6fqmf], kgfdf; Un]l8h dfl/of ldgfof o/]gf, lzIff dGqfno, 8f]ldlgsg u0ftGq; d]l/gf /f]l;of]df]lhsf sfef{hfn, ;]e b lrN8«]g os], sf]nlDaof; dfl/of kfh a/d]hf, oPgPr;Lcf/ ;h{, kgfdf; l/rf8{k]nhf/, og]:sf]; u]/f8f] k]/]h xf]NhLog -cf]l;_, l;O{l8O{L8cfO{P; - ;fdbflos ljsf; tyf ;fdflhs PsLs/0fskf]{/]zg, sf]nlDaof; lg8of lSj/f]h -cf]l;_*, olg;]km-6fqmf] sG;lnof /fld/]h, ;]qm]6]l/of l8 P8s]zgklAnsf, d]lS;sf]; kmnf]/ cNaf /f]d]/f] d]l8gf, olge{l;8f8 Gofl;lgof]n l8 sf]nlDaof; /O;f ?Oh, olg;]kmkgfdf; pgfO{ ;fsf]gf] a]g]uf;, olg;]km 8f]ldlgsg u0ftGq, Pgcf]nL ;gafl/of nf]k]h, olg;]km lgsf/fucf;hf];] cn]hfG8|f] ;fG6fG8f/ g/efo]h, cu]{gfO{hfl;of]g kgfd]l/sfgf l8 nf ;fnb, OSj]8/; of;lx/f] 6fgLulr,oPgcf]rf, kgfdf; 8]le8 dfl6g{ lenf/f]on ufl;{of -cf]l;_, ;]e b lrN8«]g PnfPG;, af]lnleof; ldnf]l8 kmfOgleG;]G6, lzIff tyf ;+:s[lt dGqfno, x}6L; ;f]lkmof j]:6ju{, olg;]km k]? .
    • 104 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08cfPgO{O{ sfo{;d"x tyf sfo{sfl/0fL ;d"x k|ltlglwx?M Pln;g P08/;g, cfPgO{O{; d]l/gf nf]k]h PGh]lNd,z/0ffyL{ lzIff 6«i6; /]j]sf ljgy|f]k, cfOcf/l; .dWok"j{, pQ/ clk|msf tyf o/f]k ;fd"lxs k/fdz{ -cDdfg, hf]8{g, !(–@! d] @))$, og]:sf] /oPgPr;Lcf/åf/f ;+oQm ?kdf ;+rflnt_ M gfb]/ cfG6f]g cfj cfDzf, k"jL{ h]?;]nd jfO{Pdl;P kgM:yfkgfsfo{qmd / jfO{Pdl;P a]Ot-;fxf}/; lhofb cfj n]afg, /]8qm;sf] cGt/f{li6«o ;ldlt -cfO{l;cf/l;_,h]?;]nd; kik cfrfo{, ljZj vfB sfo{qmd, dWok"j{, dWo Plzof tyf k"jL{ o/f]k, OlhK6; Ogf lsdfO{egfP]/fk]6ofg, s]o/ pQ/L spsf;;, r]r]Gof; kmfoh cxDdb cn kmf;kmf]p;, k|f/lDes afNosfn ;|f]ts]Gb|, klZrd t6; :6]e]g P08/;g, cfO{l;cf/l;, h]?;nd; :6fg]nf Pd= a]SnL -cf]l;_, olg;]km dWok"j{tyf pQ/ clk|msf If]q, hf]8{g; vf]pbhf a]NbhLnfnL, lzIff dGqfno cNh]l/of; lnnf afpd3/, lzIffdGqfno, cNh]l/of; of;]/ df]xDdb bfpg, gAaf n]jgfg; e]/f]lgs Pxng, ogPgPrl;cf/ hf]8{g; dlnsfOnfl6lkm, ;]e b lrN8|]g, df]/Ssf], xf]nL xu;g, Soflnkmf]lg{of ljZjljBfno, js{n]; z}v slj/f]l8g, ;b/ k"j{dfKofn]li6lgog z/0ffyL{x?sf nflu oPg /fxt tyf ;]jf Ph]lG; -oPgcf/8AnP_; 8f]l/; Sgf]O{;]n -cf]l;_,jN8{ lehg OG6/g]zgn; hfx/f ld/3fgL -cf]l;_*, oPgPrl;cf/, n]jgfg; 8f= cxdb ldhf{ ldhf{,;nfbfxcl4g ljZjljBfno, O/fs; /f]j6{ ldhL{ -cf]l;_, sf]zf]ef] lzIffljb ljsf; cfof]hgf; Ozf gfzf/, lzIffdGqfno, hf]8g{ ;/sf/; /f]j6{ kf?cf -cf]l;_*, og]:sf] hf]8{g; Hofslng