Hfa book nepali
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Hfa book nepali

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Hfa book nepali Hfa book nepali Document Transcript

  • xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn n]vg ÷ ;Dkfbg bLks cfrfo{ efis/ cof{n 8f]n/fh Gof}kfg] PS;g P8 g]kfnsf] cfly{s ;xof]udf sf]–PS;g g]kfnåf/f k|sflzt
  • k|sfzs M sf]–PS;g g]kfn ;jf{lwsf/ ;'/lIft © M k|sfzsdf o; k':tsdf k|oQm ;fdu|Lx? d'gfkmf gsdfpg] p2]Zon] k|sfzssf] gfd ' ;fef/ u/L cf+lzs?kdf k'gM k|sfzg ug{ ;lsg]5 . To:tf] k|sfzgsf] Psk|lt hfgsf/Lsf] nflu pknAw x'g] ck]Iff /fVb5f}+ . k|yd ;+:s/0f M ;fpg @)^^ k|sfzg k|lt M %)) k|lt cfj/0f t:jL/ M sf]zL 8'afg @)^%, sf]PS;g g]kfn sDko'6/÷cfj/0f l8hfOg M lgz]if clwsf/L÷j]nsd l8hfOg;{ gf/fo0fu9, )%^^($!%%, (*$%@#*&& d'b|s M lszf]/ ckm;]6 k|; -k|f_= ln=, sf7df8f}+ ] kmf]g M $#%!)$$ ISBN :
  • k| sfzsLo=== ;g @)!% ;Dddf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf pNn]Vo k|ult ul/5f8g] k|lta4tf;lxt ;g @))% df ljZjAofkL?kdf c+lusf/ ul/Psf] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] af/]df o; k':ts k|sfzg ug{ kfpFbf xfdLnfO{ v'zL nfu]sf] 5 . sf]–PS;g g]kfn ljkbs} If]qdf sfo{ ug]{ ;+:yf xf] . ;f]xL qmddf ;d'bfo:t/df dfq geO{ ljkbs} If]qdf sfo{ ug]{ ;+3;+:yf / ;/sf/L tx dfemdf klg xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] af/]df ckof{Kt hfgsf/L ePsf] xfdLnfO{ cg'ej eof] . pxfFx?s} ;Nnfx ;'emfj / cfjZostf adf]lhd g]kfnL efiffdf ‘xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn’ zLif{ssf] o; k':ts tof/ ePsf] xf] . o; k':tsnfO{ ljleGg cWofox?df afFl8Psf] 5 . t/, ljz]if hf]8 eg] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf k|fyldstfsf lqmofsnfkx?df lbOPsf] 5 . c+uhL efiffdf k|sflzt ljleGg k':tsx?, j]a;fO6x?sf] ]| ;xof]udf xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf d"ne"t tTjx?nfO{ a'emg;lsg] u/L ;d]6g] k|of; o; k':tsdf ul/Psf] 5 . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] af/]df ;}4flGts 1fg k|bfg ug]{ / o;nfO{ Aojxf/df ptfg{ ;xof]u k'Ug]vfnsf ;fdu|Lx? k':tsdf /flvPsf 5g . g]kfnn] klg xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf sfof{Gjog ug]{ k|lta4tfcg'?k xfn;Dd ePsf sfo{x?nfO{ klg o; k':tsdf ;+nUg ul/Psf] 5 . g]kfnsf] kl/k|Iodf ljkb / xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf sfof{GjognfO{ ] a'emg o; k':tsn] ;xhtf Nofpg] xfd|f] ck]Iff 5 . ‘xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn’nfO{ k|sfzgdf k|ToIf / ck|ToIf?kdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] ;a}nfO{ wGojfb lbg rfxG5f}+ . k':ts k|sfzgsf nflu pTk|l/t / ;xof]u ug]{ PS;g P8 g]kfnk|lt ljz]if cfef/ ] k|s6 ug{ rfxG5f}+ . ldlt M @)^^ ;fpg !% ut]
  • d"n ljifo;"rL k[ i 7 cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld !–!^ s_ kl/ro # v_ ljkb hf]lvd / g]kfn % u_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf s] xf] < & 3_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf /0fg}lts nIox? !! ª_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf k|fyldstfsf sfo{x? !! r_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf dfu{–lgb]zs l;4fGtx? { !@ 5_ of]sf]xfdf /0fgLlt !(($ !% cWofo @ M x o f] u f] sfo{ ;+ / rgf k| f yldstfk| f Kt lqmofsnfkx? !&–() s_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk ! @) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk !=! @! xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk !=@ @$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk !=# @& xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk !=$ #) k/LIf0f ;"lr #@ v_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @ ## xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @=! #$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @=@ #& xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @=# $) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @=$ $# k/LIf0f ;"lr $^ u_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk # $& xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk #=! $* xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk #=@ %) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk #=# %$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk #=$ %^ k/LIf0f ;"lr %*
  • 3_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $ %( xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=! ^) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=@ ^# xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=# ^% xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=$ ^& xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=% &) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=^ &@ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=& &^ k/LIf0f ;"lr &* ª_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk % *) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk %=! *! xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk %=@ *$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk %=# *^ k/LIf0f ;"lr () cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn (!–!@& s_ /0fg}lts nIo k|flKtdf /fli6«o k|ult (# v_ xof]uf] k|fyldstf sfo{ ! sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult (^ u_ xof]uf] k|fyldstf sfo{ @ sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult !)@ 3_ xof]uf] k|fyldstf sfo{ # sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult !)& ª_ xof]uf] k|fyldstf sfo{ $ sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult !!$ r_ xof]uf] k|fyldstf sfo{ % sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult !@) cWofo $ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pNn]Vo kIfx? !@*–!$@ s_ cGt/;DalGwt ;jfnx? !#) v_ e"ldsf / pQ/bfloTj !#@ u_ /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o d~r !#% cu|gfd zAbx? (Acronyms) !$# kl/eflifs zAbx? (Terminology) !$% ;Gbe{uGy (References) | !%)
  • cWofo ! k[i7e"ld ! xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • ljifo;"rL k[ i 7 cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld !–!^ s_ kl/ro # v_ ljkb hf]lvd / g]kfn % u_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf s] xf] < & 3_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf /0fg}lts nIox? !! ª_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf k|fyldstfsf sfo{x? !! r_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf dfu{–lgb]zs l;4fGtx? { !@ 5_ of]sf]xfdf /0fgLlt !(($ !% xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn @
  • cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld kl/ro ljZjdf a9b} uO/x]sf] ljkbsf 36gfx? / o;af6 j[l4 x'b} uPsf] dfgjLo, “ cfly{s / c? k|sf/sf Ifltx?af6 ljZj g} k|tfl8t alg/x]sf] 5 . tYof+sx? s]nfpg] xf] eGg] kl5Nnf] jif{ @))* g]kfn / ljZjs} ;Gbe{df klg k|sf]ksf] Ifltsf] b[li6sf]0fn] b'vbfoL /xof] . CRED / UNISDR n] ;g @))( hgj/Ldf ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] ljj/0f cg';f/ ;g @))) b]lv ;g @))& sf] aLrdf ljkbsf 36gfx?af6 ePsf] cf};t jflif{s Iflt -dfgjLo / cfly{s_ eGbf ;g @))* df ePsf] Iflt pNn]Vo?kdf j[l4 ePsf] 5 . ;g @))* df kl5Nnf] ;ft jif{sf] t'ngfdf dfgjLo Iflt tLg u'0ffn] / cfly{s Iflt b'O{ u'0ffn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 . ;g @))* df ljZjel/ hDdf #@! j6f ljkbsf 36gfx? eP h;df @,#%,*!^ hgfsf] d[To' eof] eg] @! s/f]8 dflg; k|efljt x'gk'u] . hals ;g @)))–@))& sf] aLrdf cf};tdf jflif{s ^^,*!@ hgfsf] d[To' ePsf] lyof] . DofGdf/sf] glu{; ;fOSnf]g -rqmjft_ / rLgsf] l;r'cfg k|fGtdf ePsf] e"sDkaf6 a9L dfgjLo Iflt x'gk'Uof] . DofGdf/df !,#*,#^^ hgfsf] / rLgdf *&,$&^ hgfsf] lgwg ePsf] lyof] . ljkbaf6 ePsf] cfly{s Ifltsf] s'/f ug]{ xf] eg] ;g @)))–@))& sf] aLrsf] cf};t jflif{s Iflt *! lalnog ca{ 8n/ ePsf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] lyof] t/ ;g @))* df o;sf] bf]Aa/eGbf klg a9L !*! lalnog 8n/sf] Iflt x'guof] . rLgsf] l;r'cfg k|fGtdf uPsf] e"sDkaf6 *% lalnog 8n/ / cd]l/sfdf cfPsf] ;fOSnf]g -rqmjft_ af6 #) lalnog 8n/sf] Iflt ePsf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . # xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld ;g @))* df Pl;ofnL dxfb]z ljkbsf 36gfx?af6 a9L k|efljt /xof] . ;f] jif{ ljZjdf ePsf d'Vo !) j6f ljkbsf 36gfx?dWo] gf}j6f Pl;ofnL /fi6«x?df ePsf] lyof] . ;g @))) b]lv ;g @))* ;Ddsf] k|sf]k ?k/]vf jif{ 36gf ;+Vof @))) $!# @))! #&( @))@ $@@ @))# #^) ldlnog cd]l/sL 8n/df DffgjLo Ifltsf cfwf/df ;g @))* df k| f s[ l ts k| s f] k k|sf/ glu{; rqmjft e""sDk Aff9L ljifd hf8f] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn $
  • cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld k| s f] k ;+ V ofsf cfwf/df b] z x? -@))*_ rLg lkmlnlkG; ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sf OG8f]g]l;of leotgfd k|lt Psnfv hg;+Vofdf d[To' ePsf / k|efljt hg;+Vof -@))*_ Tffhls:tfg lhafp6L (Djibouti) ;f]dflnof Ol/l6«of PlG6u'cf / ad"[{8f >f]t M CRED / UNISDR ljkb hf]lvd / g]kfn g]kfndf x/]s jif{ ljkbdf kl/ Psxhf/eGbf a9L dflg;sf] d[To' x'g] u/]sf] 5 . cf};tdf x/]s lbg b'O{ g]kfnL ljkb jf o;sf sf/0f l;lh{t kl/l:yltn] % xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld ubf{ d[To'j/0f ul//x]sf 5g . ljut #% jif{sf] tYof+scg';f/ ljkbsf 36gfaf6 jflif{s Psnfv #% xhf/ dflg; k|efljt x'g] u/]sf 5g . ljleGg If]qaf6 k|fKt tYof+scg';f/ x/]s jif{ !^ xhf/ kl/jf/ ljkbsf sf/0f cfkmgf 3/af; u'dfP/ lj:yflkt x'gu/]sf 5g . kl5Nnf] ;dodf ljkbsf] cfj[lQ / Ifltsf] of] ] qmd / dfqfdf lg/Gt/ j[l4 x'b} uO/x]sf] 5 . g]kfn ;/sf/ u[x dGqfnosf “ cg';f/ ljkbsf sf/0f jflif{s cf};t ? ! ca{ @) s/f]8 *) nfv ?k}of“ a/fa/sf] cfly{s Iflt eO/x]sf] 5 . lj1x?sf cg';f/ g]kfn ljZjsf !(* d'nsdWo] e"sDkLo hf]lvdsf] lx;fan] ' !! cf}+ / kfgLhGo k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Ifltsf lx;fan] #) cf}+ :yfgdf 5 . ljZjsf k|dv zx/x?dWo] sf7df8f}+ pkTosf e"sDkLo ljgfzsf] b[li6n] ;a}eGbf a9L ' hf]lvddf /x]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . ;g !(() ;fndf uPsf] *=$ /]S6/ :s]n a/fa/sf] e"sDk hfg] xf] eg] sf7df8f}+ pkTosfdf $) xhf/sf] d[To' x'g, (% ] xhf/ 3fOt] x'g] / ^) k|ltzteGbf a9L 3/x? 9Ng] cg'dfg lj1x?sf] 5 . ;g !()) b]lv ;g @))* ;Dddf ljkb jf ljkbn] lgDTofPsf kl/l:yltn] ubf{ @! xhf/ *@* g]kfnLsf] d[To' eO;s]sf] 5 . -;|ft M BM-DAT_ . o;dWo] ] e"sDksf sf/0f ((@( hgfsf], af9Lsf] sf/0f %^(& hgfsf], dxfdf/Lsf] sf/0f $!*! hgfsf] / klx/f]sf] sf/0f !&@* hgfsf] d[To' ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 . ;f]xL cjlwdf ljkbn] ubf{ ** nfv ## xhf/ @^$ g]kfnL k|efljt x'gsf] ;fy} ' sl/a ? @&=@$ va{sf] cfly{s Iflt ePsf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . ljkb;DaGwL lgDg tYox?n] klg g]kfndf hf]lvdsf] cj:yfnfO{ k|i6 kfb{5 M – x/]s jif{ $@) eGbf a9L ljkbsf 36gfx? x'g] ub{5g . – x/]s jif{ ljkbsf sf/0fn] !))) eGbf a9Lsf] Hofg hfg] ub{5 . – x/]s jif{ ljkbsf sf/0f *) eGbf a9L ge]l6g] u/L x/fO/x]sf x'G5g . – x/]s jif{ !^,))) eGbf a9L kl/jf/ ljkbsf sf/0f lj:yflkt x'G5g . – x/]s jif{ !,#%,))) eGbf a9L g]kfnx? ljkbaf6 k|efljt aG5g . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ^
  • cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld – x/]s jif{ ljkbsf sf/0f ? !,@)*,))),))) eGbf a9Lsf] cfly{s Iflt x'g] ub{5 . – x/]s jif{ ljkbsf sf/0f s'n ufx{:Yo pTkfbgsf] cf};t $ k|ltzt Iflt x'gub{5 . ] -;|ft M u[x dGqfno, Pg;]6÷o"Pgl8kL, PS;gP8 @))&_ ] ljkb;DaGwL g]kfnsf k|dv ;jfn / ;'wf/ ug'kg]{ If]qx? lgDg /x]sf 5g M ' { – ljkb;DaGwL cNk1fgsf] lgjf/0f – /fxtd'vL ljkb Aoj:yfkgdf ;'wf/ – k|efjsf/L ;dGjo / ;xeflutf – ljsf; / ljkbsf] ;DaGw hf]8g] gLlt – k'/ftg sfg"gL Aoj:yfdf kl/jt{g – k|efjsf/L ;+:yfut ;+/rgf – ljkb Aoj:yfkg of]hgf – /fhgLlts r]tgf / k|lta4tf xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf s] xf] < ljZjAofkL ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu ;+oQm /fi6«;3sf ;b:o /fi6«x?n] ' + cg'df]bg u/]sf] ;femf /0fgLlt g} æxof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfÆ (Hyogo Framework of Action) xf] . ;g @))%sf] !*–@@ hgj/Ldf hfkfgsf] sf]a] zx/df cfof]lht bf]>f] ;+oQm /fi6«;3Lo ljkb Go"gLs/0f ljZj ;Dd]ngdf ljZjsf ' + !^* /fi6«x?n] ;j{;Ddt?kdf xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfnfO{ cg'df]bg ub}{ cjnDag ug]{ k|lta4tf hgfPsf lyP . ;f] ;Dd]ngdf tL /fi6«x?sf rf/xhf/eGbf a9L k|ltlglwx?sf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . x/]s b]zsf ;/sf/L, u}/;/sf/L, k|fl1s Pjd lghL ;+:yfsf k|ltlglwx?sf] ;f] ;Dd]ngdf ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . & xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld bzjif{sf] cjlwdf -;g @)!% ;Dddf_ ljkbsf] sf/0fn] x'g] dfgjLo, ;fdflhs, cfly{s / jftfj/0fLo IfltnfO{ pNn]Vo?kdf sd u/fO x/]s /fi6« / ;d'bfox?nfO{ k|sf]klj?4 pTyfgzLntf -resilience)sf] ljsf; u/fpg] dxTjk"0f{ kl/0ffdsf] o;n] ck]Iff /fv]sf] 5 . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfn] kf“rj6f k|fyldstfsf sfo{x?nfO{ lglb{i6 u/]sf] 5 . o;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] nflu dfu{–lgb]zs l;4fGtx? to ul/g'sf] ;fy} { ljkbsf] hf]lvddf /x]sf ;d'bfonfO{ lbuf] ljsf;sf] k[i7e"lddf pTyfgzLntfsf] ljsf; u/fpg Aojxfl/s tl/sfx? ;d]t o;n] l;kmfl/z u/]sf] 5 . ljsf;sf of]hgf / /0fgLltsf] s]Gb|ljGb'sf]?kdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f x'gkg]{ cjwf/0ffnfO{ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfn] hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . k|sf]kn] ljsf;sf] ' pknAwLnfO{ r'gf}tL lbg] / ul/aL a9fpg] x'gfn] a]ndf uDeL/ sbd grflnP } ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIosf] k|dv tuf/f] g} k|sf]kLo Iflt x'g;Sg]tkm{ xof]uf] sfo{ ' ;+/rgfn] ;r]t u/fPsf] 5 . ;f] ;Dd]ngn] tLgj6f k|:tfjx?nfO{ cg'df]bg u/]sf] lyof] . klxnf] k|:tfj cf7 a'b] xof]uf] 3f]if0ffkq (Hyogo Declaration), bf]>f] k|:tfj xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf " @))%–@)!% M ljkblj?4 /fi6« / ;d'bfox?df pTyfgzLntfsf] lgdf{0f (Hyogo Framework of Action 2005-2015 : Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters) /x]sf] lyof] . o:t} t]>f] k|:tfj qm]8lG6on sld6L (credential committee)sf] k|ltj]bg /x]sf] lyof] . ] xof]uf] 3f]if0ffkqdf lgDg cf7 a'bfx? pNn]v ul/Psf 5g M “ !_ PSsfO{;f}+ ztfAbLdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ultljlwx?nfO{ cem ;zQm kfg{ ;fGble{s cGt/f{li6«o k|lta4tf / ;+/rgfx? xfdL lgdf{0f ug]5f}+ . { ;fy} ;x;|fAbL 3f]if0ffkqdf pNn]v ePsf;lxt cGt/f{li6«o?kdf ;xdlt hgfOPsf ljsf;sf nIox? k"/f ug]{ k|lta4tf ;d]t xfdL hgfp“b5f}+ . ljZjAofkL?kdf xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn *
  • cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld ul/aL x6fpg] k|of;x?df ljkbsf 36gfx?n] ult/f]w k'¥ofO/x]sf] 5 . lbuf] ljsf;sf] nflu ljkbsf] c;/ uDeL/ r'gf}tLsf] ?kdf v8f ePsf] 5 . @_ lbuf] ljsf;, ul/aL lgjf/0f / c? tTjx?sf] ljkb Go"gLs/0f;“u /x]sf] cGof]Gofl>t ;DaGwnfO{ xfdLn] klxNofPsf 5f}+ . ;/sf/L, If]qLo / cGt/f{li6«o ;+u7gx?, ljlQo ;+:yfx?, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf / :jod;js;lxtsf] gful/s ] ;dfh, lghL If]q, j}1flgs ;d'bfonufotsf] ;xeflutfsf] dxTjnfO{ xfdLn] cfTd;ft u/]sf 5f}+ . of] ;Dd]ngsf] bf}/fg Pjd k"jtof/Lsf] k|lqmofdf ePsf { ;a} ;fGble{s sfo{x?nfO{ xfdL :jfut ub{5f}+ . #_ ljkb /f]syfd / pTyfgzLntfsf] ;+:s[lt / o;;“u hf]l8Psf k"j–ljkb { /0fgLltx? :j:y nufgLx? x'g / o;nfO{ AolQmb]lv cGt/f{li6«o;Ddsf ;Dk"0f{ txx?df ;Da4{g ug'kb{5 eGg] xfdLn] a'em]sf 5f}+ . k|slthGo k|sf]ksf] hf]lvddf { [ dfgj ;dfh af“Rg kl//x]sf] 5 . o;f] ePtfklg xfdL tL zlQmxLg dflg;x?sf ;fd' k'Ug ;ls/x]sf 5}gf}+ hf] k|sf]k k"jtof/L / c;/nfO{ cNkLs/0f ug{ cIfd { 5g . h;sf nflu ljkb Go"gLs/0f rqmsf] k[i7e"lddf gful/s–s]lGb|t k"j– { r]tfjgL k|0ffnL, hf]lvd d"Nof+sg, lzIff Pjd c? k"jlqmofd'vL, PsLs[t, { ax'–k|sf]kLo, ax'–If]qut kxn / ultljlwx?nfO{ dfWod agfpg ;lsG5 . ljkb hf]lvd, k|sf]k / o;sf] c;/ uDeL/ vt/fsf]?kdf plePklg k|ltsfo{nfO{ hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug]{ / eljiodf ;+s6f;Ggtf sd ug]{ sfo{x?tkm{ pGd'v u/fpg ;Sg'kb{5 / ug}kb{5 . { $_ xfd|f] of] b[9tf 5 ls s'g} klg b]zsf gful/ssf] hLpwgsf] ;'/Iff ug]{ k|dv' bfloTj /fHosf] xf] . t;y{ /fHosf] Ifdtf / ;|ftcg'?k ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ] /fli6«o gLltdf k|fyldstf lbg' clt g} dxTjk"0f{ 5 . xfdL s] s'/fdf ;xdt 5f}+ eg] :yfgLotxdf ljkb hf]lvdnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug{ ;d'bfotxsf] Ifdtf clej[l4 ug'{ cTofjZos 5 . gful/s / ;d'bfodf ljkbsf 36gfx? hLjg, hLljsf, cfTd;Ddfg / ;'/Iffsf] k|dv r'gf}tLx? x'g . cem ljz]iftM ul/ax?sf] nflu . ' t;y{ ljkbsf] vt/fdf /x]sf ljsf;f]Gd'v / sdljsl;t /fi6«x? Pjd ljsl;t ( xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld /fi6«sf ;–;fgf 6fk'x?df ljkbsf] hf]lvd sd ug'{ tTsfnsf] cfjZostf xf] . o;sf] nflu ;'b9 /fli6«o k|of;x? / ljsl;t låkIfLo, If]qLo / cGt/f{li6«o [ ;xsfo{sf] ;xfotf lnOg'kb{5 . %_ xfdL, t;y{, ‘xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf @))%–@)!% M ljkblj?4 /fi6« / ;d'bfox?sf] pTyfgzLntfsf] lgdf{0f’ nfO{ :jLsf/ ub{5f}+ . o;sf /0fg}lts nIox?, cfzf ul/Psf pknAwLx?, k|fyldstfsf sfo{x?, sfof{Gjog /0fgLltx? / cg'udg ultljlwx? csf]{ bzs;Dd ljkb Go"gLs/0f ug]{ dfu{–lgb]zsLo ;+/rgf x'g5g . { ] ^_ xfdL ljZjf; ub{5f}+} ls xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf ;a} txdf d"t?kdf cg'jflbt { ug{ o;sf pknAwLx?nfO{ ljkb Go" g Ls/0fsf] cGt/f{ l i6« o /0fgLlt (International Strategy For Disaster Reduction) dfkm{t cg'udg ul/g'kb{5 . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf cfzf ul/Psf pknAwL / /0fg}lts nIox?nfO{ xfl;n ug{ lglZrt kl/l:yltx? / Ifdtfx?sf] cfwf/df pko'Qm ;"rs (indicator)sf] ljsf; ul/g'kb{5 eGg] xfdLn] a'em]sf 5f}+ . ljleGg ;/f]sf/jfnfx?aLr ;xof]ufTds efjgf / ;fd"lxszlQmsf] k[i7kf]if0f ug]{ lsl;dsf cGtlqm{ofx? Pjd :jod;jL u7aGwgnfO{ ;Da4{g ug]{ ultljlwx?n] ljkb ] Go"gLs/0fdf k'¥ofpg] ;xof]usf] xfdLn] dgg u/]sf 5f}+ . ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfgsf] ;+oGqnfO{ cem ljsf; u/]/ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{qmdx?, k|of;x?, /fd|f cEof;x?, l;sfOx?, k|ljlwx?, kl/0ffdx? / kmfObfx?nfO{ cGt/f{li6«o ;d'bfoaLr af“8g xfdL sl6a4 5f}+ . &_ xfdL ca ;a} txsf ;/f]sf/jfnfx?l;t ‘sfo{’ (action)sf] nflu cfxjfg ub}{ ;fGble{s / ljlzi6 cg'ej ePsfx?;“u of]ubfgsf] ck]Iff ub{5f}+ . xfdL of] s'/fk|lt ;r]t 5f}+ ls of] ljZj ;Dd]ngsf] pknAwLnfO{ d"t?k lbg] sfo{ xfd|f] { lg/Gt/ / cys ;fd"lxs k|of;, alnof] /fhg}lts OR5fzlQm Pjd ;femf lhDd]jf/L / nufgLdf lge{/ /x]sf] 5 . xfd|f] jt{dfg / efjL lk9L+sf] lxtsf] lglDt csf]{ bzsleq ljkbsf] hf]lvdaf6 ljZjnfO{ ;'/lIft kfg{ h?/L 5 . *_ of] ljZj ;Dd]ngsf] cfltYotf k|bfg ug]{ hfkfgsf] ;/sf/ / hfkfgL hgtf, ljz]ifu/L xof]uf] If]qsf hgtfx?sf] xfdL cToGt k|z;f ub{5f}+ . + xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !)
  • cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf /0fg}lts nIox? M s_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ lbuf] ljsf;sf] /0fgLlt, of]hgf / sfo{qmdx?df cem k|efjsf/L?kdf / ;a} txdf ;dflxt ug]{ . ;fy} ljkb /f]syfd (prevention), cNkLs/0f (mitigation), k"j{tof/L (preparedness_ / ;+s6f;Ggtf (vulnerability) Go"gLs/0fdf ljz]if hf]8 lbg] . v_ ljz]iftM ;d'bfosf] txdf k|0ffnLut of]ubfg lbg;Sg] u/L ljkblj?4 pTyfgzLntf (resilience) sf] lgdf{0f / ;'b9Ls/0f ug{ ;+:yf, ;+oGq / [ Ifdtfx?sf] ljsf; ug]{ . u_ cfkTsfnLg k"jtof/L, k|ltsfo{ / k'gnf{esf of]hgf agfp“bf / sfo{qmd { sfof{Gjog ubf{ hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf cjwf/0ffx?nfO{ k|0ffnLut ;dfof]hg ug]{ . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] k|fyldstfsf sfo{x? M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfn] kf“rj6f k|fyldstfsf sfo{x? klxrfg u/]sf] 5 . o;nfO{ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] d'Vo efu klg dfGg ;lsG5 . k|To]s k|fyldstf cGtu{tsf ;Defljt sfo{x?nfO{ o; ;+/rgfn] lj:t[t?kdf AofVof u/]sf] 5 . k|fyldstfsf] sfo{ ! M alnof] ;+:yfut cfwf/;lxt ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o / :yfgLo k|fyldstf x'g5 eGg] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . ] k|fyldstfsf] sfo{ @ M ljkbsf hf]lvdx?sf] klxrfg, lgwf{/0f / cg'udg ug]{ tyf k"jrtfjgL lbg] { ] Aoj:yfsf] clej[l4 ug]{ . !! xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld k|fyldstfsf] sfo{ # M ;a} txdf ljkb ;'/Iff / pTyfgzLntfsf] lgdf{0f ug{ lzIff, 1fg / gjLgtd tf}/tl/sfsf] k|of]u ug]{ . k|fyldstfsf] sfo{ $ M hf]lvdsf cGtlglx{t tTjx?nfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug]{ . k|fyldstfsf] sfo{ % M ;a} txdf k|efjsf/L k|ltsfo{sf] nflu ljkb k"jtof/LnfO{ ;zQm kfg]{ . { xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf dfu{–lgb]{zs l;4fGtx? M !_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] sfof{Gjogdf /fHosf] k|dv pQ/bfloTj /xG5 . ' lbuf] ljsf;sf] nflu /fHo nufgLsf] dxTjk"0f{ lx:;fsf] ?kdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /xg'kb{5 . k|sf]kaf6 cfkmgf gful/ssf] ;'/Iff ug{ / ;DklQ hf]ufpg /fHo;“u zlQm /x]sf] x'G5 . t/ /fHo PSn}n] dfq of] sfd ug{ ;Sb}g . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] k|efjsfl/tf w]/} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] e"ldsfdf lge{/ /x]sf] x'G5 . h:t} M If]qLo / cGt/f{li6«o ;+u7gx?, :jod;js;lxtsf] gful/s ] ;dfh, lghL If]q, ;+rf/dfWod, j}1flgs ;d'bfo cflb OToflb . @_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ljsf;sf ultljlwx?;“u PsLs[t ul/g'kb{5 . ljkbn] hLjg, hLljsfnfO{ w/fzfoL kfl//x]sf] 5 / w]/} dflg;nfO{ ul/aLsf] s'rqmaf6 p7g lbO/x]sf] 5}g . sl7g ;+3if{ / 7"nf] nufgLaf6 k|fKt ljsf;sf pknAwLx?nfO{ ;d]t ljkbn] lg:t]h ul//x]sf] 5 . o:tf] Ifltaf6 hf]ufpg /fHon] ljsf;sf /0fgLltx?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{qmdnfO{ ;dflxt ug'kb{5, ljsf; of]hgfsf] dxTjk"0f{ kf6f]sf]?kdf ljkbsf] ;Defljt vt/f { xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !@
  • cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld klxNofpg'kb{5, cfjZos ;|ft ljlgof]hg ug'kb{5 / If]qut of]hgfx?df klg of] ] { nfu" ul/g'kb{5 . ljkbn] ljZjel/ k'¥ofO/x]sf] IfltnfO{ dWogh/ ub}{ cGt/f{li6«o ljsf; a}sx?, cGt/f{li6«o ;xfotf ;+:yfx?n] ljsf; of]hgf / cEof;x?df + ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ a9bf] dxTjsf] ;fy ;+nUg u/fO/x]sf 5g . dfgjLo ;xfotf sfo{df ;+nUg ;+:yfx?n] klg ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ cfkmgf gLlt / sfo{qmdx?sf] cfwf/e"ttTjsf] ?kdf dfGb} cfPsf 5g . h;n] ubf{ dfgjLo k|ltsfo{ / ;xfotfsf] cfjZostf / dfqf 36b} hfg] ljZjf; pgLx?sf] 5 . #_ ;fdfGotof Pp6f ;d'bfo w]/} k|sf/sf k|sf]kx?sf] vt/fdf /x]sf] x'G5 . rfx] Tof] k|fs[lts (natural) xf];, dfgjhGo (human-induced) xf]; jf jftfj/0fLo (environmental), k|fBf]lusLo (technological), ef}ule{sLo } (geological), h}ljsLo (biological) cflb g} lsg gxf]; . t;y{ ax'ksf]kLo | kxnsbdLn] g} ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] k|efjsfl/tf a9fpg ;Sb5 . lglZrt k|sf/sf] k|sf]knfO{ 5gf}6 u/L sfof{Gjog ul/Psf sfo{qmdx?n] ljkb hf]lvdnfO{ k|efjsf/L?kdf ;fdgf ug{ ;Sb}g . ax'ksf]kLo kxn eGgfn] ;a} | k|sf/sf k|sf]kx?sf] 1fgnfO{ Pscsf{;u hf]8b} ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg, “ /fhg}lts /0fgLltx?, Aoj;flos d"Nof+sgx?, k|fljlws ljZn]if0fx?,;+rfng Ifdtfx? Pjd hgdfg;sf] a'emfOx?df ptfb}{ n}hfg] eGg] a'emgkb{5 h;af6 ' vr{–nfesf] b[li6 / sfo{ k|efjsfl/tfsf] lx;fadf 7"nf] pknAwL xft nfUg ;sf]; . $_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] s]Gb|ljGb'df /x]sf] /0fgLlt g} Ifdtf ljsf; xf] . gful/s, ;+u7g / ;d'bfon] ljkbsf] hf]lvdnfO{ cfkm}n] Aoj:yfkg ug{ ;Sg] + agfpg Ifdtf ljsf; ckl/xfo{ 5 . Ifdtf ljsf; eGgfn] tflnd / ljlzi6 k|fljlws ;xfotf dfq xf]Og, cfkmgf] ;d'bfosf] ljkb hf]lvd klxrfg ug]{ / hf]lvd sd ub}{ n}hfg] IfdtfnfO{ cem ;'b9 t'Nofpg' klg xf] . o; cGtu{t lbuf] [ k|ljlw x:tfGt/0f, ;"rgfsf] cfbfgk|bfg, ;+oGq ljsf;, Aoj:yfksLo ;Lk, Aoj;flos ;Da4tfx?, ;|ft kl/rfng cflb klg kb{5g . Ifdtf ljsf;sf ] !# xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld sfo{qmdx? tL ;+:yfx?af6 dfq} lbuf] x'g;S5 h;n] o;}nfO{ cfkmgf] :yfoL p2]Zo agfPsf] xf]; . %_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu ljs]Gb|Ls[t pQ/bfloTj csf]{ dxTjk"0f{ s'/f xf] . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf w]/} ultljlwx? If]qLo txdf, gu/kflnsf txdf jf ufp“ txdf ;+rfng ug{ cfjZos x'G5 . ljkbsf] s]xL k|dv hf]lvd ' tTjx? h:t} e"–pkof]usf] lgwf{/0f, ejg lgdf{0f :jLs[lt h:tf s'/fx? :yfgLo txsf] k|zf;sLo pQ/bfloTjleq kb{5g . t;y{ :yfgLo txsf ljlzi6 tTjx?sf] klxrfg u/L k|efjsf/L k|ltsfo{ hgfpg pQ/bfloTj / ;|ft b'jsf] ljs]Gb|Ls/0f ] } ul/g}kb{5 . ljs]Gb|Ls/0fn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf :yfgLo ;xeflutf j[l4 ug{ pTk|/0ff hufpg'sf] ;fy} sfo{ r':ttfdf ;'wf/ Nofp“b5 . ] ^_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] k|efjsfl/tfsf]nflu hg;xeflutf geO{ x'bg .“} ;d'bfo ;lDdlnt eP/ lqmofsnfkx? th'df ul/P dfq tL cfjZostfdf { cfwfl/t 5g / jf:tljs ;+s6f;Ggtflj?4 pGd'v 5 eGg ;lsG5 . hgtfsf] ;"lrt–;xeflutfn] k|sf]ksf] a]nfdf b]lvg] ;d:ofnfO{ sd ug{ lgs} 7"nf] 6]jf k'¥ofp“b5 . ;xeflutfd"ns kxnsbdLn] k|sf]klj?4 k':tf}blv k|of]u x'b} cfPsf] +] “ ;gftg 1fg (indigenous knowledge) nfO{ cem k|efjsf/L agfp“b5 . :yfgLo cjwf/0ffx?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf lqmofsnfk / lg0f{ox?df ;dfof]hg ug{ ;lsof] eg] ljkbsf] hf]lvd / ;+s6f;GgtfnfO{ ;d'bfon] klxrfg u/]sf] 5 eGg] ;'lglZrttf x'G5 . hg;xeflutfn] ;+:yfut k|lqmofx?df, hf]lvd n]vfhf]vf sfo{df / gLlt sfo{qmd th'df ubf{ klg k|ToIfk/f]If?kdf ;kmntfsf] { nflu ;xof]u k'¥ofO/x]sf] x'G5 . &_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf lghL–;fj{hlgs ;fem]bf/L (Private–Public Partnership) klg dxTjk"0f{ ljlw xf] . k|fs[lts k|sf]kn] lghL / ;fj{hlgs b'j} If]qnfO{ k|efljt kfb{5 . t;y{ oL b'O{ If]qsf] ;fem]bf/Ln] b'jsf] cfcfkmgf } ;|ft / lj1tfnfO{ ;+oQm?kdf kl/rfng u/L ;Defljt Ifltaf6 hf]ufpg / ] ' ;d'bfosf] pTyfgzLntfsf] ljsf; ug{ dxTjk"0f{ ;3fp k'¥ofpg ;Sb5 . o;df ;fj{hlgs If]q eGgfn] ;/sf/L lgsfo, Aoj;flos ;+3;+:yfx?, k|fl1s ;+:yfx?, xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !$
  • cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx? cflb a'emgkb{5 eg] lghL If]q eGgfn] cf}Bf]lus, Aofkfl/s ' ;+:yfx?, tL ;Da4 ;+3;+u7gx?, lghL k|lti7fgx? cflbnfO{ a'emfp“b5 . *_ ljkbsf] hf]lvd / ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f sfof{Gjogdf n}lus ;jfn + klg plQs} dxTjk"0f{ x'g cfp“5 . ljutdf ePsf ljkbsf 36gfx?n] s] hgfPsf] 5 eg] sd cfh{g ug]{ / ljljw sf/0fn] ;LdfGts[t ePsf -h:t} M j}jflxs cj:yf, zf/Ll/s b'antf, ;fdflhs / hftLo e]befj cflb_ dlxnfx?n] a9L { ;f:tL v]Kg' kl//x]sf] 5 . ;d'bfosf] txdf dlxnfx? ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg ug{;Sg] alnof] l:yltdf /x]sf x'G5g lsgeg] pgLx? cfkm}+ k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] ] pkef]Qmf / Aoj:yfks x'gu/]sf 5g . t;y{ n}lus b[li6n] klg ljlzi6Ls[t ] + ;"rgfsf] klxrfg u/L k|of]u ul/g'kb{5 . ;fy} hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf /0fgLltx? k'?if / dlxnf b'jsf] e"ldsfnfO{ Vofn ub}{ cjnDag ul/b+5 eGg] s'/fsf] } } ;'lglZrttf x'gkb{5 . ' (_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf lqmofsnfkx? /fHosf] lglZrt ;+/rgf cg'sn " x'g] u/L ul/g'kb{5 . ljleGg /fi6«x?sf] km/s–km/s /fhg}lts, ;fdflhs, cfly{s, ;f+:s[lts, jftfj/0fLo / k|sf]ksf kl/l:yltx?df tL lqmofsnfkx? lge{/ /xG5 . kl/df0ftM Ps 7fp“df ;kmn ePsf] sfo{qmd x'ax' p:t} ug{ vf]Hbf csf]{ 7fp“df klg ;kmn g} x'G5 eGg ;lsb+g . t;y{ c? 7fp“sf l;sfO cg'ej } / kf7x?, cEof;x?nfO{ n]vfhf]vf u/L :yfgLo ;Gbe{df To;sf] pko'Qmtf lgSof}n u/]/ dfq lqmofsnfkx? to ul/g'kb{5 . o;f] ubf{ ;f+:s[lts / eflifs { ljljwtf, wd{, hftLotf, /fhg}lts k|0ffnL, k|slt;“usf] P]ltxfl;s ;DaGw, [ ;d'bfo / kfl/jfl/s ;~hfn Pjd g]tTj k|0ffnL, k/Dk/fut clwsf/x? cflb [ OToflbaf/] Psbd} ;r]t /xg'kb{5 . oL tTjx?nfO{ ;'?jftd} x[boªud u/]/ dfq gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] th'df ul/g'kb{5 . { of]sf]xfdf /0fgLlt !(($ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0fsf] nflu of]sf]xfdf /0fgLltn] alnof] cfwf/ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . ;g !(($ df cjnDag ul/Psf] o; /0fgLltn] ljkb hf]lvd !% xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld Go"gLs/0f / k|sf]ksf] c;/ sd ug{ dxTjk"0f{ dfu{lgb]zg tof/ u¥of] . { of]sf]xfdf /0fgLltsf] sfo{ ;dLIffsf] qmddf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf k|dv ' r'gf}tLx?sf] klxrfg ul/Psf] lyof] . tL r'gf}tL / b]lvPsf l/Qmttfx?nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ kf“r If]qdf pNn]v ul/Psf] lyof] M s_ ;'zf;g M ;+u7gfTds, sfg"gL / gLltut ;+/rgfx? . v_ hf]lvd klxrfg, d"Nof+sg, cg'udg / k"jrtfjgL . { ] u_ 1fg Aoj:yfkg / lzIff . 3_ ljBdfg hf]lvdsf tTjx?sf] Go"gLs/0f . ª_ k|efjsf/L k|ltsfo{ / k'gnf{esf] k"jtof/L . { of]sf]xfdf /0fgLltn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ;a} kIfx?df k"jlqmofzLn { cjwf/0ff (proactive approach) cg';f/ gful/snfO{ :yfgLo ;d'bfox?df g} ;';lrt ug], pTk|l/t ug]{ / ;+nUg u/fpg'kg]{ s'/fdf hf]8 lbPsf] lyof] . o;n] " { ] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf p2]Zox?nfO{ xfl;n ug{ ljsf; ah]6af6 5'§ofOPsf] ;|ft lgs} g} ck'u /x]sf] eGb} /fli6«o, If]qLo / cGt/f{li6«o txdf cfly{s ;+oGq ] / ;xsfo{ j[l4 ug{ ;'emfj lbPsf] lyof] . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !^
  • xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfkx? xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !&
  • ljifo;"rL k[i7 cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfkx? s_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk ! @)–#@ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk !=! @! xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk !=@ @$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk !=# @& xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk !=$ #) k/LIf0f ;"lr #@ v_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @ ##–$^ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @=! #$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @=@ #& xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @=# $) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @=$ $# k/LIf0f ;"lr $^ u_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk # $&–#$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk #=! $* xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk #=@ %) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk #=# %$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk #=$ %^ k/LIf0f ;"lr %* !* xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • 3_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $ %(–&( xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=! ^) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=@ ^# xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=# ^% xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=$ ^& xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=% &) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=^ &@ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=& &^ k/LIf0f ;"lr &* ª_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk % *)–%^ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk %=! *! xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk %=@ *$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk %=# *^ k/LIf0f ;"lr () xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !(
  • k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk ! ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o / :yfgLo k|fyldstfdf /xg] s'/f ;'lglZrt ug]{ . o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ;zQm ;+:yfut cfwf/x? tof/ ug]{ . k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk ! sfof{Gjogsf] nflu Psflt/ /fhg}lts k|lta4tf / ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf cfjZos /xG5 eg] csf]lt/ ;+:yfut, sfg"gL / { sfo{;rfng ;+oGqx?nfO{ ljsf; ug{ jf ;'b9 ug{ h?/L 5 . of] k|fyldstfk|fKt + [ lqmofsnfkn] ljsf;sf of]hgfx?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;dflxt ug{ Pjd cfjZostfcg';f/ lhDd]jf/LnfO{ ljs]Gb|Ls/0f ug'kg]df hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . { { xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfn] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk ! sfof{Gjog ug{ /fHon] lgDg sfo{x? ug'kg]{ ;'emfj lbPsf] 5 M { !=! ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] cfwf/x? tof/ ug{ ax'–;/f]sf/jfnf (multi- stakeholders) ;+nUg ;+jfb ;+rfng ug]{ . !=@ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf k|0ffnLut ;dGjosf nflu ;+oGq lgdf{0f ug]{ jf ;'b9 t'Nofpg] . [ !=# ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ;+:yfut cfwf/sf] d"Nof+sg / ljsf; ug]{ . !=$ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fVg], cfjZos ;|ftsf] ljlgof]hg ] ug]{ . k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk ! sf k|ult ;"rsx? M – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] lglDt sfg"gL ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0f . ;/f]sf/jfnf ;a} txdf :ki6 lhDd]jf/Lx?sf] af“8kmf“8 . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ax'–If]qut (multi-sectoral) /fli6«o d~rsf] k|efjsf/L ;+rfng . @) xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] /fli6«o gLlt ;+/rgf tof/ . o;df /fli6«ob]lv :yfgLo;Dd ;a} k|zf;lgs txx?sf of]hgf / lqmofsnfkx? ;dfj]z . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ;a} k|zf;lgs txx?df kof{Kt ;|ftx?sf] pknAwtf . ] !=! ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf cfwf/x? tof/ ug{ ax';/f]sf/jfnf ;+nUg ;+jfb ;+rfng ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] /fi6«sf ;DalGwt ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ Ps} 7fp“df NofO{ ;+/rgfTds 5nkmnx? (structured discussions) åf/f ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf k|of;x?nfO{ ;zQm kfg]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . dxTj M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ckm7of/fx? / ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] rf;f]nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ pko'Qm ljlw g} ;+/rgfTds 5nkmn xf] . o;n] km/s km/s ;d"xx?aLr ;femf ;f]rfOsf] ljsf; ug{ ;xof]u ub{5 eg] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu /fli6«o ;xdlt lgdf{0f ug{ klg 6]jf k'¥ofp“b5 . ;/f]sf/jfnf ;+:yfx? / If]qx?dWo] s;sf] s] e"ldsf /xg] eGg] s'/f :ki6 ug]{ s'/fdf ;d]t o;n] 7"nf] ;xof]u ub{5 . sfo{ ljlw M != k|dv ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ / ltgLx?aLr lqmofzLn ;xsfo{sf] ' ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . k|dv ;/f]sf/jfnfx? tL x'g h;n] of]hgf th'df ug{, ' { hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /0fgLlt / sfo{qmdx? sfof{Gjog ug{ jf k|j4{g ug{ e"ldsf v]Nb5g . @= cl:tTjdf /x]sf ;fGble{s ;/sf/L jf gful/s ;dfh ;+u7gx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . oL ;+oGqx?sf] k|of]un] 5nkmnnfO{ slt ;xof]u k'¥ofpg ;Sb5 egL n]vfhf]vf ug]{ . #= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ;xof]u ug{ ;Sg] Ps jf a9L h'emf? cu'jf (champion) sf] klxrfg ug]{ . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn @!
