I day 1-humani reform-brt ws-ocha


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Nepal Presentations at Regional DP / DRR Workshop Biratnagar July 14-15, 2010

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  • For sudden major new emergencies, the following SOP applies: Tips for Presenter: Use examples: Good – Lebanon and Pakistan, Lessons Learned: Philippines. Background: Within the first 24 hours of the emergency: HC (or RC) consults relevant partners at country level; makes proposal to designate cluster/sector leads for each major area of the humanitarian response. NOTE : to enhance predictability, where possible sector lead arrangements at the country level should be in line with the lead agency arrangements at the global level. This principle should, however, be applied flexibly, taking into consideration the capacities and strengths of humanitarian organisations already operating in the country or region concerned. See SOP on Designation of cluster/sector leads for more info.   HC sends proposal to ERC (copied to relevant OCHA desk in the Coordination and Response Division, CRD). ERC shares proposal with Global Cluster Lead agencies and other global level lead agencies (as relevant). Within 24 hours of receiving proposal from HC ERC ensures agreement is reached at global level on appropriate country-level cluster/sector lead arrangements. ERC communicates agreement to HC and all relevant partners at global level, including donors. HC (or RC) informs host government and all relevant country-level partners of agreed arrangements.
  • At the global level, the aim of the cluster approach is to strengthen system-wide preparedness and technical capacity to respond to humanitarian emergencies by ensuring that there is predictable leadership and accountability in all the main sectors or areas of humanitarian response. Global cluster leads are accountable to the ERC for: Ensuring system-wide preparedness and technical capacity to respond to emergencies Ensuring greater predictability and more effective inter-agency responses in their particular sector/area of activity Establishing broad partnership bases (i.e. “clusters”) to Consolidate and disseminate standards (for the sector/area of activity) Where necessary, develop standards and policies Identify “best practice” Build response capacity through training and system development at local, national, regional and international levels Establish and maintain surge capacity and standby rosters Establish and maintain material stockpiles (as appropriate) Provide the following operational support Assessment of needs for human, financial and institutional capacity Emergency preparedness and long-term planning Securing access to appropriate technical expertise Advocacy and resource mobilisation Pooling resources and ensuring complimentarity of efforts through enhanced partnerships In relation to the Global Clusters, cluster/sector groups at the country level should: ensure adherence to norms, policies and standards agreed at the global level treat the global level clusters as a resource that can be called on for advice on global standards, policies and best practice, as well as for operational support, general guidance and training programmes.
  • What is meant by ‘provider of last resort’? The ‘provider of last resort’ concept is critical to the cluster approach, and without it the element of predictability is lost. It represents a commitment of sector leads to do their utmost to ensure an adequate and appropriate response. It is necessarily circumscribed by some basic preconditions that affect any framework for humanitarian action, namely unimpeded access, security, and availability of funding. Where there are critical gaps in humanitarian response, it is the responsibility of sector leads to call on all relevant humanitarian partners to address these. If this fails, then depending on the urgency, the sector lead as ‘provider of last resort’ may need to commit itself to filling the gap. If, however, funds are not forthcoming for these activities, the Cluster Lead cannot be expected to implement these activities, but should continue to work with the Humanitarian Coordinator and donors to mobilize the necessary resources. Likewise, where the efforts of the sector lead, the Humanitarian Country Team as a whole, and the Humanitarian Coordinator as the leader of that team are unsuccessful in gaining access to a particular location, or where security constraints limit the activities of humanitarian actors, the provider of last resort will still be expected to continue advocacy efforts and to explain the constraints to stakeholders. For cross-cutting areas such as Protection, Early Recovery and Camp Coordination, the concept of ‘provider of last resort’ will need to be applied in a differentiated manner. In all cases, however, sector leads are responsible for ensuring that wherever there are significant gaps in the humanitarian response they continue advocacy efforts and explain the constraints to stakeholders.
  • Humanitarian Community Partnership Teams Establish Humanitarian Community Partnership teams - pilot countries Respect the integrity of the present UN country teams. HCPT separate from the UNCT Draw equally on national and international NGOs, and the Red Cross movement, NGO determine the NGO representatives
  • I day 1-humani reform-brt ws-ocha