lk6;{, olg;]km hf8{g; cd]nf lkl/s,o/f]lkog ;/Iff tyf ;xof]u ;+u7g, ;/fo]ef; zfcf] kf]t+u, olg;]km sAhf ul/Psf] Kofn]li6lgog e"dfu; af;|LP=P;= ;fndlb, lzIff / pRr lzIff dGqfno, Kofn]li6lgog cyf]l/6L; slj/ :kmfOo, oPgcf/8AnP, hf]8g{;clbgf ;fO{lk/f], dWok"j{ afnaflnsf ;+u7g, Oh/fon; ckm/lbtf :kmfO{o, olg;]km sf];f]ef]; dfl6{lg :6f]6L{,lzIff dGqfno, k|mfG;; df]xDdb tf/fsxfg, oPgcf/8AnP, hf]8g{; lutf adf{, olg;]km hf]8{g; h]ld ljlnoD;-cf]l;_, ;]e b lrN8|]g os], OlhK6, O;km h]g]nL, lzIff, lj1fg tyf k|ljlw dGqfno, sf];f]ef] .cfPgO{O{ sfo{;d"x tyf sfo{sfl/0fL ;d"x k|ltlglwx?M Plnzg P08/zg, clgz};; PlN8|8 ld86g, Pgcf/l;,;;g lgsf]nfO{, ;]e b lrN8«]g os]; a]eln{ /f]j6{;, cfO{PgO{O{, lqmi6f]km/ 6fNaf]6*, og]:sf] cfO{O{lk; g]ldof6]Dkf]/fn*, oPgPr;Lcf/ .;+oQm ;dLIff ;xhstf{M hf]cfg ;lnefg-cf]of]df]o]nf;+oQm ;dLIff ljZn]if0f ;Nnfxsf/M dfuf{/]6 l;Gsnfo/Go"gtd dfkb08x?sf ;xof]uLM lqmli6g kfu]gcfPgO{O{ z}lIfs ljsf; Ps]8]dL tyf ljZjJofkL cWoog kf]6{naf6 ;+oQm ;dLIff k|lqmofdf k|fKt ;xof]usfnflu xflb{s cfef/ k|s6 ub{5 .;+oQm ;dLIfsx?M lqmz a]/L, ;+oQm clw/fHosf] cGt/f{li6«o ljsf; ;+:yf -l8PkmcfO{l8_; lng] a]ys], OG6/js{;; d]l/lng An]lho/, s]o/; a]e{nL a|;, ;fdflhs lj1fg cg;Gwfg kl/ifb; lk6/ asNof08, ljZjj}+s; bfgf ab{c, sf]nlDaof ljZjljBfno; lhd l8k|mflG;isf, xfef{8 ljZjljBfno; Pl/s Pe;{dfg,;Nnfxsf/; hfg lkmN8, oPgPrl;cf/; ;/fx l8«8]g lk6/;g, xfef{8 ljZjljBfno/dfs/]/L ljZjljBfno;hf;g xf6{, cS;kmf]8{; dfyf{ x]lj;g, ljG8n 6«i6; 8f]/f]yL hf]jf]ln+uf], cGt/f{li6«o p4f/ ;ldlt ouf08f,Plnzg Hjfog/, :km]o/; Pn]g efg sfNdxf]p6, olg;]km; Hofls lss{, Dofslun ljZjljBfno, h]g nf]ljls,
    • cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 105cGt/f{li6«o p4f/ ;ldlt; luNa6f]{ d]08]h, lqmli6og afnaflnsf km08 -l;l;Pkm_; PlN8|8 ld86g, Pgcf/l;;ld;fon dG6uf]d]/L, l;cfO{l8P; Snfp; g]Nzg, /]8 afg]{y6, hf]g /f]8; kfOu], ;]G6 P8jf8{; 8]lnof /f/]nf-afl;{nf]gf, oPgPkmkLP; dfuf{/]6 l;Gsnfo/, ;Nnfxsf/; dfs{ ;f]d;{, ;Nnfxsf/; dfl6{lg :6f]6L{, lzIffdGqfno, k|mfG;; sfn{ l6«knxf]g{, ;]e b lrN8«]g oP;; hlnog af6;g, ;Nnfxsf/; ld;fon a];]N;, l;l;Pkm/ /fG8f]Nkm Dofsg; lhd ljlnoD;, hh{ afl;+u6g ljZjljBfno; :of/f]g l/6, s]o/ ;8fg cfwf/e"t lzIffsfo{qmd/df;fr;]6; ljZjljBfno / ;a} 8AnlhPdP;O{O{ ;b:ox? .cfPgO{O{ 8AnlhPdP;O{O{ :km]o/ cfof]hgfsf sd{rf/Laf6 k|fKt k/fdz{sf