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! $= ljkbaf6 k|efljt ;d"x jf OR5's ;d"xx?sf] e]nf cfof]hgf ug]{ . %= ;femf nIo, If]q, Ph]08f, w/ftnLo lgod / sfo{ljlwaf/] ;xdlt tof/ ug]{ . ^= ljz]if ;jfnx?df sfd ug{ ;Dej eP;Dd ax'If]qut (multisectoral) sfo{ ;d"x jf ;ldltx?sf] :yfkgf ug]{ . &= ;Dk"0f{ sfo{x?sf] ;dGjosf] nflu ;+oGqsf] :yfkgf ug]{ . ;dGjoleq k|ult lgSof}n / cg'udg Pjd kl/0ffdx?nfO{ PsLs[t ug]{ sfo{df hf]8 lbg] . { *= 7f]; kl/kf6Lsf] ljsf; u/]/ 5nkmnnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] . (= 5nkmnsf kl/0ffdx? k|jflxt ug]{ Pjd afxo ;'emfjx?nfO{ k|fKt ug]{ / cjnDag ug]{ k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug]{ . 5nkmnsf kl/0ffdx? ;DalGwt ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx?, ;xefuL ;+3;+:yfx? / gful/s tx;Dd k'¥ofpg] . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]tx? M – cy{, jftfj/0f, /fli6«o of]hgf / gLlt lgdf{0f x]g{] lgsfox? . – lzIff, :jf:Yo, s[lif dGqfno / c? ;fGble{s If]qx? . – /fli6«o ljkb Aoj:yfkg / gful/s clwsf/ ;+/If0f ;DaGwL sfo{ ug]{ ;+3;+u7gx? . ltgLx?sf] sfo{;rfng ;fem]bf/x? h:t} k|x/L, /]8qm; cflb . + – gful/s hLjgsf] nflu dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Ng] cfly{s / ;fdflhs k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f sfo{df ;+nUgx? . – ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] lgu/fgL, lgodg / cg'df]bgsf nflu lhDd]jf/ gful/s c+ux? . jftfj/0fLo Aoj:yfksx?, l/of] ;Dd]ngsf /fli6«o kmf]sn KjfOG6, dlxnf cfof]u, k|dv dfgjLo / ;fdflhs ;]jf ;Da4 ' ;+u7gx? . – e"–pkof]u;DaGwL of]hgfsf/x?, cfls{6]S6x?, OlGhlgo/x?, lgdf{0f 7]sbf/x?, e"uf]nljbx?, k|sf]klj1x?, jlsnx?, lzIfsx?, tflnd ;|ft ] ] AolQmx?, cg';Gwfgstf{x?, Aoj;flos ;+u7gx? . – hf]lvd klxrfg, k|sf]k cg'udg, k"j–r]tfjgL / k"jtof/L ;DaGwL sfo{ { { ug]{ k|fljlws / j}1flgs ;+:yfx? . – lghL If]q M ljlQo ;+:yfx? -a}s, aLdf_ / ;+rf/ k|ljlw ;DaGwL sDkgLx? . + – ;+rf/ ;+:yfx? . @@ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! – u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?, dlxnf / o'jf ;d"x, jftfj/0fLo pRr hf]lvddf /x]sf If]qdf jsfnt ug]{ ;fd'bflos ;d"xx? . cg's"n cj:yf M – ;/sf/L / ;/f]sf/jfnf ;+u7gx? Pjd ;d'bfosf g]tfx?sf] ;xof]u . – gful/snfO{ pTk|/0ff / ?lr hufpg ;Sg], ;d'bfo / ;/sf/aLr k'nsf] ] sfd ug{;Sg] cu'jf AolQm jf AolQmx? (champion or champions) . – a[xt ;xeflutfsf] nflu ;fjwfgLk"0f{ 9+un] agfOPsf] of]hgf . -5nkmnsf] nflu pko'Qm ;do, 7fp“, cj:yfsf] 5gf}6 cflb_ . – 5nkmnsf qmddf k|bfg ug'kg]{ cfjZos hfgsf/Lx? . -h:t} ljkb hf]lvdsf] { cj:yf d"Nof+sg, ;+s6f;Ggtf, k|sf]k 36gfx?sf] cWoog lgrf]8, ;/sf/sf of]hgf, /0fgLlt, P]g, sfg"gx? cflb ._ ;kmn pbfx/0f M df]/Ssf]df klxnf]k6s ;g @))$ df ljkbsf] hf]lvdsf] af/]df /fli6«o sfo{zfnfsf] cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . ;f] sfo{zfnfn] df]/Ssf]sf] ljkbsf] hf]lvd / o;nfO{ Go"g ug{ rflnPsf sbdx?sf] ;dLIff ug'sf] ;fy} ;+:yfut, { sfg"gL / ;+u7gfTds k|0ffnLdf b]lvPsf sdhf]/Lx?sf] klxrfg u/]sf] lyof] . of] sfo{zfnfkl5 df]/Ssf]df ljkbsf] af/]df ax; ug]{ ljljw d+rx? u7g ul/of] / /fli6«o ;dGjo ;ldlt klg agfOof] . ljkbsf af/]df ;/f]sf/jfnfx?l;t 5nkmn ug]{ nx/ g} rfNof] . ljkbsf] ljlzi6 ;jfnx?nfO{ lnP/ k|z:t k|ltj]bgx? tof/ ul/P . oL k|To]s sfo{zfnf / 5nkmnsf k|ltj]bgnfO{ k|sflzt ug]{ / ;/f]sf/jfnfx?aLr ljt/0f ug]{ ul/of] . /fhg}lts bnsf g]tfx?n] ljsf; of]hgf / ah]6 af“8kmf“8df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ljz]if hf]8 lbg ;DalGwt dGqfno / ;/sf/L lgsfox?nfO{ cfxjfg u/] . cGttM ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkgsf] /fli6«o k|ltj]bg tof/ ul/of], /fli6«o /0fgLlt agfOof] / cfkTsfnLg k|ltsfo{sf] nflu /fli6«o of]hgf tof/ ul/of] . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn @#
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! !=@ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf k|0ffnLut ;dGjosf] nflu ;+oGq lgdf{0f ug]{ jf ;'b[9 t'Nofpg] . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ ;dGjofTds / k|efjsf/L sfo{sf] nflu ‘/fli6«o d~r’sf] u7g jf ;'b9Ls/0fsf] nflu k|fT;fxg ub{5 . /fli6«o d~rn] [ ] lgDg sfo{x? ug]{ p2]Zo lnPsf] 5 M – xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] sfof{Gjogsf] nflu /fli6«o of]hgfsf] g]tTj ug]{ . [ – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf ;/f]sf/jfnfx?aLr ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ j[l4 ug]{ . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f k|To]s gful/ssf] bfloTj xf] eGg] a'emfP/ ;'/Iff / pTyfgzLntfsf] ;+:s[lt ljsf; ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ljsf; gLlt, /0fgLlt, lqmofsnfk / ax'kIfLo jftfj/0fLo ;Demf}tfx?df ;dflxt ug{ jsfnt ug]{ . dxTj M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f hl6n sfo{ ePsfn] o;sf nflu /fhg}lts k|lta4tf, cfdr]tgf, j}1flgs 1fg, pQ/bfoL ljsf; of]hgfsf ;fy} gful/s– s]Gb|Lt k"j;rgf k|0ffnL / ljkb k|ltsfo{ ;+oGqsf] cfjZostf kb{5 . /fli6«o { " d+rn] ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ Ps} 7fp“df NofO{ ltgLx?sf] 1fg, Ifdtf / ;|ftx?nfO{ ;+of]hg ub{5 . /fli6«o d+rn] ;fwf/0ftof lgDg sfo{x?df ;3fpg ] k'¥ofp“b5 M – /fli6«o ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f lqmofsnfkx?sf] sfof{Gjogdf ;'wf/ Nofp“b5 / lbzflgb]z ub{5 . { – gful/s ;dfh, ljz]iftM u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ;jfndf /fli6«o / ;d'bfo:t/df ax; / ;fem]bf/Lsf] nflu cj;/ k|bfg ub{5 . – /fli6«o d+rsf ;b:ox?aLr k|ljlw, 1fg / ;"rgfsf] cfbfgk|bfgdf ;3fp k'¥ofp“b5 . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf If]qdf sfd ug]{ AolQmx?sf] cGo ;fGble{s /fli6«o, If]qLo / ljZjAofkL lgsfox?;“u ;DaGw lj:tf/ u/fp“b5 . @$ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! sfo{ ljlw M /fli6«o d+rnfO{ ;dGjo ug]{ ;+:yf :yfoL k|sltsf] x'gkb{5 . ;f] ;+:yf;“u [ ' k|efjzfnL g]tTj lbg;Sg], /fhg}lts k|lta4tfsf] nflu kxn ug{;Sg] / ;|ft [ ] kl/rfng u/fpg;Sg] Ifdtf x'gkb{5 . ' /fli6«o d~rn] o;/L sfo{ ug'kb{5 M { – k|sf]k ljj/0f, /fli6«o gLltx?, /0fgLltx?, Ifdtf cflb ;d]l6Psf] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f cfwf//]vf tof/ kfg]{ . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf k|fyldstfsf If]qx?sf] lgSof}n u/L To;df { /x]sf b'/L, rf;f], k|jlQ / r'gf}tLx?sf ;fy} clt;+s6f;Gg hg;+Vofsf] [ klxrfg ug]{ . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf ePsf k|ultx? Pjd ljsf; of]hgf / cEof;x?df o;sf] ;dfof]hgsf] d"Nof+sg ug]{ . – xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] sfof{Gjog ;dGjo ubf{ glthfd'vL sfo{of]hgfsf] ljsf; ug]{ . – t'ngfTds?kdf pRrhf]lvddf /x]sf gful/ssf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu /fli6«o d+rsf ;b:ox?aLr ;+oQm sfo{sf] nflu ;dGjo ug]{ . ' – ;femf pknAwL, pTs[i6 k|of;x? / k|fKt 1fgsf] ljj/0f cBfjlws /fVg] . ;b:ox?aLr hfgsf/L, 1fg / k|ljlwsf] cfbfgk|bfg ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ . – ;d'bfo / /fli6«o:t/df xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] sfof{Gjogsf] cg'udg / n]vfhf]vf u/L k|ltj]bg tof/ ug]{ . – pRrtxsf gLlt lgdf{tfx?nfO{ k|efljt ug{ ;DalGwt gLlt, lgodsf] af/]df jsfnt ug]{ . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ hnjfo' kl/jt{g, h}ljs ljljwtf, d?e"lds/0fh:tf ax'cfoflds jftfj/0fLo ;Demf}tf Pjd dfgjLo ;xfotf, ljsf; sfo{qmd / cjwf/0ff;“u ;dfof]hg ug{ sfo{ yfNg] . – c? /fli6«o d+rx?;“u ;dGjo ug]{ . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf sfo{ ug]{ c? If]qLo ;+u7gx?;“u ;dGjo ug]{ / ;|ft ;+of]hgsf] cj;/ vf]Hg] . ] – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;“u ;DalGwt ;jfnx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ cGo ;dGjosf/L ;+oGqx?;“u ;xsfo{ ug]{ . – cg';Gwfgsf ;jfnx?sf] ljsf; ug{ ;xhLs/0f ug]{ . cjwf/0ffut xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn @%
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! sfo{;/rgf (Conceptual Framework) / ljlwut ;+/rgf (Methodological + Structure) df /xL cg';Gwfg ug{ lbzflgb]z / k|fT;fxg ug]{ . { ] – ljsf; sfo{stf{ tyf of]hgfsf/x?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ lbuf] ljsf;;DaGwL cjwf/0ff h:t} ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIo, ul/aL lgjf/0f /0fgLltkq cflb;“u hf]8g pTk|l/t ug]{ . ] – ax';/f]sf/jfnf cjwf/0ff / ax;nfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ . gful/s ;dfh ;+u7gx? ljz]iftM u};;x?nfO{ ljleGg:t/sf ax; / sfo{ ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ . cGt/f{li6«o ;d'bfo, ;+oQm /fi6«;3Lo k|0ffnL / /fli6«o clwsf/jfnfx?aLr ' + 5nkmn / ;fem]bf/Lsf] ljsf;df ;xof]u ug]{ . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]tx?M – ;/sf/L k|ltlglwx? M /fli6«o, If]qLo / :yfgLo:t/sf . o;df ljz]iftM cy{, of]hgf, jftfj/0f, u[x, gful/s ;'/Iff, lzIff, :jf:Yo, ;dfhsNof0f, cfjf; tyf ef}lts, s[lif cflb x]g{] dGqfno cGtu{tsf kb{5g . – gful/s ;dfhsf k|ltlglw / ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf e"ldsf /xg] ;+u7gx? . ;fGble{s ;d"xx? h:t} ljsf; / jftfj/0fLo ;'/Iff;DaGwL, dfgj a;f]af;;DaGwL sfd ug]{ ;+u7gx? . pBdL / Aofkf/Lsf 5ftf ;+u7gx?, a}s tyf aLdf, dlxnf ;+3, wfld{s / o'jf kl/rfng ;+:yfx?, + ;/sf/L sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ tflnd lbg] ;+:yfx? cflb . – ;+rf/hut . – j}1flgs / z}lIfs ;+:yfx? . – k"jtof/L, k"j;rgf, k|sf]k cWoog / cg'udg, hf]lvd klxrfg h:tf { { " ;]jfx?sf] ljifodf sfd ug]{ k|fljlws tyf j}1flgs ;+:yfx? . cg's"n cj:yf M – pRrtxsf g]tfx?af6 /fhg}lts k|lta4tf . :ki6 sfo{qmd . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf cfwfl/t 1fg clej[l4 ug]{ k|fljlws lqmofsnfkx? . – ljkb Go"gLs/0fsf ;"rsx? ;d]t ;+nUg u/fOPsf] /fli6«o d+rsf] sfo{ljlw ;+/rgfsf] ljsf; . – /fli6«o d+rsf] ljsf; ug{ / o;sf] of]hgfnfO{ d"t?k lbg cfjZos ;|ftx? . { ] @^ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! ;kmn pbfx/0f M pRr e"sDkLo hf]lvdsf] If]q, hnjfo' kl/jt{g / jftfj/0fLo Iflt;“u} a9bf] hg3gTjn] ubf{ blIf0f Pl;ofsf /fi6«x? k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf] b[li6n] hf]lvdk"0f{ cj:yfdf 5g . blIf0f Pl;ofsf s]xL /fi6«x?n] ul//x]sf k|of;x? k|z;gLo + ePklg ;du| ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu w]/} 7"nf k|of; ug{ cem} af“sL 5. ;g @))^ cui6df ef/t, kfls:tfg, ckmuflg:tfg, a+unfb]z, g]kfn, e'6fg, dflNbE; / >Ln+sfn] If]qLo?kdf dxTjk"0f{ km8sf] df/]sf 5g . ef/tn] /fli6«o ljkb Aoj:yfkg ;+:yf / ‘b'of]u lgjf/0f’ eGg] u};;;“u ldn]/ blIf0f { Pl;ofnL gLltsf af/]df ax;sf] cfof]hgf u¥of] . o"g8LkL / k|flS6sn PS;gsf] ;xof]udf gof“lbNnLdf ePsf] pQm sfo{qmddf ;ftj6f blIf0f Pl;ofnL /fi6«sf ;DalGwt pRr:t/sf ;/sf/L sd{rf/L, j}1flgs, ;+rf/sdL{ / ;d'bfosf g]tfx? u/L !%) eGbf a9Lsf] k|ltlglwTj /x]sf] lyof] . ;xefuLx?n] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf If]qLo ;dGjosf] nflu lgisif{ lgsfn]/ lbNnL 3f]if0ffkq hf/L u/] . !=# ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ;+:yfut cfwf/ d"Nof+sg / ljsf; ug]{ . p2]Zo M o; lqmofsnfkn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu /fli6«o gLlt, j}wflgs / ;+:yfut sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] d"Nof+sg / ljsf; ug]{ k|of; ub{5 . cGttf]uTjf o;af6 ljkbaf6 ;'/lIft / lbuf] ;d'bfo lgdf{0f ug{ cf}krfl/s cfwf/ tof/ x'G5 . vf;ul/ o;n] gLltut l/Qmtfx? / Ifdtf klxNofpg d2t ug'sf] ;fy} { k|ult cg'udg / dfkg ug{sf nflu cfwf//]vfsf] ljsf;df ;3fp k'¥ofp“b5 . dxTj M s'g} klg /fi6«sf] Aoj:yflksf / ;/sf/L k|0ffnLn] g} ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ;a} If]qdf of]hgf / ;+u7gsf] nflu cfwf/ k|bfg ub{5 . To;}n] t c;n zf;g / kof{Kt ;+:yfut cfwf/x? ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn @&
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! dxTjk"0f{ cfjZostf xf] . ljBdfg sfg"gL / k|zf;lgs cj:yfsf] d"Nof+sgn] g} xfnsf] Ifdtf, alnof] / sdhf]/Lx? kQf nufO{ gLltut, sfg"gL / ;+:yfut sfo{ ;+/rgfx?df ul/g'kg]{ ;'wf/x?sf] cfwf/ k|bfg ub{5 . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ;'b9 gLltn] ;'zf;g sfod u/fpg ;d]t ;3fp k'¥ofp“b5 . h:t} M [ ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf jf e"–pkof]u of]hgf nfu" ul/Pdf ljkb hf]lvd / k|zf;sLo Aoj:yfkgsf] k|ult a'emg ;+:yfut d"Nof+sg klg ul/g'kb{5 h;n] ubf{ ;'zf;g sfod u/fpg ;3fp k'¥ofp“b5 . sfo{ ljlw M != efjL of]hgf / ;+:yfut 5nkmnsf] nflu ;/f]sf/jfnfx?aLr e]nfsf] cfof]hgf ug]{ . @= lnlvt ;fdu|Lx? ;+sng ug]{ . ljkbsf k"jcg'ejx?, k"j36gfx? / l;sfOx?sf] { { cWoog ug]{ . ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfsf clwsf/Lx?;“u o;af/] yk a'emg] . #= ljBdfg k|0ffnLdf /x]sf ;an / lga{n kIfx?nfO{ s]nfP/ ;'wf/sf] cj;/ klxrfg ug]{ . ljz]iftM ;+:yfut Aoj:yfkg / ;|ftsf] ljZn]if0f ug]{ ] Pjd ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ s;/L /fli6«o ljsf; of]hgfsf] k|lqmofleq kfg]{ eg]/ af6f] kQf nufpg] . $= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ s;/L ljsf; of]hgfx?;“u hf]8g ;lsG5 eGg]af/] /fli6«o, If]qLo / :yfgLo ;/f]sf/jfnf tyf ;/sf/L lgsfonfO{ ;'emfj lbg] . ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnf;“u ldn]/ sfd ug]{ . %= ;'emfj / d"Nof+sgsf] kl/0ffdsf] af/]df cGtlqm{of ug{ 5nkmnsf] cfof]hgf ug]{ . ^= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] gLltsf] af/]df Aojl:yt9+un] k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ / k|fyldstfsf sfo{x? klxrfg ug]{ . gLlt, /0fgLlt tyf cg'udg of]hgfx?nfO{ sfof{Gjog ug{ tf]lsPsf sfo{qmdsf] ljlzi6 p2]Zox? ljsf; ug]{ . cfwf//]vfsf] dfWodaf6 k|ult d"Nof+sg ug]{ . &= gLlt / cEof;x?sf] ;'wf/sf] nflu lbOPsf] ;'emfj sfof{Gjog ug{ of]hgfsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ . o;df k|:tfljt ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f sfo{qmdsf] AofVof ug]{ . @* xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! *= /fli6«o sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] cjwf/0ff, gLlt, /0fgLlt / sfof{Gjog of]hgfsf] nflu ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;“u ldn]/ ;+oQm vfsf tof/ ug]{ / ;DalGwt ' 7fp“x?df ;Dk|i] f0f ug]{ . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]tx? M ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfnfO{ ;“w} ;+nUg u/fpg ;Dej x'bg / pkof]uL gx'g klg ;S5 . “} d"Nof+sg / gLltut ljsf;sf] nflu lgDg kIfx?nfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg' pko'Qm x'G5 . – /fli6«o, If]qLo / :yfgLo:t/sf ;/sf/L k|ltlglwx? . cy{, of]hgf, jftfj/0f, u[x, gful/s ;'/Iff, lzIff, :jf:Yo, ;dfh sNof0f, cfjf;, s[lif If]q x]g{] dGqfnosf k|ltlglwx? . ax'kIfLo ;Demf}tf sfof{Gjogsf nflu pQ/bfoL lgsfox? . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf e"ldsf;lxtsf ;+:yfx? M h:t} ljsf; / jftfj/0f ;+/If0f ;d"x, pBf]u jfl0fHo dxf;+3, a}s tyf aLdf, ;/sf/L + sd{rf/LnfO{ tflnd lbg] ;+:yf, ;d'bfo / dlxnf ;d"x cflb . – ;fdflhs / k|fs[lts lj1fgsf 1ftf, e"uf]n tyf ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg ;+sfo ePsf ljZjljBfnox?, hgk|zf;g, OlGhlgo/ tyf cfly{s ljsf; tflnd s]Gb|x? . – /fli6«o sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] d"Nof+sg / ljsf;df ;3fp k'¥ofpg;Sg] sfg"gL / ;fj{hlgs gLltsf lj1x? . cg's"n cj:yf M – /fhg}lts / gful/s ;xof]u . – d"Nof+sg sfo{sf] nflu ;+u7gfTds / ;+u7g k|dvsf] ;xof]u . cGt/ljwfut ' / cGt/;+:yfut ;d"xk|lt k|lta4tf . – sfo{ ;+/rgf ljsf; / d"Nof+sgsf] nflu cffly{s / dfgjLo ;|ft . ] – ;fGble{s lnlvt ;fdu|Lx?;Ddsf] kx"r . -h:t} sfg"g, sfg"gL cfb]z, “" gLlt, of]hgf, ljkbsf k"j36gfx?sf] cg'ej cWoog cflb ._ { ;kmn pbfx/0f M ;g @))$ sf] ;'gfdLkl5 ef/t ;/sf/n] ljkb Aoj:yfkgsf] nflu a[xt xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn @(
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! kxnsbdL ub}{ ljkb Aoj:yfkg P]g @))% tof/ u¥of] . h;cg';f/ /fli6«o, If]qLo / lhNnf:t/df ljkb Aoj:yfkg k|flws/0f u7g ul/Psf] 5 . oL lgsfox?sf] :ki6 sfo{ / lhDd]jf/L tf]lsPsf 5g . o:t} tflnd / Ifdtf clej[l4sf sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng ug{ ljkb Aoj:yfkg /fli6«o ;+:yfsf] u7g ul/Psf] 5 . To;}u/L ljkbsf 36gfnfO{ tTsfn} ;Daf]wg ug{ /fli6«o ljkb k|ltsfo{ an klg u7g ePsf] 5 . o;sf] cnfjf ;/sf/sf] tLg} txdf ljkb k|ltsfo{ sf]if ljkb cNkLs/0f sf]if v8f ul/Psf] 5 . !=$ ljkb hf] l vd Go" g Ls/0fnfO{ k| f yldstfdf /fVg] , cfjZos ;|f]tsf] ljlgof]hg ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] tf]lsPsf] lhDd]jf/L / pQ/bfloTj k"/f x'G5g egL ;'lglZrttf u/L gLltut, sfg"gL / ;+:yfut sfo{ ;+/rgf v8f ug]{ jf k|efjsf/L agfpg], ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;/sf/L Pjd u}/;/sf/L If]qsf] P]gsfg"g, of]hgf / sfo{qmddf ;dflxt ug]{ / o;sf] nflu kof{Kt ;|ftsf] ljlgof]hg ug]{ ] p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . dxTj M ;'b9 jf gjul7t /fli6«o sfo{ ;+/rgfn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ [ b}lgs sfo{ tyf ljleGg ;DalGwt ;+3;+:yf -h:t}M cfly{s ljsf;, ul/aL lgjf/0f, k"jf{wf/ ljsf;, jftfj/0fLo Aoj:yfkg, lzIff cflb If]qdf sfd ug]_sf] gLlt tyf lqmofsnfkx?df hf]8b5 . oL ;+:yfx? cfcfkmgf] If]qsf] of]hgf { agfpg / lqmofsnfk sfof{Gjog ug{ hlt ;Ifd x'G5g plt g} ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fn] k|fyldstf kfp“b5 . sfo{ ljlw M != ljkb hf]lvd cNkLs/0f sfo{sf] nflu ;|ft ;'lglZrttf ug{ pRrhf]lvd ] If]qsf] :yfgLo / /fli6«o cfly{s of]hgfdf ljkb hf]lvd k|efj d"Nof+sg ug]{ k|0ffnLnfO{ ;+:yfut ug]{ . #) xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! @= ;+u7gx?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f lqmofsnfkx? ug{ cf}krfl/s?kdf lhDd]jf/L tf]lslbg] . #= kmf]snKjfOG6 ;+u7g :yfkgf ug]{ jf ;'b9 ug]{ . o;sf nflu Tof] ;+u7gsf] [ clwsf/ / lhDd]jf/L tf]lslbg], dfgjLo ;|ft, tflnd tyf cGo cfjZos ] s'/fdf ;xof]u ug]{ . $= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf lqmofsnfkx?sf] af/]df ;dGjo ug]{ cGt/;+u7gfTds ;ldltx?sf] ljsf; ug]{ jf ;'b9Ls/0f ug]{ . [ %= ;+u7gsf] bIftf / Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ ;+u7gx?nfO{ tflndsf] cj;/ k|bfg ug]{ h;n] ubf{ tf]lsPsf sfo{x? ;kmn x'g;s"g . ^= sfo{;rfng / k"hLut ah]6df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu ;|ft + “ ] ljlgof]hg ug]{ . &= :yfgLo zf;g k|0ffnLdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f :ki6?kdf kl/eflift ul/Psf] 5 / o;sf] nflu ;|ft ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] 5 eGg] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . ] *= ljkbsf IF]qdf sfd ug]{ cu'jf AolQmx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ / k'/:s[t ug]{ . (= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f sfof{Gjog p2]Zok/s 5, lgolGqt 5 / o;sf] lnlvt 8s'd06];g -k|nv_ ul/Psf] 5 eGgsf nflu gLlt / sfg"gåf/f ] ] lglb{i6 ;+oGqsf] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . !)= pRrhf]lvddf /x]sf] hg;+Vofsf] nflu aLdf of]hgfsf] ljsf; / k|of]u k|j4{g ug]{ . !!= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ljlgof]lht ah]6 dlxnf k'?if b'jsf] } a/fa/L kx"rdf 5 egL ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . “" pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]tx? M != :yfgLo / /fli6«o txdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf gLlt jf sfo{qmdx? tof/ ug]{ jf cjnDag ug]{ ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx? / gful/s ;d"xx? . @= ;/sf/L gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx? sfof{Gjog ug{ lhDd]jf/ lgsfox? . #= cGo ;+u7gx?nfO{ sfo{ ug{sf] nflu k|fT;flxt ug]{ jf lgb]l{ zt ug]{ ;+u7gx? . ] $= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f sfof{Gjog ug{;Sg] jf /fhg}lts ultzlQm k|bfg ug{;Sg] ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+u7gx? jf gful/s rf;f]df jsfnt ug]{ AolQm÷;+u7gx? . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn #!
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! ;kmn pbfx/0f M ljz]iftM af9Lsf] rk]6fdf /x]sf] leotgfdn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ s]Gb|blv :yfgLo tx;Dd km}lnPsf] ;DalGwt ;+u7gx?sf] ;~hfn ] tof/ u/]sf] 5 . lgjf{rg k|lqmofaf6 tL ;+u7gx?sf] If]qLo, lhNnf / :yfgLo ;ldltx? u7g ul/G5 . ;fy} dlxnf ;~hfn klg tof/ ul/G5 . ;/sf/sf] s]Gb|Lo txdf /x]sf] ;ldltn] oL ;a} ;ldltx?;“u ;dGjo ub{5 / sfo{qmdx?sf] ljsf; ub{5 . o;/L leotgfdn] k|efjsf/L?kdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fVg ;kmn ePsf] 5 . o;}u/L ef/t ;/sf/n] ljkb cNkLs/0f sfo{sf] nflu /fli6«o, k|fGtLo / :yfgLo txdf 5'§f5'§} sf]if v8f u/]sf] 5 . of] Aoj:yfn] ;a} txsf] ;/sf/df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu kof{Kt ;|ft 5'§ofOPsf] 5 egL ;'lglZrttf ] u/]sf] 5 . k/LIf0f ;"lr (Check-list) M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf ! xfd|f] sfo{qmd÷kl/of]hgfdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ s'g xb;Dd k|fyldstfdf kfl/Psf] 5 < sfo{of]hgf / ;+/rgf M s] xfd|f] ;d'bfodf ljkbsf a]nfdf s] ug]{ eg]/ lg0f{o lng;Sg] ;+ul7t ;+:yf jf ;ldltx? 5g < ;xeflutfsf] clwsf/ M s] xfd|f] ;d'bfosf ;b:ox? cfkmgf] clwsf/x? tyf ljkb hf]lvdaf6 ;'/Iff k|bfg ug'kg]{ ;/sf/sf] sfg"gL bfloTjaf/] ;r]t 5g < { ljlQo ;|ft M ljkbsf] k|efj sd ug{ of ljkbaf6 k'gnf{e k|fKt ug{ :yfgLo ] ;/sf/x?n] pknAw u/fpg] ljlQo tyf ef}lts ;|ftx?;Dd s] xfd|f] ;d'bfosf] ] kx'r 5 < “ dfgjLo ;|ft M s] ;d'bfosf k|ltlglwx?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd s;/L Go"gLs/0f ] ug]{ tyf ljkbsf a]nf s;/L k|ltsfo{ ug]{ eGg] af/] tflnd lbOPsf] 5 < ljBfno / :jf:Yo ;'ljwf M s] ;d'bfosf] ljBfno / c:ktfnx?df ljkb /f]syfdsf of]hgf agfpg] / sfof{Gjog ug]{ Pjd k|ltsfo{sf nflu tof/ lqmofzLn ;ldltx? 5g < #@ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @ ljkbsf hf]lvdx?sf] klxrfg, lgwf{/0f / cg'udg ug]{ tyf k"j{– r]tfjgL lbg] Aoj:yfsf] clej[l4 ug]{ . of] k|fyldstfcGtu{t ljkb hf]lvd;DaGwL tYof+sx? ;+sng / k|of]u; k|sf]k, ;+s6f;Ggtf / ljkbsf] c;/sf] cjnf]sg, ljZn]if0f, k"jf{gdfg ug{;Sg] Ifdtf ' / k"jf{wf/sf] ljsf; / ;Def/ ug]{ sfo{x? kb{5g . o;sf nflu hf]lvd–gS;f (risk map), tYof+sut Iflt hfgsf/L tyf hf]lvd / ;+s6f;Ggtfsf] ;"rgf lbg] k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; cfjZos /xG5g . of] k|fyldstfn] gful/s–s]Gb|Lt k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf] ljsf;, k"jrtfjgLsf] { ] { ] b|t?kdf k|jfx Pjd ;a} r/0fdf :yfgLo hgtfsf] k"0f{ ;+nUgtfdf hf]8 lbPsf] ' 5. xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @ sfof{Gjogsf nflu /fHon] lgDg sfo{x? ug{;Sb5g M @=! /fli6«o?kdf hf]lvd lgwf{/0fsf] k|of; yfngL ug]{ . @=@ hf]lvd;DaGwL hfgsf/Lsf] pknAwtf Pjd tYof+s ;+sng / k|of]u;DaGwL Ifdtfsf] k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ . @=# k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsfnflu Ifdtf d"Nof+sg ug]{ / c? ;'b9 t'Nofpg] . { ] [ @=$ ljkb hf]lvd hfgsf/L Pjd k"jrtfjgLsf] nflu ;+rf/ / ;"rgf k|jfx { ] ;+oGqsf] ljsf; ug]{ . k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @ sf] k|ult d"Nof+sgsf] nflu lgDg ;"rsx? tof/ ul/Psf 5g M – k|sf]k tYof+sdf cfwfl/t / ;+s6f;Ggtf hfgsf/L ;dflji6 /fli6«o hf]lvd lgwf{/0f . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ##
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ – d'Vo k|sf]kx? / ;+s6f;Ggtfsf tYof+sx? cg'udg, ;+ux / k|jfx ug]{ | k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; . – ;a} lsl;dsf k|sf]kx?sf] nflu k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf] ;+rfng . { ] – ;d'bfo txdf k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf] kx"r / ;]jf . { ] " @=! /fli6«o?kdf hf]lvd lgwf{/0fsf] k|of; yfngL ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] /fi6«sf] ljkb hf]lvdaf/] k"0f{ / lgoldt?kdf cBfjlws t:jL/ ;fd'Gg]df Nofpg]5 . o;n] gLlt lgdf{tfx?nfO{ k[i7kf]if0f k|bfg ug]5 . { ljkbsf] hf]lvd;DaGwL 1fgdf /x]sf l/Qmtfx?nfO{ ;d]t o;n] kl/k"lt{ ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg]5 . dxTj M hf]lvd lgwf{/0f ugf{n] /fi6« s:tf vfn] k|sf]kx?sf] rk]6fdf 5 / ;+s6f;Ggtf s:tf] 5 eGg] yfxf x'g cfp“5 . csf]tkm{ ef}uf]lns / If]qut (sectoral) { lx;fadf ljBdfg ljkb hf]lvdx? :ki6 x'G5 . ljsf;sf] nflu Pjd ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /0fgLltsf] sfof{Gjogsf] nflu hf]lvd lgwf{/0f cTofjZos 5 . hf]lvd lgwf{/0f / ljZn]if0f k|0ffnLut?kdf / ;se/ rf“8f] ul//xg'kb{5 lsgeg] ljkb hf]lvdsf] k|jlQ kl/jt{gzLn x'G5 . hf]lvd lgwf{/0f ug]{ Pjd [ hf]lvd–gS;f tof/ ug]{ sfo{x? ;d'bfodf ;xeflutfd"ns 9+un] ul/Psf] x'G5 . h;n] ubf{ ljkb k"jrtfjgL, k"jtof/L / /f]syfdsf] nflu ;d'bfon] pTk|l/t { ] { ] kfb{5 . sfo{ ljlw M != k|sf]k / ;+s6f;Ggtf lgwf{/0f sfo{df ;+nUg /xg;Sg] k|dv ;/sf/L ' lgsfo, cg';Gwfg s]Gb|, lj1 / (practitioner) x?sf] klxrfg ug]{ / pgLx?sf] e"ldsf / bfloTj lgSof}n ug]{ . { @= lj1x?sf] ;xof]un] k|sf]k klxrfg / ;+s6f;Ggtf ljZn]if0f ul/Psf ljBdfg cWoogx?sf] ;dLIff ug]{ . dxTjk"0f{ l/Qmtfx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . #$ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ #= k|sf]k / ;+s6f;Ggtf;DaGwL tYof+sx?sf] k|0ffnLut ;+sng, cfbfgk|bfg / lgwf{/0f ug{ /fli6«o dfkb08 / ljlwsf] ljsf; ug]{ . o;nfO{ ;dsIfL /fi6«x?;“u t'ngf ug]{ . $= :yfgLo k|sf]k / ;+s6f;Ggtf ljZn]if0f sfo{df ;a} If]qnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg /0fgLltsf] ljsf; ug]{ . %= hf]lvdsf tYof+sx?nfO{ lgoldt?kn] k'g/fjnf]sg / cBfjlws /fVg] k|lqmofsf] z'?jft ug]{ . ^= ef}uf]lns If]q / ;d'bfosf] hf]lvd klxrfg u/L ;di6Lut k|sf]k gS;fsf] ljsf; ug]{ . &= :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] ;+s6f;Ggtf / Ifdtf d"Nof+sg ug]{ . o;f] ubf{ ;fdflhs, cfly{s, ef}lts / jftfj/0fLo ;+s6f;Ggtfx?nfO{ klg Wofgdf /fVg] . *= d'nsnfO{ :yfgLo, If]qLo / /fli6«otxdf k|efj kfg{;Sg] k|fs[lts k|sf]knfO{ ' juL{s/0f ug]{ / tbcg';f/ k|fyldstfdf /fVg] . o:tf] d"Nof+sgdf P]ltxfl;s tYof+sx? klg pNn]v ug]{ . (= hf]lvd lgwf{/0fsf] kl/0ffdnfO{ :yfgLo hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg of]hgf;“u Psfsf/ ug]{ . pko'Qm eP;Dd ef}uf]lns ;"rgf k|0ffnL (GIS) / e"–pkof]u of]hgfsf ;km6j]o/ k|of]u ug]{ . !)= ljleGg If]qx?df /x]sf] ljkb hf]lvd lgSof}n ug{ k|sf]k / ;+s6f;GgtfaLrsf] { cGtlqm{ofnfO{ d"Nof+sg ug]{ . hf]lvdnfO{ a9fpg jf 36fpg;Sg] lqmofsnfkx?, ;fdflhs / /fhg}lts k|lqmofx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . !!= hf]lvd hfgsf/L a[xt 5 / P]ltxfl;s ;gftg 1fgx? ;dflji6 ul/Psf] 5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ ;'lgZrttf ug{ ;a} If]qsf AolQmx?;“u k/fdz{ ug]{ . !@= hf]lvd klxrfg / lgwf{/0fdf eO/x]sf k|ultx?sf] dfkg ug{ n}luskIf + ;d]t ;+nUg ;"rsx?sf] ljsf; ug]{ . ljleGg Ph]G;L / ;d'bfon] ;d]t hf]lvd cj:yf a'emg ;Sg] / a'emfpg;Sg] u/L o;sf] lgdf{0f ug]{ . !#= hf]lvd d"Nof+sg sfo{qmdx?nfO{ ;'wf/ ug{;Sg] / ;|ft h'6fpg d2t ] k'¥ofpg;Sg] vfnsf] ;'emfj / /0fg}lts of]hgf ;dflji6 gLltut sfuhftx? tof/ ug]{ . o;nfO{ ;/sf/sf] ;a} tx / ;d'bfo;Dd k'¥ofpg] . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn #%
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]t M – ljkbsf] k|sf/ cg';f/ hf]lvd lgwf{/0fsf] nflu w]/} lsl;dsf lj1x?sf] ;xof]u lng ;lsG5 . – j}1flgs tYof+s ;+sng / 1fg clej[l4 Ifdtf ePsf lj1x? . oL lj1x? jf ;+:yfx? ef}ule{s, hn tyf df};d, e"–lj1fg cflb;“u ;DalGwt x'g;S5g . – ;d'bfosf] ;+s6f;Ggtf / Ifdtf lgwf{/0f ug{ ;fdflhs lj1fgsf lj1sf ;fy} ;d'bfosf ;d"x jf ;+u7gx? Pjd jftfj/0f / k"jf{wf/sf] kl/jt{gnfO{ d"Nof+sg ug{;Sg] lj1x?sf] cfjZostf /xG5 . – ljBdfg cEof;sf] sf/0f k/]sf] k|efj d"Nof+sg ug{;Sg] jftfj/0fLo Aoj:yfksx? . cg's"n cj:yf M – v'Nnf jf ;femf kx"rdf /x]sf tfhf tYof+sx? . “ – k|dv ;/f]sf/jfnfsf k|dv AolQm / ;+u7gaf6 ;xof]u . ' ' – ;a} txdf cfly{s ;|ft / dfgj ;+;fwgsf] pknAwtf . ] – k|fljlws hfgsf/Lx?sf] n]vfhf]vf / AofVof ug{;Sg] lj1x?sf] pknAwtf . – ;xof]ufTds 9+un] ljljw Ph]G;Lx?nfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg;Sg] ax'ljwfut (multi-disciplinary) / ax';u7gfTds (multi-organisation) kxn . + – /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«otxsf] hf]lvd lgwf{/0f k|lqmofsf] a'emfO . -h:t} If]qLo cg';Gwfg s]Gb|, cGt/f{li6«o ;+u7gx?_ . ;kmn pbfx/0f M ;g !((* df ;+oQm /fi6«;3sf cg';Gwfgstf{x?n] Olyof]lkof / s]Gofdf ' + Pp6f ;fwf/0f t/ k|0ffnLut ljlwåf/f ljkb hf]lvdsf] k|sf/ / sf/sx? kQf nufP . pgLx?n] u|fdL0f ;d'bfodf b'Or/0fdf ;xeflutfd"ns ljlwåf/f ;j]If0f u/] . { { klxnf] r/0fdf v'Nnf k|ZgfjnL af“l8of] hxf“ ;xefuLx?n] cfk;L 5nkmnåf/f cfkm"n] ef]usf k|sf]ksf lsl;d / ;d:ofx? rfx]hlt pNn]v ug{ ;Sby] . csf]{ ] r/0fdf ;xefuLx?nfO{ lglZrt k|sf]ksf] c;/ cg';f/ >]0fLdf /fVg nufOof] . To;kl5 k|To]s k|sf]ksf] s;/L ;fdgf ul/b}cfOPsf] 5 < lsg ul/Psf] 5}g < + #^ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ s] ug'k5{ < h:tf ljifodf 5nkmn ug{ nufOof] . o;}u/L If]qut, ;d"xut, { pd]/, ln·, ;DkGgtf / c? ;fdflhs cfly{s rl/qx?sf] cfwf/df klg k|sf]ksf] ;+s6f;Ggtf lgSof}n ul/of] . { of] sfo{qmd ^ dlxgf;Dd rNof] . o;df !@) ;d"x -%( dlxnf ;d"x;lxt_ ;xefuL /x]sf lyP . @=@ hf]lvd ;DaGwL hfgsf/Lsf] pknAwtf Pjd tYof+s ;+sng / k|of]u;DaGwL Ifdtfsf] k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] k|sf]k / ;+s6f;Ggtf;DaGwL tYof+sx?sf] ;+sng, ljZn]if0f / k|jfx sfo{df ljBdfg k|lqmofx?sf] Ifdtf / l/Qmtf klxrfg ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . o;n] ubf{ hf]lvd lgwf{/0f / k"jrtfjgLsf] cg'udgsf] nflu cfwf//]vf { ] ljsf; ug{ d2t k'¥ofp“b5 . dxTj M ljkb hf]lvd / Ifltsf] ;xL hfgsf/Ln] lg0f{ostf{ / gful/sx?nfO{ /fi6«n] em]Ng'kl//x]sf] ljleGg k|sf]kx? / o;sf] ;fdflhs, cfly{s, jftfj/0fLo / ef}lts ;+s6f;GgtfnfO{ a'emg ;xof]u k'¥ofp“b5 . oL tYof+s / hfgsf/Lx? ;xL ;dodf k|jflxt ug{;s] ljkb hf]lvdlj?4 k"jtof/L ckgfpg ;d'bfonfO{ { k|l/t ub{5 . oL hfgsf/L / tYof+sx?sf] k'g/fjnf]sg ugf{n] tYof+s ;+sng, ] ljZn]if0f / ;Dk|if0fdf /x]sf sdhf]/ / alnof KfIf yfxf x'gsf] ;fy} efjL ] ' /0fgLlt lgdf{0f ug{ ;d]t ;xof]u k'¥ofp“b5 . sfo{ ljlw M != k|sf]k / ;+s6f;Ggtf;DaGwL tYof+sx? ;+sng / ljZn]if0f ug]{ Ph]G;L / ;+u7gx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . ;Defljt If]qx? oL x'g;S5g M – df};d, ef}ule{s, h}ljs, k|fBf]lus k|sf]kx? / jftfj/0fLo ¥xf; } ;DaGwL tYo / hfgsf/Lx? cjnf]sg, cg'udg, ljZn]if0f / k|jfx ug]{ sfo{df ;+nUg ;+u7gx? . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn #&
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ – hg;+Vof, k"jf{wf/, cfly{s, Aofkfl/s / ;DklQs/ ;DaGwL ljj/0f /fVg] lgsfox? . pbfx/0fsf] nflu hg;f+lVosLo tYof+sn] pd]/, :jf:Yo / hLljsf]kfh{g;DaGwL ;+s6f;Ggtfx? phfu/ ug{;S5 . – ;d'bfo / ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xsf] ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts -h:t} ;gftg 1fg_ tYof+s ;+sng ug]{ ;+u7gx? . @= tYof+ssf] k'g/fjnf]sg Pjd Aoj:yfkg, ;+Zn]if0f / k|jfxLs/0f ljlw :yfkgf ug]{ . #= ljBdfg ;"rgf tyf tYof+s k|0ffnLsf] alnof] / sdhf]/ kIf Pjd ;'wf/sf If]qx? klxNofpg] . $= hf]lvd d"Nof+sg ;DalGwt pknAw ;fdu|Lx?sf] cWoog ug]{ . hf]lvdsf] 1fgdf /x]sf] dxTjk"0f{ l/Qmtfx?sf] d"Nof+sg ug]{ . o;f] ubf{ ljkbsf] Iflt ljgf;sf/L aGg;Sg] If]qnfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fVg] . %= k|dv ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;“u a;]/ d"Nof+sgsf] kl/0ffdnfO{ cWoog / ;+Zn]if0f ' ug]{ . ^= ;+s6f;Ggtf;DaGwL cfjZos tYof+sx? klxrfg ug{ Pjd ;fGble{s tYof+sx?sf] ;+sng / ljZn]if0f sfo{df ;xhtf Nofpg cGt/ljefuLo sfo{ ;d"xx?sf] lgdf{0f ug]{ . &= tYof+s ;+sng / k|jfxLs/0fsf] nflu gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx? tof/ ug]{ . hf]lvd hfgsf/L ;DaGwL ljBdfg l/Qmtfx?nfO{ kl/k"lt{ ug{ Pjd ;+sng / k|jfxLs/0f k|lqmofnfO{ ;'wf/ ug{ tL gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx? /fli6«o, If]qLo / :yfgLo tx;Dd ljt/0f ug]{ . k|sf]k / ;+s6f;Ggtfsf] pknAw tYof+sdf /x]sf] l/Qmtfx? klxrfg ug{ lgDg k|Zgx? ug{ ;lsG5 M – s] ;a} lsl;dsf jf ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ k|sf]kx? / ;+s6f;Ggtfsf] e/kbf]{ tYof+s pknAw 5 < s] ;fdflhs tYof+sdf n}lus ljlzi6tf ;+nUg + ul/Psf] 5 < s] :yfgLo / ;gftg 1fgnfO{ pko'Qm 9+un] ;dflji6 ul/Psf] 5 < s] e/kbf]{ ljkbsf P]ltxfl;s /]s8{x? pknAw 5g < s] hfgsf/L / tYof+sx?nfO{ cBfjlws ug]{ pko'Qm k|lqmof ljBdfg 5 < – s] ;DalGwt lgsfox? k"j;rgf k|lqmof a'emg / cfcfkmgf] pQ/bfloTj k"/f { " #* xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ ug{ ;Ifd 5g < -k"j;rgf k|0ffnL M cjnf]sg, cg'udg, ;+ux, u'0f:t/ { " | lgoGq0f, ljZn]if0f, ;+Zn]if0f / k|jfxLs/0f_ . s] oL lgsfox? kof{Kt ;dGjo u5{g jf ;"rgf Aoj:yfkgsf] cGt/;DaGw sdhf]/ 5 < s] ;DalGwt lgsfox?;“u pks/0f / Ifdtf 5 < – ljljw If]q / ljleGg k|sf]kx?aLrsf] tYof+s ;+Zn]if0f ug{ / ax'kzfut ] rf;f]x?nfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg :ki6?kdf lhDd]jf/L tf]lsPsf] 5 < – s] hfgsf/L cTofjZos /x]sf] ;d"x jf AolQmx?df of] k'usf] 5 < s] nlIft ] ;d'bfo hfgsf/L a'emg ;Ifd 5g < s] o;n] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu lg0f{o k|lqmofdf ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] 5 < pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]tx? M – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu tf]lsPsf lgsfox? . -h:t} M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o cfof]u_ . – hf]lvd tYof+s k|of]u ug]{ ljkb Aoj:yfkgdf ;+nUg ;+u7gx? / ljkb Aoj:yfkgdf g]tTj ug]{ ;+:yfx? . [ – j}1flgs tYof+s ;+sng sfo{df lhDd]jf/ ;+:yfx? -h:t} hn tyf df};dk"jf{gdfg, ef}ule{s, e"–lj1fg cflb_ Pjd hg;+Vof, cfly{s, s/, ' ljsf;;DaGwL tYof+s ;+sng ug]{ lgsfox? . – ;fdflhs / k|fljlws lj1fgsf cg';Gwfgstf{ / cWo]tfx? . cg's"n cj:yf M – k'g/fjnf]sgsf] nflu ;/f]sf/jfnf k|dv AolQmx? jf ;+u7gsf] ;xof]u . ' – d"Nof+sgsf] nflu cfjZos cfly{s ;|ft / tYof+slj1x?;lxtsf] dfgjLo ] ;|ft . ] – k|sf]k / ;+s6f;Ggtfsf] lgwf{/0f ;'lglZrttf ug{ ax'ljwfut, ax';u7gfTds + / n}lus ;Gt'ng ldn]sf] ;a} pko'Qm sfo{;d"x . + ;kmn pbfx/0f M d]lS;sf] ;/sf/n] ljkbsf tYof+sx? ;+sng, Aoj:yfkg / ;+Zn]if0f ug]{ x]tn] ' The Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED) xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn #(
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ eGg] 5'§} lgsfosf] u7g u/]sf] 5 . o;n] k|sf]k;DaGwL tfhf tYof+s / hfgsf/Lx? cBfjlws ug]{ Pjd ljleGg Ph]G;L / gful/s ;d"xdf k|jfx ug]{ sfd ub{5 . d]lS;sf]sf k|dv k|sf]kx? e"sDk / Hjfnfd'vLdf of] ljz]if?kn] ' s]lGb|t 5 . @=# k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnL;DaGwL Ifdtf lgwf{/0f ug]{ / ;'b9 t'Nofpg] . { ] [ p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] k"jrtfjgL ;DaGwL ljBdfg Ifdtf lgwf{/0f ug]{ / { ] /fi6«sf] k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLnfO{ ;'b9 ug{ /0fgLltsf] ljsf; ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] { ] [ 5. dxTj M k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLn] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvddf /x]sf ;d'bfonfO{ pko'Qm 9+un] / { ] ;do5“b} ;Defljt dfgjLo, ef}lts, jftfj/0fLo / hLljsf]kfh{g;DaGwL IfltnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofp“b5 . k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf rf/j6f tTjx? 5g M { ] s_ hf]lvd 1fg (Risk Knowledge) v_ cg'udg / r]tfjgL lbg] ;]jf (Monitoring and Warning Service) u_ ;+rf/ / k|jfxLs/0f (Communication and Dissemination) 3_ k|ltsfo{ Ifdtf (Response Capability) k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnL ;DaGwL Ifdtf lgwf{/0f / ;'b9Ls/0fsf] nflu oL rf/j6} { ] [ tTjx? k|efjsf/L /xg'kb{5 . Pp6fsf] sdhf]/Ln] klg ;d:t k|0ffnLnfO{ g} c;kmn kfg{ ;Sb5 . sfo{{ ljlw M != cGt/ljwfut ;d"x (interdisciplinary team) sf] lgdf{0f u/]/ k"jrtfjgL { ] k|0ffnL;DaGwL oL s'/fx?sf] lgwf{/0f ug]{ M – /fHosf] sfg"g / gLltn] kof{Kt ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] 5 < – k"j–r]tfjgL k|0ffnL;DaGwL sfo{ ug{;Sg] ;a} pko'Qm ;+u7gx?sf] { $) xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ e"ldsf / pQ/bfloTj kl/eflift 5 < ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ o;sf] hfgsf/L 5 < – k"j–r]tfjgL k|0ffnLsf] af/]df /fli6«o lg0f{o ug{;Sg] Pshgf /fhg}lts { g]tf jf ;/sf/L clwsf/L sfg"gL?kd} tf]lsPsf 5g < – sfof{Gjog ul/Psf gLltx? ljs]lGb|t 5g < :yfgLo lg0f{o k|lqmof / ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf ;zQm 5 < – ;/sf/sf] cfly{s ;xfotf lbg] ;+oGqn] ;xof]u k'¥ofO/x]sf] 5 < @= k"j–r]tfjgL k|lqmofsf] lglZrt dfkb08 agfpg] h;n] ubf{ ;a} ;DalGwt { lgsfox? -h:t} hn tyf df};dk"jf{gdfg dxfzfvf, af?0foGq cflb_n] ' k|efjsf/L9+un] k"j–r]tfjgL lbg ;s"g / tYof+s ;+sng, ljZn]if0fdf { ;lhnf] x'g cfcf]; . #= lgDg s'/fx? ;dflji6 cg'udg k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug]{ M – ;a} ;DefAo k|sf]kx?sf] kl/ldlt -kf/fld6/_ dfkg ug]{ . – :yfgLo cj:yf / kl/l:ylt ;'xfp“bf] k|fljlws pks/0fsf] k|of]u ug]{ . oL pks/0f rnfpg / dd{t ug{ k|lzlIft AolQmsf] Aoj:yf ug]{ . – k"j–r]tfjgL s]Gb|x? x/;dodf -lbgsf] @$ 306f, xKtfsf] ;ft} lbg_ { ;+rfng x'G5g eGg] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . $= lgDg ljz]iftfx? ePsf] k|efjsf/L k"jf{gdfg / r]tfjgL k|0ffnL :yfkgf ug]{ M ' – :jLsfo{ j}1flgs / k|fljlws ljlwdf cfwfl/t tYof+s ljZn]if0f, k"jf{gdfg / r]tfjgL ;Gb]z . ' – cGt/f{li6«o dfkb08sf] tYof+s / r]tfjgL ;Gb]z lgdf{0f, k|jfx . – ;a} ljsNkx?sf] tof/L . h:t} ljB'tLo zlQmsf] ljsNk -h]g/6/, ] ] OGe6{/_, pks/0fx?n] sfd gubf{sf] cj:yf, sd{rf/LnfO{ cfkTsfnL?kdf af]nfpg] k|0ffnL cflb . – ;dod} / lglZrt 9f“rfdf /xL r]tfjgL ;Gb]zsf] lgdf{0f / k|jfx . – k"j–r]tfjgL k|0ffnLsf] ;+rfng k|lqmof, tYof+s u'0f:t/ / r]tfjgL { ;Gb]zsf] :t/sf] lgoldt cg'udg / d"Nof+sg . %= ljkbsf k'/fgf cg'ej, ljutsf k"j–r]tfjgLsf l;sfOx?sf] cWoog, { ljZn]if0f ug]{ . ;d"x;“u a;]/ Ifdtf / sdhf]/Lx? lgSof}n ug], kl/0ffdx?af/] { { 5nkmn ug]{ / ;/sf/sf ;a} txsf nflu ;'emfjx? tof/ ug]{ . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn $!