    1. 1. Building a Stronger, More Predictable Humanitarian Response System Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA) reform HUMANITARIAN reform HUMANITARIAN
    2. 2. reform HUMANITARIAN <ul><li>“ Well-known, long-standing gaps” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Limited linkages” between UN and non-UN actors </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination erratic and dependent on personalities </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient accountability (particularly for IDPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Donor policies inconsistent </li></ul>Some Findings from the 2005 Humanitarian Response Review
    3. 3. reform HUMANITARIAN THREE PILLARS OF REFORM AND THE FOUNDATION CLUSTER APPROACH Adequate capacity and predictable leadership in all sectors HUMANITARIAN COORDINATORS Effective leadership and coordination in humanitarian emergencies HUMANITARIAN FINANCING Adequate, timely and flexible financing PARTNERSHIP Strong partnerships between UN and non-UN actors 1 2 3
    4. 4. reform HUMANITARIAN PILLAR 1 Adequate capacity and predictable leadership in all sectors 1 CLUSTER APPROACH
    5. 5. reform HUMANITARIAN Aim of the Cluster Approach <ul><li>High standards of predictability, accountability and partnership in all sectors or areas of activity </li></ul><ul><li>More strategic responses </li></ul><ul><li>Better prioritization of available resources </li></ul>
    6. 6. reform HUMANITARIAN ? When do we use the cluster approach
    7. 7. reform HUMANITARIAN Major “New” Emergencies “ In the event of a sudden major new emergency requiring a multi-sectoral response with the participation of a wide range of international humanitarian actors, the cluster approach should be used from the start in planning and organizing the international response.“ The Guidance Note
    8. 8. reform HUMANITARIAN <ul><li>Within the first 24 hours </li></ul><ul><li>HC (or RC) consults relevant partners, proposes leads for each major area. </li></ul><ul><li>HC sends proposal to ERC </li></ul><ul><li>ERC shares proposal with Global Cluster Leads </li></ul><ul><li>Within 24 hours of receiving proposal from HC </li></ul><ul><li>ERC ensures agreement at global level </li></ul><ul><li>ERC communicates agreement to HC and partners </li></ul><ul><li>HC(or RC) informs host government and all partners </li></ul>Activation for Major New Emergency
    9. 9. reform HUMANITARIAN On-Going Emergencies <ul><li>A Humanitarian Coordinator has been appointed. </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-sector response </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of actors </li></ul>When…
    10. 10. reform HUMANITARIAN What are the role and responsibilities of Cluster Leads ?
    11. 11. reform HUMANITARIAN <ul><li>Normative </li></ul><ul><li>Standard setting and consolidation of ‘best practice’ </li></ul><ul><li>Build response capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Training and system development at local, regional and international levels </li></ul><ul><li>Surge capacity and standby rosters </li></ul><ul><li>Material stockpiles </li></ul><ul><li>Operational Support </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency preparedness </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy and resource mobilization </li></ul>Responsibilities of Global Cluster Leads
    12. 12. reform HUMANITARIAN <ul><li>Cluster/Sector Working Group </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Camp Coordination & Camp Mgmt </li></ul><ul><li>Early Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Telecomms </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Water, Sanitation & Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Food Security </li></ul><ul><li>Refugees </li></ul>Global Cluster Leads FAO UNHCR & IOM UNDP UNICEF & Save the Children UNHCR & IFRC (Convenor) WFP & UNICEF WHO WFP UNICEF UNHCR UNICEF WFP UNHCR Global Capacity-Building
    13. 13. reform HUMANITARIAN <ul><li>Cluster / Sector Working Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Camp Coordination & Camp Mgmt </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Health & Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Water, Sanitation & Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Food Security (includes Agriculture) </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Telecomms (dormant) </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics (dormant) </li></ul><ul><li>Early Recovery (as a network) </li></ul>Cluster Leads IOM UNICEF & Save the Children IFRC (Convenor) & UN HABITAT WHO & UNICEF OHCHR (UNICEF & UNFPA) UNICEF WFP (& FAO tbc) WFP WFP UNDP Clusters in Nepal
    14. 14. reform HUMANITARIAN <ul><li>Inclusion of key humanitarian partners </li></ul><ul><li>Develop appropriate coordination mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination with national/local authorities, local civil society etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory and community-based approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to priority cross-cutting issues (age, environment, gender, HIV/AIDS etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate needs assessments and analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Information management </li></ul>Terms of Reference for Cluster/Sector leads
    15. 15. reform HUMANITARIAN <ul><li>Emergency preparedness </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and strategy development </li></ul><ul><li>Application of standards (e.g. Sphere) </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy and resource mobilization </li></ul><ul><li>Training and capacity building </li></ul><ul><li>Provider of last resort </li></ul>Terms of Reference for Cluster/Sector Leads (contd)
    16. 16. reform HUMANITARIAN <ul><li>Global cluster leads are accountable to the ERC for carrying out their TORs. </li></ul><ul><li>Field cluster leads do not report to GCLs they report to the HC. </li></ul><ul><li>Field clusters should use the GCLS as a resource. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. advice on global standards; policies and best practice; as well as for operational support; general guidance and training programmes . </li></ul>Relationship between Clusters at Country and Global Level
    17. 17. reform HUMANITARIAN Accountability (contd.) <ul><li>The cluster approach itself does not require that humanitarian actors be held accountable to cluster leads. Likewise, it does not demand accountability of non-UN actors to UN agencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual humanitarian organizations can only be held accountable to cluster leads in cases where they have made specific commitment to this effect. </li></ul>Are participants in cluster/sector groups accountable to the cluster/sector lead?
    18. 18. reform HUMANITARIAN Accountability (contd.) Accountability to Affected Populations <ul><li>New commitments to : </li></ul><ul><li>Participative & community-based approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Common needs assessments and prioritization </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced standards </li></ul><ul><li>Common monitoring and evaluation </li></ul>
    19. 19. reform HUMANITARIAN <ul><li>Represents commitment of sector leads to do their best to ensure adequate and appropriate response . </li></ul><ul><li>As agreed by the IASC Principals, sector leads are responsible for acting as the provider of last resort (subject to access, security and availability of funding) to meet agreed priority needs and will be supported by the HC and the ERC in their resource mobilization efforts in this regard. </li></ul><ul><li>If funds are not available the Cluster Lead CANNOT be expected to implement activities. </li></ul>Provider of Last Resort
    20. 20. reform HUMANITARIAN <ul><li>2010 – Co-chairing of Clusters by GoN Focal Points </li></ul><ul><li>2011 – Clusters Chaired by GoN Focal Points </li></ul><ul><li>2010 June – Cluster Trainings – National ToT in KTM, 2 Regional Workshops in Nepalgunj and Biratnagar </li></ul><ul><li>Revision of Contingency Plans, Simulations and Trainings (ongoing) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Clusters at the Regional/District Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Timetable of Cluster Meetings being Updated </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-Cluster Coordination? </li></ul>Clusters – The Way Forward for Nepal?
    21. 21. <ul><li>Humanitarian Reform Website: </li></ul><ul><li>www.humanitarianreform.org </li></ul>