nflu ;d]t cfef/L 5, ;fy}gfg ahf8{ / Plnzg hf]ogf/k|lt ljz]if wGojfb 5 .xft]kl:tsf ;DkfbsM 8]le8 ljN;g:yfgLo k/fdz{ k|lqmof, cfPgO{O{ ln:6-;e{ k/fdz{ tyf PdP;O{O{sf] k[i7kf]if0f -h;df @) eGbf a9Lk[i7x?df JolQmut gfdx? ;df]jz 5g / :yfgsf] sf/0fn] of] ;a} gfd /fVg ;Dej gePsf]_ df efu lnPsf;a}hgf / of]ubfg lbPsf ;a}nfO{ cfPgO{O{ xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5 . oBlk ;a} of]ubfgstf{x?sf] k"0f{ ljj/0fcfPgO{Osf] lgDg j]a;fO{6df k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5M http://www.ineesite.org/standards/msee.asp tyf PdP;O{O{ {l;l8/f]ddf klg pknAw 5 hg oxL j]a;fO{6 dfkm{t pknAw 5 .
    • 106 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf lzIffsf nflu cfOPgO{O{sf] Go"gtd dfkb08 k[i7kf]if0f kmf/fd;a} Kf|fKt l6Kkl0fx? cfO{PgO{O{sf] Go"gtd dfkb08sf] ;Dks{ s]Gb|sf] kmfOndf /flvg]5 / eljiodf j]adfcfwfl/t ;+zf]wgsf nflu tyf eljiodf dlb|t k|ltsf] ;+:s/0fdf yk ;+zf]wg cfjZos ePdf ;dLIffsful/g]5 .gfdMkb tyf ;+:yfM7]ufgfMkmf]g/Od]nMldltMb]xfosf] k|Zgsf] pQ/ lbFbf s[kof j:tut ?kdf lbgxf]nf / ;+efjgf cg;f/ ;Nnfx lbFbf k|df0fdf cfwfl/tk[i7e"ld jf ;Gbe{;fdfu|L klg lbgxf]nf .!_ tkfO{sf] cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf lzIffsf nflu cfOPgO{O{ Go"gtd dfkb08sf] xft]kl:tsfsf] sg} efudf;fdfGo l6Kk0fL jf k[i7kf]if0f s]xL 5 ls <__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________@_ sg} dfkb08sf ;"rsx?df ;dfof]hgf ug{kg]{ cfjZostf 5 <__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________#_ dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLdf gofF ;"rgfx? k|ltlalDjt u/fpg k5{ ls <__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________$_ kl/lzi6x?df ;dfj]z ug{kg]{ jf ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|Lx?df / ;Gbe{;fdfu|Lsf] cg;"rLdf ykug{kg]{ pks/0fx? s]xL 5g <__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________s[kof o; kmf/fdnfO{ cfPgO{O{sf] cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf lzIffsf] nflu Go"gtd dfkb08sf] ;Dks{ s]Gb|dfk7fpg xf]nfM Plnzg P08/;g;f}hGoM OG6/g]zgn /]:So sldl6/!@@ Oi6 $@ cf} l:6«6/Goof]s{, PgjfO{ !)!^*-!@*(kmf]gM -+! @!@_ %%! #!)& / kmofS; -+! @!@_ %%! #!*% / allison@theirc.orgcfPgO{O{ //jf Go"gtd dfkb08 k|lqmofsf af/]df yk hfgsf/Lsf nflu s[kof j]a;fO6http://www.ineesite.org x]g{xf]nf .