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ ^= ax'ksf]kLo k"j–r]tfjgL k|0ffnLsf] of]hgf agfpg] . o;f] ubf{ k|fyldstfsf | { sfo{x? / cfly{s kmfObfsf kIfx?nfO{ ljZn]if0f ug]{ . &= /fli6«o cfly{s of]hgf / ljsf;sf gLltx?df k"j–r]tfjgL k|0ffnL ;dflxt { ug{ cj;/sf] vf]hL ug]{ . *= Ifdtf–clej[l4 of]hgf / tflnd sfo{qmdx? ljsf; ug]{ . o;sf nflu kof{Kt ;|ft ljlgof]hg ug]{ / u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfsf] ;xeflutfsf] kIfnfO{ ] ;dflji6 ug]{ . (= If]qLo / cGt/f{li6«o cfly{s ;|ftsf] vf]hL ug]{ . lghL If]q / ;+rf/dfWodx?;“u ] ;fem]bf/L ug]{ . !)= d"Nof+sgsf] kl/0ffd / k|:tfljt of]hgfx? k|jfx ug]{ . cfly{s / ;fdflhs kmfObfx?sf] af/]df ljz]if?kdf k|sfz kfg]{ . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]t M k"j–r]tfjgL k|0ffnLsf rf/ tTjx? ;d]6g] If]qsf k|fljlws lj1x? M { != hf]lvd 1fg (Risk Knowledge) M j}1flgs tYof+s ;+sng ug]{ / hf]lvd 1fg lgwf{/0f ug]{ Ph]G;Lx? . @= cg'udg / r]tfjgL ;]jf (Monitoring and Warning Service) M hn tyf df};d k"jf{gdfg dxfzfvf, ef}ule{s ;+:yfx? cflb . ' #= ;+rf/ / k|jfxLs/0f (Dissemination and Communication) M ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+u7gx?, ;+rf/k|ljlw ;DaGwL sDkgLx?, ;+rf/dfWodx? . $= k|ltsfo{ Ifdtf (Response Capability)M gful/s ;'/Iff / dfgj ;xfotf k|bfos Ph]G;Lx?, u};;x? cflb . cg's"n cj:yf M – ;+u7g / ;+u7g k|dvsf] ;xof]u . ' – cfly{s / dfgjLo ;|ft .] – k"j{–r]tfjgL;DaGwL hgr]tgf hufpg;Sg] cu'jf / h'emf? AolQmx? (champions) . – cg'udg, r]tfjgL, k|ltsfo{;DaGwL k|fljlws k[i7e"ld / cg'ej ePsfx?;“usf] kx"r . “" $@ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ – If]qLo / ljZjAofkL ;|ftx?af/] hfgsf/L / kx"r . ] “" – k"j{–r]tfjgLsf rf/ tTjx?df ;+nUg /fli6«o, If]qLo / cGt/f{li6«o ;+u7gx?;“usf] ;xof]u / ;xsfo{ -h:t} UNESCO, WMO, Redcross cflb ._ ;kmn pbfx/0f M ljkbsf] clthf]lvddf /x]sf] a+unfb]zdf a+unfb]z /]8qm];G6 ;f];fO6L / ] a+unfb]z ;/sf/n] ;+rfng u/]sf] ‘rqmjft k"jtof/L sfo{qmd’ cGtu{t t6Lo { If]qx?df k"j–r]tfjgL k|0ffnLnfO{ klg k|fyldstf lbOPsf] 5 . h;cg';f/ { tf//lxt !$# j6f /]l8of] :6]zgaf6 ;Gb]z k|jflxt x'gu/]sf] 5 . o;afx]s ## ] xhf/ :jod;jsx?n] d]ufkmf]g / ;fO/gsf] k|of]u u/]/ clthf]lvd If]qdf k"j– ] { r]tfjgL lbG5g . of] sfo{qmd cGtu{t !! lhNnfsf *) nfv hgtf;dIf k"j– { r]tfjgL ;Gb]zsf] kx"r k'usf] 5 . a+unfb]znfO{ rqmjftn] jif{sf] rf/dlxgf b'v “" ] lbg]u/]sf] 5 . af“sL cjlwdf hgr]tgf, ljBfno lzIff, cEof;sf sfo{qmdx? x'G5g . @=$ ljkb hf] l vd hfgsf/L Pjd k" j { r ] t fjgLsf] nflu ;+ r f/ / ;"rgf k|jfx ;+oGqsf] ljsf; ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] ljkb hf]lvd hfgsf/L / k"jrtfjgLnfO{ hg;+Vofsf] ;a} { ] lx:;fdf k|efjsf/L9+un] k|jfx ug]{ ;+oGqnfO{ alnof] agfpg] p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . dxTj M ljkb hf]lvd / k"jrtfjgLsf] k|efjsf/L ;+rf/n] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug{ { ] / hLjghLljsfnfO{ ;'/lIft kfg{ ;3fp k'¥ofp“b5 . o:tf hfgsf/Lx? nlIft ;d"xn] ;lhn} a'emg;Sg] x'gkb{5 / ;a}sf] kx“rdf k'Ug;Sg' kb{5 . ljkb hf]lvd ' " ;DaGwL hfgsf/L lbg] jf k"jrtfjgL sfo{n] ;d'bfonfO{ ljkbsf af/]df hfu[t { ] t'Nofp“b5 Pjd hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu lhDd]jf/Ldf klg j[l4 u/fp“b5 . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn $#
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ sfo{ ljlw M != ;'?df ljBdfg Ifdtf d"Nof+sg ug]{ M – ;+rf/ / ;"rgf k|jfxdf ;+nUg ljleGg ;+3;+u7g / ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . ltgLx?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd ;+rf/ / ;"rgf k|jfx k|lqmofdf cfdGq0f ug]{ . – ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] gfdfjnL Aojl:yt ug]{ . ltgLx?sf] e"ldsf, lhDd]jf/L / If]qx? :ki6 ug]{ . – ;"rgf k|jfxLs/0fdf b]lvPsf] ;dGjosf] cefj jf l/QmtfnfO{ klxrfg ug]{ . – ;/sf/L / u}/;/sf/L lgsfox?nfO{ ;+nUg u/fP/ hf]lvd hfgsf/L, k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLdf ug'kg]{ ;'wf/x?sf] /0fgLlt / sfo{of]hgf tof/ { ] { ug]{ . o:tf] of]hgf ;d'bfosf] d"No, rf;f] / ;dfj]zLs/0f k|ltWjlgt x'gvfnsf] agfpg] . ] – of]hgfsf] af/]df ljleGg ;+u7g / lj1x?;“u AolQmut jf ;+:yfut ;'emfj dfUg] . @= ;+rf/ / k"jrtfjgL k|jfxLs/0f k|lqmofnfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] M { ] – ;/sf/sf] gLlt / sfg"gs} dfWodn] ;"rgf k|jfxLs/0fsf] ;Ghfn tof/ ug{ kxn ug]{ . – If]qLo jf cGt/b]zLo k"jrtfjgL s]Gb|x?sf] e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/L { ] kl/eflift ug]{ . – ljz]iftM u|fdL0f If]qdf k|sf]k;DaGwL hfgsf/L k|fKt ug{;Sg] / k|jfx ug{;Sg] :jod;js ;d"xx?sf] klxrfg jf lgdf{0f ug]{ . ] – ;/f]sf/jfnf ;+3;+u7gx?n] agfPsf ;d"xx?;“u ljkb hf]lvd hfgsf/L k|jfxsf] nflu ;xsfo{ ug]{ . #= k|efjsf/L k"jrtfjgL ;+rf/ k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf ug]{ { ] – ;d'bfosf] cfjZostf cg';f/ k"jrtfjgL ;+rf/k|0ffnLnfO{ 9fNg] . { ] pbfx/0fsf] nflu /]l8of] jf 6]lnlehgsf] cnfjf ;fO/g, vt/f– em08f cflbsf] k|of]u ug]{ . – ;+rf/ k|ljlwsf] kx"r ;Dk"0f{ hg;+Vofdf k'usf] 5 eg]/ ;'lglZrttf “" ] ug]{ . h;df df};dL / ljs6 7fp“sf hg;+VofnfO{ klg ;dflji6 ug]{ . $$ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ – w]/} lsl;dsf] ;+rf/dfWodx?sf] k|of]u ug]{ . h:t} cfd;+rf/ dfWod, cgf}krfl/s ;+rf/ cflb . $= k"j–r]tfjgL ;Gb]zx? nlIft ;d'bfon] ;lhn} a'emg ;Sb5g eg]/ ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . { k|efjsf/L k"j{–r]tfjgL ;+rf/ M k"jrtfjgLsf ;Gb]zx? 5f]6f], ;fwf/0f / :ki6 x'gkb{5 / ;dod} lbOg'kb{5 . { ] ' o:tf ;Gb]zx?df dfgjLo, ef}lts Ifltaf6 aRg s] ug]{ < k"jrtfjgLnfO{ { ] a]jf:tf ul/Pdf s:tf] b'ikl/0ffd cfOnfUg ;S5 < h:tf ;Gb]zx? pNn]v ul/g'kb{5 . ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ hfgsf/LnfO{ af/Daf/ bf]xf]¥ofpg'kb{5 . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]t M – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ;+rf/ / ;"rgf k|jfxsf If]qdf sfd ug]{ Ph]G;L / ;+u7gx? . – ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+u7gx?, ;"rgf k|ljlw sDkgLx?, ;+rf/dfWod, k"jrtfjgL lbg] Ph]G;Lx? cflb . ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+u7gx?nfO{ ;+rf/ { ] /0fgLlt lgdf{0fs} r/0fdf ;+nUg u/fOP hfgsf/Lx? a9L k|efjsf/L /xG5g / p2]Zok/s 5g eGg] ;'lglZrttf x'G5 . – k|fljlws hfgsf/L ;xL 5 / nlIft ;d'bfosf nflu ;fGble{s 5 eGg] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ df};d ljefu, ef}ule{s / e"–lj1fg cflb ;DaGwL If]qdf sfd ug]{ lj1x? . – :yfgLo ;/sf/x? lsgeg] ltgLx?n] k"jrtfjgL k|jfx / ljkb k|ltsfo{sf] { ] g]tTj u/]sf x'G5g . [ cg's"n cj:yf M – ;+rf/;DaGwL lgod sfg"gsf] a'emfO . – j}1flgs tYof+s Aoj:yfkg, hf]lvd cWoog / k"jrtfjgL sfo{df ;+nUg { ] ;/sf/L / u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?aLrsf] ;dGjo . – j}1flgs sfo{ ug]{ / cfkTsfnLg Aoj:yfkgsf] sfo{sf] lhDd]jf/L kfPsf ;/sf/sf] /fli6«o, If]qLo / :yfgLo txaLrsf] ;dGjo . – ;d'bfo / gful/s ;dfhnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg;Sg] Ifdtf . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn $%
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ ;kmn pbfx/0f M kk'jf Go"lugL ;'gfdLsf] pRrhf]lvddf /x]sf] /fi6« xf] . af/Daf/ uO/xg] e"sDk / Hjfnfd'vLn] ;'gfdLsf] vt/fnfO{ emg a9fPsf] 5 . ;g !((* df Toxf“ & /]S6/ :s]nsf] e"sDk uof] / nuQ} cfPsf] ;'gfdLn] @@)) hgfsf] Hofg lnof] . kk'jf Go"lugLdf Tof] ;'gfdL klxnf] lyPg t/ k'/fgf l;sfO / cg'ejx? gof“ lk+9LnfO{ k|jflxt ul/Pg . pgLx?nfO{ e"sDk nuQ} ;'gfdL cfpg] ;Defjgf a9L x'G5 eGg] s'/fsf] hfgsf/L lyPg . t;y{ pgLx? ;Defljt ;'gfdLaf6 aRg prfO“sf] :yfgtkm{ uPgg . kk'jf Go"lugL ;/sf/sf] cg'/f]wdf hfkfgsf] sf]al:yt ADRC eGg] ] ;+:yfn] ;'gfdL ;DaGwL hfkfgLh cg'ej af“8g Pp6f sfo{qmd ;+rfng u¥of] . o; cGtu{t lrqx? ePsf kf]i6/, kDkn]6x?sf] lgdf{0f u/L ;d'bfodf Aofks?kdf ljt/0f ul/of] . ;g @))) df kk'jf Go"lugLdf cl3Nnf] eGbf klg 7"nf] * /]S6/ :s]nsf] e"sDk uof] . xhf/f}+ 3/x? Wj:t eP . Tolta]nf;Dd kk'jf Go"lugLsf hgtf ;r]t eO;s]sf lyP . kl/0ffdtM Toqf] 7"nf] e"sDkkl5 cfPsf] ;'gfdLsf] sf/0f Pshgf gful/ssf] klg d[To' x'gkfPg . k/LIf0f ;"lr (Check-list) M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf @ xfd|f] sfo{qmd÷kl/of]hgf If]qdf k|sf]k;DaGwL r]tgf clej[l4 Pjd ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfgdf slt k|ult eof] < ljkb hf]lvd lgwf{/0f M s] ;d'bfosf] ljkb hf]lvd lgwf{/0fsf] nflu dlxnf tyf ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xx?sf] klg ;xeflutfdf ;a} If]qsf k|ltlglwx?sf] e]nf tyf 5nkmn ePsf] 5 < k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnL M ;Defljt ljkb hf]lvdsf] ;r]tgf hufpg s] xfd|f] { ] ;d'bfodf k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnL 5 < { ] $^ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk # M ;a} txdf ljkb ;'/Iff / pTyfgzLntfsf] lgdf{0f ug{ 1fg, gjLgtd tl/sf / lzIffsf] k|of]u ug]{ . k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk g++ # sf] p2]Zo k|fKt ug{ ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfg ug]{ k|0ffnL / ;]jfsf] ljsf; ug{ cfjZos 5 h;n] ;"rgf;Ddsf] kx"r j[l4 ug{ “" Pjd ;"rgfnfO{ Aojxfl/s?kdf k|of]u ug{ ;Ifd agfp“b5 . of] k|fyldstfn] ;~hfnx?nfO{ ;zQm agfP/, 5nkmnnfO{ k|j4{g u/]/ j}1flgs ;d'bfo / ljkbsf If]qdf sfo{/tx?aLr ;xof]u j[l4 u/fpg hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . of] lqmofsnfk cGtu{t ljBfno kf7oqmddf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;+nUg u/fpg], ;d'bfosf] nflu tflnd sfo{qmdx?sf] ljsf; ug], cfd;+rf/ dfWodsf] cg';Gwfg Ifdtf { jf ;+nUgtf j[l4 ug]{ sfo{x? klg kb{5g . k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk g+= # sf nflu ;Defljt sfo{x?nfO{ o;/L juL{s/0f ug{;lsG5 . #=! ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ;r]tgf km}nfpg] sfo{qmdx?sf] ljsf; ug]{ . #=@ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ lzIff k|0ffnL / cg';Gwfg IF]qdf ;dfj]z ug]{ . #=# ;fGble{s k|dv If]qx?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] tflnd sfo{qmd ' ljsf; ug]{ . #=$ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;"rgfsf] ;+sng, k|jfx / k|of]unfO{ clej[l4 ug]{ . k|ult;"rsx? M – ;a} ;d'bfo / ;a} z}lIfs:t/sf hgtf;Dd kx"r ePsf] gful/s ;r]tgf “" /fli6«o /0fgLltsf] lgdf{0f . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ljBfno kf7oqmdsf] ;a} txdf ;dfj]zLs/0f . /fli6«ob]lv :yfgLotx;Dd k|lzlIft k|lzIfs . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn $&
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # #=! ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ;r]tgf j[l4 ug]{ sfo{qmdsf] ljsf; . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] ljkb hf]lvdsf] af/]df ;r]tgf cleofgnfO{ ;zQm kfg{ of]hgf agfpg] / tbcg';f/ sfof{Gjog ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . ;dfhsf] ;a} txdf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL cfjZos hfgsf/L k|bfg ug]{ nIo of] lqmofsnfksf] /x]sf] 5 . dxTj M ;r]t gful/sn] ljkbsf hf]lvdaf6 cfkm"nfO{ ;'/lIft kfg{;Sb5 . ljkb hf]lvdsf] a'emfOn] k"jrtfjgL / gLlt sfof{Gjogdf ;d]t k|efjsfl/tf Nofp“b5 . { ] Aojxf/ kl/jt{gsf] nflu ;r]tgf cleofg ;r]tgf clej[l4 sfo{qmd Ps cGtlqm{ofTds k|lqmof xf] hxf“ hfgsf/L / 1fg k|bfg u/]/ nlIft ;d"xsf] ljrf/, ;f]rfO / Aojxf/nfO{ kl/jt{g ug]{ k|of; ul/G5 . ;xeflutfd"ns ;r]tgf cleofg a9L k|efjsf/L x'G5 lsgeg] o;f] | ubf{ nlIft ;d'bfosf] ljrf/, ;Lldttf / cj;/x?af/] cem} glhsdf a'emg ;lsG5 . Aojxf/ kl/jt{gsf] k|of; ubf{ s]jn ljifoj:t'nfO{ a'emfpg] sfo{ dfq gu/]/ o;sf] ;DefAotf / sfo{;xhtfdf klg plQs} hf]8 lbOg'kb{5 . s;/L ug]{ < != pko'Qm ljkb ;r]tgf cleofg nfu" ug{ /fi6«nfO{ oL s'/fx?sf] cfjZostf kb{5 . – ;r]tgf cleofgsf] nflu lg/Gt/ ;|ftsf] ;'lglZrttf . ] – s'g ;+rf/dfWodaf6 7"nf] hg;+Vofdf kx"r k'Ug ;Sb5 eGg] lglZrttf . “" – km/s lk+9Lx?df lbuf] a'emfO lgdf{0fsf] nflu ljleGg pd]/ ;d"xsf] ;xeflutf . – ;+rf/, Aofkf/ / dfs]l6ª If]qdf sfo{ ug]{ AolQmx?;“u ;DaGw { lj:tf/ . $* xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # – k|ltli7t :yfgLo clwsf/L, wfld{s / ;d'bfosf g]tf, dlxnf cu'jf nufot ljleGg IF]qsf cu'jfx?sf] ;+nUgtf . o;f] ubf{ ;"rgf k|jfxdf k|efjsfl/tf / ;xeflutfsf] nflu k|fT;fxg ldNb5 . ] @= ;r]tgf cleofgsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] nflu lgDg tl/sfaf6 ;xof]u k'Ug;Sb5 . – nlIft ;d"xnfO{ cfslif{t ug{;Sg] sfo{qmdsf] 5gf}6 . h:t} M ljBfno z}lIfs cleofg, d]nf, kj{, wfld{s, ;fdflhs ;df/f]xx? cflb . – cleefjsnfO{ k|efljt ug]{ p2]Zon] ljBfno pd]/sf ljBfyL{df nlIft sfo{qmd . – cfkmgf sd{rf/Lx?df ;r]tgf j[l4sf] nflu lghL tyf jfl0fHo If]qnfO{ k|fT;fxg . ] – ;d'bfo:t/df sfo{zfnf / z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? ;+rfng . #= ;r]tgf sfo{qmdsf] cfwf/e"t l;4fGt M – :yfgLo cjwf/0ff / cfjZostfsf] :ki6tf;lxtsf] sfo{qmdsf] lgdf{0f / sfof{Gjog . :yfgLo cj:yf emlNsg] ;fdu|Lx?sf] k|of]u . – ;dfhsf ;a} txsf nflu nlIft sfo{qmd . -h:t} M lg0f{ostf{x?, lzIfsx?, Aoj;foLx?, hf]lvd ;d'bfosf gful/s cflb ._ – ljleGg vfnsf nlIft ;d"xsf nflu leGg lsl;dsf ;Gb]z, ;fdu|Lx? . – ;kmntfsf] nflu lbuf] k|of;x? . t/ 7"nf] / lgoldt sfo{qmdsf] lx:;fsf] ?kdf Psb'Oj6f sfo{qmdx? klg k|efjsf/L x'g;S5 . h:t} M { cGt/f{li6«o e"sDk lbj;, hnjfo' kl/jt{glj?4sf] cleofg cflb . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]tx? M – /fli6«o / :yfgLo txsf ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx? . – ;+rf/dfWod, ;+rf/sdL{ / gful/s ;"rgf k|jfxsx? . – lzIfslzlIfsf / lzIf0f;+:yfx? . – ;d'bfosf g]tfx?, ;fj{hlgs sfo{df ;+nUg dlxnf / :yfgLo ;d"xx? . – :yfgLo, IF]qLo, /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o u};;x? . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn $(
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # cg's"n cj:yf M – ljkb hf]lvd / nlIft ;d'bfosf] af/]df oyfy{ / kl5Nnf] hfgsf/L . – ;/sf/L clwsf/L / ;d'bfosf g]tfx?sf] ;xeflutf . – :yfgLo ;d'bfox?sf] ;dembf/L, :jLsfo{tf / ;xof]u . – lbuf] sfo{qmdsf] nflu cfly{s / ef}lts ;|ft . ] ;kmn pbfx/0f M l8;]Da/ @))# df O/fgsf] blIf0f–k"jL{ If]qdf cfdljgfzsf/L e"sDk uof] . e"sDkdf $# xhf/sf] d[To' ePsf] lyof] eg] ^) xhf/ 3/af/ljxLg aGg'k¥of] . To;kl5 O/fgL ;/sf/n] a[xb ;r]tgf cleofg ;+rfng ug]{ lg0f{o u¥of] . o;sf nflu ;a} lsl;dsf ;+rf/dfWod, kf]i6/, xf]l8{ªaf]8{ / c? ;"rgfd"ns ;fdu|Lx? k|of]udf NofOof] . ljleGg pd]/;d"xsf nflu pko'Qm x'gvfnsf /+uLg ] z}lIfs ;fdu|Lx? lgdf{0f u/]/ e"sDk / e"sDkLo ;'/Iffsf] af/]df hfgsf/L lbOof] . ;d'bfo / ljBfno:t/df k|bz{gL, ¥ofnLx? cfof]hgf ul/of] . dlxnf ;xeflutfsf] nflu ljz]if hf]8 lbOof] . e"sDkaf6 gful/s 1fgdf slQsf] kl/jt{g cfof] eg]/ hf“Rg ;r]tgf cleofgsf cfof]hsx?åf/f k|ult;"rsx? to u/L k|Zgx? ;f]lwof] . ;r]tgf cleofgkl5 pgLx?df e"sDkaf6 ;r]tgf, rf;f] / k"jtof/Ldf pNn]Vo ;'wf/ { ePsf] kfOof] . #=@ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ lzIff k|0ffnL / cg';Gwfg If]qdf ;dfj]z ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL ;fdu|Lx?nfO{ ljBfnosf k|fyldsb]lv ljZjljBfno tx;Dd ;+nUg u/fpg] Pjd ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f cEof;x?af/] k|fof]lus (applied) / n}lus–;r]t (gender-sensitive) + cg';GwfgnfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . %) xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # dxTj M ljkb / k|sf]k;DaGwL ;jfnx?nfO{ ljBdfg z}lIfs kf7oqmddf ;dflxt ugf{n] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] lg/Gt/ l;sfO / a'emfOnfO{ ;'lglZrttf k|bfg ub{5 . x'sbf]+ lk+9LnfO{ ljkb hf]lvd ;DaGwL lzIff lbOPdf of] efjL +{ k':tfx?;Dd klg k|jflxt eO/xG5 . k|fof]lus cg';Gwfg (Applied Research) ljkb Go"gLs/0f Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{ Aojxfl/s dfWodsf] ;|ft ePsf]n] o;sf] ] dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg /xG5 . sfo{ ljlw M s_ z}lIfs k|0ffnLdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg lgDg sfo{x? pkof]uL /xG5 M != ljBfnosf] k|fyldstxb]lv ljZjljBfnotx;Dd ;d]6gsf] nflu Pp6f sfo{ bn / ljleGg ;ldltx? u7g ug]{ . @= ;a} pd]/ ;d"xdf ljkb / ljkb Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL ljBdfg a'emfO d"Nof+sg ug{ ;j]If0f ug]{ . clxn]sf] kf7oqmddf ljkbsf] ;jfnnfO{ { s;/L / slt;Dd ;Daf]wg ul/Psf] 5 egL ljZn]if0f ug]{ . #= k|foM ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL ;fdu|Lx? lj1fg / e"uf]ndf dfq /flvPsf] 5 . t/ c? ljifox? h:t} Oltxf;, ;fdflhs, jftfj/0f, :jf:Yo cflbdf klg ;+nUg u/fpg] . $= ljkbsf ;jfnx?nfO{ kf7oqmdsf] ;fGble{s If]qdf cem pTs[i6 9+un] ;dflji6 ug{ lzIfs lgb]lzsf hf/L ug]{ . o;sf nflu lzIf0f ;fdu|L { ;+sng / ljZn]if0f ug]{ . %= ljkb hf]lvd lzIffaf/] ljBfnosf sd{rf/L / lzIfsx?nfO{ tflnd lbg] . ^= ljkb Aoj:yfkg / hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL l8u|L sfo{qmdsf] ljsf; ug{ ljZjljBfnox?nfO{ k|fT;flxt ug]{ . ] &= ljB'tLo k|of]u / b"/lzIffsf] dfWodaf6 ;d]t ljkb hf]lvd lzIff k|fKt ug{÷u/fpg k|fT;fxg ug]{ . ] *= ljsf;sf cEof;x?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] a'emfO / k|of]unfO{ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn %!
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # cem} kl/is[t ug{ k|fof]lus (applied) lsl;dsf] j}1flgs, ;fdflhs– cfly{s / k|fljlws cg';Gwfgx?df hf]8 lbg] . (= cg';Gwfgstf{, gLltlgdf{tf / k|sf]k cEof;stf{x?df cfjZos 5nkmnsf] nflu cj;/ l;h{gf ug]{ . v_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL k|fof]lus cg';Gwfg (applied research_nfO{ k|j4{g ug{ /fli6«o cg';Gwfg Ph]08fsf] ljsf; ug{;lsG5 . h;sf] nflu ljifoljåfgx?, ;DalGwt k]zfsdL{x? / lghL If]q ;d]taLr 5nkmn ug{ ;lsG5 . /fli6«o d+rn] applied research nfO{ ;xhLs/0f ug{ dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{;Sb5 . /fli6«o d+rn] ax'ljwfut (mulit-disciplinary) cg';Gwfg Ph]08fsf] ljsf; ug{ ;S5 . o:t} cg';Gwfgdf cjwf/0ffut sfo{;/rgf (conceptual + framework) / ljlwut ;+/rgf÷kxnsbdL lgdf{0fsf] nflu lbzflgb]z ug{;S5 . { z}lIfs kf7oqmd ljsf; ubf{ Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/fx? M – s] kf7oqmdn] :yfgLo / /fli6«o:t/sf] ljkb / ;+s6f;GgtfnfO{ k|ltWjlgt u5{ < s] kf7oqmddf /flvPsf ;fdu|Lx? :yfgLo?kdf ;fGble{s 5g < -h:t} M ljkbsf] ;fdflhs, cfly{s, jftfj/0fLo cfofdx? ;+nUg 5 jf 5}g <_ – s] k|fylds ljBfnosf] kf7oqmdn] 3tnfUbf] u/L hfgsf/L k|jfx u/]sf] 5 < -h:t} M v]n, lkmN8 cWoog, gf6s cflb ljBfyL{sf ?lrs/ dfWodåf/f ._ – s] aflx/L ;DalGwt lj1 jf jQmfx?nfO{ :yfg lbOPsf] 5 < s] gof“ / k'/fgf k':tfnfO{ Ps} 7fp“df NofO{ 5nkmn ug]{ cj;/ lbOPsf] 5 < – s] pRrlzIff k|bfos z}lIfs;+:yfx?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0faf/] cg';Gwfg sfo{qmdx? /flvPsf 5g < – lzIfs, ljåt ;d'bfo, k]zfsdL{nufot c? ;DalGwt ;+sfo / ljwfsf AolQm÷;+:yfaLr ;fem]bf/L clej[l4 ug{ s] ljBdfg ;~hfnnfO{ cem alnof] kfl/g'kb{5 < – z}lIfs ;d'bfo / lzIfsx?sf] nflu cfjZos cfly{s, ef}lts / dfgjLo ;|ftx? pknAw 5g < ] %@ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ z}lIfs kf7oqmddf ;dflji6 ug{ s] :yfgLo / /fli6«o:t/sf gLltlgdf{tfx?nfO{ k|fT;fxg ul/Psf] 5 < ] pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]t M – lzIf0f / lzIf0f If]qsf k]zfsdL{x? . – lzIff dGqfnosf k|ltlglw / pRrlzIffsf gLlt lgdf{tfx? . – ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg lj1x? . – cg';Gwfg ;d'bfosf k|ltlglw / ljåfgx? . – ljBfyL{ / cleefjs ;+3 ;+u7gx? . – o'jf / ljBfyL{ . – lghL / ;fj{hlgs If]qx? . – u};; / ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+u7gx? . cg's"n cj:yf M – ;d'bfosf] ;xof]u / /fhg}lts k|lta4tf . – cfly{s / dfgjLo ;|ftsf] ljlgof]hg . ] – ;fGble{s z}Ifl0fs lgsfox?sf] ;+nUgtf / k|lta4tf . ;kmn pbfx/0f M So'af ljkbsf] b[li6sf]0fn] cfqmfGt d'ns xf] . af9L, rqmjft, t'kmfg k|dv ' ' k|sf]kx? x'g . So'afn] ljljwvfn] ljBfno sfo{qmdx?sf] ;xof]udf ljkb hf]lvd ;DaGwL ;r]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ /0fgLlt agfPsf] 5 . o;sf] nflu cltl/Qm lqmofsnfk, lzIfs–/lxt lqmofsnfk, ;f+:s[lts tflndx?sf] ;xfotf lnOof] . ljBfnos]Gb|Lt oL sfo{qmdx?aLr xf]nu'Og k|fGtdf !$ j6f gu/kflnsfsf gd"gf ljBfnox?df "A Preparonos" -g]kfnLdf– nf} ca tof/ /xf}+ _ gfdsf] kl/of]hgf ;+rfng ul/of] . o; kl/of]hgfdfkm{t ljBfno / ;d'bfoaLr ;DaGw lj:tf/ u/L ljkb;DaGwL ;jfnx?af/] cf}krf/s÷cgf}krfl/s sfo{qmdx? sfof{Gjog ul/of] . :yfgLo jftfj/0f, ljBdfg ;d:of, ;dfwfgsf pkfodf s]Gb|Lt /xL w]/} k|sf/sf tl/sfx? cjnDag ul/of] . oL ;a} sfo{qmdx?df ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf /x]klg k|dv e"ldsf eg] ljBfyL{x?n] g} lgjf{x u/]sf lyP . ' xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn %#
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # #=# ;fGble{s k|d'v If]qx?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] tflnd ljsf; ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] ;fGble{s k|dv If]qx?sf] nflu tflnd k|bfg u/]/ ljkb ' hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ tL If]qx?df ;dflxt ug]{ s'/fdf hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . o;n] gLlt lgdf{tfx?, ljsf; cEof;stf{x? / k|sf]k Aoj:yfksx?sf] 1fg / bIftf ljsf; ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . dxTj M cf}krfl/s tflnd sfo{qmdx?n] k|0ffnLut?kdf ljsf;sf dxTjk"0f{ If]qdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;dflxt ub{5 . tflnd lqmofsnfkn] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf ;gftg 1fg, k/Dk/fut cEof;, ;f+:s[lts / n}lus kIfaf/] + a'emg] cj;/ klg k|bfg ub{5 . sfo{ ljlw M != :yfgLo / /fli6«o:t/sf] k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f cfjZostfdf cfwfl/t /xL tflnddf ;+nUg u/fpg'kg]{ k|dv If]qx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . ' @= tflnddf of]ubfg lbg;Sg] jf tflndaf6 nfe k|fKt ug{;Sg] dlxnf / ;fd'bflos ;d"x, k]zfut ;+3;+:yf, Aofkfl/s ;+u7gx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . #= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL lbuf] 1fg / bIftf k|j4{g ug]{ x]tn] tflnd ' k|df0fLs/0f ug]{ dfkb08 jf k|0ffnLsf] klxrfg, ;'b9Ls/0f / ljsf; ug]{ . [ $= /fli6«o tflnd sfo{qmdx? / tflnd s]Gb|x?sf] ljsf;, ;'b9Ls/0f ug]{ [ Pjd nufgL clej[l4 ug]{ . %= :yfgLotj/d} tflnd ;fdu|Lx?sf] lgdf{0f ug]{ . o;sf] nflu dlxnf jf ;fd'bflos ;d"xx?l;t 5nkmn u/]/ ljBdfg l/Qmtfx?, :yfgLo ;|ftx?sf] ] af/]df hfgsf/L lng] . ;Gbe{ ;'xfp“bf] / n}lus–;r]t tflnd ;fdu|Lx?sf] + lgdf{0f ug]{ . o;nfO{ ;xh} / a[xt?kdf pknAw u/fpg] . ^= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL pknAw c? tflndx?sf] af/]df a'emg Pjd cg'ej ;f6f;f6 ug{ ;"rgf s]Gb|x?sf] :yfkgf ug]{ . %$ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # tflnd sfo{qmd ljsf; ubf{ Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/fx? M – tflndsf ;xefuLx?nfO{ lg/Gt/ / lbuf]?kdf ;+nUg u/fpg s:tf vfn] k|fT;fxg lbg ;lsG5 < s] ;xeflutf k|df0fLs/0f jf c? ;]dLgf/, ] sfo{zfnfdf ;xeflutf jf ;~hfn lgdf{0fsf cj;/x? 5g < – tflndaf6 k|fKt 1fgnfO{ cem a9L km}nfpg :yfgLo:t/df s] z}lIfs s]Gb| jf ;'ljwfx? 5g < – tflnddf k|fKt bIftf / 1fgsf] k|of]u eO/x]sf] 5 jf lal;{O;lsPsf] t 5}g eGg] yfxf kfpg s] cg'udg sfo{qmdx? 5g < – tflndsf] ;xhstf{sf] ?kdf s] k'?if / dlxnf b'j} ;+nUg 5g < pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]t M – tflndnlIft ;d"xsf] nflu sfo{/t cEof;stf{x? . – tflnd k|lzIfs / ;xhstf{x? . – ljkb Aoj:yfkgsf clwsf/Lx? . – ljkb, ljsf; / n}lus ;jfnsf lj1x? . + cg's"n cj:yf M – tflnd sfo{qmdsf] of]hgf / ;+rfng ug{ ;Ifd /fli6«o Ifdtf . – gjLgtd tflnd sfo{qmdx? lgdf{0f ug{ cfjZos dfgjLo, cfly{s / ef}lts ;|ft . oL sfo{qmdx?sf] :yfloTjsf] nflu pko'Qm ;xof]u / Aoj:yf . ] – ;/f]sf/jfnf ;+u7g / ;+u7g k|dvsf] ;xof]u . ' ;kmn pbfx/0f M 6sL{sf] pd|lgP lhNnfdf ljkb k"jtof/L tflndsf] cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . { z'?df bzhgf :yfgLo dlxnfx?sf] 5gf}6 ul/of] . pgLx?nfO{ ;d'bfodf cfwf/e"t k"jtof/L Ifdtf j[l4 ug{ k|lzlIft t'NofOof] . tL k|To]s bzhgfn] !)!% 3/w'/Ldf { tflndsf] 1fg k|jflxt u/] . o;afx]s pgLx?n] dflg;x? hd36 x'g] 7fp“ h:t} ljBfno, :jf:Yo s]Gb|, rf}tf/Lx?df *$ j6f 5nkmn sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng u/] . sfo{qmdsf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] d"Nof+sg ug{ 6]lnkmf]gaf6 ;j]If0f ul/of] . ;f] { ;j]If0fdf tL 3/w'/Lx?df ljkb k"jtof/Lsf] /fd|f] 1fg k|fKt ePsf] kfOof] . { { xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn %%
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # g]kfndf klg e"sDk k|ljlw ;dfh g]kfn (N-SET)n] sf7df8f}+ pkTosf e"sDk hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg kl/of]hgf cGtu{t ‘;'/lIft lgdf{0f’sf] ljifodf OlGhlgol/ªsf Ps;ohgf ljBfyL{x?nfO{ u|LidsfnLg tflnd k|bfg u/]sf] lyof] . ;f] tflndaf6 ljBfyL{x?n] ;'/lIft ejg lgdf{0f / e"sDkLo hf]lvdaf/] yk k|lzlIft x'g] df}sf kfPsf lyP . #=$ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;"rgfsf] ;+sng, k|jfx / k|of]unfO{ clej[l4 ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] k|fs[lts k|sf]k, k|sf]k Aoj:yfkg / hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL hfgsf/L / ;"rgfsf] klxrfg, ;+ux / k|jfxdf ;'wf/ Nofpg] p2]Zo | /fv]sf] 5 . dxTj M ljkb, ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f, k|sf]k Aoj:yfkg ;DaGwL ;"rgf / hfgsf/Lx? ef}uf]lns / ljwfut?kdf af“l8Psf 5g . o;n] ubf{ ljkb Go"gLs/0fdf cGt/–;DalGwt If]qx?sf] k|efjsfl/tf rfx]h:tf] x'g;s]sf] 5}g / cGttM nlIft ;d'bfox? cfjZos 1fgaf6 al~rt x'gk'usf 5g . t;y{ ;"rgf, hfgsf/L ] / 1fgx?sf] klxrfg / ;+of]hg u/L hf]lvddf /x]sf] gful/sx?;Dd k'¥ofpg' of] lqmofsnfksf] Wo]o xf] . sfo{ ljlw M != a[xt ;"rgf Aoj:yfkg sfo{qmdsf] ljsf; ug]{ . nlIft ;d"x;Dd k'Ug g;s]sf ;"rgfx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . @= ;"rgf ;+sng, ;+of]hg, k|jfx / k|of]u ug{;Sg] ;/sf/L, lghL, gful/s ;dfh, k|fl1s ;d'bfox?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . logLx?sf] ;+nUgtf ;'lglZrt ug]{ . #= ;fj{hlgs ug'kg]{ / ug{;lsg] ljBdfg ;"rgfx?sf] ljj/0f tof/ ug]{ . { $= ;"rgfsf] ;+sng, k|of]u / ljZn]if0fnfO{ ;Dej eP;Dd n}lus–;r]t + agfpg] . n}lus–;r]t ;"rgfsf] pTkfbg, ;+sng / k|of]udf ;xof]u ug]{ . + %^ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # %= ljleGg k|sf/sf nlIft ;d'bfonfO{ ;"rgf k|jfx ug]{ pko'Qm dfWodsf] 5gf}6 ug]{ . ^= ljBdfg ax'ljwfut (multi-disciplinary) ;fem]bf/x?aLr ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfg ;'b9 ug]{ . [ &= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu /fli6«o / :yfgLo ;"rgf s]Gb| :yfkgf ug]{ jf ;'b9 ug]{ . l5d]sL /fi6«x?sf] jf If]qLo ;"rgf Aoj:yfkg s]Gb|sf] [ ;'ljwfnfO{ k|of]u ug]{ . Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/f M – :yfgLo / /fli6«o txdf /x]sf k|fylds ;"rgfsf ;|ftx? s] s] x'g < s'g ] ;+/rgfdf tL pknAw 5g < – s] hf]lvddf /x]sf ;d'bfon] ;"rgfx? ;xh / :jtGq?kn] k|fKt ug{;s]sf 5g < – s] ljBdfg ;"rgfsf dfWodx? -h:t} j]a;fO6_ sf] k|efjsfl/tf j[l4 ug{ ;lsG5 < – s] ;"rgfx? pko'Qm efiffdf 5g < s] Tof] nlIft ;d"xsf] ;f+:s[lts / z}lIfs k[i7e"ld, of]Uotf, pd]/, Ifdtf, ln·;“u ;fGble{s 5 < – ljkb ;DaGwL hfgsf/Lx?df Pp6} vfnsf] :t/Ls[t zAbfjnLx? (standardized terminology) k|of]u ug]{ s'g} gLlt 5 < s] tL zAbfjnLx? ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?n] a'emb5g < – s] ;+rf/sf AolQmut dfWodx? -6]lnkmf]g, kmofS; jf ;d'bfodf pknAw ;fwgx?_ nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ;"rgf k|jfxdf k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 < pQ/bfloTj / >f]t M – ;a} txsf] ;/sf/ . – dlxnf ;Ghfnx?;lxtsf] ;fd'bflos ;d"x . lghL If]q, ljz]ifu/L ;+rf/ . – k|fl1s ;+:yfx?, ljZjljBfno cg';Gwfg s]Gb| . – cg';Gwfg / gLlt lgdf{0fdf ;+nUg ;+u7gx? . cg's"n cj:yf M – ;fGble{s ;"rgfx?sf] :ki6 a'emfO / To;sf] p2]Zoaf/] 1fg . – ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfg ug{df ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] pT;fx . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn %&
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # – ;"rgf tyf hfgsf/Lx? ;+sng÷k|jfx ug{ kof{Kt / pko'Qm k|ljlw . – ;"rgfx? k|of]u ug{ cfjZos k|fljlws Ifdtf / bIftf . ;kmn pbfx/0f M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL k9fO x'g] clk|msfsf ljZjljBfnox? ldn]/ ;g @))% df The University Network For Disaster Risk Reduction (UNeDRA) u7g ul/Psf] 5 . o;n] Pscfk;aLr ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfg, Ifdtf clej[l4 / ;xsfo{k0f{ cg';GwfgnfO{ k|j4{g u/]sf] 5 . " UNeDRA n] clk|msg ljZjljBfnox?aLr ef}ule{s ;"rgf ;+hfn s]Gb| lgdf{0f u/]sf] 5 eg] ;a–;xf/f clk|msfsf] k|sf]k clen]v klg lgdf{0f u/]sf] 5 . o;n] k|fWofks, ljBfyL{, k|fljlwsx?sf] nflu k|of]ufTds sf];x? tof/ { ub{5 . ;fy} jflif{s?kdf a}7s a;L ;"rgfx? cfbfgk|bfg ug]{ ul/G5 . k/LIf0f ;"lr (Check-list) M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf # ljkbsf] k"jtof/L ug{, ljkb 6fg{ / k|ltsfo{ ug{ xfd|f] ;d'bfo slt { ;';lrt 5 < " ;"rgf Aoj:yfkg / cfbfgk|bfg M:yfgLo k|sf]k / ;Defljt ljkbsf] k|dv ' hfgsf/Lx? xfd|f] ;d'bfodf slt k|efjsf/L 9+un] ;Dk|lift ul/Psf] 5 < ] cf}krfl/s lzIff M ljkbaf6 s;/L aRg] / ;fdgf ug]{ eGg]af/]df s] :yfgLo o'jfx?n] ljBfno / sn]haf6 l;ls/x]sf 5g < ;fj{hlgs ;r]tgf / a'emfO M s] xfd|f] ;d'bfon] ljkb k|ltsfo{ ug{sf nflu k|sf]ksf] ;Defljt hf]lvdaf/] kof{Kt 1fg xfl;n u/]sf 5g < cgf}krfl/s lzIff M k|sf]ksf] c;/af6 hf]lug] Aojxfl/s pkfox?sf] af/]df l;sfpg s] ;d'bfodf ;fj{hlgs ;r]tgf cleofgx? rnfOPsf 5g < ljBfno ;'/Iff M s] ;d'bfonfO{ cfkmgf If]qsf ljBfno ejgx? s'g xb;Dd ;'/lIft 5g eGg]af/]df 1fg 5 < k|sf]ksf] c;/af6 gof“ / k'/fgf] ljBfnox?nfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg cfjZos Aojxfl/s sbdx?sf] af/]df s] ;d'bfonfO{ hfgsf/L 5 < %* xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ k|fyldstfsf] sfo{ $ hf]lvdsf cGtlgxL{t tTjx?nfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug]{ . k|fyldstfsf] sfo{ $ n] kfl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnL (ecosystem), e"–pkof]u / k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] lbuf] k|of]u / Aoj:yfkgnfO{ k|fT;fxg u/]sf] 5 . of] k|fyldstfsf] ] ] sfo{n] pTyfgzLntf j[l4 ug{ vfB ;'/IffnfO{ k|j4{g ug], :jf:Yo If]qdf ljkb { hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;dflxt ug], ;'/lIft c:ktfn lgdf{0f ug]df hf]8 { { lbPsf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} cfo;|ftsf] ljljlws/0f, cfly{s hf]lvd af“8kmf“8 ] ;+oGqsf] ljsf;, lghL–;fj{hlgs If]q;“usf] ;fem]bf/L cflbdf hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . k|fyldstfsf] sfo{ $ ug{ lgDg sfo{x? cjnDag ug{ ;lsG5 M $=! jftfj/0f M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf jftfj/0fLo / k|fs[lts ;|ft ] Aoj:yfkgnfO{ ;dflxt ug]{ . $=@ ;fdflhs cfjZostf M ljkGg / ;+s6f;Gg hg;+Vofdf pTyfgzLntf j[l4 ug{ ;+oGq :yfkgf ug]{ . $=# ef}lts of]hgf M zx/L / e"–pkof]u of]hgfdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;dflxt ug]{ dfWodx? :yfkgf ug]{ . $=$ ;+/rgf M ejg ;'/Iffdf ;'wf/ ug{ / dxTjk"0f{ :yfgx?sf] ;'/Iff ug{ ;zQm ;+oGq lgdf{0f ug]{ . $=% pTkfbg / ;]jf If]qdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f lqmofsnfknfO{ pTk|l/t ] ug]{ . $=^ ljlQo÷cfly{s IF]q M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf lghL If]qsf] ;+nUgtfsf] cj;/ ;[hgf ug]{ . $=& ljkb k'gnf{e M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;lxtsf] k'gnf{e of]hgf k|lqmofsf] ljsf; ug]{ . k|ult;"rsx? M – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tTjsf] ?kdf jftfj/0fLo ;+/If0f, k|fs[lts ;|ft ] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn %(
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ Aoj:yfkg / hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf gLltx?sf] ;+nUgtf . – ljkGg hg;+Vofsf] ;+s6f;Ggtf Go"gLs/0f ug{ ljlzi6 gLlt / of]hgfx?sf] sfof{Gjog . – e"–pkof]u ljsf; of]hgf / If]q Pjd lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] ljsf; . – ljBfno, :jf:Yo If]q / dxTjk"0f{ k"jf{wf/x?nfO{ k|fs[lts k|sf]kaf6 hf]ufpg bL3{sfnLg /fli6«o sfo{qmd . – 7"nf k"jf{wf/ kl/of]hgfsf] k|:tfjgfdf ljkb hf]lvd k|efj lgwf{/0f ug]{ Aoj:yf . $=! jftfj/0f M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf jftfj/0fLo / k|fs[lts ;|f]t Aoj:yfkgnfO{ ;dflxt ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] u}/lhDd]jf/Lk"0f{ k|of]unfO{ Go"gLs/0f ] ug{ /0fgLlt / ljlzi6 sfo{qmdx?sf] ljsf; ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . dxTj M :j:y jftfj/0fn] ;d'bfosf] ljkb pTyfgzLntf j[l4 ug{ b'O{ tl/sfn] ;xof]u k'¥ofp“b5 . klxnf] t k|fs[lts / dfgjLo?kn] l;lh{t k|sf]ksf] c;/nfO{ Go"gLs/0f u5{ . bf]>f] k|fs[lts?kd} k|sf]khGo 36gfx?nfO{ cNkLs/0f ub{5 . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / jftfj/0fLo Aoj:yfkgsf] u7hf]8n] w]/} /fd|f glthfx? lgsfNb5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu o;n] ;dfgfGt/ sfo{qmd / lqmofsnfkx?df nfUg] vr{ 36fp“b5 . cGt/f{li6«o ljlQo ;+:yfx? -h:t} ljZj a}s_ / ;+oQm /fi6«;3sf lgsfox?n] klg ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f Pjd + ' + k|fs[lts / jftfj/0fLo ;+/If0faLrsf] cGt/;DaGwnfO{ dxTj lbPsf] 5 . sfo{ ljlw M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ jftfj/0fLo Aoj:yfkgdf ;dflxt ug{ lgDg sfo{x? ug{ ;lsG5 M ^) xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ != sfo{ bn agfpg] . sfo{ bndf lgDg If]qsf] k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] M – jftfj/0f dGqfno . – /fli6«o?kdf lqmofzLn d'Vo jftfj/0fLo ;d"x . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f lj1x? . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o d+r . – ;fd'bflos ;+u7gx?, dlxnf tyf cflbjf;L ;d"xx? . @= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / jftfj/0fLo ;+hfnsf ;b:ox?nfO{ Ps} 7fp“df Nofpg] ;+oGq agfpg] jf algagfp ;+oGqnfO{ ;'b9 t'Nofpg] . [ #= jftfj/0f / ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL ljBdfg lqmofsnfk / sfo{qmdx?aLr ;xsfo{ a9fpg] of]hgf lgdf{0f ug]{ . Pscsf{;u ;fx|} ldNbf] “ If]qx?af6 sfd z'? ug]{ . h:tM v8]/L / d?e"lds/0f sd ug], af9L { /f]syfd cflb sfo{qmdx? . $= /fli6«o, låkIfLo, If]qLo / cGt/f{li6«o sfg"g / ;xdlt cg';f/sf] k|ltj]bg tof/ ug{ ;3fp k'¥ofpg] x]tn] tYof+s cfbfgk|bfg ug]{ /0fgLltsf] ljsf; ug]{ . ' %= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / jftfj/0f ;+/If0f;DaGwL dfkb08x?sf] ;+oQm ' d"Nof+sg ug{ ;+:yfut ;+oGq tof/ ug]{ . ^= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / lbuf] jftfj/0fLo cEof;nfO{ k|j4{g ug{ ;+oQm ' tflnd sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng ug]{ . &= Ps};fy ljkb hf]lvdnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug]{ / kfl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLnfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ ;+oQm lqmofsnfk / sfo{qmdx?sf] of]hgf agfpg], cfly{s ;|ft ' ] vf]Hg] . pbfx/0fsf] nflu v8]/L / hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] ;+s6f;Ggtf Go"gLs/0f ug{ k|lt/f]wfTds aLp ljt/0f ug]{ . *= ;+oQm?kdf sfo{ ug{ ;lsg] IF]qx? klxrfg u/L /0fg}lts b:tfj]h tof/ ' ug]{ . /0fgLltn] s;/L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / jftfj/0fsf ;jfnx?nfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofp“b5 egL k|sfz kfg]{ . of] of]hgfnfO{ ljt/0f / k|j4{g ug]{ Pjd o;nfO{ ;xof]u k'Ug] vfnsf] k|lqmofnfO{ ;+:yfut ug]{ . (= hnjfo' kl/jt{g;“u cg'sn x'g] k|fyldstfsf lqmofsnfkx? klxrfg ug]{ " p2]Zon] agfOPsf] National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA) sf] ljljw k|lqmofdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf cEof;stf{x?nfO{ klg ;+nUg u/fpg] . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ^!
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]t M – jftfj/0fLo lgodg ug]{ / of]hgf agfpg] lgsfox? . -hnjfo' kl/jt{g / c? jftfj/0fLo ;jfnx?;DaGwL ax'kIfLo jftfj/0fLo ;xdlt sfof{Gjog ug]x? ;d]t ._ { – jftfj/0f / ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkgsf cEof;stf{x? . – :yfgLo ;/sf/ / ;+:yfx? . – jftfj/0fLo ;+/If0f / k|fs[lts ;|ft Aoj:yfkg sfo{ ug]{ ;d'bfo / dlxnf ] ;d"xx? . – cflbjf;L hg;+Vof . – ljBdfg ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / jftfj/0fLo ;+hfnx? . cg's"n cj:yf M – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / jftfj/0fLo lgsfox?aLr ;xsfo{ ug]{ clwsf/ . – /fhg}lts, cfly{s / ;+u7gfTds ;xof]u . – jftfj/0fLo r'gf}tLx? / ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL sfo{ ug]{ k/fdz{bfoL (consultative) / ;dGjosf/L lgsfox? . – k"0f{ ;';lrt sfo{ bn . jftfj/0fLo / ;|ft Aoj:yfkg sfo{qmd Pjd " ] ;/sf/L k|lta4tfx?af/]sf] hfgsf/L . – ;a} If]qdf hnjfo' kl/jt{gk|ltsf] ;f]r . ;kmn pbfx/0f M ljZjsf s]xL d'nsdf hnjfo' kl/jt{gk|lt cg'sngsf] ljsf; u/]/ ljkb ' " hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug]{ k|of;x? ePsf 5g . af9Laf6 cfqmfGt a+unfb]zdf xf“;kfng hLljsf]kfh{gsf] /fd|f] ljsNk alg/x]sf] 5 . jiff{tsf] ;dodf s[lifof]Uo hdLgx?df Iflt k'Ug], vfBfGg / kz'kIfL cfxf/ aufpg] x'gfn] k/Dk/fut + s'v/fkfngsf] :yfgdf af9Ldf klg kfNg ;lsg] xf“;k|lt s[ifsx? cfslif{t ' ePsf x'g . ljkbsf] a]nfdf xf“; jf xf“;sf] c08fnfO{ ahf/df laqmL jf cfkm}n] + k|of]u ug]{ u/]sf 5g . ^@ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ $=@ ljkGg / ;+s6f;Gg hg;+Vofdf pTyfgzLntf j[l4 ug{ ;+oGq :yfkgf ug]{ . p2]Zo M ;fdflhs k"hLsf] Aoj:yfkg u/L, ;zQmLs/0f u/fO, hLljsf]kfh{gsf “" dfWod ;+/If0f u/L Pjd /fli6«o:t/sf] /0fg}lts of]hgf / ;|ft k|of]u u/L ] ljkGg ;d'bfosf] pTyfgzLntf j[l4 ug]{ p2]Zo o;n] /fv]sf] 5 . dxTj M ljkGg ;d'bfodf ljkb ;+s6f;Ggtf clws /x]sf] x'G5 . pgLx?df ljkb k'gnf{esf] Ifdtf klg sd x'G5 . t;y{ ;/sf/n] ljkGg ;d'bfosf] cfly{s pGgtL, hLljsf;|ftsf] ljljlws/0f, ;fdflhs ;'/Iff, zf;g ;xeflutfdf ] ;xof]u k'¥ofO pgLx?nfO{ ljkbaf6 ;'/Iff lbg;S5 . ljkGg ;d'bfosf] ljkbaf6 aRg] cfkmg} /0fgLlt x'G5 h;nfO{ cem ljsf; u/]/ jf ;zQm agfP/ pTyfgzLntfsf] ljsf; ug{ ;lsG5 . sfo{ ljlw M != ljkb hf]lvd ;DalGwt ljleGg lsl;dsf -h:t}M pd]/, czQmtf, ;fdflhs e]befj, n}lus ;jfn cflb_ ul0ftLo hfgsf/Lx? ;+sng u/L tYof+ssf] + u'0f:t/ j[l4 ug]{ . ljkb cl3 / kl5sf cj:yfdf ljkGg ;d"xnfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg lj:t[t tYof+sn] 7"nf] ;xof]u k'¥ofp“b5 . @= ;xeflutfd"ns hf]lvd lgwf{/0f / Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{x? ubf{ :yfgLo ;d'bfosf g]tf, dlxnf ;d"x / sfo{stf{x?;“u ;xsfo{ ug]{ . #= ljkbkl5sf] cj:yfdf hLljsfsf] nflu Go"gtd ;xof]u ubf{ n}lus– + ;dtfd"ns Ifltk"lt{ sfo{qmdsf] of]hgf agfpg] . sfdsf] nflu vfBfGg jf sfdsf nflu a;f]af; h:tf sfo{qmdx? to u/L ljkGg ;d'bfosf] ;+/If0f ug]{ . clt Go"g cfo;|ft ePsf ls;fgx?sf] nflu k'gnf{esf] lglDt gub ] jf aLp k|bfg ug]{ . $= ul/aL Go"gLs/0f /0fg}lts of]hgf -PRSP) df ljkGgsf] nflu ljkb xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ^#
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{x? ;+nUg ug]{ . %= ;+oQm /fi6«;3Lo ljsf; ;xfotf sfo{ ;+/rgf (UNDAF) df ljkb hf]lvd ' + Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;dflji6 ug]{ . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]t M – ;dfh sNof0f lj1x? . – n}lus ljsf; ;jfnsf lj1x? . + – ;/sf/sf] cfly{s / of]hgf ljefu . – u|fdL0f ljsf; / s[lif ;+/If0f lj1x? . – hn–;+/If0f, v8]/L / ;d'bfo :jf:Yosf lj1x? . – ;d'bfosf g]tf, sfo{stf{ / :jod;jsx? . ] – ul/aL Go"gLs/0fdf jsfnt ug]x? . { – Go"g cfo ePsf ;d'bfo / ljkGg ;d"xsf] ;+/If0f ljifodf lj1tf xfl;n u/]sf ljlQo ;+:yf / cfly{s lj1x? . – u};;x?, dfgjLo / :jdo;jL ;+u7gx?, bft[ lgsfox? . ] cg's"n cj:yf – /fd|f;u kl/eflift /fli6«o ul/aL lgjf/0f /0fgLlt / sfo{qmd . ] “ – ul/aL Go"gLs/0fdf sfo{ ug]{ u};;, ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+u7gx? / dfgjLo ;xfotf ;+:yfsf lj1x?sf ;/;'emfj . – ;fdflhs ;]jf, ;dfh sNof0f lgsfox? / ;+hfnx?aLr lgs6sf] cGtlqm{of . ljkGg ;d"xsf] ;+s6f;Ggtf a'emg] kxnx? . dlxnf / ;fd'bflos ;d"xsf ljBdfg ;Ghfnx?sf] :yfkgf jf ;'b9Ls/0f . [ ;kmn pbfx/0f M hnjfo' kl/jt{g Pjd v8]/L / af9Ln] ubf{ clk|msL /fi6« OSj]8/df @) k|ltzt hgtf s'kf]if0fsf] rk]6fdf 5g . To;}n] Toxf“ Pp6f kl/of]hgf nfu" ul/Psf] 5 h;n] hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf sf/0f s[lif pTkfbgdf k/]sf] k|efjnfO{ a'emg ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] Pjd vfB;'/Iff / jftfj/0fdf sfd ug]x?aLr ;~hfn { v8f ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . of] kl/of]hgfn] hnjfo' / df};daf/] hfgsf/L lnO{ ^$ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ s[lif pTkfbg / s[lif of]hgfsf] lg0ff{os txnfO{ vfB ;'/Iff j[l4 ug]{ / s'kf]if0f cGTo ug]tkm{ pTk|l/t ug]{ p2]Zo lnPsf] 5 . { ] $=# zx/L / e"–pkof]u of]hgfdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;dflxt ug]{ ljlwx? :yfkgf ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] ljsf;, e"–pkof]u / zx/L of]hgfdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;dflxt ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . o;sf nflu k|sf]k / ;+s6f;Ggtfsf] dfkb08nfO{ of]hgfdf ;dflxt ug], :t/ / cEof;nfO{ ;'wfg], lgdf{0f ;+lxtf / { { e"–pkof]u ;DaGwL lgodx? sfof{Gjog ug]{ h:tf sfo{x? ug{ l;kmfl/z ul/Psf] 5. dxTj M ljsf;, e"–pkof]u / zx/L of]hgfdf k|fs[lts k|sf]knfO{ :yfg lb+bf u|fdL0f IF]q / tLa|?kdf zx/Ls/0f ePsf IF]qx? b'jsf] hf]lvdnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ub{5 . } zx/L ljkb hf]lvdsf] d'Vo sf/0f u}/lhDd]jf/k"0f{ zx/L e"–pkof]u Aoj:yfkg / ljsf; xf] . o;sf ;fy} Go"g:t/sf] lgdf{0f cEof;, ljutsf] cg'ko'Qm e"–pkof]u lg0f{on] klg hf]lvd a9fO/x]sf] 5 . sfo{ ljlw M != ;a} ;/sf/L txsf lgsfox?df ljsf; of]hgf Pjd e"–pkof]u sfo{qmd, of]hgf / gLltlgodx? a'emg;Sg], nfu" u/fpg;Sg] / sfof{Gjog ug{;Sg] Ifdtfsf] d"Nof+sg ug]{ . ;fy} tL lgsfox?df ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg ug{;Sg] ;+:yfut Ifdtf / tflnd cfjZostf b[li6uf}r/ ug]{ . @= of]hgf k|lqmofdf ljkb / ;+s6f;Ggtfsf dfkb08x? slt;Dd ;dflxt ul/Psf] 5 egL lgwf{/0f ug]{ . e"–pkof]u If]q lgwf{/0f, e"–pkof]u of]hgf / ljsf; of]hgfsf] k|lqmof cWoog ug]{ . #= hf]lvd–;r]t e"–pkof]u of]hgf / zx/L ljsf;sf] k|fljlws Ifdtf j[l4 ug{ tflndsf Ph]08fx? ljsf; ug]{ . o:tf] tflnddf e"–pkof]u / zx/L xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ^%
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ ljsf; of]hgfsf/, ejg sfof{nosf clwsf/Lx?, OlGhlgo/x?, jftfj/0fLo Aoj:yfksx? / gLlt, lgod sfof{Gjog ug]{ / nfu" u/fpg;Sg] :yfgLo ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx?nfO{ ;dflxt ug]{ . $= ;DalGwt dGqfno / ljefux?n] cfkmgf sfo{qmdx?df hf]lvd lgwf{/0f / hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ljlwx? ;dflxt u/]sf 5g egL ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . %= ;fGble{s Aoj;flos / Aofkfl/s ;+u7gx?;“u sfd u/L pgLx?sf] ;]jfsf] :t/ / u'0fdf ;'wf/ Nofpg] . pgLx?sf] cEof;sf] u'0f:t/ j[l4 ug{ ;lqmo e"ldsf lbg] . ^= e"–pkof]u lgod / k|lqmof nfu" u/fpg] h;af6 tf]lsPsf] If]q lglZrt lgod / dfkb08df cfwfl/t 5 eGg] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . ;DejeP;Dd k|sf]k If]qdf ljsf; sfo{nfO{ lgif]w ug]{ gLlt agfpg] jf pRr dfkb08 to ug]{ . &= u}/sfg"gL / cgf}krfl/s lgdf{0f sfo{nfO{ b'?T;flxt ug]{ . k|sf]kLo If]qsf u}/sfg"gL a:tLx?nfO{ :yfgfGt/0f ug], c;'/lIft ejgnfO{ 9fNg], Ifltu|:t { / hL0f{ If]qx?nfO{ k'gMlgdf{0f / ljsf; ug]{ Pjd zx/sf ul/a a:tLsf] :t/f]GgtL ug]{ . *= v'Nnf If]qx? h:t} kfs{, xl/t If]q cflbsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ . o;n] s'?k 9+un] a9bf] zx/Ls/0f /f]Sg d2t k'¥ofp“b5 . (= k|sf]ku|:t If]qsf hUufhdLgx?sf] ;/sf/L clwu|x0fnfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ . !)= e"–pkof]u of]hgf k|lqmofdf gful/s ;xeflutfnfO{ ;+:yfut ug]{ . o;n] ;+s6f;Ggtf / hf]lvd;DaGwL gful/s a'emfO / ;'emfjnfO{ of]hgfdf ;dflxt ug{ ;xof]u ub{5 . csf]lt/ hf]lvd–;r]t e"–pkof]u of]hgfk|lt { ;fdflhs :jLs[lt k|bfg ub{5 / tbcg';f/sf] gLlt, lgod, dfkb08nfO{ sfof{Gjog u/fpg klg 6]jf k'¥ofp“b5 . !!= e"–pkof]u;DaGwL cEof; / k]zfut IfdtfnfO{ ;'wf/ ug{ cfly{s nufotsf k|fT;fxg lbg] vfnsf] sfo{qmd th'df ug]{ . h:t} k]zfsdL{x? -cfls{6S6, ] { ] OlGhlgo/, 7]sbf/ cflb_nfO{ nfO;]G; lbg] jf k'/:s[t ug]{ cflb . ] !@= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ kl/of]hgfrqmdf ;dflxt ug]{ k|lqmofsf] ljsf; ug]{ . ljlQo ;+:yf / lgodg ug]{ lgsfox?n] o;nfO{ cjnDag u/]sf] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . ^^ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ !#= gLlt, lgod gdfGg]x?nfO{ sfg"gL s73/fdf Nofpg] /0fgLlt ljsf; ug]{ . !$= gful/s ;"rgf /0fgLltnfO{ klg ;“u;“u} k|j4{g ug]{ . h:t} ;r]tgf k|bfg ug]{ ;"rgf tyf lzIff;DaGwL sfo{qmdx? cflb . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]t M – zx/L of]hgf, ejg, k"jf{wf/ / ;fj{hlgs sfo{ ug]{ lgsfox? . – :yfgLo ;/sf/x? -h:t} gu/kflnsf, uflj;_ . – l/on:6]6nufotsf Aofkfl/s ;+u7gx? . – ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+u7gx? / ;d'bfosf g]tfx? . – ;fGble{s dGqfno / ljefux? . ;kmn pbfx/0f M ljkbsf] ;DefAo c;/nfO{ sd ug{ lkmlnlkG;sf] e"–pkof]u of]hgfsf/x?n] e"–pkof]u of]hgfnfO{ g} k|efjsf/L dfWodsf] ?kdf lnPsf lyP . tfklg e"–pkof]u of]hgf k|lqmof / cEof;x?df hf]lvd dfkb08nfO{ ;dflxt ug{ ljkb hf]lvd;DaGwL sdhf]/ a'emfOn] cj/f]w l;h{gf u¥of] . of] l/QmtfnfO{ k"lt{ ug{ ‘hf]lvd–;r]t e"pkof]u of]hgf’ ;DaGwL O{–nlg{ª sf];{ -OG6/g]6sf] dfWodn] k9g ;lsg]_sf] ljsf; ul/of] . of] sf];sf] p2]Zo e"–pkof]u cEof;stf{x?nfO{ { ljkb hf]lvd ;DaGwL k|fljlws Ifdtf k|bfg u/L sfo{kefjsfl/tf a9fpg' lyof] . of] | sf];{ lkmlnlkG;s} lj1x?n] tof/ u/]sf lyP . $=$ ejg ;'/Iffdf ;'wf/ ug{ / dxTjk"0f{ ;'ljwfx?sf] ;'/Iff ug{ ;zQm ;+oGq agfpg] . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] ejgnufot dxTjk"0f{ ;'ljwfx? / k"jf{wf/x?sf] ;'/Iff ug{ dha't ;+oGqsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . o;af6 ljkbsf sf/0f hLjg, hLljsfdf x'g] Iflt Go"gLs/0f eO{ k'gnf{esf] vr{;d]t hf]lug k'U5 . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ^&
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ dxTj M ljkbsf] ;dodf c:ktfn, cfsl:ds s]Gb|, ljBfno, ;+rf/k|0ffnL, oftfofth:tf dxTjk"0f{ ;'ljwfx?sf] ;+/If0f ug'{ cltcfjZos x'G5 . ljkbsf] ;dodf cTofjZos ;]jfx? h:t} M lah'nLaQL, kfgL, cfwf/e"t ;/sf/L sfo{x? ;s];Dd rf“8f] k'gM ;+rfngdf cfP eg] ljkbsf] ;fdflhs k|efjnfO{ lgs} xb;Dd sd ug{;lsG5 . sfo{ ljlw M s_ ejg ;'/Iffsf] nflu lgDg sfo{x? ug{ ;lsG5 M != lgdf{0f ;+lxtf -Building Code) ;DaGwL gLlt lgod / k|lqmofx?sf] k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ . klxrfg ul/Psf hf]lvdx?nfO{ gLltlgodx?n] slt pko'Qm 9+un] ;Daf]wg u/]sf] 5 / sfof{Gjog slQsf] Aojxfl/s 5 egL d"Nof+sg ug]{ . @= lgdf{0f ;+lxtfaf/] a'emg, sfof{Gjog ug{ / nfu" u/fpg ;a} ;/sf/L txsf lgsfox?sf] Ifdtfsf] d"Nof+sg ug]{ . #= ejg lgdf{0f / ;DalGwt of]hgf k|lqmofdf k|sf]k / ;+s6f;GgtfnfO{ ;dflxt ug{ cfjZos k|lqmof / tl/sfx?af/] tflnd Ph]08fsf] ljsf; ug]{ . of] tflnd of]hgfsf/, lgodg clwsf/Lx? (regulatory authorities), ;DalGwt lgsfosf k]zfsdL{x? nufot sfof{Gjog ug]{ / nfu" u/fpg] tx;DdnfO{ k|bfg ug]{ . $= lgdf{0f ;+lxtf ;'wf/ ug], lgdf{0f pBf]usf] Go"gtd Aoj;flos dfkb08 { sfod ug], tflnd cfjZostf a'emg] nufotsf ;femf ;jfnx?df { lgdf{0f pBf]u;“usf] k/fdz{ k|lqmofnfO{ ;+:yfut ug]{ . %= k|sf]k k|lt/f]wfTds lgdf{0fnfO{ k|fT;fxg lbg tflnd sfo{qmdx?sf] ] k|j4{g ug]{ . o; tflnddf ;DalGwt Aoj;flos / Aofkfl/s ;+3;+:yfx?, ;fd'bflos ljsf; ;+u7gx?nfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg] . ^= c;'/lIft If]qdf /x]sf] lgdf{0fnfO{ :yfgfGt/0f ug{, c;'/lIft ejgnfO{ dd{t ug{, u}xsfg"gL÷cgf}krfl/s lgdf{0fnfO{ b'?T;flxt ug{ sfo{qmdsf] | ljsf; ug]{ . ^* xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ &= /fd|f cEof;x?nfO{ k|fT;fxg ug]{ Kofs]h sfo{qmd Nofpg] . h:t} ] Aoj;foL / k]zfsdL{x? -7]sbf/, OlGhlgo/, cfls{6S6 cflb_nfO{ ] ] nfO;]G; lbg] jf k'/:s[t ug]{ ;+oGqsf] ljsf; cflb . *= lgdf{0f ;+lxtf;DaGwL gLlt, lgod pNn+3g ug]nfO{ sfg"gL s73/fdf { pEofpg] /0fgLltsf] ljsf; ug]{ . (= Go"gtd ;'/Iff Aoj:yfsf] af/]df ;r]tgf km}nfpg ;Defljt 3/ vl/bstf{ / cgf}krfl/s lgdf{0f If]q s]Gb|Lt ;"rgfd"ns cleofg rnfpg] . v_ dxTjk"0f{ ;'ljwfx?sf] ;'/Iffsf] nflu lgDg sfo{x? ug{ ;lsG5 M != dxTjk"0f{ ;'ljwfx?sf] ljj/0f tof/ ug]{ . ljkbsf] ;dodf ltgLx?n] k'¥ofpg] of]ubfgsf] klxrfg ug]{ . @= oL dxTjk"0f{ ;'ljwfx?df /x]sf] hf]lvd ljZn]if0f ug]{ . cfjZos k/] yk ;j]If0f / cWoog ug]{ . { #= dxTjk"0f{ ;'ljwfx?sf] ;+s6f;Ggtf Go"g ug]{ ljsNkx? / o;sf] nflu cfjZos nufgLsf] cWoog ug]{ . $= pTyfgzLntfdf ;'wf/ Nofpg nufgLsf k|fyldstfsf If]qx? to ug]{ . %= ljkbsf] ;dodf hLjg, ;'/Iff / ;]jfsf] lg/Gt/tf ;'lglZrttf ug{ If]q–ljz]if cGtu{tsf dxTjk"0f{ ;'ljwfx?sf] of]hgf / sfo{qmd ljsf; ug]{ . h:t} c:ktfn, ;+rf/ ;~hfn, kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO k|0ffnL, oftfoft cflb . ^= gful/s ;]jf k|bfos sDkgL / pBf]ux? -h:t}M ljB't, kfgL, Uof“; cflb_ ;“u ;xsfo{ u/L pgLx?df /x]sf] ljkb ;+s6f;Ggtf sd ug]{ sfo{qmdsf] ljsf; ug]{ . &= dfly pNn]lvt lqmofsnfksf kl/0ffdx?nfO{ bL3{sfnLg /0fgLlt / sfo{qmd lgdf{0f ug{ k|of]u ug]{ . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]t M pBf]uL, Aofkf/L / ;/sf/L lgsfosf k|ltlglwx?, OlGhlgo/x?, ;fd'bflos ljsf; tyf dlxnf ;+u7gx? . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ^(
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ ;kmn pbfx/0f M ;g @))% df 6sL{ ;/sf/ / ljZj a}saLr æO:tfga'n e"sDkLo hf]lvd + cNkLs/0f / cfkTsfnLg k"jtof/L kl/of]hgfÆ nfu" ug{ #!) ldlnog o"/f]sf] { C0f ;xdlt eof] . o;n] cfufdL !) jif{df O:tfga'nnfO{ e"sDkLo pTyfgzLn zx/sf] ?kdf ljsf; ug]{ nIo lnPsf] 5 . of] kl/of]hgf cGtu{t dxTjk"0f{ ;'ljwfx?nfO{ e"sDkLo k|lt/f]wfTds agfpg]; c:ktfn, ljBfno / c? k|fyldstfsf ;fj{hlgs ;'ljwfx?nfO{ k|anLs/0f (retrofitting) ug], lgdf{0f ;+lxtf sfof{GjognfO{ nfu" u/fpg ;xof]u ug], ljkb { { hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / k"jtof/LnfO{ bL3{sfnLg agfpg ;+:yfut / k|fljlws { Ifdtf j[l4 ug]{ h:tf sfo{x? kb{5g . $=% pTkfbg / ;]jf If]qdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f lqmofsnfknfO{ pTk|]l/t ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] ljlzi6 If]qx?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f lqmofsnfkx?nfO{ pTk|l/t ug{ If]qut sfo{ ;d"xx? (sectoral working groups) sf] ljsf; ug]{ ] p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . dxTj M dfgjLo cfjZostf k"/f ug{ / u'0f:t/ hLjgofkgsf] nflu pTkfbg / ;]jf If]qsf] dxTjk"0f{ ;xof]u /x]sf] x'G5 . h:t} M s[lif, jg, ko{6g, kfgL, phf{, :jf:Yo cflb . oL k|To]s pTkfbg k|0ffnLx?n] ljleGg lsl;dsf k|sf]kx? ;fdgf ug'kg]{ x'g;S5 . t;y{ oL If]qx?n] of]hgf r/0fd} ;hu eO{ ljkb pTyfgzLntf { ljsf; ug{ ;Sb5g . h:t} M ljkb hf]lvd g/x]sf] :yfg 5gf}6 u/]/, k|sf]k;“u ;fdgf ug{;Sg] pko'Qm k|ljlwx?sf] k|of]u u/]/ cflb . sfo{ ljlw M If]qut sfo{;d"xx? lgdf{0f ug]{ . tL ;d"xx?n] lgDg lqmofsnfk ug{;Sb5g M &) xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ != cf}krfl/s jf cgf}krfl/s If]qut of]hgf / ljlQo k|0ffnLsf] pknAwtf Pjd To;nfO{ sfof{Gjog ug]{ dfWodx?sf] af/]df 5nkmn k|j4{g ug]{ . /fli6«o, If]qLo, :yfgLo ;a} txnfO{ Wofg lbg] . @= ljBdfg ljsf; of]hgf / nufgL sfo{qmdx?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ s;/L ;dflxt ug]{ egL pkfo vf]hL ug]{ . #= lglZrt If]qnfO{ k|efj kfg{;Sg] k|sf]kx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . ljBdfg hf]lvd / ;+s6f;Ggtfsf] kl/b[Zo ptfg]{ / eljiosf] hf]lvdsf] af/]df cg'dfg ug]{ . $= If]q ljz]ifsf] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f of]hgf ljsf; ug{ ;dGjo ug]{ . o;f] ubf{ ljkb clen]v, gLlt, /0fgLlt, cfjZos Ifdtf, ;|ft / ] sfo{qmdx?nfO{ ;+nUg ug]{ . %= k|To]s ef}uf]lns txdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f lqmofsnfk cjnDag ug]{ If]qut ;d"x lgdf{0f ug]{ . ^= ljkb Go"gLs/0fsf] /fli6«o d+rdf ;xeflutf hgfpg] . &= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL lzIff / of]hgfnfO{ k|To]s If]qdf / k|To]s txdf k|j4{g ug]{ . *= If]qut ;+u7g / ;/f]sf/jfnfx?aLr ljkb hf]lvd ;r]tgf k|j4{g ug]{ . (= If]qut sfo{;d"x ;Da4 ;+u7gx?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ;'emfjx? sfof{Gjog u/fpg ;dGjo ug]{ . !)= k|To]s IF]qdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL l;sfO / /fd|f cEof;x?nfO{ lnkLa4 ug]{ / cfbfgk|bfg ug]{ . !!= If]qut k|ultnfO{ /fli6«o / ;d'bfosf] txdf ;Dk|if0f ug]{ . ] !@= If]quttkm{af6 k'gnf{e of]hgfx?, dfgjLo ;xfotf / ljsf; sfo{qmdx?df ;/;Nnfx k|bfg ug]{ . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]tx? M If]qut ;d"xdf lgDg If]qx?sf] k|ltlglwTj x'gkb{5 M ' – lglZrt If]q;Da4 dGqfnox? . – If]qut of]hgf th'df ug]{ lgsfox? . { – ;fGble{s lghL If]q . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn &!
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ – ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg cEof;stf{x? . – ;fGble{s k|fl1s ;+u7g / cg';Gwfg ;d"x . – u|fxs÷pkef]Qmfsf lxtsf nflu ul7t ;+3:yfx? . ;fGble{s u};;x? . cg's"n cj:yf M – sfo{ ;d"x u7gsf] nflu If]qut dGqfnosf] ;xof]u . – jftfj/0fLo / ;fdflhs If]qsf ;fGble{s ;+u7gx?aLrsf] ;'b9 cGtlqm{of . [ – /fli6«o d+rx?af6 lgb]zg / ;xfotf . { – k|To]s If]q cGtu{t ;"rgf, /fd|f cEof;x?sf] cfbfgk|bfg Pjd ;+:yfut sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] ljsf; / ;'b9Ls/0fsf] nflu cGt/f{li6«o ;xof]u . [ ;kmn pbfx/0f M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ljleGg If]qdf ;dflxt ug{ ;g @))! df OSj]8/sf] of]hgf / ljsf; dGqfnon] k|lqmof yfngL u¥of] . klxnf] r/0fdf ljleGg ;ft If]qdf sfo{zfnfx? cfof]hgf u/]/ hf]lvd klxrfg ug]{ / sfo{ of]hgf ljsf; ug]{ ultljlwx? eP . tL If]qx? oftfoft, :jf:Yo, s[lif, df5fkfng, phf{, kfgL, ;/;kmfO, lzIff / zx/L a;f]af; /x]sf lyP . bf]>f] r/0fdf ;a} If]qsf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f of]hgfsf cfwf/x? to ul/of] . t]>f] r/0fdf k|To]s IF]qsf] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f of]hgfx?sf] ljsf; ul/of] . k|To]s If]qx?df sld6L u7g ul/of] . k|To]s sld6Lx?n] k|:tfljt nIo / lqmofsnfkx?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0ftkm{ s;/L k|efjsf/L 9+un] n}hfg] egL lbzflgb]z ug]{ ub{5 . { $=^ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf lghL If]qsf] ;+nUgtfsf] cj;/ l;h{gf ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf lghL If]qsf] of]ubfgnfO{ a9fjf lbg pko'Qm ljlQo gLltsf] ;+oGq v8f ug]{ Pjd pTk|/s ljlwx? ] ckgfpg] p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . &@ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ dxTj M lghL If]q;“u /x]sf] 1fg, ;|ft / lj1tfnfO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0ftkm{ ] nufpg ;/sf/nfO{ lghL IF]q;“usf] ;xsfo{ cfjZos /xG5 . ljkb hf]lvd x:tfGt/0f / cNkLs/0f ultljlwx?df lghL If]qn] of]ubfg k'¥ofpg;S5 . o:t} ;/sf/n] klg pko'Qm ljlQo gLlt jf c? gLltsf dfWodn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf lghL–;fj{hlgs If]qsf] ;fem]bf/L j[l4 ug{;S5 . h:t} M n3'ljQ sfo{qmd, aLdf, ;'/lIft lgdf{0f cflbnfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ . sfo{ ljlw M /fi6«–ljz]ifsf] cj:yf cg';f/ lghL If]qnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg] tl/sf km/s km/s x'g;S5 . ;/sf/n] /fli6«o ;fem]bf/L sfo{bn agfpg ;S5 . sfo{bnn] lgDg sfo{x? ug{;S5 M != lghL If]qsf] nflu ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf Aofkfl/s cj;/x?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . @= oL cj;/x?df nufgLsf] nflu k|fT;fxghGo ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ . ] #= pTk|/s ljlQo gLlt ckgfP/ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f lqmofsnfkdf lghL ] If]qsf] nufgL k|j4{g ug]{ . h:t} M cfo s/, ;DklQ s/ cflbdf 5'6 cflb . $= k"jrtfjgL ;"rgf ;Dk|if0f sfo{df gful/s–s]Gb|Lt pTkfbg / ;]jf k|bfg { ] ] ug{ ;"rgf k|ljlw Pjd b"/;+rf/ sDkgLx?nfO{ k|fT;fxg ug]{ . ] %= k|sf]k k|efljt hg;+Vofsf] nflu c:yfoL / :yfoL lzlj/ lgdf{0f ug{ lgdf{0f sDkgLx?nfO{ k|fT;fxg ug]{ . ] ^= æskf]/6 ;fdflhs pQ/bfloTjÆ (corporate social responsibility) { ] cGtu{t ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu ;|ft pknAw u/fpg k|fT;fxg ] ] ug]{ . &= hf]lvd cNkLs/0fdf lghL If]qsf] e"ldsf :yflkt ug{ lghL / k|fl1s ;+:yfx?;“usf] ;xsfo{ ;DefAotf cWoog ug]{ . ljkbsf] a]nfdf klg Aofkf/Aoj;fonfO{ lgoldttf lbg] sfo{sf] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . *= hf]lvd cNkLs/0f tTjx? ;dflxt ug{ n3'C0f / aLdf sfo{qmdx?nfO{ ljljlws/0f ug]{ . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn &#
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ (= n3'C0f / aLdf sfo{qmdx?åf/f ljkGg ;d'bfonfO{ ljkb k'gnf{e sfo{df ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] . !)= Ifdtf ljsf;sf] k/Dk/fut jf gjLgtd sfo{qmdx?df n3'C0f ;]jfnfO{ ;dflxt ug]{ . !!= n3'ljQ / n3'C0f sfo{qmdx?n] ljkbu:t hg;+VofnfO{ k'gnf{esf] qmddf | k'¥ofPsf] of]ubfgsf] d"Nof+sg ug]{ . !@= ljkGg ;d"xsf] cfDbfgLsf] ;|ftnfO{ ljljlws/0f ug{ lghL If]qsf] ;xsfo{df ] tflnd sfo{qmdx? ljsf; ug]{ . !#= lghL If]q, ;fj{hlgs IF]q / lghL cfjf;x?nfO{ ljkb 36gf aLdf jf k'gM aLdf u/fpg] ;+oGqx?sf] cEof; / ;fdYo{ lgwf{/0f ug]{ . !$= aLdf sfo{qmdnfO{ lj:tf/ ug]{ . gful/s–/fxt of]hgf cGtu{t ljkb aLdf klg ;+nUg ug]{ . ljkb 36gfkl5 /fxt / k'gM:yfkgfsf] sfo{df x'g] nufgLeGbf of] of]hgf ;/sf/nfO{ klg sdvlr{nf] x'G5 . h:t} M afnL aLdf ug]{ / ljkGg ;d'bfosf] aLdf lk|ldoddf ;/sf/n] ;xof]u ug]{ . To;}u/L ;fj{hlgs nufgLsf ;a} lgdf{0fdf aLdfsf] clgjfo{ lgod nufpg] . o;sf] abnf aLdf sDkgLx?;“u ;Demf}tf u/]/ sd aLdf lk|ldoddf ;Demf}tf ug]{ . !%= lghL 3/x?df aLdf clgjfo{ ug]tkm{ Wofg lbg] . { !^= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] pko'Qm dfWod ckgfpg] 3/wgL, lgdf{0f sDkgL jf hf]sf]xLnfO{ k|fT;flxt ug{ pTk|/s cfly{s gLltx? k|jz u/fpg] . ] ] ] h:t} M ;DklQ s/, cfo s/df 5'6 cflb . !&= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] vfnsf] gof“ ljlQo of]hgfx?sf] sfof{Gjogdf ;3fpg k'¥ofpg ljBdfg gLlt, lgodx?df cfjZos ;'wf/ ug]{ . !*= /fli6«o ljkb sf]if v8f ug{;lsg] ;Defjgfsf] d"Nof+sg ug]{ . o:tf] sf]ifn] ljkb cl3 hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf / ljkb kl5 k'gnf{e, k'gM;+/rgf cflbdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] . !(= dlxnf art, dlxnf C0f h:tf lqmofsnfkx?nfO{ klg k|fT;fxg ug]{ . ] &$ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]t M – pBf]uL, Aofkf/L ;+3;+u7gx? h:t} pBf]u jfl0fHo dxf;+3, g]kfn pBf]u jfl0fHo kl/;+3, g]kfn r]Da;{ ckm sd;{ / ;fGble{s If]qut ;+u7gx? h:t} lgdf{0f Aoj;foL dxf;+3 cflb . – ;/sf/ . – k]zfut÷k|fl1s ;+:yfx? . – gful/s ;dfh ;+u7gx? . cg's"n cj:yf M – ;/sf/sf] pRrtxaf6 ;xof]u . – :ki6 clwsf/ . – k"jlqmofzLn (proactive) g]tTj . { [ – k|lta4 Aoj;flos ;fem]bf/x?sf] ;'b9 ;d"x . [ – sfo{ k|fT;fxg . ] ;kmn pbfx/0f M ;g !((( df 6sL{n] &=$ / &=@ /]S6/ :s]nsf] b'Oj6f 7"nf7"nf e"sDkx? { a]xf]¥of] . o;af6 xhf/f}sf] d[To' x'gfsf] ;fy} 6sL{n] cfly{s?kd} 7"nf] Iflt + vKg'k¥of] . nuQ} e"sDkaf6 clt k|efljt df/df/f If]qdf clgjfo{ aLdf sfo{qmd NofOof] . ;f] cGtu{t df/df/fsf] gu/kflnsf If]qsf ;a} cfjf;Lo ejgx?nfO{ clgjfo{?kdf aLdf ug{ nufOof] . aLdf sfo{qmdnfO{ ;/sf/n] g} ;+rfng u¥of] h;nfO{ Turkish Catastrophe Insurance Pool (TCIP) elgof] . of] sfo{qmdsf] d'Vo nIo ljkbsf sf/0f x'g] ;/sf/L Aooef/nfO{ sd u/fpg', e"sDk hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf gful/s ;fem]bf/Lsf] j[l4 ug'{ / u'0f:t/ lgdf{0f cEof;nfO{ a9fjf lbg' lyof] . of] sfo{qmd cGtu{t 3/ lsga]r ubf{ aLdf sfuhftnfO{ clgjfo{ u/fOof] . To:t} ljB't, 6]lnkmf]g, kfgL h:tf ;]jfx? lng klg 3/wgLn] sfuhft k]z ug{ clgjfo{ agfOof] . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn &%
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ $=& ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;lxtsf] k'gnf{e of]hgf k|lqmofsf] ljsf; ug]{ . p2]Zo M ljkb k'gnf{e of]hgf k|lqmofd} ljkbsf cGtlg{xLt sf/sx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg u/]/ pTyfgzLntfsf] ljsf; ug]{ p2]Zo o;n] lnPsf] 5 . dxTj M ljkb Aoj:yfkg / hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf ljkb k'gnf{e of]hgfsf] dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg /xg] ub{5 . ljkbsf 36gfkl5 dfq k'gnf{esf ljlzi6 of]hgfx? tof/ x'G5g . tfklg ljBdfg hfgsf/L / 1fgsf] cfwf/df ;+:yfut / gLltut e"ldsf klxNofpg' , ;DefAo of]hgfx? ljsf; ug'{ /fd|f] x'G5 . o;n] ljkbsf] a]nf ;xfotf / k'g:yf{kgfaLrsf] ;do cGt/nfO{ sd u/fp“b5 . sfo{ ljlw M != lgDg lsl;dsf k[i7e"ld hfgsf/Lx?sf] ljsf; / k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ M – ef}lts, cfly{s cj:yf / ljsf; of]hgfx? . – k|sf]ksf] pRrhf]lvddf /x]sf lqmofsnfkx?, ;+:yfx? / ;+/rgfx? . – IF]qut ;+s6f;Ggtfx? . – k|ltsfo{ / k'gnf{esf] lglDt pknAw ;|ftx? . ] – cfkTsfnLg cj:yf, k'gnf{e Aoj:yfkg sfo{df ;+nUg ;+u7gx?sf] alnof] / sdhf]/ kIf klxNofpg] . @= ljljw lsl;dsf] k|sf]ksf nflu pko'Qm k|ltsfo{ / cfjZostf lgwf{/0f ug]{ . k|sf]k;“u ;fdgf ug{ IF]q ljz]ifsf] alnof] kIfsf] k|of]u ug]{ / ;+s6f;GgtfnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ . #= k'gnf{e of]hgf / sfof{Gjogdf g]tTj lbg;Sg] lgsfox?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . [ ltgLx?sf] e"ldsfsf] af/]df ;xdlt sfod ug]{ . $= k'gnf{esf] ;fwf/0f of]hgf agfpg] . ljkbsf] ;dodf k|zf;lgs / cfly{s?kn] tof/L xfntdf /fVg'kg]{ s'/fx? klg pNn]v ug]{ . of] of]hgfsf] af/]df &^ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ ;/sf/L lgsfox?, ;fGble{s ;+u7g / If]qx?;“u k/fdz{ ug]{ . of]hgf k'g/fjnf]sg / k'gMn]vg ug]{ ;+oGqsf] ljsf; ug]{ . %= ;fwf/0f k'gnf{e of]hgfdf k|sf]k ljz]ifsf] k'gnf{e of]hgfsf] k|lqmof pNn]v ug]{ . of] k|lqmof cGtu{t ljleGg ;/sf/L, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf, lghL / ;fj{hlgs If]qaLrsf] ;dGjo ;+oGqx?sf] af/]df klg pNn]v ug]{ . ^= ;fwf/0f k'gnf{e of]hgfsf] clGtd n]vgnfO{ ;DalGwt ;a} lgsfo, ;+3;+:yf, ;+u7gx?af6 cg'df]bg / x:tfIf/ u/fpg] Aoj:yf ldnfpg] . &= ;fwf/0f k'gnf{e of]hgfnfO{ k|sflzt ug]{ / a[xb?kdf ;Dk|if0f ug]{ . o;sf] ] k|dv l;4fGtx?nfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ . ' *= abln+bf] kl/l:ylt / cfjZostf cg';f/ k'gnf{e of]hgfnfO{ k/LIf0f ug], { cEof; ug]{ / k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ k|lqmof :yflkt ug]{ . k'gnf{e of]hgf cGtu{t ;d]l6g'kg]{ If]qx? M – k'g:yf{kgf÷k"jf{wf/ / dxTjk"0f{ ;'ljwfx?sf] k'glg{df{0f . – /f]huf/L / hLljsf]kfh{g . – a;f]af; . – lj:yflkt kl/jf/sf] lkmtL{ . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]t M k'gnf{e of]hgf tof/ ug{ lgDg If]qsf bIf AolQmx?sf] e"ldsf dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 . – cy{, of]hgf, k"jf{wf/ / zx/L ljsf; dGqfno . – u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx? . – lghL lgdf{0f hut . – Aofkfl/s hut . cg's"n cj:yf M – oyfy{k/s hf]lvd lgwf{/0f / ;DefAo hf]lvd cj:yfsf] cg'dfg . – k'gnf{e / k'gMlgdf{0f of]hgfsf] nflu clwsf/k|fKt If]qLo / :yfgLo txsf clwsf/Lx?sf] ;xeflutf . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn &&
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ – ;xeflutfd"ns of]hgf k|lqmof . – ljkb k'gnf{esf] nflu ah]6 5'§ofpg;Sg] cfly{s lgsfosf] Ifdtf . ;kmn pbfx/0f M l5d]sL /fi6« ef/tsf] b'O{ k|fGtsf] k'gnf{e /0fgLltsf] t'ngfTds cWoogn] /fd|f] kf7 l;Sg ;lsG5 . dxf/fi6« /fHosf] nft'/df ;g !((# df e"sDk uPsf] lyof] . e"sDkkl5 MEERP (Maharashtra Emergency Earthquake Rehabilitation Program) nfu" ul/of] . k'g:yf{kgf kl/of]hgfnfO{ b|tultdf ;DkGg u/fpg ' o;sf] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf /xof] . kl/of]hgfsf] ;dflKtkl5 MEERP klg vf/]h ul/of] . MEERP n] ljkb cNkLs/0fsf] nflu k|fGtLo /fhwfgL d'DaO{;lxt c? zx/x?sf] klg of]hgf tof/ u/]sf] lyof] . t/ of] ;+:yfut x'g;s]g . kmn:j?k @))$ df cfPsf] af9Lsf] k"jtof/L / k|ltsfo{df MEERP sf] { pknAwLn] kmfObf lbg;s]g . o;sf] l7s ljkl/t ef/tsf] csf]{ k|fGt u'h/ftdf ;g @))! df e"sDk hf“bf GSDMA (Gujarat State Disaster Managemenet Authority) k'gnf{e r/0fdf lgs} k|efjsf/L /xof] . o;sf w]/} sf/0fx? lyP . GSDMA pRr ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx?af6 Aoj:yfkg ePsf] lyof] Pjd ;DalGwt ljefux?;“u cGt/;DalGwt u/fOPsf] lyof] . of];u /sd ljlgof]hg, gLltut ;'wf/, k|ult “ k'g/fjnf]sg ug{;Sg] sfo{sf/L clwsf/ lyof] . u'h/ft kl/of]hgfsf] ;dflKtkl5 klg of] lg/Gt/ /xof] / u'h/ftsf] ljkb /f]syfd / Aoj:yfkgsf] :yfoL c+usf] ?kdf :yflkt x'gk'Uof] . ;du|df eGbf ljutsf] ef]ufO / kf7x?nfO{ /fHosf] ljkb Aoj:yfkg of]hgfdf ;dflxt ug]{ ;+:yfut cfwf/ tof/ ePsf]n] g} o;sf] k'gnf{e /0fgLlt ;kmn x'g;Sof] . k/LIf0f ;"lr (Check-list) M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf $ ;Defljt ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug{ xfd|f] ;d'bfosf] ;fdflhs, cfly{s, jftfj/0fLo / e"–pkof]u cj:yf kl/jt{gdf slt k|ult ePsf] 5 < &* xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – $ jftfj/0f / k|fs[lts ;|ft Aoj:yfkg M s] xfd|f] ;d'bfosf] s[lif;DaGwL ] cEof;x? :yfgLo jftfj/0fsf] ;+/If0f ug{ nlIft 5g < hnjfo' kl/jt{g cg'sng M s] xfd|f] ;d'bfon] eljiodf df};d / hnjfo'df " x'g] kl/jt{g;“u cg'sng x'g] k|of;x? u/]sf] 5 < " vfB ;'/Iff M s] xfd|f] ;d'bfo;“u cfkTsfnLg cj:yfsf] nflu pkef]u ug{ kof{Kt vfBfGg ;'/lIft 5 < ;fdflhs ;'/Iff M s] ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xx? -h:t} ul/a, dlxnf, j[4, czQm cflb_sf] ljkbsf] a]nf jf ljkbkl5sf] cj:yfdf cfwf/e"t ;fdflhs ;]jfx?;Dd kx"r 5 < “" cfly{s ;'/Iff M s] ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xx?;“u ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t jrt tyf C0f of]hgfx? pknAw 5g < ul/aL lgjf/0f M ul/aL;“u h'Wg -vf;ul/ ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xsf]_ xfd|f] ;d'bfo s'g xb;Dd ;lqmo 5 < ;du| of]hgf M s] xfd|f] ;d'bfo :yfgLo ljsf; of]hgfdf -e"–pkof]u of]hgf;lxt_ ;+nUg 5 < lgdf{0f ;+lxtf / dfkb08 M ;a} ejgx?nfO{ e"sDk k|lt/f]wfTds agfpg s] xfd|f] ;d'bfon] l;kmfl/z ul/Psf dfkb08x?nfO{ sfof{Gjog u/]sf] 5 < ;fj{hlgs ;'ljwfsf] ;'/Iff M s] xfd|f] ;d'bfo;“u ;fj{hlgs ;'ljwfx?sf] lgdf{0f / dd{t ug{;Sg] Ifdtf 5 < h:t} lkpg] kfgL, ;8s, :jf:Yo s]Gb|, c:yfoL lzlj/ cflb . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn &(
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – % k|fyldstfsf] sfo{ % ;a} txdf k|efjsf/L k|ltsfo{sf] nflu ljkb k"j{tof/LnfO{ ;zQm kfg]{ . k|fyldstfsf] sfo{ % n] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] lqmofsnfk / cfkTsfnLg ljkb Aoj:yfkgaLr ;DaGw :yflkt ug]{ k|of; u/]sf] 5 . of] lqmofsnfk cGtu{t gLltut, k|fljlws / ;+:yfut Ifdtf clej[l4; ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfg ; ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] ;dGjo / ;+nUgtf ; ljkb k"jtof/L / cfsl:ds sfo{ { ;DaGwL gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] k'g/fjnf]sg÷cBfjlws sfo{; cfkTsfnLg sf]ifsf] ljsf; ug]{ ;+oGq cflb kb{5g . of] lqmofsnfk sfof{Gjog ug'eGbf klxnf k|efjsf/L ljkb k"jtof/L s;/L ug{ { { ;lsG5 / ljkb hf]lvdsf tTjx? s] s] x'g eg]/ a'emg h?/L 5 . k|fyldstfsf] lqmofsnfk % sf] nflu lgDg sfo{x? ug{ ;lsG5 M %=! ljkb k"jtof/LnfO{ ;xof]u x'g] vfnsf] ;femf a'emfO / lqmofsnfkx?sf] { ljsf; ug]{ . %=@ ljkb k"jtof/L Ifdtf / ;+oGqsf] lgwf{/0f ug]{ . { %=# ljkb k"jtof/Lsf] of]hgf / sfo{qmd ;zQm kfg]{ . { k|ult;"rs M – ljkb k"jtof/Lsf] Ifdtf / ;+oGqsf] :jtGq d"Nof+sg . d"Nof+sgsf] ;'emfjx?sf] { sfof{Gjogsf] nflu lglb{i6 lhDd]jf/L / ;|ft . ] – ;a} k|zf;lgs txdf ljkb k"jtof/L of]hgf / cfsl:ds of]hgfx? . ljkb { k|ltsfo{ sfo{qmdsf] k/LIf0f / ljsf;sf] nflu lgoldt tflnd cEof; / l/x;{n . – ljkb k"jtof/Ldf tflndk|fKt / cfjZos ;|ft;fwgn] ;DkGg ;+u7g, { ] AolQm / :jo;]jsx?sf] ;+nUgtf . *) xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – % – k|efjsf/L k|ltsfo{ / k'gnf{esf] nflu kof{Kt cfly{s ;l~rlt / cfsl:ds ;+oGq . – k|sf]ksf] a]nfsf] cg'ej / k|sf]kl5sf] ljZn]if0fx? 8s'dG6 ug], clen]v ] { /fVg] Aoj:yf . %=! ljkb k" j { t of/LnfO{ ;xof] u x' g ] vfnsf] ;femf a' e mfO / lqmofsnfkx?sf] ljsf; ug]{ . p2]Zo M o; lqmofsnfkn] ljkb k"jtof/LnfO{ ;xof]u ug{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f { tyf cfkTsfnLg Aoj:yfkgdf cfa4 ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ Ps} 7fp“df NofO{ Ps ;femf a'emfO / lqmofsnfkx?sf] ljsf; ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . o;n] ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ /fv]/ k|efjsf/L ljkb k"jtof/Lsf ;a} cfjZos tTjx?nfO{ { ;Daf]wg ug]{ cfzf /fv]sf] 5 . dxTj M k|efjsf/L ljkb k"jtof/Lsf] nflu ;femf a'emfO / ;dGjofTds ultljlwx? { dxTjk"0f{ x'G5g . ljutsf cg'ejx?n] klg s] b]vfPsf] 5 eg] ljleGg IF]qdf 5l/Psf ;DalGwt ;+3;+:yfx?n] ljkbsf] k"jtof/Ldf s'g xb;Dd ;dod} / { ;dGjofTds 9+un] sfo{ u/]sf 5g, TolQ g} ljkb k|ltsfo{ k|efjsf/L ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 . o;f] ubf{ lqmofsnfkx? bf]xf]l/g], 5'6g] cj:yf cfp“bg / ;dfgfGt/ } sfo{x? klg x'gkfp“bg . ;a} /fhg}lts, ;f+:s[lts / ;fdflhs–cfly{s jftfj/0fdf } ;+:yfut ;dGjo ;+oGq cfjZos x'G5 . sfdsf] :ki6 af“8kmf“8, g]tTj / [ lhDd]jf/Lkgsf] nflu klg ;dGjo / ;femf a'emfOsf] vf“rf] x'G5 . sfo{ ljlw M != ljkb Go"gLs/0f / ljkb k|ltsfo{ /0fgLlt tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] ljsf;, of]hgf th'df, k|j4{gdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg;Sg] k|dv ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] { ' klxrfg ug]{ . @= ljkb k|ltsfo{ / hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu k|efjsf/L 5nkmn rnfpg xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn *!
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – % ;lsg] ;+oGq / ;~hfnx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . -h:t} ljkb Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu /fli6«o d+r_ . #= Ps jf a9L g]tTjbfoL ;+:yf / h'emf? cu'jf (champion) x?sf] klxrfg [ ug]{ . cu'jfx? eg]sf] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / k|ltsfo{sf] ;+of]hg tyf o; sfo{nfO{ ;fj{hlgs k|fyldstfsf] ljifo agfpg OR5's ;d'bfosf hf“ul/nf k|ltlglwx? x'g . $= OR5's ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] e]nf ug]{ . %= ;femf nIo, p2]Zo, If]q, d'2f, sfo{znL / cfwf/e"t lgodx?df ;xdlt } sfod ug]{ . ^= k|efjsf/L ;dGjosf] nflu cfjZos k|fyldstfsf If]qx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . h:t} M ;+:yfut cGt/;DaGw, ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfg cflb . &= klxrfg ul/Psf k|fyldstfx?df sfd ug{ ;+oQm sfo{;d"x jf ;ldltx? ' u7g ug]{ . *= ;Dk"0f{ ;dGjosf] nflu ;+oGq v8f ug]{ . o;df k|ult ;"rs to ug]{ / kl/0ffdx?nfO{ PsLs[t ug]{ s'/f klg ;dflji6 ug]{ . (= Pscfk;aLrsf] ax;nfO{ :yfoLTj / lg/Gt/tf lbg] Aoj:yfsf] ljsf; ug]{ . !)= k|dv clwsf/Lx?, ;xefuL ;+:yfx? / ;j{;fwf/0fx?df 5nkmnsf] glthf ' ;Dk|if0f ug{ Ps k|0ffnLsf] Aoj:yf ug]{ . ] pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]tx? M – k"jrtfjgL, k"jtof/L, r]tgf clej[l4, hf]lvd 1fg k|jfx h:tf IF]qdf { ] { sfd ug]{ ljkb Go"gLs/0fsf Aoj:yfksx? . – k"jtof/L / ;Defljt of]hgf th'df ug], cfkTsfnLg cj:yfdf k|ltsfo{ { { { tyf ;|ft kl/rfng ug]{ ljkb tyf k|ltsfo{ Aoj:yfksx? . ] – ;/sf/L k|ltlglwx? . – u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx? . – gful/s ;dfhsf ;b:ox? . – lghL If]qsf k|ltlglwx? . *@ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – % cg's"n cj:yf M – ljkb Go"gLs/0f / ljkb k|ltsfo{ lgsfox?k|lt ;xof]u / /fhg}lts k|lta4tf . – e"ldsf / pQ/bfloTj af]ssf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / k|ltsfo{ b'j} ] If]qsf dxTjk"0f{ ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] ljj/0f . – ljkb Go"gLs/0f, k"jtof/L / ljkb k|ltsfo{sf nflu ul/g] kxn, sfo{qmd { / of]hgfsf] ?k/]vf÷gS;f . – j}wflgs ;+:yfut sfo{ ;+/rgfx?sf] d"Nof+sg, ljsf; / ;'b9Ls/0fsf] [ nflu cfjZos Ifdtf / ;|ftx? . ] – :ki6 /0fgLlt / k|fyldstfsf sfo{x? cg';f/ cfof]lht sfo{qmdx?df k|dv ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] ;xeflutf . ' – Ps k|efjzfnL ;+rf/ ;xhstf{ . – ax;x? rnfpgsf nflu cfjZos k[i7e"ldsf hfgsf/Lx? . h:t} hf]lvd lgwf{/0f Pjd gLlt, lgod, /0fgLlt, of]hgf cflb . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / k|ltsfo{, e"–pkof]u / zx/L of]hgf, cfly{s ljsf; / jftfj/0fLo ;'/Iffsf nflu ljBdfg ;+:yfut Aoj:yfsf] ;+If]kdf hfgsf/L . ;kmn pbfx/0f M ;g @))) sf] af9Lkl5 ef/tsf] klZrd a+ufn /fHodf ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t k"jtof/L kl/of]hgf nfu" ul/of] . of] kl/of]hgfn] s] dfGotf /fv]sf] lyof] eg] { obL ;d'bfox? tDtof/ /x] eg] Iflt Go"gLs/0f / k|ltsfo{sf sfdx? k|efjsf/L /xG5g . of] kl/of]hgf cGtu{t ;xeflutfd"ns cjwf/0ff cg';f/ k|To]s ;d'bfonfO{ sfo{ of]hgf agfpg nufOof] . of] sfo{ of]hgfdf hf]lvd gS;f agfOof] h;af6 hf]lvdo'Qm, sd hf]lvdo'Qm / ;'/lIft :yfgsf] klxrfg ul/of] / oL k|To]s If]qdf a:g] hg;+Vofsf] ljj/0f tof/ ul/of] . ljj/0f tof/ ubf{ dlxnf, s]6fs]6L, a'9fa'9L, ue{jtL, ;'Ts]/L, czQm cflb tTjnfO{ klg ;dflji6 ul/of] o;sf ;fy} ljkb hf]lvd sd ug{ ;d'bfo;“u /x]sf] ;|ftx?, ;d'bfon] ljkb ] cl3, ljkbsf] bf}/fg / kl5 ug'kg]{ sfo{x? nufotsf] ;"lr klg tof/ ul/of] . { xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn *#
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – % of] kl/of]hgfn] ubf{ ;g @))) df eGbf ;g @))$ sf] af9Ldf hf]lvd / Iflt sd ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofof] . ;g @))) df # xhf/ 3/w'/Ln] Iflt a]xf]gk/]sf] {' lyof] eg] ;g @))$ df slQ klg k/]g . o:t} k"jtof/Lsf] qmddf k|To]s { 3/w'/Ln] &–!) lbg;Ddsf] nflu vfBfGg ;l~rt u/]sf]n] ;f] cjlw;Dd cfkmg} ;|ftaf6 vfBfGgsf] ;+s6 6¥of] . o:t} af9Lkl5 /f]uAofwLx? klg km}ng kfPg . ] %=@ ljkb k"j{tof/L Ifdtf / ;+oGqsf] lgwf{/0f ug]{ . p2]Zo M o; sfo{n] ljBdfg k|0ffnL / ;|ftx?sf] d"Nof+sg ug]{ tyf k|efjsf/L ljkb ] k|ltsfo{sf nflu cfjZostfx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ p2]Zo /fVb5 . d"Nof+sg ubf{ ;a} txdf pknAw ;|ft, /x]sf] Ifdtf, rfn' of]hgf / k|lqmofx?, ;+rf/ / ;dGjo ] k|0ffnLx?df Wofg lbOg'kb{5 . dxTj M Ifdtf lgwf{/0f sfo{n] ljkb k"jtof/L ;+oGqdf ul/g'kg]{ ;'wf/ sfo{sf] { nflu 1fg / pTk|/0ff k|bfg ub{5 . Ifdtf lgwf{/0fn] ;/sf/L lgsfo / ] gful/s ;dfhsf n'Kt ;|ft,bIftf / ;DklQsf] af/]df hfgsf/L lbG5 h;nfO{ ] ubf{ k"jtof/L, k|ltsfo{ / k'gnf{e r/0fdf cfjZostf cg';f/ k|of]u ug{ { ;lsG5 . o:t} k|dv sdhf]/Lx? phfu/ eO{ ;'wf/sf] k|of; ug{ ;lsG5 . ' sfo{ ljlw M != d"Nof+sgsf] If]q lglZrt ug]{ . @= pknAw ;|ftx?sf] k|of]u u/]/ hfgsf/Lx? ;+sng ug]{ . h:t} sfg"g, ] gLltlgod, /0fgLlt, of]hgf, ;+:yfut Aoj:yfkgsf] k'g/fjnf]sg cflb . #= ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx? / cGo k|d'v ;/f]sf/jfnfx? -:yfgLo ljkb cg';Gwfgstf{, ;+:yfx?, n}lus;jfnsf lj1x?_ ;“u cGtjf{tf{ lng] . + $= cWoog cg';Gwfg / k|ltj]bgx?df pNn]v ul/Psf k'/fgf ljkbsf 36gfx?, l;sfOx?nfO{ k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ . *$ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – % %= dxTjk"0f{ sfo{x?sf] ljBdfg Ifdtfsf] alnof] / sdhf]/ kIfx?sf] k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ . -dxTjk"0f{ sfo{ eGgfn] ;"rgf tyf ;+rf/ Aoj:yfkg, ;dGjo, lgoGq0f / cfb]z, cf}iflw nufotsf hLjg/Ifs ;fdu|Lsf] cfk"lt{ cflb ._ ^= ;'wf/sf If]qx? klxNofpg], ljBdfg k|0ffnLnfO{ ;'b9Ls/0f ug]{ / l;sfOsf [ cj;/x? vf]Hg], cGt/f{li6«o, IF]qLo, /fli6«o / :yfgLo txdf ;xsfo{ ug]{ . &= ;a} txsf] Ifdtf ;'wf/ ug{, l/Qmtf k"lt{ ug{ ljlzi6 ;'emfjx?;lxtsf] k|ltj]bg tof/ kfg]{ . *= k|ltj]bgnfO{ rf}tkmL{?kdf ;Dk|if0f ug]{ . ] Ifdtf lgwf{/0fsf ;DefAo If]qx? oL x'g;S5g M != k"jtof/Lsf] ;+:yfut Ifdtfsf] lgwf{/0f . { @= k"jtof/Lsf] nflu hf]lvd / ljkb cg'udgk|ltsf] a'emfO . { #= k"jtof/Lsf] nflu ;"rgf Aoj:yfkg / ;+rf/sf] lgwf{/0f . { $= k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf] d"Nof+sg . { ] %= k"jtof/Lsf] nflu ;r]tgf ultljlw / 1fgsf] lgwf{/0f . { ^= k"jtof/L of]hgfsf] d"Nof+sg . { &= tof/L cj:yfdf /flvPsf] Aoj:yfsf] lgwf{/0f . *= k|ltsfo{ ;+oGqsf] lgwf{/0f . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]tx? M – k"jrtfjgL tyf k"jtof/L, r]tgf tyf hf]lvd 1fg clej[l4 h:tf sfdx? { ] { ug]{ ljkb Go"gLs/0f Aoj:yfksx? . – k"jtof/L / ;Defljt of]hgf th'df ug]{ Pjd cfkTsfnLg cj:yfdf { { k|ltsfo{ / ;|ft kl/rfng ug]{ ljkb tyf k|ltsfo{ Aoj:yfksx? . ] – ;/sf/L k|ltlglwx? . – u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx? . – gful/s ;dfhsf ;b:ox? . – lghL If]qsf k|ltlglwx? . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn *%
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – % cg's"n cj:yf M – Ifdtf lgwf{/0fsfnflu ;+:yfut ;xof]u . – dfgjLo / ljlQo ;|ftx? . ] – ax';u7gfTds ;d"x . + – ;xeflutfd"ns :joddNof+sg k|lqmofk|lt k|lta4tf . " – cfkTsfnLg of]hgf / k|lqmof, ;|ft / ;fwgsf] ljj/0f Pjd tflnd ] /]s8{df kx"r . " – k'/fgf ljkb 36gfaf/] ul/Psf cWoog, cg';Gwfg / k|ltj]bgx?sf] k'g/fjnf]sg . ;kmn pbfx/0f M d+uf]lnog ;/sf/n] cfkmgf] /fi6«sf] ljkb k|ltsfo{ Ifdtfsf] lgwf{/0f ug{ ;xfotfsf] cg'/f]w u/]kl5 ;g @))$ df OCHA n] UNDAC sf] l6dnfO{ Toxf“ k7fof] . UNDAC l6dn] ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;“u e]6 u/L pknAwLx?sf] d"Nof+sg u¥of] / ;'emfjx? lbof] . csf]{ jif{ ;g @))% df OCHA n] cfkmgf] l6d km]l/ k7fO ;'emfjx?sf] cjnDag slQsf] eof] eg]/ a'emg] sfo{ u¥of] . To;qmddf Psjif{sf] bf}/fg ;'emfjx? sfof{Gjog ug]qmddf dxTjk"0f{ pknAwLx? { ePsf] kfOof] . oL Ifdtf lgwf{/0fsf sfo{x?n] ;'wf/ ug'kg]{ If]qx?sf] klxrfg u/fof] . tL { If]qx? /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o cfkTsfnLg Aoj:yfkg lgsfoaLrsf] ;xsfo{, ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfg, ah]6, tflnd, cfjZos pks/0f cflb /x]sf lyP . of] d"Nof+sg k|ltj]bg cfkm}df /fhg}lts 5nkmnsf] ljifo aGof] . o;nfO{ ;+oQm + ' /fi6«;3n] klg /fd|f cEof;x?dWo] u0fgf u/]sf] lyof] . + %=# ljkb k"jtof/Lsf] of]hgf / sfo{qmdx? ;zQm kfg]{ . { p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] ljkb k"j{tof/L of]hgf tyf o;;“u ;DalGwt cGo lqmofsnfkx? ljsf; ug{sf] nflu ;xof]uL cf}hf/ / k|lqmofut ;xfotf k|bfg ug]{ nIo lnPsf] 5 . *^ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – % dxTj M ljkbsf] ;dodf k|efjsf/L k|ltsfo{ / hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu ljkb k"jtof/L of]hgf / ;DefAo of]hgfx?sf] ljsf; ug'{ ckl/xfo{ 5 . hLjg / { hLljsfsf] ;'/Iffdf /fd|f] k"jtof/L of]hgfsf] e"ldsf k|dfl0ft eO;s]sf] 5 . { /fd|f] of]hgfn] hlt Ho"wg / hLljsf]kfh{gsf] ;'/Iff lbG5, sdhf]/ of]hgfn] Tolt g} a9L hf]lvd / Iflt k'¥ofp“b5 . k"jtof/L of]hgf k|lqmofsf] p2]Zo of]hgf dfq lgdf{0f ug'{ xf]Og . o;n] t { ;/f]sf/jfnfx?aLrsf] cGtlqm{ofnfO{ pTk|l/t u/]/ ;femf ;xdlt / a'emfOtkm{ ] pGd'v u/fpg ;Sg'kb{5 . o;sf] ;fy} k"0f{;lrt, Aofks?kdf cg'df]lbt / " jf:tljs kl/l:yltdf klg ptfg{ ;lsg] of]hgf aGg'kb{5 . /fd|f] of]hgfsf p2]Zo / If]q :ki6 x'G5g, lhDd]jf/L lglb{i6 ul/Psf x'G5g / u'0f:t/o'Qm ;+rfng k|lqmof pNn]v ul/Psf x'G5g . ptf ;DefAo of]hgfx?n] eg] ;Defljt 36gfx?nfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ kof{Kt tof/LnfO{ ;'lglZrt u/fp“b5 . sfo{ ljlw M != Pp6f of]hgf ;ldlt agfpg] . ;ldltdf ;/f]sf/jfnf ;+3;+u7gsf gLltut txsf / k|fljlws sd{rf/Lx?, Aofkfl/s / ;fj{hlgs If]qsf k|ltlglwx? ;dflji6 ug]{ . of]hgf k|lqmofsf] ;dotflnsf, pQ/bfloTj / If]q :ki6 ug]{ . @= of]hgf ljsf;df g]tTj ug{;Sg] lgsfosf] rog ug]{ . of] lgsfon] of]hgf [ cjnDagnfO{ ;'lglZrttf / sfof{Gjog cg'udg ug{;Sg' kb{5 . #= pknAw ePhlt lnlvt b:tfj]hx? hDdf ug]{ . h:t} ljkb kl/b[Zo, ;+s6f;Ggtf, ljBdfg gLlt, sfo{qmd, /0fgLlt cflb . $= k|sf]k lgwf{/0f ug]{ . pQm k|sf]kaf6 pRr hf]lvddf /x]sf lqmofsnfkx?, ;+/rgfx? / ;+s6f;Ggtf klxrfg ug]{ . k'gnf{e of]hgfsf] nflu ef}lts / cfly{s ljsf;;DaGwL of]hgf / b:tfj]hx? ;+sng ug]{ . k|ltsfo{ / k'gnf{esf] nflu pknAw ;|ft / Ifdtf k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ . ] %= hf]lvd / Ifdtf lgwf{/0fsf] ljZn]if0f ug]{ . ljljw lsl;dsf k|sf]k nlIft of]hgfsf k|fyldstf / cfjZostfx? ;'lglZrt ug]{ . ^= ljleGg lsl;dsf k|sf]kx?df k|ltsfo{ ug{ ;Sg] g]tTjbfoL lgsfo klxrfg [ ug]{ / e"ldsf k|bfg ug]{ . tL lgsfox?af6 / lgsfox?df cj:yf / xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn *&
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – % cfjZostfaf/] hfgsf/L cfbfgk|bfg ug{ ;+rf/ k|0ffnL :yflkt ug]{ . &= k'gnf{e / k'gMlgdf{0fsf] g]tTj s;n] ug]{ < ljBdfg jf gof“ s'g lgsfoaf6 [ of] Aoj:yfkg ul/g] eg]/ lglZrttf ug]{ . *= ljleGg lgsfox?, ljleGg txsf ;/sf/L c+ux?, lghL / ;fj{hlgs If]qaLr ;dGjosf] nflu ;+oGqx?sf] :yfkgf ug]{ . (= tTsfnsf] cj:yf d"Nof+sg, Iflt d"Nof+sg, cfjZostf cf"sng ug]{ k|0ffnLsf] lgdf{0f Pjd k/LIf0f ug]{ . !)= u'0f:t/o'Qm ;+rfng k|lqmof, lkmN8 lgb]lzsf, r]sln:6, ;Dks{ ;"lr / { ;|ftx?sf] ljj/0f tof/ ug]{ . Ifdtf / bIftfnfO{ n}lus cfwf/df klg ] + ;dfj]z ug]{ . !!= k|ltsfo{ / k'gnf{e of]hgfsf] of]hgf tof/ kfg]{ . ;/sf/L lgsfo, OR5's ;+u7g, lghL tyf ;fj{hlgs If]q;“u o;af/] k/fdz{ ug]{ . lgoldt?kdf k[i7kf]if0f k|fKt ug]{ / ;jfnx? ;Daf]wg ug]{ ;+oGqsf] :yfkgf ug]{ . !@= of]hgfdf cfjZos kl/jt{gx? ug]{ . ;a} ;DalGwt ;+u7gx?af6 of]hgfnfO{ cg'df]bg / x:tfIf/ ug]{ / k|sfzg ug]{ Aoj:yf ldnfpg] . !#= of]hgfsf k|dv cjwf/0ffnfO{ rf}tkmL{ ;Dk|if0f / k|rf/k|;f/ ug]{ . ' ] !$= abln+bf] kl/l:ylt / cfjZostf cg';f/ of]hgfnfO{ lgoldt cg'udg ug], { kmnf]–ck ug], k/LIf0f ug], kl/dfh{g ug]{ k|lqmof :yflkt ug]{ . { { pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]tx? M – gful/s ;'/Iff / of]hgf sfo{df pQ/bfoL dGqfno / ;+oGqx? . -h:t} :yfgLo ljsf;, lj1fg tyf k|ljlw, u[x, cy{, /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u cflb ._ – ljsf; If]q;“u ;DalGwt k|dv dGqfnox? . -h:t} M :jf:Yo, lzIff, s[lif cflb ._ ' – /fli6«o / :yfgLo ljkb Aoj:yfkg lgsfo÷k|0ffnLx? . – ;fGble{s /fli6«o / :yfgLo ;+:yfx? . -h:t} M hnk|sf]k lgoGq0f sfof{no, ef}ule{s ;j]If0f sfof{no, k|fl1s / cg';Gwfg ;+:yfx? . { – :yfgLo ;/sf/ -lhlj;, uflj;_ / gu/kflnsfx? . – gful/s ;dfh / ;d'bfosf k|ltlglwx? . – u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx? . – cGt/fli6«o / ;+oQm /fi6«;3Lo lgsfox? . ' + ** xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – % cg's"n cj:yf M – /fhg}lts bnsf g]tf / gLlt lgdf{tfx?sf] ;xof]u . sfo{sf/L / ;+u7gfTds ;xof]u . dfgjLo / ljlQo ;|ftx? . ] – k|dv ;+u7gx?aLr sfo{, clwsf/ / pQ/bfloTj af“8kmf“8;DaGwL :ki6tf . ' – :yfgLo / s]Gb|Lo lgsfo, cfGtl/s / afxo sfo{stf{x? Pjd If]qleq / If]qut?kdf /fd|f] ;dGjosf] ;+oGq . – of]hgf sfof{Gjogdf of]ubfg lbg;Sg] ;a} ;fj{hlgs tyf lghL ;+:yfx?sf] Ifdtf / ;|ftx?sf] a'emfO . ] – :yfgLo ;/sf/, gu/kflnsf tyf ;d'bfosf k|ltlglwx?sf] ;xeflutf . – of]hgf sfof{Gjogsf ug{ lhDd]jf/ lgsfox?df of]hgf k|lqmofk|lt ckgTjsf] efjgf . ;kmn pbfx/0f M ef/tsf] tfldngf8' /fHosf] blIf0fLt6jtL{ b'O{ ufp“x? ;dLof/k]§O{ / k'8k§O{ '] If]qkmn / ljsf;sf b[li6sf]0fn] ;dfg 5g . t/ ;g @))$ df cfPsf] ;'gfdLdf k'8k§O{n] ;dLof/k]§O{eGbf rf/u'0ff a9L dfgjLo Iflt -qmdzM (% / @$_ a]xf]gk¥of] . '] {' o;sf] k|dv sf/0f ;'gfdL cfpg'eGbf s]xL dlxgfcl3b]lv ;dLof/k]§O{df ;+rfng ' ePsf] k"jtof/L tflnd / ;r]tgf clej[l4 sfo{qmdx? g} x'g . { ;dLof/k]§O{ ufp“ af9L, v8]/L / e"sDksf] b[li6n] hf]lvdk"0f{ 5 . Toxf“ ;+rflnt sfo{qmdn] :jod;jsx?sf] a[xt ;xeflutf / ;+nUgtfdfkm{t ;d'bfosf] ] Ifdtf ljsf;df ;3fp k'¥ofof] . ef/t ;/sf/, UNDP / UNV (United Nations Volunteer Programme) sf] ;xof]udf ;+rflnt ;f] sfo{qmd cGtu{t ufp“:t/df ljkb ;ldltx? lgdf{0f u/L To;}af6 u|fdL0f ljkb Aoj:yfkgf of]hgf tof/ ug], vf]hL / p4f/ tflnd lbO{ 6f]nL tof/ kfg], k|fylds { { pkrf/sf] Aoj:yf, cEof; sjfh u/fpg], ufp“nx?nfO{ pRr;'/lIft :yfgaf/] ] l;sfpg], 8'afgaf6 hf]lug vfnL kfOk / s]/fsf yDafx?sf] k|of]u s;/L ug]{ eGg]af/]df l;sfOof] . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn *(
  • cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – % k/LIf0f ;"lr (Check-list) M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf % k|efjsf/L k|ltsfo{sf] nflu ljkb k"jtof/L ;zQmLs/0f -ljz]iftM { Ifdtf / ;|ftdf_ tkm{ ;d'bfon] slt k|ult u/]sf] 5 < ] ljkb k"jtof/L / k|ltsfo{ M ljkb cj:yfsf] nflu s] ;d'bfo;“u :ki6 { cfkTsfnLg k|ltsfo{ of]hgf 5 < k|ltsfo{ ;Lk M s] xfd|f] ;d'bfo;“u ljkbsf] a]nfdf cfjZos kg{;Sg] ;Lk÷bIftf 5 < h:t} M k|fylds pkrf/, vf]hL / p4f/, tf//lxt tyf /]l8of] ;+rf/, kfgL z'4Ls/0f cflb . :yfgfGt/0f M s] xfd|f] ;d'bfon] :yfgfGt/0f dfu{ / ;'/lIft:yn :ki6?kdf lgSof}n u/]sf] 5 < s] ;Lldt ultzLntf ePsf hgtfnfO{ :yfgfGt/0f ug]{ { of]hgf ag]sf] 5 < tflnd tyf l/x;{n M s] xfd|f] ;d'bfosf] cfkTsfnLg k|ltsfo{ of]hgfx?sf] l/x;{n cEof;;lxt lgoldt?kdf k/LIf0f eO/x]sf] 5 < cfkTsfnLg ;|ft M cfkTsfnLg cj:yfsf] nflu s] xfd|f] ;d'bfo;“u cfkmg} jf ] :yfgLo ;+u7gx?;“usf] ;fem]bf/Ldf cfkTsfnLg ;|ftx? pknAw 5g < ] ;dGjo / ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfg M cfkTsfnLg cj:yfdf glhssf] ;d'bfox?, :yfgLo lgsfox? / u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?;“u ;dGjosf] nflu s] xfd|f] ;d'bfo;“u of]hgfx? 5g < () xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn (! xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • ljifo;"rL k[i7 cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn (!–!@& s_ /0fg}lts nIo k|flKtdf /fli6«o k|ult (# v_ xof]uf] k|fyldstf sfo{ ! sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult (^ u_ xof]uf] k|fyldstf sfo{ @ sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult !)@ 3_ xof]uf] k|fyldstf sfo{ # sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult !)& ª_ xof]uf] k|fyldstf sfo{ $ sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult !!$ r_ xof]uf] k|fyldstf sfo{ % sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult !@) xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn (@
  • cWofo #= xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] sfof{Gjogtkm{ g]kfn s'g ultdf cl3 a9]sf] 5 / sxf“;Dd k'usf] 5 eg]/ a'emg' clt dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 . of] cWofodf xof]uf] sfo{ ] ;+/rgfsf] /0fg}lts nIo / k|fyldstfsf sfo{x? cg'?k g]kfnn] slt k|ult xfl;n u/]sf] 5, ;Lldttf / r'gf}tLx? s] s] 5g cflbsf] af/]df j0f{g ul/Psf] 5. /0fg}lts nIo k|flKtdf /fli6«o k|ult M ! _ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ lbuf] ljsf;sf] /0fgLlt, of]hgf / sfo{qmdx?df cem k|efjsf/L?kdf / ;a} txdf ;dflxt ug]{ . ;fy} ljkb /f]syfd (prevention), cNkLs/0f (mitigation), k"j{tof/L (preparedness_ / ;+s6f;Ggtf (vulnerability) Go"gLs/0fdf ljz]if hf]8 lbg] . g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df g} klxnf]k6s bzf}+ /fli6«o ljsf; of]hgf -@))@–@))&_n] ljkb Aoj:yfkg;DaGwL Aoj:yf u¥of] . ;f] of]hgfsf] cWofo !& n] hnpTkGg k|sf]k k"jtof/LnfO{ hf]8 lbof] eg] cWofo @@ n] hg;+Vof, jftfj/0f / { k|fs[lts ljkb Aoj:yfkgnfO{ ;d]6of] . oL b'j} cWofox?df ;fGble{s gLlt lgdf{0f, hf]lvd lgwf{/0f, ;"rgf ;+sng / ;Dk|if0f h:tf s'/fx? pNn]v ] ul/Psf] 5 . b'j} cWofox?df ljkb pTyfgzLntf lgdf{0f k|of;df hf]8 lbOPsf] 5. o;}u/L tLg jif]{ cGtl/d of]hgf -@))&–@)!)_ sf] @^ cf}+ cWofodf ljkb Aoj:yfkgaf/] pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . cGtl/d of]hgfdf klg gLltlgdf{0f, k"jrtfjgL { ] k|0ffnLsf] ljsf;, ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu ;dGjofTds kxn, hnjfo' kl/jt{g / ljkb Aoj:yfkgaLrsf] cGt/;DaGwh:tf s'/fx?nfO{ hf]8 lbOPsf] 5. (# xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn r'gf}tL M tLg jif]{ cGtl/d ljsf; of]hgfn] ljsf;sf pknAwLx? hf]ufpg / lbuf] dfgj ljsf;sf nflu b]zdf lbuf] ljkb Aoj:yfkgsf sfo{ x'gkg]{ s'/fnfO{ ' bf]xf]¥ofPsf] 5 . t/ klg ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg÷Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu ;fGble{s P]g, /0fgLlt / ;+:yfut ;+oGqsf] ljsf; h:tf s'/fx?df plrt Wofg k'¥ofOPsf] 5}g . ef]lnsf] ;Defjgf M of] cfzf ug{;lsG5 ls ;/sf/n] lgs6 eljiodf g} ljkb Aoj:yfkg;DaGwL k|:tfljt P]g / /0fgLltnfO{ cg'df]bg ug]5 . pQm P]g / /0fgLltsf] sfof{Gjogn] { ubf{ ljkb Aoj:yfkg sfo{ ljkbkl5sf] /fxt / p4f/eGbf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0ftkm{ pGd'v x'g5 . o:t} ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkgsf ;Dk"0f{ kIfx?nfO{ x]g{] k|efjsf/L ] lgsfosf] klg :yfkgf x'g5 . b]zleq / aflx/sf ;a} txaLr k|efjsf/L ;Ghfn ] aGg]5, pkof]uL ;dGjosf] jftfj/0f lgdf{0f x'g5 / b]zleq÷aflx/sf] ;xof]un] ] ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkgsf] nflu kof{Kt ;|ft pknAw x'g5 . o;}u/L ljkb ] ] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ hnjfo' kl/jt{g, hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f, ul/aL Go"gLs/0f / k|fs[lts ;|ft Aoj:yfkgh:tf tTjx?sf] ;Gbe{df klg ;Daf]wg ul/g]5 . ] @= ljz]iftM ;d'bfosf] txdf k|0ffnLut of]ubfg lbg;Sg] u/L ljkblj?4 pTyfgzLntf (resilience) sf] lgdf{0f / ;'b[9Ls/0f ug{ ;+:yf, ;+oGq / Ifdtfx?sf] ljsf; ug]{ . ljkb Aoj:yfkg sfo{sf] nflu u[x dGqfnon] g]tTjbfoL e"ldsf v]ln/x]sf] 5 . c? [ cf7j6f If]qut dGqfnox? -s[lif, lzIff, lj1fg tyf k|ljlw Pjd jftfj/0f, :jf:Yo, :yfgLo ljsf;, ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f, hn>f]t, jg tyf e";/If0f_n] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ 5'§} PsfO{ v8f u/]sf + 5g . ljkbkl5sf sfo{ tyf ;dGjo lqmofsnfkx?sf nflu If]qLo, lhNnf tyf :yfgLo txdf ;+:yfut ;+oGqx? klg v8f ul/Psf 5g . /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o u};;x?n] klg ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg sfo{x? ul//x]sf 5g . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ($
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn r'gf}tL M /fhg}lts OR5fzlQm a9fpg;Sg', k|:tfljt ljkb Aoj:yfkg P]g / /0fgLltnfO{ cg'df]bg u/fpg lg0ff{os txdf /x]sf ljleGg dfWodx?sf] k|of]u ug{;Sg' Pjd ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx? / dfWodsf] k|of]u u/]/ ;kmn sfof{Gjog ug'{ g} k|dv r'gf}tLx? x'g . ' ef]lnsf] ;Defjgf M :yfgLotx;Dd ;fwg;|ftn] el/k"0f{ ;'b9 ;+:yfut ;+oGqsf] ljsf; x'g5 ] [ ] h;n] eljiosf] r'gf}tLsf] ;fdgf ug{ ;Ifd x'g5 . ] # _ cfkTsfnLg k"j{tof/L, k|ltsfo{ / k'gnf{esf of]hgf agfp“bf / sfo{ q md sfof{ G jog ubf{ hf] l vd Go" g Ls/0fsf cjwf/0ffx?nfO{ k|0ffnLut ;dfof]hg ug]{ . ljkbsf] hf]lvddf /x]sf s]xL gu/kflnsfx?df lgdf{0f ;+lxtf nfu" ul/Psf] 5 . gu/kflnsfsf k|fljlws sd{rf/L tyf ;DalGwt dGqfnosf clwsf/Lx?nfO{ lgdf{0f ;+lxtf sfof{Gjogaf/] tflnd lbOPsf] 5 . r'gf}tLx? M s]Gb|blv :yfgLo tx;Dd ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷Aoj:yfkgdf PsLs[t ] kxnsf] cefj /x]sf] 5 . o:t} /fli6«o:t/df hf]lvd lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] 5}g . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / Aoj:yfkgsf lqmofsnfkx? of]hgfa4eGbf ljkb36gfkZrft tTsfnsf] cfjZostf k"lt{ ug]{ lx;fadf x'g] u/]sf 5g . ef]lnsf] ;Defjgf M ;/sf/n] k|:tfj u/]sf] ljkb Aoj:yfkg P]g / /0fgLltsf] sfof{Gjogn] g]kfnnfO{ ljkb ;'/lIft agfpg dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Ng]5 . o:t} ev{/} :yfkgf ePsf] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf /fli6«o d+rn] ;a} ;/sf/L÷u}/;/sf/L lgsfox?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL sfo{qmdx?sf] af/]df hfgsf/L cfbfgk|bfg, ;dGjo, ;Lldt ;|ftsf] clwQmd k|of]u h:tf sfo{df 7"nf] of]ubfg lbg]5 . ] (% xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn xof]uf] k|fyldstfsf sfo{ ! sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult alnof] ;+ : yfut cfwf/;lxt ljkb hf] l vd Go" g Ls/0f /fli6« o / :yfgLo k|fyldstf x'g]5 eGg] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . ;"rs ! ;a} txdf ljs]Gb|Ls[t pQ/bfloTj / Ifdtf;lxtsf] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o gLlt / sfg"gL sfo{;/rgf . + g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;g !(*@ df k|fs[lts ljkb /fxt;DaGwL P]g nfu" u¥of] / b'Ok6s kl/dflh{t klg eO;Sof] . t/ klg of] s]jn ljkbkl5sf] cj:yfdf { dfq s]lGb|t 5 . !(*@ d} NofOPsf] hn tyf e";/If0f gLlt, lgdf{0f ;+lxtf + ;DaGwL P]g nufotdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL Aoj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . t/ oL lj:t[t?kdf cfpg ;s]sf 5}gg . cem} klg sfo{ut txdf e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/L kof{Kt / lglb{i6 5}g . oL P]gx?n] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / k"jljkb { ultljlwx? ;d]6g ;s]sf] 5}g . ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;“usf] k/fdz{df u[xdGqfnon] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] /fli6«o /0fgLlt tof/ u/]sf] 5 . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL gof“ P]g klg tof/ ul/Psf] 5 / cg'df]bgsf] k|lqmofdf /x]sf] 5 . of] P]gn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ;a} kIfx?nfO{ ;d]6sf] 5, ljkbnfO{ ljsf; / hnjfo' hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg;“u ] cGt/;DalGwt u/fPsf] 5 . xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL M ;+:yfut k|lta4tfx? k|fKt ePsf 5g . t/ pknAwLx? kof{Kt / lj:t[t 5}gg . ;Lldttf / r'gf}tLx? M – ckof{Kt / cbIf dfgjLo hgzlQmsf] sf/0f k|dv ;/f]sf/jfnfx?aLr ' ;dGjo / d"nk|jfxLs/0fdf sl7gfO . – ;a} txdf s]xL g s]xL xb;Dd e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/L bf]xf]l/Psf] . – /fli6«ob]lv :yfgLo tx;Dd ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu pko'Qm xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn (^
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ;+:yfut ;+oGqsf] cefj . ;'emfjx? M – /fhg}lts k|lta4tf / l:y/tf . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;“u ;DalGwt gof“ P]gsf] sfof{Gjog . – ;+:yfut e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lsf] k'gMAofVof . ;dGjo / cg'udgsf] nflu alnof] ;+oGqsf] ljsf; . – ;a} txdf kof{Kt ;|ft;lxt ljkb Aoj:yfkg ;DaGwL lgsfosf] u7g . ] – AolQmut, ;+:yfut / k|0ffnLut txdf Ifdtf clej[l4 . – ljs]Gb|Ls[t ah]6 k|0ffnL . – ljBfnos]lGb|t ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /0fgLltsf] lgdf{0f . ljBfyL{df s]lGb|t tflnd ;fdu|Lx? . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fd}qL /fli6«o ;xfotf /0fgLlt agfpg bft[lgsfox?nfO{ pTk|/0ff . ] ;"rs @ k|To]s k|zf;lgs txdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f of]hgf / lqmofsnfkx? sfof{Gjog ug{ ;dlk{t / kof{Kt ;|ftx?sf] pknAwtf . ] k|fyldstfsf] cfwf/df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ;|ft 5'§ofOPsf] ] 5}g . s]xL bzs otfb]lv ;/sf/n] jflif{s?kdf ;fgf] kl/df0fdf ePklg /sd 5'§ofpg] u/]sf] 5 . ;f] /sd /fxt / p2f/ sfo{d} vr{ x'gub{5 . ljkb hf]lvd ] Go"gLs/0fsf nflu k"jcg'dflgt?kdf ah]6 5'§ofpg] ul/Psf] 5}g, cfjZostf { cg';f/ ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . ;/sf/sf cGo ljefux? h:t} hnpTkGg k|sf]k /f]syfd, e";/If0f tyf + hnfwf/ Aoj:yfkg cflb ljefux?n] klg ljkb Aoj:yfkgsf sfo{x? ul//x]sf 5g . ;/sf/L / u}/;/sf/L lgsfox?n] u/]sf s]xL k|of;sf afjh'b klg k"jcg'dflgt / ;dlk{t?kdf ah]6 ljlgof]hg x'g] u/]sf] 5}g . { xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL M s]xL k|ult t/ k|0ffnLut gLlt / ;+:yfut k|lta4tfsf] cefj . (& xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ;Lldttf / r'gf}tLx? M – ljkbn] ljsf; / ul/aLdf kf/]sf] k|efj af/] k|of]ul;4 cWoog (empirical) gx'g' . – ljkb k"jtof/L sfo{ ljkbkl5sf] /fxt / k'g:yf{kg sfo{eGbf lgs} ;:tf] / { cy{k0f{ x'G5 eg]/ gLltlgdf{tfx?nfO{ ljZj:t t'Nofpg g;Sg' . " – ;du| ljsf;df ljkbn] kfg]{ gsf/fTds k|efjaf/]df ;r]tgf gx'g' . – :yfgLo txdf of]hgf th'df ug]{ lgsfox?n] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ { kof{Kt?kdf Wofg glbg' . ;'emfjx? M – ;a} txdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0faf/] r]tgf clej[l4 lqmofsnfkx?sf] lgdf{0f / sfof{Gjog ug]{ . – pko'Qm ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx? / gLltlgdf{tfx?nfO{ l5d]sL /fi6«x?sf] cWoog e|d0f / tflnddf k7fpg] . – ljkbsf] cfly{s, jftfj/0fLo / ;fdflhs k|efjsf] af/]df a[xb k|rf/k|;f/ ug]{ . – gLltlgdf{tf, bft[lgsfo / ;fem]bf/x?aLr lgoldt cGtlqm{ofx? ug]{ / cBfjlws x'g] . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0faf/] ;a} txdf Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{ . – :yfgLo:t/df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu kof{Kt ah]6 5'§ofP/ :yfgLo ;/sf/L lgsfodfkm{t sfof{Gjog ug]{ . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f lqmofsnfkx?sf] nflu jflif{s ;/sf/L ah]6df lglZrt k|ltzt clgjfo{?kdf 5'§ofpg] Aoj:yf ug]{ . ;"rs # :yfgLo:t/df clwsf/ / ;|ft k|Tofof]hg u/L ;fd'bflos ;xeflutf ] / ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] ;'lglZrttf . :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g -!(((_n] :yfgLo lgsfox? -lhlj;, gu/kflnsf / uflj;x?_nfO{ :yfgLo txdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ultljlwx? lgdf{0f / sfof{Gjog ug{ clwsf/ lbPsf] 5 . t/ s]Gb|Lo txaf6 :yfgLo lgsfo;Dd ;|ft ljlgof]hg / ljt/0fsf] nflu k|0ffnLut / ljZj:t ;+oGq /x]sf] 5}g . ] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn (*
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL M ;+:yfut k|lta4tfx? k|fKt t/ pknAwLx? g t lj:t[t g kof{Kt . ;Lldttf / r'gf}tLx? M – gLltlgdf{tf / lg0ff{ostxdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL cBfjlws / Aojxfl/s hfgsf/Lx?sf] cefj . – /fli6«o, cGt/f{li6«o ;+3;+:yfx? klg /fxt, p2f/ / k|ltsfo{d} a9L s]lGb|t . – ;a} txdf r]tgfsf] ckof{Kttf . – ;/sf/L lgsfox?df g} lhDd]jf/L / :jfldTjk|lt ;Lldt efjgf . – ljkbnfO{ ljsf;;“u hf]8g] k|fljlws Ifdtfsf] sdL . ;'emfjx? M – gLlt lgdf{0f Pjd lg0ff{os txsf] ;r]tgf j[l4 . – ljkbsf] sf/0f b}lgs hLjgdf kg]{ k|efjsf] af/]df k|of]ul;4 (empirical) cg';Gwfg . – :yfgLo txsf] of]hgfdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f gLltsf] ljsf; / d"nk|jfxLs/0f . – ;Lk / ;|ft k|bfg u/L k|fljlws 1fg / ;~hfnsf] ljsf; . ] – lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] txdf :yfgLo ljkb Aoj:yfkg sf]ifsf] :yfkgf . – ;d'bfo:t/sf] tflnd / ;r]tgf sfo{qmdx?sf] ;+rfng . :yfgLo o'jf ;d"x, cleefjs–lzIfs ;d"x, cfdf ;d"x, s[ifs ;d"x cflbsf] kl/rfng . ;"rs $ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu ax'If]qLo /fli6«o d+rsf] sfo{;rfng . + u[x dGqfnon] ljleGg ;/sf/L, u}/;/sf/L, cGt/f{li6«o, /fi6«;3Lo + ;+3;+:yf Pjd ;+rf/, z}lIfs, lghL IF]q / ;fd'bflos ;+:yfx?sf] k|ltlglwx? ;dfj]z u/fO Ps /fli6«o d+rsf] u7g ul/;s]sf] 5 . xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL M k|0ffnLut gLlt tyf ;+:yfut k|lta4tf ljgfsf s]xL k|ult . (( xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn r'gf}tLx? M dfly pNn]lvt lgsfox?nfO{ Pp6} /fli6«o d+rdf NofP/ lqmofzLn t'Nofpg sl7g 5 . t/ klg ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / ljkb Aoj:yfkgsf nflu oL lgsfoaLrsf] ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ k|efjsf/L / dxTjk"0f{ /xG5 . ;'emfj M /fli6«o d+rsf] cfjZostfaf/] oyfzSo l56f] /fhg}lts bnx?nfO{ ljZj:t t'Nofpg cfjZos . k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk ! sf /fd|f cEof;x? M – cg'df]bg k|lqmofdf /x]sf] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o /0fgLlt / ljkb Aoj:yfkg P]gn] s]Gb|blv :yfgLo;Dd ;a} txdf ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg ] ug{ :jfoQ lgsfo u7g ug{ hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . – /fli6«o lgdf{0f ;+lxtf lj:tf/} b]ze/ nfu" x'g] qmddf 5 . – ;/sf/n] k|To]s jif{ !) xhf/eGbf a9L sIffsf]7fx?nfO{ e"sDk k|lt/f]wfTds agfp“b} cfPsf] 5 . – sltko lhNnfx?df ljBfnodf s]lGb|t ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng eO/x]sf 5g . – sf]zL af9L -@))*_sf] qmddf ;/sf/L / u}/;/sf/L lgsfoaLr /fd|f] ;dGjo b]lvof] . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL tflnd / ;r]tgfd"ns sfo{qmdx? t'ngfTds?kdf j[l4 x'b} cfO/x]sf] 5 . “ – cGt/f{li6«o ;xof]u lgsfox? -h:t} o"/f]lkog cfof]u, l8lkm8, o"P;P8x?_n] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f kl/of]hgfx? ;+rfng ul//x]sf 5g jf ;xof]u k'¥ofO/x]sf 5g . – zx/L ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0f dGqfno / e"sDk k|ljlw ;dfh–g]kfnn] e"sDk k|lt/f]wfTds ejg lgdf{0f sfo{qmd ;+rfng ul//x]sf] 5 . – cGt/f{li6«o, /fli6«o / :yfgLo u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?n] ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg kl/of]hgfx? rnfO/x]sf 5g . kl/of]hgf IF]qx?df ljkb Aoj:yfkg ;ldltx? alg/x]sf 5g / ltgLx?n] lqmofzLn?kdf sfo{ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !))
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ul//x]sf 5g . pbfx/0f M PS;gP8 g]kfnn] sfof{Gjog u/]sf] rf}yf] r/0fsf] l8lksf] kl/of]hgf æ;'/lIft ;d'bfo M ljkb Aoj:yfkg k|of;x?åf/f ;'/lIft ;d'bfosf] lgdf{0fÆ cGtu{t kf“r lhNnfdf !$ j6f ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ljkb Aoj:yfkg ;ldltx? / ;ftj6f gu/kflnsf:t/Lo ;~hfnx? :yfkgf ePsf 5g . oL ;ldlt / ;~hfnx?n] ug]{ hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{x?df sl/a @% k|ltzt ;/sf/L nufgL /xg] ;'lglZrt ul/Psf] 5 . ?kGb]xL–% l:yt ljkb Aoj:yfkg ;ldltn] af“w lgdf{0fsf] nflu ? &% xhf/ afxo;|ftaf6 k|fKt u/]sf] 5 . ?kGb]xLs} hf]uLbxl:yt ;ldltn] cfkTsfnLg s]Gb| ] lgdf{0fsf] nflu ;fd'bflos jg pkef]Qmf ;d"xx?af6 ? @ nfv %) xhf/ k|fKt u/]sf] 5 . dsjfgk'/ lhNnfsf] xf“8Lvf]nfdf /x]sf] ljkb Aoj:yfkg ;ldltn] k"jrtfjgL 6fj/ lgdf{0f ug{ uflj;af6 ? @) xhf/, lhlj;af6 ? @% xhf/ / { ] ;fd'bflos jg pkef]Qmf ;d"xaf6 ? @ nfv eGbf a9L d"No a/fa/sf] sf7 ;+sng u/]sf] 5 . ;'/lIft dfu{ lgdf{0fsf] nflu x]6f}8f gu/kflnsfn] /fO{6f]n + ljkb Aoj:yfkg ;ldltnfO{ ? ! nfv ^) xhf/ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk ! sfof{Gjog ug]{ /fli6«o /0fgLlt -k|:tfljt_ /0fgLlts ultljlw ! M ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkgsf nflu ;+:yfut k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf . /0fgLlts ultljlw @ M lj:t[t ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg;DaGwL cjwf/0ff ;dfj]z ug{sf nflu gLlt, lgod, lgodfjnLx?sf] th'df÷;+zf]wg . { ] /0fgLlts ultljlw # M /fli6« o ljsf;df ljkb hf] l vd Aoj:yfkg Go"gLs/0fnfO{ d"nk|jfxdf Nofpg] sfo{ . /0fgLlts ultljlw $ M pTs[i6 ;xof]usf] nflu ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k"jtof/L sfo{qmdnfO{ ljsf; of]hgf, sfo{qmd { !)! xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn tyf :yfgLo ljsf;sf lgsfox? -lhlj;, uflj;, gu/kflnsf cflb_sf lgoldt ultljlwx?df PsLs/0f . /0fgLlts ultljlw % M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ljleGg gLlt tyf lgodfjnL, dfkb08, lgb]lzsf, vf;k|sf]k;“u { ;DalGwt :t/Lo sfo{;~rfng sfo{ljlw, vf; k|sf]k;“u ;DalGwt ljz]if /fli6«o sfo{qmdx? tof/ kfg]{ tyf qmdzM ltgsf] sfof{Gjog . /0fgLlts ultljlw ^ M cfkTsfnLg sfo{;+rfng s]Gb|x? -Emergency Operation Centres-EOCs_ sf] ;~hfn u7g, s]Gb|Lo txdf Pp6f / lhNnf tyf gu/kflnsf txdf c? s]Gb|x? . /0fgLlts ultljlw & M ;|ftx?sf] ljlgof]hg ug]{ tyf lbuf] cfly{s ;|ftsf ] ] nflu ;+oGqsf] ljsf; ug]{ . xof]uf] k|fyldstfsf sfo{ @ sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult ljkbsf hf]lvdx?sf] klxrfg, lgwf{/0f / cg'udg ug]{ tyf k"jrtfjgL { ] lbg] Aoj:yfsf] clej[l4 ug]{ . ;"rs ! k|sf]k tYof+s / ;+s6f;Ggtf hfgsf/Ldf cfwfl/t Pjd k|dv ' If]qx?sf] hf]lvd lgwf{/0f;lxtsf] /fli6«o / :yfgLo hf]lvd lgwf{/0f . s]xL ;d'bfox?df ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L s]xL lgsfox?n] :yfgLo:t/df hf]lvd gS;f+sg u/]sf 5g . t/ tL hfgsf/Lx? ck'u / 5/ki6 5g . af9L, klx/f]h:tf lg/Gt/ eO/xg] ljkb 36gfx?nfO{ ;d]6g] u/L /fli6«o:t/df ax'ksf]kLo | hf]lvd lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] 5}g . ljut #% jif{blv /fli6«o txdf eO/x]sf ljkbsf 36gfx?sf] /]s8{ /flvPsf] ] 5 / lgoldt?kdf cBfjlws klg ul/Psf] 5 . b'ef{Uojz, tL ;"rgfx? xfn;Dd xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !)@
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn klg of]hgf th'df / lg0f{o k|lqmofdf plrt?kdf k|of]u x'g;s]sf] 5}g . s]xL { /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o u};;x?n] k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf] hf]lvdaf6 aRg ckgfOPsf :yfgLo cg'sng /0fgLltnfO{ a'emg cg';Gwfgx? u/]sf 5g . ICIMOD n] " lxdtfn ljikmf]6 / af9Lsf sf/0f kg{ uPsf] ;fdflhs cfly{s k|efjnfO{ d"Nof+sg ug{ 36gfcWoogx? u/]sf] 5 . ICIMOD / UNDPn] ;DalGwt ;/sf/L lgsfox?;“u ldn]/ s]xL If]qx?df lxdtfn ljikmf]6 hf]lvd lgwf{/0f / cg'udg sfo{ ul//x]sf] 5 . xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL M k|lqmofut gLlt tyf ;+:yfut k|lta4tf ljgfsf s]xL k|ult . ;Lldttf / r'gf}tLx? M k|To]s jif{ bf]xf]l/O/xg] ljkb 36gfx? h:t}M af9L, klx/f], v8]/L, cfunfuL, dxfdf/L, e"sDk cflbnfO{ ;d]6/ /fli6«o:t/sf] ax'ksf]kLo hf]lvd lgwf{/0f ] | ug]{ kxn ;/sf/L jf u}/;/sf/L s'g} lgsfoaf6 ePsf] 5}g . ljkb;DaGwL pknAw hfgsf/Lx? klg of]hgf / lg0f{o k|lqmofdf k|of]u ul/Psf] 5}g . ;'emfjx? M u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?;“usf] ;dGjo / ;xsfo{df ;DalGwt dGqfnon] b]zsf k|dv k|sf]kx? ;d]6/ /fli6«o hf]lvd lgwf{/0fsf] kxn ug'kg]{ b]lvG5 . o;sf] ' ] { nflu :t/Ls[t ljlw / lgb]lzsf sfof{Gjog ul/g'kb{5 . of] Pp6f dfq} sfo{n] { klg b]zsf] a9L hf]lvdk"0f{ ;d'bfo, k|dv k|sf]kx?, hf]lvdk"0f{ lhNnf÷uflj;x?sf] ' klxrfg eO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf sfd ug]{ w]/} ;+3;+:yfx?nfO{ tbcg'?k sfo{ cl3 a9fpg ;xof]u ub{5 . o:tf hfgsf/Lx? /fi6«sf] s'g} klg ljsf; lgdf{0f of]hgfdf pkof]u ug{;lsG5 . ;/sf/ jf c? s;}n] ;+rfng ug]{ kl/of]hgfx?df ;xeflutfTds ;+s6f;Ggtf lgwf{/0f -PVA_ / ;+s6f;Ggtf Ifdtf lgwf{/0f -VCA_nfO{ clgjfo{ ug{ kxn ug'kg]{ b]lvG5 . { ;"rs @ k|dv k|sf]k / ;+s6f;Ggtf ;DaGwL hfgsf/Lx?sf] cg'udg, ;+ux / ' | ;Dk|if0f ug]{ k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; . ] !)# xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn s]Gb| tyf :yfgLo:t/sf s]xL lgsfox?n] lgoldt?kdf k|sf]k ;"rgfx? ;fj{hlgs / ;Dk|i] f0f ub{5g . ljkbhGo tYof+ssf] ;+ux ug]{ tyf cg'udg ug]{ | sfo{ eg] cem} ;+:yfut?kdf kf/bzL{ / k|efjsf/L 9+un] ug]{ k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; x'g;s]sf] 5}g . s'g} klg txdf ;"rgf ;+sng ug]{ sfo{ s]jn ljkbkl5sf 36gfdf dfq s]lGb|t ePsf] b]lvG5 . xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL M ;fdfGo k|ult . gLlt / sfo{qmddf cfufdL sfo{x?af/]sf] s]xL ;+st . ] ;Lldttf / r'gf}tL M ljleGg lgsfox?n] cfcfkmg} ;|ftaf6 ;+sng / ;Dk|i] f0f u/]sf k|sf]k;DaGwL ] ;"rgf / tYof+sx? Pscfk;df d]n vf“bgg . tYof+s ;+sng ug]{ 9f“rf, tx } k|To]s lgsfocg';f/ leGg leGg 5 . ljkb;u cGt/;DalGwt ljleGg If]qdf “ /x]sf hfgsf/Lx? ;a} txdf pknAw 5}g . a9fOr9fO ul/Psf hfgsf/Lx? klg r'gf}tLs} ?kdf v8f ePsf] 5 . ;'emfj M ljkbsf] If]qdf sfo{ ug]{ lgsfox?;“u} a;]/ ;"rgf ;+sngsf] lglZrt 9f“rf, ;km6j]o/ cflb tof/ ug{;S5g . ;/sf/n] ;g @))) sf] z'?tfsf g} ^ j6f lhNnfdf ljkb Aoj:yfkg ;"rgf k|0ffnL (DMIS)sf] ljsf; u/]sf] lyof] . DMIS sf] ;km6j]o/nfO{ cBfjlws u/]/ ;a}txdf k|of]usf] nflu k|l/t ug{] ;lsG5 . o:t} ef}uf]lns ;"rgf k|0ffnL (GIS)df cfwfl/t k|sf]k ;"rgf Aoj:yfkg k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; u/L o;nfO{ s]Gb|blv lhNnf / gu/kflnsf ] tx;Dd ;+:yfut ug'{kg]{ cfjZostf b]lvG5 . e"–pkof]u of]hgfsf] nflu cfjlws?kdf cBfjlws x'gu/L e"–pkof]u gS;fsf] lgdf{0f ug'kg]{ b]lvG5 . ] { ;"rs # ;a} k|dv k|sf]kx?sf] nflu k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnL . k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf] ' { ] { ] ;d'bfodf kx“r . " Pp6f k|sf]kdf cfwfl/t k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnL s]xL 7fp“x?df 5g . h:t} M { ] lrtjgdf af9Lsf], R5f]/f]Nkfdf lxdtfn ljikmf]6sf] cflb . t/ ;a} k|dv ' xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !)$
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn k|sf]kx?sf] nflu k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnL eg] ;+rfngdf cfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . { ] xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL M ;fdfGo k|ult . gLlt / sfo{qmddf cfufdL sfo{x?af/]sf] s]xL ;+st . ] ;Lldttf / r'gf}tL M s]Gb| / ;d'bfo txdf k"0f{ k|efjsf/L / sfo{dns k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf] " { ] nflu oL r'gf}tLx? b]lvPsf 5g M – k|fljlws 1fg . – cfly{s ;|ft . ] – k|lzlIft dfgjLo ;|ft . ] – ;/sf/L lgsfo / ;d'bfoaLr ;xsfo{ . ;'emfj M ;/sf/n] lghL–;fj{hlgs IF]qaLrsf] ;fem]bf/LnfO{ ;'wf/ ug]{ / gful/s s]lGb|t k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLnfO{ ;'b9 ug'k5{ . :yfgLo ;Gbe{df d]n vfg] u/L { ] [ { r':t / k|efjsf/L k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ul/g'kb{5 . o;sf] nflu lgDg { ] sfo{x?df hf]8 lbg'kg]{ b]lvG5 M – k|dv k|sf]kx?sf] klxrfg / k|sf]ksf] IF]qdf sfo{ ug]{ ;+:yf÷lgsfox?sf] ' klxrfg . – klxrfg ul/Psf tL ;+:yf÷lgsfox?sf] k|efjsf/L k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLdf { ] Ifdtf j[l4 . – k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf] nflu 5'§} sf]ifsf] Aoj:yf . { ] – b]zleq / aflx/sf ;+3;+:yfx?aLrsf] ;~hfn . – ;+:yfut ;+oGq . ;"rs $ ljkb Go"gLs/0fdf IF]qLo ;xsfo{sf] nflu /fli6«o / :yfgLo hf]lvd lgwf{/0fdf IF]qLo÷cGt/b]zLo hf]lvd ;dflji6 . If]qLo?kdf ;xsfo{ x'gkg]{ / tYof+s, ;"rgfx? kof{Kt?kdf cfbfgk|bfg ' x'gkg]{ s'/fnfO{ ljleGg d+rx?df ;/f]sf/jfnfx?n] hf]8 lbPs} s'/f xf] . ' !)% xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ef/tLo If]qdf ag]sf af“wx?sf sf/0f g]kfndf x'g] u/]sf] 8'afgsf ljifodf 5nkmnsf k|of;x? ePsf 5g . ;'emfj M /fli6«o / If]qLo:t/df hn tyf df};d;DaGwL tYof+ssf] nflu 8f6f a}ssf] :yfkgf . + xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL M s]xL k|ult . t/ k|0ffnLut gLlt / ;+:yfut k|lta4tfsf] cefj . k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @ sf /fd|f cEof;x? M – s]xL :yfgx?df Pp6f k|sf]kdf s]lGb|t ePklg k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLx? ;+rfngdf { ] 5g . ut jif{ -@))*_df uPsf] sf]zL af9Ldf Ps306f cufj} k"jrtfjgL { ] ;"rgf ;Dk|i] f0f ePsf]n] ;of}+ ;'/lIft:yfgdf hfg ;kmn eP / hLpHofgsf] 7"nf] Iflt x'gkfPg . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf kl/of]hgfx? nfu" ePsf s]xL ;d'bfodf ;+s6f;Ggtf / hf]lvd lgwf{/0f Pjd :yfgLo k|sf]k gS;f+sg ul/Psf 5g . h;n] ubf{ hf]lvd /f]syfd / Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu ;/sf/;“u ah]6 dfu ug{ ;lhnf] ePsf] 5 . – c:ktfnx?, ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfx? / s]xL lghL ejgx?df e"sDk hf]lvd lgwf{/0fsf sfo{x? eO/x]sf 5g . pbfx/0f M k|flS6sn PS;g g]kfnn] l8lksf]–$ cGtu{t af“s] / alb{of lhNnfdf ;+rfng u/]sf] af9L k"jrtfjgL sfo{qmdn] ;d'bfox?sf] k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLnfO{ { ] { ] Aoj:yfkg ug]{ IfdtfnfO{ clej[l4 u/]sf] 5 . /fKtL gbL lsgf/sf] xf]lnof ufp“df a:g] af“ssL lgd{nfb]jLsf] tLg ljufxf v]t kf“r jif{cl3 cfPsf] af9Ln] ] aufPsf] lyof] . cf}krfl/s ljBfno lzIff lng] cj;/ gkfPklg ljleGg tflnd / cled'vLs/0f sfo{qmdx?sf] dfWodaf6 pgn] af9L Aoj:yfkg / p4f/ ;DaGwL 1fg k|fKt u/]sL l5g . pgL kfgLsf] tx x/]/ hf]lvd cf“sng ug{ ;lS5g . To:t} ;"rgfsf] nflu sxf“ ;Dks{ /fVg], s'g a]nfdf ;'/lIft:yfglt/ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !)^
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn hfg] h:tf hfgsf/Lx? klg pgdf 5 . pgsf] ufp“df ul7t af9L Aoj:yfkg ;ldltdf /x]sf #) hgfdWo]s} pgL Ps lqmofzLn ;b:o x'g . of] ;ldlt;“u xft];fO/g, 8'uf / nfOkmHofs]6x? klg /x]sf] 5 . + k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @ sfof{Gjog ug]{ /fli6«o /0fgLlt -k|:tfljt_ /0fgLlts ultljlw ! M ljleGg tx tyf ljleGg :s]ndf ljleGg k|fs[lts k| s f] k tyf ;+ s 6f;Ggtfsf] lgwf{ / 0f ug] { , cfjlws?kdf ltgnfO{ cBfjlws ug]{ k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug]{ tyf o;nfO{ ;fj{hlgs?kdf pknAw u/fpg] . /0fgLlts ultljlw @ M ljkb;u ;DalGwt ;a} hfgsf/L ;dfj]z x'g] u/L “ s]Gb|, lhNnf tyf gu/kflnsf txdf cflwsfl/s, v'nf, ef}uf]lns ;"rgf k|0ffnLdf cfwfl/tljkb ;"rgf Aoj:yfkg k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf tyf To;nfO{ ;+:yfut ug]{ sfo{ . /0fgLlts ultljlw # M k|sf]k÷hf]lvdsf] cg'udg tyf ;fGble{s k|sf]kx?sf nflu k"jrtfjgL lbg] /fli6«o k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf ug]{ { ] sfo{ . /0fgLlts ultljlw $ M zx/L tyf zx/–pGd'v If]qx?df s]lGb|t eO{ e"– pkof]u gS;f tof/ kfg]{ tyf cfjlws?kdf o;nfO{ cBfjlws ug]{ / e"–pkof]usf] of]hgf th'dfsf { nflu o;sf] k|of]u ug]{ k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug]{ sfo{ . xof]uf] k|fyldstfsf sfo{ # sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult ;a} txdf ljkb ;'/Iff / pTyfgzLntfsf] lgdf{0f ug{ lzIff, 1fg / gjLgtd tf}/tl/sfsf] k|of]u ug]{ . !)& xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ;"rs ! k|To]s txsf ;/f]sf/jfnfx?df ljkb;DaGwL ;fGble{s hfgsf/Lx?sf] pknAwtf / kx“r ." ljkb;“u ;DalGwt cBfjlws ;"rgf / hfgsf/Lx? 5/ki6 Pjd sd 5g . UNDP sf] ;xof]udf ljut #^ jif{blv ljkb 36gf;DaGwL P]ltxfl;s hfgsf/L ] æDesinventarÆ lgoldt ?kdf cBfjlws x'bcfPsf] 5 . To;}u/L hnpTkGg “} k|sf]k lgoGq0f ljefu, /]8qm; tyf cGo s]xL cGt/f{li6«o / /fli6«o u};;x?n] klg /fli6«o:t/df ljkb;DaGwL 36gfsf] hfgsf/L ;+sng / ;Dk|if0f ub}{] cfPsf 5g . t/ cem;Dd klg s]Gb| / lhNnf:t/df k"0f{?kdf lqmofzLn eP/ tYof+s /fVg] / cfbfgk|bfg ug]{ ;+oGqsf] ljsf; x'g;s]sf] 5}g . pknAw ePsf hfgsf/Lx? klg gof“ sfo{qmd, lqmofsnfkx?df pkof]u x'g;s]sf 5}gg . xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL M s]xL k|ult . t/ ;+:yfut k|lta4tf tyf k|lqmofut gLltsf] cefj . ;Lldttf / r'gf}tL M klxnf] s'/f t ljkbsf 36gf, ;"rgf / tYof+s ;+sng, ljZn]if0f Pjd ;Dk|if0f ug]{ ;/sf/L lgsfo 5}g . u}/;/sf/L IF]qaf6 pknAw jf ;+slnt ] hfgsf/Lx? klg kl5sf] k|of]u / ljZn]if0f k|of]hgsf] nflu Aojl:yt x'g;s]sf] 5}g . dGqfnosf jl/i7 clwsf/Lx?sf] lgoldt ;?jfn] klg ;"rgf ;+sng, ljZn]if0f / k|jfxdf r'gf}tL yk]sf] 5 . ;'emfj M – ;d'bfosf] tNnf] txnfO{ nlIft u/]/ :yfgLo efiffdf ljkb ;r]tgfd"ns ;fdu|Lx?sf] ljsf; / ;Dk|i] f0f . – cfd;+rf/sf dfWodx?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL ;fdu|Lx?sf] k|of]udf k|fT;fxg . ] – b'ud If]qx?df a[xb ;r]tgfd"ns cleofgx?sf] ;+rfng . { ;"rs @ ljBfno kf7oqmd, z}lIfs ;fdu|L / ;fGble{s tflndx?df ljkb xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !)*
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f, k'gnf{e cjwf/0ff / cEof;x?sf] k|jz .] ljBdfg ljBfno kf7oqmddf ljkb Aoj:yfkg;DaGwL hfgsf/Lx? ;Lldt 5g / ePsf hfgsf/Lx? klg 5/ki6 Pjd /fli6«o cfjZostf d]n gvfg] 5g . ;g @))* df ljleGg ;+:yfx?sf] ;xof]udf dfWolds txsf] kf7oqmddf ljkb Aoj:yfkg ;DaGwL ljifoj:t' ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5 . o;sf cltl/Qm ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL ljleGg z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? klg kf7oqmddf ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5 . lzIff dGqfnon] sIff ^ b]lv * ;Ddsf] jt{dfg kf7oqmddf kl/dfh{g u/L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL 5'§} cWofo /fVg] rfxgf b]vfPsf] 5 . lzIfs tflnd kf7oqmddf klg ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;dfj]z ug]{ of]hgfdf dGqfno 5 . ;/sf/L sd{rf/Lx?sf] nflu nlIft hgk|zf;g :6fkm sn]hsf clwsf+z tflnd sfo{qmdx?df ;/sf/n] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL ;fdu|L ;dflxt u/]sf] 5 . xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL M ;+:yfut k|lta4tf k|fKt . t/ pknAwLx? g kof{Kt 5g g t lj:t[t . ;Lldttf / r'gf}tL M – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL g]kfn ;fGble{s kf7oqmd, ;|ft ;fdu|L ] lgdf{0f / ljsf;sf nflu ckof{Kt ;+:yfut / Aoj;flos Ifdtf . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ljifodf k|lzlIft ljBfno lzIfssf] cefj . – ljBfno / sn]h:t/sf lzIfsx?aLr ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0faf/] cGt/l;sfOsf] jftfj/0f tof/ ug{ ckof{Kt k|of; . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f kf7oqmdsf] sfof{Gjogdf ;xof]uL ;+oGq / ;+hfnsf] cefj . – ;/f]sf/jfnfx?aLr ;fd"lxs k|of;sf] ;d:of . – lzIffsf cf}krfl/s / cgf}krfl/s If]qaLr ckof{Kt cGt/;DaGw . ;'emfj M – ljBdfg ljBfno kf7oqmd k'g/fjnf]sg ug{ lzIff dGqfnonfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ . ;a} txsf] kf7oqmddf k|sf]k lzIffnfO{ ;dfj]z u/fpg] lzIff gLltsf] !)( xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn lgdf{0f ug]{ . tbcg';f/ lzIfs, ljBfyL{sf] nflu ;|ft ;fdu|Lx?sf] ljsf; ug]{ . ] – ljBfnonfO{ ljkb lzIff÷;r]tgf j[l4 ug]{ dxTjk"0f{ s]Gb|sf] ?kdf ljsf; ug]{ . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ OlGhlgol/ª, k|fljlws÷Aoj;flos tflnd, nf]s;]jf÷k|x/L÷;]gfsf] kf7oqmddf ;dfj]z ug]{ . – lzIff dGqfno;“usf] ;xsfo{df sn]h tyf ljBfnosf lzIfsx?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL tflnd lbg] . – ljleGg nlIft ;d"xx?sf] nflu lglZrt k|sf]kdf cfwfl/t tflnd sfo{qmdx?sf] ljsf; ug]{ . – ljBfno / sn]htxdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;dfj]z ePsf l5d]sL d'nsx?df ' ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx?nfO{ cWoog e|d0f u/fpg] / tflnd k|bfg ug]{ . – s]Gb|Lo tyf lhNnf txdf ;xof]u ;+oGqsf] :yfkgf ug]{ . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;“u ;DalGwt kf7oqmd / l;sfO ;fdu|Lx?, /fd|f cEof;x?af/] cfbfgk|bfg ug{ ;"rgf Aoj:yfkg ;+oGq / ;+hfnsf] :yfkgf ug]{ . ;"rs # ax'hf]lvd lgwf{/0f / vr{–nfe ljZn]if0fsf] ljsf; / ;'b9Ls/0fsf] [ nflu cg';Gwfg k4lt / ;fwg . j}1flgs ljlwdf cfwfl/t ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f g]kfnsf] nflu gof“ g} xf] . s]xL ;/sf/L sfof{no / z}lIfs ;+:yfx?n] dfq nfut–nfe d"Nof+sg / cNkLs/0f k|of;af/] k|of]ufTds cg';Gwfg u/]sf lyP . UNISDR sf] ;xof]udf g]kfnn] k|sf]k / ul/aLsf] cGt/;DaGwaf/] /fli6«o:t/sf] cWoog klg u/]sf] 5 . cGt/f{li6«o:t/df k|rlnt / :jLsfo{ ;fwgx? k|of]u u/]/ g]kfnn] klg ;+s6f;Ggtf lgwf{/0fsf] sfo{ ul//x]sf] 5 . xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL s]xL k|ult . ;+:yfut k|lta4tf / k|0ffnLut gLltsf] cefj . | ;Lldttf / r'gf}tL M k|of]ufTds cg';Gwfg / ;fwg ljsf;sf] d'Vo jfws eg]sf] ckof{Kt k|fljlws Ifdtf, ;a} txdf ;r]tgf, /fhg}lts Pjd k|zf;lgs k|lta4tf / ;|ftx? g} xf] . ] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !!)
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ;"rs $ ljkb pTyfgzLntfsf] ;+:s[lt ljsf; ug{ /fi6«AofkL hgr]tgf /0fgLltsf] ljsf; . ufp“ ;d'bfob]lv zx/LIf]q;Dddf kx“r . " g]kfnn] w]/jif{blv IDNDR / UNISDR lbj; / e"sDkLo ;'/lIft lbj; } ] dgfp“b} cfPsf] 5 . ljBfnosf ljBfyL{x?sf] ;xeflutfdf ;d'bfo:t/df xflh/Lhjfkm, jfbljjfb, 5nkmn tyf ;"rgf, lzIff / ;+rf/ ;fdu|Lx?sf] k|of]un] hgr]tgf km}nfpg] sfo{ eO/x]sf] 5 . o;}u/L w]/h;f] lgsfox?n] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DalGwt xf]l8{ªaf]8, } { ;8sgf6s, 6]lnlehg Pjd /]l8of] sfo{qmd, uLtufog k|ltof]lutfx? ug]{ u/]sf 5g . t/klg ;+s6f;Gg jf:tljs hg;+Vofsf] aLrdf kof{Kt dfqfdf ;r]tgfd"ns lqmofsnfkx? k'Ug;s]sf] 5}g . xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL s]xL k|ult . ;+:yfut k|lta4tf / k|0ffnLut gLltsf] cefj . | ;Lldttf / r'gf}tL M ljkb;DaGwL hgr]tgf clej[l4sf nflu s'g} klg txdf k|0ffnLut?kdf ;+:yfut ;+oGqsf] :yfkgf ul/Psf] 5}g . o:t} s]Gb|blv lhNnftx;Dd Pjd ] ;/sf/L / u}/;/sf/L IF]qx?aLr kof{Kt ;dGjo / ;xof]u ;+oGq v8f x'g;s]sf] 5}g . ;'emfj M – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL cf}krfl/s÷cgf}krfl/s ;r]tgf sfo{sf nflu /fli6«o /0fgLltsf] lgdf{0f / ljsf; ug]{ . – lhNnf:t/df ;+:yfut ;+oGqsf] :yfkgf u/L klxrfg ul/Psf ;+:yfnfO{ ;d'bfo txdf hgr]tgf lqmofsnfk ;+rfng ug]{ lhDd]jf/L lbOg'k5{ . o:tf] sfo{df lqmofzLn / pTk|l/t ;+:yfx?nfO{ cfly{s / k|fljlws ;xof]u Pjd ] Ifdtf clej[l4 sfo{qmdx? pknAw u/fOg'k5{ . – u|fdL0f / b'ud If]qdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{ ug]x?nfO{ k|fT;fxg ug]{ . { { ] !!! xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk # sf /fd|f cEof;x? M – ljleGg ;/f]sf/jfnfx? -h:t} OlGhlgo/, k|fljlws, clUg lgoGqs, 7]sbf/,] ld:qL, ljBfno lzIfs, gLlt lgdf{tf cflb_nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL tflndx? k|bfg ug]{ k|of; yflnPsf] 5 . – lzIff ljefun] xfn;fn} dfq dfWolds txsf] lzIffdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;dfj]z u/]sf] 5 . c? txx?df klg qmdzM ;+nUg u/fp“b} nfg] of]hgf ag]sf] 5 . – OlGhlgol/ª cWoog ;+:yfgn] :gftsf]Q/ txdf ljkb Aoj:yfkgnfO{ ;dfj]z u/]sf] 5 . s]xL ljZjljBfnon] :gfts txdf g} ;dflji6 u/]sf 5g . – cfkTsfnLg k|ltsfo{nfO{ ;'b9 t'Nofpg] sfo{qmdx? h:t} MFR, PEER, [ CSSR, HOPE cflb ;+rfng ePsf 5g . – ljBfno sfo{qmd ;zQm x'b} uO/x]sf 5g . lzIfs / ljBfyL{nfO{ tflnd, “ ljBfnodf e"sDk;DaGwL cEof;x? x'gu/]sf 5g . e"sDk ;'/lIft ljBfno ] sfo{qmd (SESP) ;+rfng ePsf] 5 . – ljkb Aoj:yfkg ;ldltx?åf/f ;d'bfo:t/df tflnd, k|fylds pkrf/, vf]hL / p4f/ (LSAR) h:tf sfo{x? eO/x]sf 5g . pbfx/0fsf] nflu sf7df8f}+ dxfgu/kflnsf j8f g+= !& df . pbfx/0f M sIff ! b]lv !) ;Ddsf] ljBfno kf7oqmddf ljkb / ljkb Aoj:yfkgnfO{ ;dflxt u/fpg lzIff dGqfno kf7oqmd ljsf; s]Gb|n] o"Pg8LkLsf] ;xof]udf | ljleGg sfo{x? ul//x]sf] 5 . o; cGtu{t jt{dfg kf7ok':tsdf ljkb;DaGwL ;fdu|Lx?sf] ;j]If0f / ljZn]if0f ul/g'sf] ;fy} ljkb, ljkb Aoj:yfkg, ljkb { hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f, ljkb /f]syfd, ;'/lIft ;+:s[lth:tf ljifoj:t'nfO{ s;/L sIffut kf7ok':tsdf ;dfj]z ug]{ eGg] ljifodf uDeL/?kdf cWoog eO/x]sf] 5 . o:t} ljifolj1, kf7oqmdlj1, lzIfs, ljBfnox?;“u 5nkmnsf] qmd hf/L 5 / tTsfn} s'g?kdf nfu" ug]{ eGg]af/]df klg 5nkmnx? eO/x]sf 5g . cf}krfl/s / cgf}krfl/s lzIffdf ljkb;DaGwL ;fdu|Lx? g/x]sf] cj:yfdf ;fgf] pd]/b]lv g} k|fKt ljkb;DaGwL hfgsf/Ln] eljiodf ljkb ;fdgf / pTyfgzLntfsf] ljsf;df dxTjk"0f{ ;3fp k'¥ofpg] lglZrtk|foM 5 . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !!@
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk # sfof{Gjog ug]{ /fli6«o /0fgLlt -k|:tfljt_ /0fgLlts ultljlw ! M /fli6«o z}lIfs gLltsf] ljsf;÷;+zf]wg ug]{ tyf To;sf] sfof{Gjog ug]{ h;n] ubf{ o; gLltdf ljkb;DaGwL r]tgf pTkGg ug{sf nflu ljBfnox? dxTjk"0f{ s]Gb| x'g ;s"g . /0fgLlts ultljlw @ M ljkb;DaGwL lzIffsf] sfof{Gjog ug]{ sfo{ . /0fgLlts ultljlw # M ljleGg nlIft ;d"xx?sf nflu ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL kf7oqmdsf] ljsf; ug]{ tyf ;Dk"0f{ ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf nflu k|lzIf0f sfo{qmdsf] sfof{Gjog ug]{ sfo{ . /0fgLlts ultljlw $ M ljkb;DaGwL r]tgf tyf k|lzIf0fsf nflu lj:t[t /fli6«o sfo{qmdsf] ljsf; tyf sfof{Gjog ug]{ sfo{ . /0fgLlts ultljlw % M ljkb hf]lvd tyf hf]lvdsf] Go"gLs/0fsf ;DaGwdf hfgsf/Lsf] k|rf/k|;f/ ug{ s f nflu cfd ;~rf/sf dfWodx?sf] k|of]usf nflu of]hgf tyf sfo{qmdsf] ljsf; ug]{ tyf ltgsf] ;xhLs/0f ug]{ sfo{ . /0fgLlts ultljlw ^ M :yfgLo txdf ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg;DaGwL ;r]tgf hufpg] sfo{qmdx?sf] ljsf;÷ ;'b9Ls/0f÷ [ k|fT;fxg ug]{ sfo{ . ] /0fgLlts ultljlw & M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k"jtof/Lsf ;DaGwdf { ;r]tgf pTkGg ug]{ sfo{qmdx?sf] ljsf; tyf sfof{Gjog ug{sf nflu ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+u7g, u}/;/sf/L ;+u7g tyf cGo ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ k|fT;fxg tyf ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] sfo{ . ] !!# xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn xof]uf] k|fyldstfsf sfo{ $ sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult hf]lvdsf cGtlglx{t tTjx?nfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug]{ . ;"rs ! ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f jftfj/0fLo gLlt / of]hgfx?sf] k|dv ' p2]Zo . e"–pkof]u, k|fs[lts ;|ft Aoj:yfkg / hnjfo' kl/jt{gk|lt cg'sng ] " klg ;dfj]z . k|fs[lts ;|ft Aoj:yfkg / hnjfo' kl/jt{g;DaGwL ljBdfg P]g, sfg"g ] / cEof;x?n] ljkb Aoj:yfkgnfO{ cleGg c+usf] ?kdf ;dfj]z u/]sf] 5}g . t/ ;g !((^ df cg'df]bg ul/Psf] /fli6«o ljkb Aoj:yfkg of]hgfdf ljkb Aoj:yfkg;“u} e"–pkof]u, k|fs[lts ;|ft Aoj:yfkg / hnjfo' kl/jt{gnfO{ klg ] ;Daf]wg ul/g'kg]{ s'/fdf hf]8 lbOPsf] lyof] . xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL ;+:yfut k|lta4tf k|fKt . pknAwL g t kof{Kt g g} Aofks . ;Lldttf / r'gf}tL M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ k|fs[lts ;|ft Aoj:yfkg / hnjfo' kl/jt{g;“u ] ;dfof]hg ug'{ cfkm}df Pp6f r'gf}tL xf] . o;}u/L pko'Qm /fli6«o gLlt, of]hgf + / /0fgLlt Pjd ;+:yfut ;+oGq / Ifdtfsf] cefjn] klg cj/f]w l;h{gf u/]sf] 5. ;'emfj M – ;fd'bflos sfo{qmdx?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f, jftfj/0f, hnjfo' kl/jt{gh:tf ljifox?nfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg ;+3;+:yfx?nfO{ pTk|l/t ug]{ . ] – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ bL3{sfnLg / cGt/;DalGwt cjwf/0ffaf6 ;Daf]wg ug{ pko'Qm gLlt / ;+:yfut ;+oGqsf] ljsf; ug]{ . lsgeg] ljBdfg gLlt cg';f/ lhDd]jf/ lgsfo -u[x dGqfnodftxtsf lgsfox? h:t} If]qLo k|zf;g sfof{no, lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{no, Onfsf k|zf;g xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !!$
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn sfof{no cflb_ ljkbdf eGbf zflGt;'/Iffsf nflu g} a9L s]lGb|t 5g . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ c? ;fGble{s ;jfn÷ljifox?;“u ;dfof]hg ug{ k|To]s txsf] Ifdtf clej[l4 cfjZos 5 . – ;a} tx / ;a} If]qsf aLrdf alnof] ;dGjo / ;+oGq :yfkgf ug]{ . ;"rs @ clt hf]lvddf /x]sf] hg;+Vofsf] ;+s6f;Ggtf Go"gLs/0f ug{ ;fdflhs gLlt / of]hgfx?sf] sfof{Gjog . :jf:Yo dGqfnon] ljleGg lgsfox?sf] cfly{s / k|fljlws ;xof]udf g]kfnsf s]xL c:ktfnx?df u}/;+/rgfTds ;+s6f;Ggtfsf] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] 5 . ;fy} ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ;'emfjx?;d]t lbPsf] 5 . cTolws ;+s6f;Gg hg;+Vofsf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu aLdf, vfB ;'/Iff h:tf ljifodf /fli6«o:t/df s'g} kxn ePsf] 5}g . ;/sf/L / u}/;/sf/L lgsfox?n] vfB c;'/Iff ePsf 7fp“x?df 5'6 d"Nodf vfBfGg pknAw u/fpg] u/]sf] 5 . lgdf{0f P]g @)^$ s]xL gu/kflnsfx?df nfu" ePsf 5g . xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL M ;+:yfut k|lta4tf k|fKt . pknAwLx? g t kof{Kt g g} Aofks . ;Lldttf / r'gf}tL M – clwsf/k|fKt pko'Qm ;+:yfsf] cefj . – pko'Qm gLltsf] cefj . – ckof{Kt k|lzlIft dfgjLo ;|ft . ] – cfjZos k|ljlwsf] sdL . h:t} hn tyf df};d k"jf{gdfg dxfzfvf ' Pslbgsf] cg'dfg ug{ dfq ;Ifd 5 . ;'emfj M – ljkbsf] ;fdgf / pTyfgzLntf ljsf; ug{ hLljsf]kfh{g Pjd cfod"ns sfo{qmdx?sf] ljsf; . – k|:tfljt ljkb Aoj:yfkg P]g, /0fgLltsf] cg'df]bg . – clwsf/k|fKt ;+:yf . !!% xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn – k|lzlIft dfgjLo ;|ft . ] – cfjZos k|ljlwsf] k|of]u . ;"rs # cfly{s ultljlwdf ;+s6f;Ggtf Go"gLs/0f ug{ cfly{s / pTkfbgd"ns If]q s]lGb|t gLlt tyf of]hgfx?sf] sfof{Gjog . bzf}+ /fli6«o ljsf; of]hgf / tLg jifL{o cGtl/d ljsf; of]hgfn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / ljkb–ljsf;aLrsf] cGt/;DaGwnfO{ a9fjf lbg] eg]klg p2]Zo k|fKt ug{ s'g} klg lsl;dsf] cy{k0f{ sfo{qmd tyf ultljlwx? sfof{Gjog " ul/Psf] 5}g . /fli6«o s[lif gLlt @))$, /fli6«o cfjf; gLlt !((^, /fli6«o zx/L gLlt @))^ h:tf If]qut gLltx?df ljkbsf] ;jfnnfO{ ;d]l6Pklg sfof{Gjog kIf eg] lkmtnf] /x]sf] 5 . xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL M ;+:yfut k|lta4tf k|fKt . pknAwLx? g t kof{Kt g g} Aofks . ;Lldttf / r'gf}tL M b]zsf] ljkb ;+s6f;Gg cfly{s ultljlw / pTkfbg IF]qnfO{ klxrfg ug{ s'g} k|lqmofut cWoog ePsf] 5}g / hfgsf/L klg 5}g . g]kfn hLjg:t/ ;j]If0f !((^ / @))#÷@))$ n] cfly{s?kdf hf]lvdk"0f{ If]qsf] klxrfg u/]klg { cfly{s ;+s6f;Ggtf / ljkbsf] aLrdf cGt/;DaGw eg] b]vfPsf] 5}g . ;'emfj M – ;+s6f;Gg cfly{s ultljlwx?sf] af/]df k|of]ul;4 cWoog / ljZn]if0f ug]{ . – o:tf cWoog / cg';Gwfgdf lghL / ;fj{hlgs b'j} If]qnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg] . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ;jfnnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ ljlQo hf]lvd ljt/0f ;+oGq -h:t} aLdf_ / c? k|/0ffbfoL ljlQo of]hgfx?sf] ljsf; / k|j4{g ug]{ . ] ;"rs $ dfgj a;f]af; of]hgf / Aoj:yfkgdf lgdf{0f ;+lxtf;lxt ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf tTjx?nfO{ ;dfof]hg ug]{ . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !!^
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn e"–pkof]u of]hgfnfO{ k|To]s cfjlws ljsf; of]hgfdf dxTjsf ;fy k|lta4tf hgfOPsf] 5 . t/ b'ef{Uojz o;sf] sfof{Gjog / cg'udg eg] lkmtnf] 5 . lgdf{0f ;+lxtf gu/kflnsf If]qx?df clgjfo{ u/fOPsf] 5 . t/ ;f“rf] cy{df o;sf] cg'udg eg] x'g;s]sf] 5}g . xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL M ;+:yfut k|lta4tf k|fKt . pknAwLx? g t kof{Kt g g} Aofks . ;Lldttf / r'gf}tL M dfgj a;f]af; sfo{qmddf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;dfj]z ug]{ eGg] gLlt t aGof] t/ k|efjsf/L?kdf sfof{Gjog x'g;s]sf] 5}g . ;'emfj M /fli6«o lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] s8f?kdf kfngf ug]{ / e"–pkof]u of]hgfsf] cjnDag ug]{ . ;"rs % ljkb kZrftsf k'gnf{e / k'g:yf{kgf k|lqmofdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ;dfof]hg . ljBdfg ljkb;DaGwL gLlt / cEof;x?df ljkbkZrftsf ultljlwx? ‘kl5;Ddsf] nflu /fd|f’] cjwf/0ff cg'?k 5}g . xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL k|0ffnLut gLlt / ;+:yfut k|lta4tf ljgfsf] s]xL pknAwL . ;Lldttf / r'gf}tL M – ljBdfg ljkb Aoj:yfkg P]g -!(*@_n] ljkbkZrftsf ultljlwx?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ a]jf:tf u/]sf] 5 . – k|:tfljt ljkb Aoj:yfkg P]gn] klg cg'df]lbt x'g] cfzf ul/Psf] eGbf a9L ;do lnO/x]sf] 5 . !!& xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ;'emfj M – k|:tfljt ljkb Aoj:yfkg P]gsf] rf“8f] eGbf rf“8f] sfof{Gjog . – ;a} txdf Ifdtf j[l4 . ;"rs ^ k|dv ljsf; kl/of]hgf -ljz]iftM k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f_ x?df ljkb ' hf]lvd lgwf{/0f ug]{ k|lqmofsf] Aoj:yf . k|dv kl/of]hgfx?sf] of]hgf r/0fd} ljkb hf]lvd lgwf{/0fnfO{ ;dfj]z / ' ;+:yfut ug]{ s'/fdf ;/sf/ ;r]t 5 . h:t} jftfj/0fLo k|efj d"Nof+sg (EIA) sf] Aoj:yf . t/ klg k|efjsfl/tf j[l4sf] nflu gof“ ljkb Aoj:yfkg P]g nfu" x'g' h?/L 5 . xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL k|0ffnLut gLlt / ;+:yfut k|lta4tf ljgfsf] s]xL k|ult . ;'emfj M – ;a} ljsf; kl/of]hgf / sfo{qmdx?df ljkb k|efj lgwf{/0fnfO{ clgjfo{ agfpg] . – ;a} gof“ ljBfno, c:ktfn, k|dv ;fj{hlgs ;'ljwfx?, k"jf{wf/x? ;'/– ' lIft 5g / ljkbkl5sf] cj:yfdf klg lg/Gt/ sfo{ ug{ ;Ifd 5g eGg] ;'lglZrttf ug{ pko'Qm k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug]{ . k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $ sf /fd|f cEof;x? M – g]kfn ;/sf/n] :jf:Yo If]qsf] nflu cfkTsfnLg k"jtof/L / ljkb { k|ltsfo{ of]hgfsf] lgdf{0f u/]sf] 5 . – w]/} ;+3;+:yfx?n] jftfj/0fd}qL / hnjfo';r]t /xL cfcfkmgf ultljlwx? ;+rfng ul//x]sf 5g . – d'Vo c:ktfnx?, vfg]kfgL ljt/0f ;+/rgfx? Pjd s]xL ;+:yfut÷lghL ejgx?df ;+/rgfTds / u}/;+/rgfTds ;+s6f;Ggtf lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] 5 . – ljkbsf] ;fdgf ug{ ;gftg ljlwx?nfO{ klg dxTj lbg] k|rng a9b} uO– /x]sf] 5 . h:t} M :yfgLo 7fp“df ;'xfp“bf] j}slNks afnLsf] klxrfg / xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !!*
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn pkof]u, e"sDk k|lt/f]wfTds lgdf{0fdf ;gftg 1fgsf] k|of]u cflb . – ;d'bfo:t/df ul7t C0f tyf art ;d"xx?n] ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xnfO{ cfly{s ;xfotf lbg] Aoj:yf u/]sf] kfOG5 . pbfx/0f M d;L{ sk{; g]kfnn] g]kfn /]8qm; ;f];fO6L s}nfnL zfvf;“usf] ;xsfo{df s}nfnL lhNnfsf] rf/ uflj;sf 5j6f ;d'bfox?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL kl/of]hgf ;+rfng u/]sf] lyof] . kl/of]hgfn] :yfgLo ;|ftsf] k|of]u ub}{ ;Lkdf ] cfwfl/t k|ljlw / cEof;nfO{ k|j4{g u¥of] . yf]/} nfutdf aGg], ;lhnf];u “ dd{t;Def/ ug{ ;lsg] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf tl/sfnfO{ k|fyldstf lbOof] . To;dWo]s} Ps lyof] afof]–OlGhlgol/ª . afof]–OlGhlgol/ª sfo{sf] nflu !#(* ld6/ If]qkmndf ;:tf] / ;'ne af“; Pjd afn'jf el/Psf af]/fx?sf] k|of]u ul/of] . o:t} @& xhf/ #)) ju{ld6/df $# xhf/ lj?jfx? /f]lkP . o;n] ubf{ s[lifof]Uo hdLg, 3/x? / :yfgLo k"jf{wf/x?nfO{ hf]ufpg ;xof]u k'¥ofof] . tLg;o ld6/ afof]OlGhlgol/· sfo{n] km"naf/L uflj;sf] nlntk'/df !% ljufxf / x;'lnof uflj;sf] df]xgk'/df @) ljufxf v]tLof]Uo hdLgsf] ;+/If0f ePsf] :yfgLo jfl;Gbfx? atfp“5g . k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $ sfof{Gjog ug]{ /fli6«o /0fgLlt -k|:tfljt_ /0fgLlts ultljlw ! M k"jf{wf/x?sf] ljsf;;DaGwL of]hgf th'df tyf { sfof{Gjogdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL wf/0ffnfO{ PsLs[t ug]{ sfo{ . /0fgLlts ultljlw @ M dxTjk"0f{ ;fj{hlgs ;'ljwf, hLjgsf nflu geO{ gx'g] ;fwg tyf ef}lts k"jf{wf/x?sf] lgwf{/0f, ltgsf] ;+/If0f tyf ;'b9Ls/0f ug]{ sfo{ . [ /0fgLlts ultljlw # M ;LdfGts[t tyf blnt ;d"x, dlxnf ;d"x, ckf· tyf ;'ljwfaf6 al~rt ;d"x, aflnaflnsf tyf j[4j[4fx?sf] ;d"xh:tf ;dfhsf clt;+s6f;Gg !!( xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ;d"xx?sf nflu k|fyldstfsf cfwf/df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL ljz]if sfo{ q mdx?sf] ljsf; tyf sfof{Gjog ug]{ sfo{ . /0fgLlts ultljlw $ M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL sbdx?nfO{ ljkbkl5sf] k'gnf{e -recovery_ tyf k'gM:yfkg sfo{qmdsf] k|lqmofdf ;dfj]z ug]{ sfo{ . /0fgLlts ultljlw % M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{sf nflu j}slNks tyf gof“–gof“ cfly{ s ;fwgx?sf] ljsf; tyf k|j4{g ug]{ sfo{ . xof]uf] k|fyldstfsf] sfo{ % sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult ;a} txdf k|efjsf/L k|ltsfo{sf] nflu ljkb k"jtof/LnfO{ ;zQm kfg]{ . { ;"rs ! ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkgsf] nflu ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] cjwf/0ff;lxtsf] alnof] gLltut, k|fljlws / ;+:yfut Ifdtf . k|:tfljt ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg P]g / /0fgLltn] ljkb Aoj:yfkg rqmsf] ;a} tTjx?, bL3{sfnLg / lbuf] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷Aoj:yfkg / ljsf;–ljkb cGt;{DaGwnfO{ ;+nUg u/]sf] 5 . o:t} s]Gb|blv ;a} txdf :jfoQ ] ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg lgsfosf] :yfkgf ug]{ pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . t/ gLlt / of]hgfx?sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ;+:yfut k|lta4tfsf] cfjZostf /xG5 . xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL M s]xL k|ult . t/ k|0ffnLut gLlt / ;+:yfut Ifdtfsf] cefj . r'gf}tL M g]kfn åGåaf6 zflGt k|lqmofsf] tfls{s lgisif{tkm{ pGd'v /x]sf] 5 . o;n] ubf{ klg k|sf]ksf ;jfnx? cln cf]em]ndf kl//x]sf] 5 . o;sf afjh'b klg k|fljlws, ;fdflhs / cfly{s?kdf ;kmn /fd|f cEof; / ljlwx? sfof{Gjog eO/x]sf g} 5g . casf] jf:tljs r'gf}tL eg]sf] ;a} txdf a[xt Ifdtf clej[l4 xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !@)
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn / pkof]uL sfg"gL / gLltut jftfj/0f lgdf{0f u/L oL cEof;x?nfO{ cem prfO“df k'¥ofpg] g} xf] . uflj;b]lv s]Gb|Lo tx;Dd sfof{Gjog ;+oGqsf] cefj x'gklg csf]{ r'gf}tL xf] . ' ;'emfj M – k|:tfljt ljkb Aoj:yfkg P]g / /0fgLltx? kfl/t ug{sf] nflu jsfnt ug]{ . /fli6«o ljkb k|ltsfo{ k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; / sfof{Gjog ug]{ . – cfkTsfnLg k|ltsfo{ / k"jtof/Lsf of]hgfx?sf] ljsf; / sfof{Gjog ug{ { /fli6«o ljkb Aoj:yfkg k|flws/0f (NDMA) sf] :yfkgf ug]{ . b]zel/ g} cfkTsfnLg s]Gb|x?sf] ;+rfng ug]{ . – gLltlgdf{tf tyf lg0f{ostf{x?nfO{ nlIft u/L ufp“, lhNnfb]lv s]Gb|Lo tx;Dd Ifdtf j[l4 / ;r]tgf hufpg] lqmofsnfkx? Aofks agfpg] . – P]g / /0fgLltnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg Pjd ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ljsf; of]hgf / sfof{Gjogdf ;dfof]hg ug{ pko'Qm gLltlgodx? th'df { ug]{ . o;nfO{ zf;gsf] ;a} txdf ;dflji6 ug]{ . o;f] ubf{ ;a} k"jf{wf/x? ljkb pTyfgzLn x'G5g / dxTjk"0f{ ;'ljwfx? ljkbkl5 klg ;+rfngdf cfpg;S5g eGg] ;'lglZrttf ug{ ;lsG5 . – pko'Qm tflnd lgb]lzsfx? tof/ ug]{ / k|of]udf Nofpg] . { ;"rs @ ;a} k|zf;lgs txdf ljkb k"jtof/L of]hgf / ;DefAo of]hgfx?sf] { lgdf{0f . ljkb k|ltsfo{ sfo{qmdx? k/LIf0f / ljsf; ug{ lgoldt tflnd cEof; / l/x;{nsf] cfof]hgf . ;g @))) sf] z'?jfttfsf g} s]xL lhNnfdf ef}uf]lns ;"rgf k|0ffnL (GIS) df cfwfl/t lhNnf ljkb Aoj:yfkg of]hgfsf] ljsf; ul/Psf] lyof] . t/ ;dGjo / k|fljlws Ifdtfsf] cefjdf o;sf] k"0f{?kdf sfof{Gjog / cg'udg ePg . To;cl3 ;g !((# d} g]kfnn] /fli6«o ljkb Aoj:yfkg of]hgfsf] ljsf; u/L ljkb Go"gLs/0fsf] klxnf] ljZjAofkL ;Dd]ng -!(($_df k|:t't u/]sf] lyof] / ;/sf/n] klg !((^ df cg'df]bg u/]sf] lyof] . t/ ljljw sdhf]/L / sf/0fn] ubf{ o;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog x'g;s]g . lhNnf, gu/kflnsf / uflj; txdf k"jtof/L of]hgf cem} ;dfj]z ug{ af“sL 5 . /fxt { !@! xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ;fdu|Lx? /fhwfgL sf7df8f}df dfq geO{ hf]lvdk"0f{ lhNnfx?df klg k'¥ofpg + h?/L 5 . g]kfn /]8qm; ;f];fO6Ln] cfkTsfnLg cj:yfsf nflu eg]/ vfB / cGo ;fdu|Lx? ;+ux ug{ uf]bfdx? agfPsf] 5 . o:tf uf]bfdx? sDtLdf klg | lhNnftxdf lj:tfl/t ul/g'k5{ . ljkb k"jtof/L / k|ltsfo{df :jod;jssf] { ] ?kdf sfo{ ug{ o'jfx?nfO{ clek|l/t ug]{ jftfj/0f ;/sf/n] agfOlbg'kb{5 . ] xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL M s]xL k|ult . k|0ffnLut gLlt Pjd ;+:yfut k|lta4tfsf] cefj . ;Lldttf / r'gf}tLx? M – of]hgfa4 ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷Aoj:yfkg cfjZostf Pjd ljsf;– ljkbaLrsf] cGt/;DaGwaf/] sdhf]/ a'emfO . – ;a} txdf Ifdtfsf] sdL . – ;DalGwt sd{rf/Lx?df pTk|/0ffsf] sdL . ] – sfo{qmd lgdf{0f / sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ckof{Kt cfly{s ;|ft ljlgof]hg . ] ;'emfj M – ljkb k"jtof/LnfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fVg /0fg}lts of]hgfsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ . { – s]xL /0fg}lts :yfgx?df /fxt ;fdu|L ;+ux ug{ / p4f/ ;fdu|Lx? /fVg | uf]bfd3/x?sf] Aoj:yf ug]{ . – cfkTsfnLg ;dodf k|of]u ug]{ u/L cfkTsfnLg sf]if, To;nfO{ ;+rfng ug]{ lhDd]jf/ lgsfo / ;]jf k|bfosx? lglb{i6 ug]{ . – ;r]tgf tflnd, ;]jfsfnLg tflnd, :yfgLo ;|ftx?sf] kl/rfngåf/f ] uflj;:t/sf ;d'bfosf] cfkTsfnLg k|ltsfo{ Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug]{ . ;"rs # k|efjsf/L k|ltsfo{ / k'gnf{e sfo{df ;xof]u k'¥ofpg cfly{s ;l~rlt / ;DefAo ;+oGqx? . k|wfgdGqL ljkb /fxt sf]if / u[x dGqfnosf] lgoldt ljkb /fxt sf]if u/L b'O{ ;|ftaf6 ;/sf/n] k|ltsfo{ / k'gnf{e lqmofsnfknfO{ ;xof]u ub{5 . oL ] b'OdWo] cl3Nnf] sf]ifdf ljleGg /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o AolQm tyf ;+:yfn] { xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !@@
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn lbPsf] ;xof]u hDdf x'G5 eg] u[x dGqfnosf] sf]if lgoldt ;/sf/L ah]6af6 5'§ofOG5 . ;/sf/n] bft[ lgsfo tyf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?nfO{ pgLx?sf] jflif{s ah]6sf] sDtLdf klg !) k|ltzt /sd ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf 5'§ofpg k|fT;fxg ug'k5{ . To;}u/L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu uflj;b]lv s]Gb|;Dd ] { ;a} txdf pknAw ah]6df /fxt sf]if klg ;+nUg x'gkb{5 . ;/sf/n] ljkb ' k"jtof/L lqmofsnfkdf Aoj;flos hutnfO{ klg k|fT;fxg ug'k5{ . hLjg { ] { ;'/Iff, vf]hL tyf p4f/sf] nflu ;d'bfo:t/df tflndx? ;+rfng ul/g'kb{5 . xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL M ;fdfGo k|ult . gLlt / of]hgfdf cfufdL sfo{sf] nflu s]xL ;+st . ] ;Lldttf / r'gf}tLx? M – /fhg}lts k|lta4tf . – ckof{Kt ;|ft . ] ;'emfj M – hfgsf/L / cg'ejsf] cfwf/df ;|ftsf] ljlgof]hg . ] – ljkbsf] ;dodf k|efjsf/L 9+un] sfo{ ug]{ u/L k|fylds pkrf/, /fxt / p4f/sf sfo{x?sf nflu ;d"xx?sf] lgdf{0f ug]{ / :yfgLo ;+oGqnfO{ a9L nIo–pGd'v agfpg] . ;"rs $ k|sf]k 36gfsf] a]nfdf ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfg ug]{ / 36gfkl5 k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ k|lqmofx? . w]/} ;+3;+:yfx? cfk;L l;sfO cfbfgk|bfg ug]{ k"jof]hgf tof/ gu/L { ljkbsf a]nfdf dfq} ug]ub{5g . Pscsf{;u 1fg / cg'ejx? cfbfgk|bfg ug]{ { “ 7f]; / :yflkt d+rsf] ljsf; cem} /fd|f;u x'g;s]sf] 5}g . ;g !((^ df :yfkgf ] “ ePsf] DPNet -ljkb k"jtof/L ;+hfn_n] /fli6«o:t/df ;"rgf, cg'ej, 1fg { cfbfgk|bfg ug]{ sfo{ ul//x]sf] 5 . OCHA / /]8qm;n] Aojl:yt?kdf / cfjlws cj:yf k|ltj]bg -Situation Report_ x?sf] ljsf; / ljt/0f ub}cfPsf] 5 . { !@# xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn xfn;Ddsf] pknAwL M s]xL k|ult t/ k|0ffnLut gLlt / ;+:yfut k|lta4tfsf] cefj . ;Lldttf / r'gf}tLx? M ljkb Aoj:yfkg g]kfnsf] nflu gof“ ljifoj:t' xf] . lgs} yf]/} lgsfo / ;+3;+:yfx? dfq o; IF]qdf ;+nUg /x]sf 5g . o;}u/L ;/sf/L k|lta4tfsf] cefjdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL ;"rgf, hfgsf/L, 1fgx? cfbfgk|bfg ug]{ /fli6«o / lhNnf d+rx?sf] u7g x'g;s]sf] 5}g . lhNnftxdf ljkb ;"rgf Aoj:yfkg k|0ffnLnfO{ ljs]Gb|Ls[t ug'k5{ . j8f / ufp“:t/af6 k|sf]k / ljkb { k|efj;DaGwL tYof+sx? ;+sng ul/g'kb{5 . o;sf] nflu cfjZos ;+oGq / Ifdtfsf] ljsf; u/L lgoldt?kdf cBfjlws ul/g'kb{5 . ;'emfj M – ljkb ;"rgf Aoj:yfkg k|0ffnLsf] lhNnf:t/;Dd ljs]Gb|Ls/0f . – ljkb k"jtof/L of]hgfnfO{ ;zQm agfpg kZrljkb l;sfO / ;dLIffsf] { Aoj:yf . k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk % sf /fd|f cEof;x? M – ;/sf/n] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfnfO{ c+lusf/ u/]sf] 5 . – ljkbsf] If]qdf sfo{ ug]{ ;/sf/L lgsfo, ;+oQm/fi6« ;+3Lo k|0ffnL, ' cGt/f{li6«o / /fli6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?sf] ;+oQm k|of;df ljkb k"jtof/L ' { ;~hfn (DPNet) gfdsf] ;femf d~r u7g ePsf] 5 . o; ;~hfnn] xfn ljkb;DaGwL ;"rgf, 1fg, Ifdtf, jsfnt, cg'ej ;/f]sf/jfnfx?aLr ;f6f;f6 ug{ dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ub}cfPsf] 5 . { – ljkb;DaGwL kl/of]hgf ;+rfng ePsf IF]qx?df ljkb k"jtof/L / k|ltsfo{ { of]hgfx?sf] gd"gf tof/ ul/Psf] 5 . – sf7df8f}+ pkTosfleq dfq} bz :yfgx?df cfkTsfnLg p4f/ s]Gb|x? :yfkgf ul/Psf 5g . – nlntk'/ pkdxfgu/kflnsfdf ljkb k"jtof/L / k|ltsfo{ of]hgf (DPRP)sf] { xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !@$
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn sfo{;/rgf tof/ ul/Psf] 5 . o; of]hgfdf cfkTsfnLg cj:yfdf vfnL + u/fOg'kg]{ :yfgx?sf] klxrfg, vfg]kfgL ljt/0f k|0ffnL ;'b9Ls/0f nufot [ ;dflji6 5 . pbfx/0fM :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno ljkb Aoj:yfkg sfo{ of]hgf lgb]lzsf tof/ { ug]qmddf /x]sf] 5 . o;n] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfnfO{ k|0ffnLut?kdf / Ps?ktf;lxt { ;Daf]wg ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg]5 . w]/} ;+3;+:yfx?n] s]xL lhNnfx?df -h:t} lrtjg, gjnk/f;L, l;Gw'nL, dxf]Q/L_ ljkb Aoj:yfkg sfo{ of]hgf lgdf{0f u/]sf 5g . oL dWo] s]xLdf ;+/rgfut sdhf]/L b]lvPsf 5g eg] s]xLdf cfwf/e"t tTjsf] sdL / s]xLsf] sfof{Gjog tx lkmtnf] /x]sf] 5 . oL ;d:ofx? ;dfwfg ug{ / ljkb Aoj:yfkg sfo{df tNnf] txsf] klg ;xeflutf ;'lglZrt ug{ ca aGg] lgb]lzsfn] ;xof]u ug]5 . o;n] ;dsfnLg ;f]r / cEof;x? tyf { { ljkbsf If]qdf b]lvPsf kl5Nnf] tf}/tl/sfx?nfO{ klg ;d]6g5 . lgb]lzsfn] ] { ;di6Lut k|sf]k / vf; k|sf]k b'jnfO{ ;d]6g5 . lgb]lzsf tof/ ePkl5 } ] { gLltlgdf{0fb]lv ufp“tx;Dd o;nfO{ ;Dk|if0f ul/g]5 . ] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk % sfof{Gjog ug]{ /fli6«o /0fgLlt -k|:tfljt_ /0fgLlts ultljlw ! M /fli6«o?kdf PsLs[t ljkb ;xof]u k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug]{ tyf To;nfO{ nfu" ug]{ sfo{ . /0fgLlts ultljlw @ M d' n ' s e/ cfkTsfnLg sfo{ ; ~rfng s] G b| s f] Aoj:yfnufot cfkTsfnLg ;xof]u tyf k"jtof/Lsf] { ljsf; tyf sfof{Gjog ug]{ sfo{ . /0fgLlts ultljlw # M vfBfGg, cf}iflw, cGo p4f/ ;fdu|L tyf p4f/sf cf}hf/ tyf pks/0fsf] e08f/0fsf nflu dxTjk"0f{ :yfgx? -s]Gb|Lo, lhNnf, gu/kflnsf tyf ufp“ txdf_ uf]bfd3/ tyf klxn] g} ;fdfg e08f/0f ug]{ Ifdtfsf] :yfkgf cyjf ;'b9Ls/0f [ ug]{ sfo{ . !@% xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn /0fgLlts ultljlw $ M cfkTsfnLg kl/l:yltsf ;fy} k"jtof/Lsf r/0fdf { k|of]u ug{;lsg] ;'b9 ;~rf/ k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf ug]{ [ sfo{ . /0fgLlts ultljlw % M bIf oftfoft tyf k|aGwut Aoj:yfkg ;+oGqsf] :yfkgf ug]{ sfo{ . /0fgLlts ultljlw ^ M uflj; txsf ;d'bfonfO{ cfkTsfnLg ;dodf ;xof]u ug{;Sg] Ifdtfsf] clej[l4 ug]{ sfo{ . ljkb Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu gful/s ;dfh ;+u7gx?sf] ljZjAofkL ;~hfn (GNDR)n] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] sfof{Gjogdf ePsf] k|ult dfkg ug{ g]kfnnufot ljZjsf $* j6f /fi6«x?df Views From the Frontline gfds cg';Gwfg kl/of]hgf ;+rfng u/]sf] lyof] . g]kfndf e"sDk k|ljlw ;dfh–g]kfn (NSET) n] cg';Gwfgsf] g]tTj u/]sf] lyof] . tLgj6f k|dv ;/f]sf/jfnf [ ' ;d"xx? :yfgLo ;/sf/, gful/s ;dfh ;+u7g / ;d'bfodf cg';Gwfg s]lGb|t /x]sf] lyof] . d] @))( df k|sflzt o;sf] k|ltj]bgn] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] sfof{Gjog k|ult g]kfndf ;Gtf]ifhgs g/x]sf] 7x/ u/]sf] 5 . cg';Gwfg k|ltj]bgn] :yfgLo ;/sf/x?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{sf nflu :ki6 b[li6sf]0f, gLltlgod / ah]6sf] cefj /x]sf] cf}NofPsf] 5 . o:t} + cfwf/e"t ljkb k|ltsfo{df g} ;/sf/L ;+oGq ;Lldt /x]sf], lhDd]jf/Lx? 5/ki6 /x]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . :yfgLo ;/sf/x?nfO{ k|fljlws?kdfq xf]Og cfly{s?kn] klg ;xof]u ul/g'kg]{ Pjd :yfgLo ;/sf/x?sf] Ifdtf ljsf;nfO{ k|dv k|fyldstf lbOg'kg]{ ;'emfj lbOPsf] 5 . ' g]kfndf xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf sfof{Gjogdf gful/s ;dfh ;+u7gx?sf] ;+nUgtf ;a}eGbf alnof] /x]sf] cg';Gwfg k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v 5 . ;d'bfo / bft[lgsfosf] kx"rdf /xgfn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf ltgLx?sf] lqmofzLntf b]lvPklg “ ;du| /fi6«nfO{ eg] cem} ;Daf]wg ug{;s]sf 5}gg . kl/of]hgf If]q / kl/of]hgf cjlwdf dfq k|efj b]lvg', k|lzlIft hgzlQm / k|fljlws 1fgsf] ;Lldttf /xg' gful/s ;dfh ;+u7gsf] k|dv r'gf}tL /x]sf] lgisif{ lgsflnPsf] 5 . ' xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !@^
  • cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn o:t} bft[lgsfo, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf / ;/sf/L lgsfox?n] ;xof]u u/]sf ;d'bfox? ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0ftkm{ ;r]t, lqmofzLn /x]sf] t/ To:tf ;d'bfox?sf] ;+Vof lgs} g} yf]/} /x]sf] cg';Gwfgsf] lgrf]8 5 . oL aflx/sf ;d'bfox?df eg] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fk|lt Psbd} Go"g 1fg, r]tgf / ;lqmotf /x]sf] cf}NofOPsf] + 5. !@& xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo $ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pNn]Vo kIfx? xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !@*
  • ljifo;"rL k[i7 cWofo $ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pNn]Vo kIfx? !@*–!$@ s_ cGt/;DalGwt ;jfnx? !#) v_ e"ldsf / pQ/bfloTj !#@ u_ /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o d~r !#% !@( xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo $= xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pNn]Vo kIfx? M s_ cGt/;DalGwt ;jfnx? ! _ ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIo (Millenium Development Goal) M ul/aL Go"gLs/0f ug{ :yflkt ;a}eGbf lj:t[t, nlIft / ;dly{t ljZjAofkL kxn g} ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIo xf] . ;g @))) df !(! /fi6«x?n] of] nIo sfof{Gjogsf] k|lta4tf hgfp“b} x:tfIf/ u/]sf lyP . o;df cf7j6f nIo, !* j6f p2]Zo / $* j6f k|ult;"rsx? ;dflji6 ul/Psf 5g . ;g @)!% ;Dddf ljZjsf] ul/aLnfO{ ;g @))) sf] t'ngfdf cfwfdf emfg]{ o;sf] k|dv nIo xf] . ' ;g @))) df ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIo to ul/Psf] a]nf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ /0fgLltdf /flvPsf] lyPg . t/klg ;x;|fAbL 3f]if0ffdf eg] ‘k|fs[lts / dfgj–l;lh{t ljkbsf 36gf / To;sf] k|efj sd ug]’ k|lta4tf { hgfOPsf] lyof] . ljZjdf a9b} uO/x]sf] ljkbsf 36gf / To;sf] k|efj ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIosf] k|dv r'gf}tLx?dWo] Ps ag]sf] 5 . ul/aL Go"gLs/0fsf cltl/Qm ' lzIff ljsf;, n}lus ;dtf, :jf:Yo k|j4{g, jftfj/0fLo lbuf]kg h:tf ;x;|fAbL + ljsf; nIox? xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] klg k|dv ;/f]sf/ If]q leq kb{5 . xof]uf] ' sfo{ ;+/rgf / ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIo b'j} Ps} jif{ ;g @)!% df k"/f x'g] nIo lnOPsf] 5 . Pscsf{aLrsf] cGt/;DaGw / ;dGjo b'jsf] ;kmntfsf] nflu } ckl/xfo{ 5 . t;y{ ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIonfO{ k|fKt ug{ o;sf] d"Nof+sg lgb]lzsfdf { ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ klg ;dflxt ug'{ clt h?/L 5 . @_ ax'ksf]kLo kxn (Multi-hazard Approach)M | ;fdfGotof Pp6f ;d'bfo w]/} k|sf/sf k|sf]kx?sf] vt/fdf /x]sf] x'G5 . rfx] Tof] k|fs[lts (natural) xf];, dfgjhGo (human-induced) xf]; jf jftfj/0fLo (environmental), k|fBf]lusLo (technological), ef}ule{sLo } (geological), h}ljsLo (biological) cflb g} lsg gxf]; . t;y{ ax'ksf]kLo | kxnsbdLn] g} ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] k|efjsfl/tf a9fpg ;Sb5 . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !#)
  • cWofo $ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pNn]Vo kIfx? lglZrt k|sf/sf] k|sf]knfO{ 5gf}6 u/L sfof{Gjog ul/Psf sfo{qmdx?n] ljkb hf]lvdnfO{ k|efjsf/L?kdf ;fdgf ug{ ;Sb}g . ax'ksf]kLo kxn eGgfn] ;a} | k|sf/sf k|sf]kx?sf] 1fgnfO{ Pscsf{;u hf]8b} ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg, “ /fhg}lts /0fgLltx?, Aoj;flos d"Nof+sgx?, k|fljlws ljZn]if0fx?,;+rfng Ifdtfx? Pjd hgdfg;sf] a'emfOx?df ptfb}{ n}hfg] eGg] a'emgkb{5 h;af6 ' vr{–nfesf] b[li6 / sfo{ k|efjsfl/tfsf] lx;fadf 7"nf] pknAwL xft nfUg ;sf]; . # _ n}+lus b[li6sf]0f / ;f+:s[lts ljljwtf -Gender Perspective and Cultural Diversity_M ljkbsf] hf]lvd / ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f sfof{Gjogdf n}lus ;jfn + klg plQs} dxTjk"0f{ x'g cfp“5 . ljutdf ePsf ljkbsf 36gfx?n] s] hgfPsf] 5 eg] sd cfh{g ug]{ / ljljw sf/0fn] ;LdfGts[t ePsf -h:t} M j}jflxs cj:yf, zf/Ll/s b'antf, ;fdflhs / hftLo e]befj cflb_ dlxnfx?n] a9L { ;f:tL v]Kg' kl//x]sf] 5 . k|sf]ksf 36gfx?n] dlxnf / k'?ifnfO{ km/skm/s?kdf k|efljt kfb{5 . ;d'bfosf] txdf dlxnfx? ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg ug{ alnof] l:yltdf b]lvG5g lsgeg] pgLx? cfkm}+ k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] pkef]Qmf / Aoj:yfks ] x'gu/]sf 5g . t;y{ n}lus b[li6n] klg ljlzi6Ls[t ;"rgfsf] klxrfg / k|of]u ] + ul/g'kb{5 . ;fy} hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf /0fgLltx? k'?if / dlxnf b'jsf] e"ldsfnfO{ } Vofn ub}{ cjnDag ul/+b5 eGg] s'/fsf] ;'lglZrttf x'gkb{5 . } ' To;}u/L ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf lqmofsnfkx? /fHosf] lglZrt ;+/rgf cg'sn x'g] u/L ul/g'kb{5 . ljleGg /fi6«x?sf] km/s–km/s /fhg}lts, ;fdflhs, " cfly{s, ;f+:s[lts, jftfj/0fLo / k|sf]ksf kl/l:yltx?df tL lqmofsnfkx? lge{/ /xG5 . kl/df0ftM Ps 7fp“df ;kmn ePsf] sfo{qmd x'ax' p:t} ug{ vf]Hbf csf]{ 7fp“df klg ;kmn g} x'G5 eGg ;ls+bg . t;y{ c? 7fp“sf l;sfO cg'ej } / kf7x?, cEof;x?nfO{ n]vfhf]vf u/L :yfgLo ;Gbe{df To;sf] pko'Qmtf lgSof}n u/]/ dfq lqmofsnfkx? to ul/g'kb{5 . o;f] ubf{ ;f+:s[lts / eflifs { ljljwtf, wd{, hftLotf, /fhg}lts k|0ffnL, k|slt;“usf] P]ltxfl;s ;DaGw, [ ;d'bfo / kfl/jfl/s ;~hfn Pjd g]tTj k|0ffnL, k/Dk/fut clwsf/x? cflb [ OToflbaf/] Psbd} ;r]t /xg'kb{5 . oL tTjx?nfO{ ;'?jftd} x[boªud u/]/ dfq gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] th'df ul/g'kb{5 . { !#! xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo $ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pNn]Vo kIfx? $_ ;fd'bflos ;xeflutf -Community Participation_M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] k|efjsfl/tfsf]nflu hg;xeflutf geO{ x'bg . "} ;d'bfo ;lDdlnt eP/ lqmofsnfkx? th'df ul/P dfq tL cfjZostfdf { cfwfl/t 5g / jf:tljs ;+s6f;Ggtflj?4 pGd'v 5 eGg ;lsG5 . hgtfsf] ;"lrt–;xeflutfn] k|sf]ksf] a]nfdf b]lvg] ;d:of / cj;/nfO{ sd ug{ lgs} 7"nf] 6]jf k'¥ofp“b5 . ;xeflutfd"ns kxnsbdLn] k|sf]klj?4 k':tf}blv k|of]u +] x'b} cfPsf] ;gftg 1fg (indigenous knowledge) nfO{ cem k|efjsf/L " agfp“b5 . :yfgLo cjwf/0ffx?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf lqmofsnfk / lg0f{ox?df ;dfof]hg ug{ ;lsof] eg] ljkbsf] hf]lvd / ;+s6f;GgtfnfO{ ;d'bfon] klxrfg u/]sf] 5 eGg] ;'lglZrttf x'G5 . hg;xeflutfn] ;+:yfut k|lqmofx?df, hf]lvd n]vfhf]vf sfo{df / gLlt sfo{qmd th'df ubf{ klg { k|ToIfk/f]If?kdf ;kmntfsf] nflu ;xof]u k'¥ofO/x]sf] x'G5 . % _ Ifdtf ljsf; -Capacity Building_ M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] s]Gb|ljGb'df /x]sf] /0fgLlt g} Ifdtf ljsf; xf] . gful/s, ;+u7g / ;d'bfon] ljkbsf] hf]lvdnfO{ cfkm}n] Aoj:yfkg ug{ ;Sg] + agfpg Ifdtf ljsf; ckl/xfo{ 5 . Ifdtf ljsf; eGgfn] tflnd / ljlzi6 k|fljlws ;xfotf dfq xf]Og, cfkmgf] ;d'bfosf] ljkb hf]lvd klxrfg ug]{ / hf]lvd sd ub}{ n}hfg] IfdtfnfO{ cem ;'b9 t'Nofpg' klg xf] . o; cGtu{t lbuf] [ k|ljlw x:tfGt/0f, ;"rgfsf] cfbfgk|bfg, ;+oGq ljsf;, Aoj:yfksLo ;Lk, Aoj;flos ;Da4tfx?, ;|ft kl/rfng cflb klg kb{5g . Ifdtf ljsf;sf ] sfo{qmdx? tL ;+:yfx?af6 dfq} lbuf] x'g;S5 h;n] o;}nfO{ cfkmgf] :yfoL p2]Zo agfPsf] xf]; . v_ e"ldsf / pQ/bfloTj xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfn] o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf ;DaGwdf ljleGg lgsfox?sf] pQ/bfloTj aofg u/]sf] 5 . o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf] k|dv pQ/bfloTj /fHosf] ' x'g] ePtfklg ljleGg ;/f]sf/jfnfx?aLrsf] ;xsfo{ / ;dGjosf] dxTjk"0f{ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !#@
  • cWofo $ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pNn]Vo kIfx? :yfg /xG5 . o;}u/L If]qLo / cGt/f{li6«o ;+:yfx?sf] of]ubfg klg k|wfg /xG5 . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfnfO{ d"t?k lbg United Nations International Strategy { on Disaster Reduction (UNISDR)sf] e"ldsf lgs} g} dxTjk"0f{ 5 / UNISDR nfO{ ljz]if pQ/bfloTjx? klg lbOPsf] 5 . ISDR k|0ffnLn] /fli6«o gLlt tyf ;dGjofTds ;+oGqnfO{ ;xof]u ub{5 . ;fy} If]qLo / cGt//fli6«o:t/df ;dGjo, ;xhLs/0f / /fd|f k|of;x?sf] cfbfgk|bfg ug{ pTk|l/t ub{5 . ;fy} sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] k|ultsf] k'g/fjnf]sg ug], b:tfj]hx? ] { tof/ kfg]{ tyf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf k|of;x?nfO{ k|j4{g / sfof{Gjogsf] nflu gLltlgdf{tf / lg0f{ostf{x?sf] nflu ;fwgsf] ljsf; ug]{ h:tf sfo{x? klg o;n] ub{5 . /fHosf] e"ldsf / pQ/bfloTj – /fli6«o ;dGjo ;+oGqsf] ljsf; ug]{ . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] cfwf//]vf lgwf{/0f ug]{ . – /fli6«o sfo{qmdx?sf] ;f/nfO{ k|sfzg / cBfjlws ul//fVg] . – xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf k|fyldstf / p2]Zox? xfl;n eP gePsf] af/] /fli6«o?kdf k|ult k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ . – ;fGble{s cGt//fli6«o sfg"gL dfGotfsf] sfof{Gjog ug]{ . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ hnjfo' kl/jt{g /0fgLlt;“u hf]8g] . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfdf o;nfO{ s'g dGqfnosf] pQ/bfloTj cGtu{t /fv]/ sfof{Gjog ug]{ eGg] pNn]v 5}g . t;y{ /fli6«o lxt cg';f/ /fHon] k|of]u ug{ ;Sb5 . oBkL ljkbsf] hf]lvd ;a} If]qx?df /xg] x'gfn] x/]s dGqfnon] pko'Qm ;hutf / rf;f] /fVg' h?/L x'G5 . clwsf+z /fi6«x?n] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f, cfsl:ds Aoj:yfkg, gful/s ;'/Iffsf nflu 5'§} dGqfno, ;+oGq jf lgsfo u7g u/]sf 5g . t;y{ oxL dGqfno jf ;+oGq jf lgsfonfO{ g} xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] sfof{Gjog, k|j4{g / ;xhLs/0fsf] lhDd]jf/L lbg' /fd|f] x'G5 . !## xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo $ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pNn]Vo kIfx? If]qLo ;+:yfx?sf] e"ldsf /fHon] cfkmgf] 3/leqsf k|of;x? afx]s ljkb Go"gLs/0faf/] cGt//fli6«o / If]qLo ;+:yfx?;“u klg ;dGjo j[l4 ug'kg]{ x'G5 . t;y{ If]qLo ;+u7gx?n] lgDg { sfo{x? ug{ ;Sb5g M – If]qLo sfo{qmdx? k|j4{g u/]/ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ . h:t} k|fljlws ;xof]u . – If]qLo:t/df cfwf//]vf lgwf{/0f ug]{ / k|ultsf] k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ . – If]qLo ;xsfo{ s]Gb|x?sf] ljsf; tyf If]qLo k"jrtfjgL Ifdtf ljsf;df { ] ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] . cGt/f{li6«o ;+:yfx? / ISDR sf] e"ldsf / pQ/bfloTj cGt/f{li6«o ;+:yfx? / vf;u/L ISDR n] lgDg pNn]lvt lqmofsnfkx?sf] dfWodaf6 /fli6«o tyf If]qLo k|of;x?nfO{ ;xof]u / k|fT;fxg ug'kb{5 . ] { – ljkb hf]lvdk"0f{ b]zx?sf sfo{qmdx?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;dflxt ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ . – ljZjAofkL?kdf tYof+s ;+sng / k"jf{gdfg Pjd ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfgnfO{ ' k|j4{g ug]{ . – /fd|f cEof;x? / lgb]zsLo ;fdu|Lx? nufotsf ;"rgf >f]tx?sf] ljsf; { ug]{ . – ;+oQm /fi6«;3 / cGo ;+u7gx?sf] k|of;x?sf] ;dGjosf] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . ' + – xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf sfof{Gjog ug{] ;DaGwdf ;/sf/nfO{ plrt ;Nnfx ;'emfj / ;xof]u k|bfg ug]{ . – xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf sfof{Gjogsf] k|ultaf/] cfjlws k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !#$
  • cWofo $ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pNn]Vo kIfx? u_ /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o d~r ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f cGt/f{li6«o d~r ;g @))^ df ;+oQm /fi6«;3sf dfgjLo ;jfn;DaGwL ;xfos dxf;lrjn] ' + -ISDRsf] cWoIfsf] x}l;otdf_ ISDR k|0ffnLsf] ;'b9Ls/0f ug]{ Aojxfl/s [ tl/sfx? to ug{ / xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf sfof{Gjogdf ;/sf/x?nfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ af/]df a[xt 5nkmn rnfP . Tof] 5nkmnn] klxrfg u/]sf k|dv k|:tfjx?dWo] ' Ps lyof] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] cGt/f{li6«o d~r v8f ug]{ . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f cGt/f{li6«o d+rnfO{ ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] k|dv ' d+rsf] ?kdf ljsf; ug]{ b[9tf AoQm ul/Psf] 5 . -;/f]sf/jfnfx? eGgfn] ;/sf/x?, ;+/f;+3sf lgsfox?, cGt/f{li6«o ljlQo ;+:yfx?, If]qLo c+ux?, gful/s ;dfh, lghL IF]q, j}1flgs / ljåt ;d'bfo cflb ._ of] d+rn] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] sfof{Gjogdf /0fg}lts dfu{lgb]zg lbg] Pjd { ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?aLr cg'ej / lj1tf ;f6f;f6 ug]{ sfo{x?sf] cGt/f{li6«o?kdf g]tTj k|bfg ul//x]sf] 5 . o; d+rsf k|dv sfo{x?nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ AofVof [ ' ul/Psf] 5 M s_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ;r]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ M – ljsf; / hnjfo' kl/jt{g cg'sngsf] k|dv kIfsf] ?kdf ljZjAofkL?kdf " ' ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] dxTjnfO{ cl3 a9fpg] . o;nfO{ ‘;a}sf] ;/f]sf/’sf] ljifosf] ?kdf kl/eflift u/L hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ . – xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf sfof{Gjogsf] nflu gLlt lgdf{tf txsf] k|lta4tf ;'lglZrt ug]{ . v_ cg'ej ;f6f;f6 ug]{ M – /fd|f cEof;x?af6 l;Sg] / ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu /fi6« / ;d'bfonfO{ dfu{lgb]zg ug]{ . { !#% xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo $ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pNn]Vo kIfx? u_ ISDR k|0ffnLnfO{ lbzflgb]z ug]{ M { – xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf sfof{Gjogdf ePsf k|ultx?sf] lgwf{/0f ug]{ . k|dv ' ;d:ofx?, jfwfAojwfgx? / hNbf]aNbf] ;jfnx?sf] klxrfg u/L cfjZos ;Daf]wg ug]{ . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf cGt/f{li6«o ;d'bfosf] ;xof]u / ;+ul7t sfo{nfO{ a9fjf lbg] . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f cGt/f{li6«o d+rnfO{ ;xof]u ug{ k"j:yflkt ;~hfn / { ;+oGqx?sf] lgdf{0f ul/Psf] 5 eg] ljleGg ljifout d+rx? -ljz]iftM k|fljlws / j}1flgs ljifo ;DalGwt_ klg v8f ul/Psf] 5 . ;fy} d+r cGtu{t ‘lj1fg ;ldlt’ klg :yfkgf ug'kg]{ k|:tfj ul/Psf] 5 h;n] k|fljlws / j}1flgs { ;jfnx?df cfjZos ;xof]u k'¥ofpg ;sf]; . ;fdfGotof k|To]s b'O{ jif{df Psrf]l6 h]gefdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f cGt/f{li6«o ] d+rsf] a}7s x'g] to ul/Psf] 5 . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f cGt/f{li6«o d~rsf] klxnf] a}7s ;g @))& sf] h'g %–& ;Dd :jL6h/Nof08sf] h]gefdf a;]sf]] lyof] . ;f] a}7sdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] r'gf}tL / cj;/x?, o;nfO{ /fli6«o k|fyldstfdf kfg]{ / If]qut ;jfnx?df ;dflxt ug], xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf { sfof{Gjogdf k|efjsfl/tf Nofpg] nufotsf ljifodf 5nkmn ePsf] lyof] . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f cGt/f{li6«o d+rsf] bf]>f] Pjd kl5Nnf] a}7s ;g @))( sf] h'g !^ b]lv !( ;Dd h]gefdf g} a:of] . ;f] a}7sdf !$) /fi6«x?, %$ cGt/ ] b]zLo ;+u7gx?, $# u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfsf u/L !&*% hgfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . a}7sdf cf}krfl/s / cgf}krfl/s k"0f{;qx?sf] cnfjf kf“rj6f pRr:t/Lo lj1 a}7s, kf“rj6f uf]nd]r a}7s / $) eGbf a9L ljz]if sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng ul/Psf lyP . ;f] a}7sn] ;g @)!% ;Dddf ljkbsf] sf/0f x'g] d[To'nfO{ cfwf sd ug{ ljZj ;d'bfonfO{ cfxjfg u/]sf] 5 . rf/lbg;Ddsf] a[xb 5nkmnsf] cfwf/df lgDg tLgj6f ljlzi6 nIox? ;d]t to ul/Psf 5g M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !#^
  • cWofo $ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pNn]Vo kIfx? !_ ;g @)!) ;Dddf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o?kdf :ki6 cfly{s k|lta4tfx? lgdf{0f ug]{ . pbfx/0fsf] nflu dfgjLo ;xfotf / k'glg{df{0f ah]6sf] sDtLdf klg !) k|ltzt, ljsf; ah]6sf] sDtLdf klg ! k|ltzt / hnjfo' kl/jt{g cg'sng sf]ifsf] sDtLdf klg #) k|ltzt ah]6 " ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu 5'§ofpg] . @_ ;g @)!! ;Dddf ljZjAofkL?kdf ;a} ljBfno / c:ktfnx?sf] ;+/rgfTds d"Nof+sg ug]{ . ;g @)!% ;Dddf ljkb hf]lvd /fi6«x?df ‘;'/lIft ljBfno / c:ktfn’sf] cjwf/0ff cg'?k sfo{ of]hgf ljsf; / sfof{Gjog ug]{ . ;g @)!% ;Dddf ljkb hf]lvd /fi6«x?f] ljBfno kf7oqmddf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;dfj]z ug]{ . #_ ;g @)!% ;Dddf ljkb hf]lvdo'Qm k|dv zx/x?sf] lgdf{0f / e"pkof]u ' ;+lxtfdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;dfj]z ug]{ / nfu" u/fpg] . ;+oQm/fi6« ;+3Lo dfgjLo ;jfn pkdxf;lrj hf]g xf]Nd;n] clGtd ;qsf] ' cWoIftf ub}{ ;dfkg dGtAodf lgDg IF]qx?nfO{ dxTjk"0f{?kdf x]g{] hf]8 lbg'ePsf] lyof] . – hnjfo' kl/jt{g M ;g @))( l8;]Da/df sf]kgx]ugdf x'g] ;+oQm/fi6« ;+3Lo ' hnjfo' ;Dd]ngdf hnjfo' kl/jt{g ;xdltsf] 7f]; lx:;fsf] ?kdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /xg'kb{5 . – hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f M /fli6«o÷:yfgLo ;/sf/sf] gful/s ;dfh;“usf] ;xsfo{ / lge{/tfn] g} hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / hnjfo' kl/jt{g cg'sng " ;kmntfnfO{ lgwf{/0f ul/g'kb{5 . – ljlQo nufgL M ljljw pTk|/s sfo{x?df hf]8 lbOg'kb{5 . h:t} M k|anLs/0f ] (retrofitting) df k|fT;fxg, hf]lvd x:tfGt/0f ljlw, hf]lvd–;+jbgzLn ] ] ljsf;, lghL If]qsf] nufgL cflb . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f nIo lgwf{/0f M ;g @)!% ;Dddf ljkbsf sf/0fn] x'g] d[To'df cfwf sdL NofOg'kb{5 . !#& xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo $ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pNn]Vo kIfx? a}7ssf ;xefuLx?n] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] dWofjlw k'g/fjnf]sg a}7sdf o;sf] sfof{Gjog k|ultsf] /0fg}lts / cfwf/e"t tTjx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ hf]8 lbPsf lyP . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~r xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf @))%–@)!%nfO{ k|efjsf/L 9+un] sfof{Gjog ug]{ k|lta4tfnfO{ Jojxf/df ptf/L /fi6«nfO{ ;d'lrt 9+uaf6 ;'b9 t'Nofpg] / ;d'bfonfO{ ;an [ u/fpg] ;Gbe{df Ps?ktf sfod u/fpg ;lsPdf nlIft p2]Zo k|flKtdf ;xhtf cfpg] ;f]r /fv]/ h'g %–&, @))& df h]gefdf ;DkGg ljZj sfo{d~rsf] ] ;Dd]ngn] /fli6«o d~rsf] vfsf lgwf{/0f u/]sf] lyof] . pQm lzv/ ;Dd]ngdf ljkbhGo d'nsx?af6 k|ltlglwTj u/]sf pRrtxsf ' gLlt lg0ff{osx?sf] ;fy} ljkb Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL sfo{df cfj4 u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf, lzIf0f ;+:yfx? Pj+ lghL If]qsf ljlzi6 JolQmTjx?sf] ;xdltn] /fli6«o d+rsf] :yfkgfnfO{ ljz]if hf]8 lbOPsf] 5 . ;f] cg';f/ /fli6«o lgb]zg P]g @)!* sf] { clwgdf /xL @)^% sflQs !@ ut] g]kfndf klg ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~r btf{ ul/of] . @)^^ h]7 !( ut] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] klxnf] a}7s a;]sf] 5 . o; d~rn] /fli6«o sfo{ of]hgfsf] dfWodaf6 ul/g] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] sfof{Gjogdf cu|0fL / g]tTjbfoL [ e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ ljwfg k|:tfjgfdf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . /fli6«o sfo{d~r u7gsf nflu @)^$ df u[x dGqfnon] agfPsf] ;'emfj ;ldltsf] k|ltj]bgnfO{ cfwf/ dflgPsf] lyof] . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rsf] p2]Zox? lgDg /x]sf 5g M s_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{dr /fli6«o:t/df k|ltlglwTj ug]{ + ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] o:tf] d+r x'g5, h;n] ljleGg txx?df x'g] ljkb hf]lvd ] Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL sfo{x?sf] ax;, k}/jL, ;dGjo / ljZn]if0f nufot k|fyldstfsf xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !#*
  • cWofo $ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pNn]Vo kIfx? If]qx?sf] ;Gbe{df ;'emfj lbg] Pjd ;dGjofTds Pj+ ;xeflutfd"ns gLlt, of]hgf / sfo{qmdx?nfO{ d"nwf/df NofO{ cufl8 a9g5 .] v_ b]zleq ul/g] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL ;d:t sfo{x?nfO{ d"nk|jfxdf ;dflxt u/]/ ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ Pp6} ynf]df hDdf u/L Jojl:yt?kdf 5nkmn u/L ;femf cjwf/0ffsf] ljsf; Pj+ /fli6«o ;xdltsf] jftfj/0f agfpg]tkm{ ;zQm?kdf k|of; ug]5 . { u_ ljkb Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL sfo{ hl6n ePsf]n] oL ;DaGwdf /fhg}lts k|lta4tf, hg;/f]sf/, ;Lk Pj+ j}1flgs 1fg, cfd hgtfsf] lxt cg'snsf] " k"jrtfjgL k4lt / ljkb;u ;DalGwt cGo dxTjk"0f{ ljifox?df ;/f]sf/ { ] + /fVg]x?aLr e/kbf]{ ;+oGqsf] ljsf; ug]5 . { 3_ /fli6«o ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf lqmofsnfkx?sf] sfof{Gjogdf kyk|bz{g Pj+ ;'wf/fTds sfo{x? ug]5 . { ª_ gful/s ;dfh, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf Pj+ lghL If]qsf ;Da4 ;+:yfx?nfO{ ;d]t ljkb Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{x?df k|efjsf/L ?kn] ;+nUg u/fO{ pko'Qm:t/df ;+jfb, 5nkmn nufotsf] sfo{x? ;+rfng ug{5 / cGonfO{ o:tf] sfo{ ;+rfng ] ug{df d2t k'¥ofpg]5 . r_ ldq/fi6« Pj+ cGo cGt/f{li6«o lgsfox?sf ;fy} /fli6«o kbflwsf/Lx?;+usf] ;+jfb / ;fem]bf/Ldf ;xhtf Nofpg]5 . 5_ 1fg / ;"rgfsf] ;fem]bf/L Pj+ k|ljlw :yfgfGt/0fdf clej[l4 Nofpg] sfo{ ;dfof]hg ug]5 . { h_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ;fem]bf/x?sf] cGt/;DaGwaf6 /fli6«o, If]qLo / ljZjsf ;Da4 lgsfox?sf] ;DaGwdf lj:tf/ ug]{ sfo{df ;3fp k'¥ofpg]5 . em_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] nflu vf“rf] kg]{ Jojl:yt ;xof]usf nflu ;Da4 ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] ;xeflutfdf ;an ;+oGqsf] :yfkgf ug]5 / ;du|df ljkbaf6 kg{;Sg] k|lts"n k|efjnfO{ Go"g ub}{ n}hfg { /fi6«nfO{ ;zQm t'NofO{ ;j{;fwf/0f hgtfsf] dfgjLo tyf ef}lts ;'/Iffsf] k|Tofe"lt ;'lglZrt t'Nofpg] ;DaGwL sfo{ ug]5 . { `_ /fli6«o sfo{ of]hgfsf] dfWodaf6 ul/g] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] sfof{Gjogdf cu|0fL / g]tTjbfoL e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]5 . [ { !#( xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo $ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pNn]Vo kIfx? 6_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f sfo{df ;3fp k'¥ofO{ ;'/Iff / ;jnLs/0fsf] ;fj{hlgs bfloTjaf/] gful/sx?aLr r]tgf j[l4 ug]5 . { 7_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ljifonfO{ ljsf; ;DaGwL gLlt, sfo{gLlt tyf lqmofsnfkdf ;dflxt u/fpg jsfnt / k}/jL ug'sf ;fy} o; ljifonfO{ ax'kIfLo { jftfj/0fLo ;Demf}tfsf] cleGg kIfsf ?kdf ;dfj]z u/fpg]5 . 8_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL /fli6«o:t/df ;+of]hg ul/g] ;Da4 ;a} sfo{df ;xeflutf hgfpg]5 . pk/f]Qm p2]Zox? k|fKt ug{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d~rn] lgDg sfo{x? ug]{ pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 M s_ ;+:yfn] k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"g adf]lhd ;DalGwt lgsfoaf6 cg'dlt jf O{hfht k|fKt ul/ dfq cfkmgf p2]Zox? sfof{Gjog ug]{ . v_ ;+:yfnfO{ cfjZos kg]{ ejg lgdf{0f ug]{ jf ef8fdf jf lnhdf lng]5 / sDKo'6/, 6]lnkmf]g, 6fO{k/fO6/, kmofS; h:tf sfof{no ;fdfg tyf ;jf/L ;fwg vl/b ug]{ jf ef8fdf lnO{ k|of]u ug]{ . u_ ;+:yfnfO{ cfjZos kg]{ sd{rf/L lgo'Qm ug]{ tyf ltgsf] ;]jfsf ;t+x? lgwf{/0f { ug]{ . 3_ ljkb Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL gLlt, sfg"g tyf sfo{k0ffnLsf] sfof{Gjogsf nflu | pRr gLlt lgdf{0f tx / ;Da4 kIfsf] ;lqmo ;xeflutf xfl;n ug{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf ;Djfb, jsfnt / k}/jLsf] cleofg ;+rfng ug]{ . ª_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu cfwf/e"t ;"rgf k|0ffnLsf] Joj:yfkg ug]{ . r_ ljkb Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL /fli6«o gLlt, /0fgLlt / ljsf; sfo{qmdx? th'df ug{ { tyf >f]t kl/rfng / Ifdtf ljsf;sf k|of;df ;xeflutf Pj+ ;xof]u ug]{ . 5_ ljkb hf]lvd ;DaGwL ;/f]sf/ / r'gf} tLsf] d"Nof+sg ljZn]if0f ug], ljkb { hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf k|fyldstfsf If]qx?sf] lgwf{/0f ug'sf ;fy} ;+s6fled'v { l:yltdf /x]sf dfgj–j:tL ;d]tsf] klxrfg ug{ ;3fpg] . h_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ;+rflnt ljsf; of]hgf / sfo{k0ffnLsf]| ;dLIff u/L ;sf/fTds pknAwLnfO{ ;+:yfut ?kdf lg/Gt/tf lbg PsLs[t k|oTg ug]{ . em_ ljkbu:t Pj+ cToGt hf]lvdo'Qm If]qsf hgtfsf] hf]lvd Go"g u/fpg | xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !$)
  • cWofo $ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pNn]Vo kIfx? /fli6«o d+rsf] ;b:ox? aLr ;xsfl/tf / ;fem]bf/L k|a4{g ug]{ . `_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / pknAwL ;DaGwL lzIffk|b kf7 / cg';/0fLo sfo{sf] k|nv tof/ ug]{ / cfk;df cfbfg k|bfg ug]{ . o; cGt/ut d'nssf] ] ' lzIff k|0ffnL / ;+rf/ dfWodaf6 k|jfx ul/g] 1fg / ;"rgfdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ljifonfO{ Jojxf/ kl/jt{gsf] sfo{;rLdf ;dfj]z ug{ ljz]if k|oTg ug]{ . " 6_ ljkb Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL cflh{t 1fg, ;Lk / ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfg ug]{ / tt;DaGwL k|ljwL x:tfGt/0f ug{ ;xh ug]{ . 7_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfnfO{ /fli6«o:t/df ;dGjofTds sfof{Gjogsf nflu sfo{dns of]hgf;lxt kl/0ffdd'vL sfo{tflnsf agfO{ ;f] sf] sfof{Gjog " u/fpg] . o; cGt/ut s]Gb|Lo tyf ;d'bfo:t/af6 ePsf sfo{x?sf] cg'udg u/L k|ltj]bg tof/ ug]{ / ;fj{hlgs u/L cg'kf]if0f k|fKt ug]{ . k|fKt cg'kf]if0f tyf ;'emfjnfO{ ;'wf/fTds sfo{sf] cfwf/sf ?kdf cfTd;ft ug]{ . 8_ /fHosf] lbuf] ljsf;;DaGwL sfo{;rL / k|fyldstfdf ljkb Joj:yfkgsf] " ljifonfO pko'Qm p2]Zok/s ;xeflutfsf nflu k|/0ffbfoL e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ . ] o; cGt/ut vf;u/L ul/aL lgjf/0f /0fgLlt, ;x>fAbL ljsf; nIo, ;+oQm ' /fi6«;3Lo ;xof]u ;+/rgf, låkIfLo tyf ax'kIfLo ljsf; ;+emf}tf . + 9_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ljifonfO{ ;a} k|sf/sf dfgjLo ;xfotf ;DaGwL sfo{nufot ljsf; cjwf/0ff, of]hgf / sfo{qmddf PsLs[t ug]{ . To;}u/L hnjfo' kl/jt{g, h}ljs ljljwtf / d?e"lds/0f h:tf dxTjk"0f{ k|fs[lts jftfj/0f;DaGwL ax'kIfLo ;lGw ;Demf}tfdf ;d]t o; ljifonfO{ k|fylds ;/f]sf/sf ?kdf :yflkt ug{ k|oTgzLn /xg] . 0f_ /fli6«o:t/df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;+u ;DalGwt lbuf] ljsf;, jftfj/0f / hnjfo' kl/jt{g;DaGwL ;Dks{ PsfO{, k|fljlws ;ldlt, k|fl1s tyf cg';Gwfg ;+:yf h:tf kIf;+u ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ ;+jl4 ug]{ . [ t_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] sfo{nfO{ ax'kIfLo ;/f]sf/sf ?kdf :yflkt u/L gful/s ;dfh / u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf lghL If]q Pj+ ;fd'bflos ;d"xaLr ;xsfo{ / ;Djfbsf] dfWodaf6 cj;/ ;[hgf ug], pgLx?sf] Ifdtf clej[l4 { u/L a9L of]ubfg ug{ ;Sg] t'Nofpg], ;/sf/L lgsfo tyf ;+oQm /fi6«;3Lo ' + k|0ffnL nufot cGo cGt/fli6«o ljsf; ;d'bfo;“u;d]t ;xsfo{ / ;fem]bf/Ldf sfo{ ug{ ;Ifd t'Nofpg cfjZos k|of; ug]{ . !$! xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • cWofo $ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pNn]Vo kIfx? y_ ljkb Joj:yfkg;DaGwL ax'cfoflds /fli6«o cg';Gwfg k|0ffnLsf] ljsf;sf nflu k|oTg ug]{ . o; cGt/ut pkof]uL j}1flgs cjwf/0ff, ljlwut ;+/rgf / sfo{dns b[li6sf]0fsf nflu k|fT;fxg / ;xh sfo{ ug]{ . " ] b_ ljleGg d'ns ;lDdlnt If]qLo tyf cGt//fli6«o:t/df :yflkt d~r ' (Regional and Global Platforms) ;+u ;dGjo / ;Dks{ u/L ;xsfo{sf ;+efjgf klxrfg ug]{ / ;fd"lxs k|of;df ;lqmo ;xeflutf ug]{ . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o sfo{d+rsf] tby{ ;ldlt cWoIfM 8f= uf]ljGbk|;fb s';d -;lrj, u[x dGqfno_ ' pkfWoIfM ab|L vgfn -l8lkg]6 g]kfn_ ;lrjM z+s/k|;fb sf]O/fnf -;x;lrj, u[x dGqfno_ sf]iffWoIfM cfdf]bdl0f bLlIft -e"sDk k|ljlw ;dfh g]kfn_ ;b:oM ;'/zk|sfz cfrfo{ -;x;lrj, ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfno_ ] M ly/axfb'/ hL=;L= -pk;lrj, u[x dGqfno, k|sf]k Aoj:yfkg zfvf_ M pQd ?kfv]tL -g]kfnL ;]gf_ M cf]dz+s/ d'NdL -o"Pg8LkL_ M bLk]Gb|k?if 9sfn -g]kfn ljkb Aoj:yfkg s]Gb|_ ' M 8f= hLj/fh kf]v/]n -OlGhlgol/· cWoog ;+:yfg, lqljlj_ M ljb'/ d}gfnL -g]kfn gu/kflnsf ;+3_ M lji0f'k;fb v/]n -cS;kmfd g]kfn_ | M Zofd;'Gb/ 1jfnL -PS;g P8 g]kfn_ M s[i0fs'df/ s];L -g]kfn /]8qm; ;f];fO6L_ M /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] -Osf] g]kfn÷kof{j/0f dfl;s_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !$@
  • xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • ACRONYMS ADRC : Asian Disaster Reduction Center CRED : Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters CSSR : Collapsed Structure Search and Rescue DMIS : Disaster Management Information System DPNET : Disaster Preparedness Network Nepal EIA : Environmental Impact Assessment GNDR : Global Network of Civil Society Organisations for Disaster Reduction GIS : Geographic Information Systems GSDMA : Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority HOPE : Hospital Preparedness for Emergencies ICIMOD : International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development IDNDR : International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction ISDR : International Strategy for Disaster Reduction MFR : Medical First Response NAPA : National Adaptation Programmes of Action NDMA : National Disaster Management Authority NSET : National Society for Earthquake Technology- Nepal OCHA : Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs PEER : Program for Enhancement of Emergency Response PRSP : Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers PVA : Participatory Vulnerability Assessment SESP : Schools Earthquake Safety Programs UNDAC : United Nations Disaster Assessment and Co-ordination xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !$#
  • UNDAF : United Nations Development Assistance Framework UNDP : United Nations Development Programme UNeDRA : University Network for Disaster Risk Reduction VCA : Vulnerability Capacity Assessment WWF : World Wildlife Fund !$$ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • Terminology -kl/eflifs zAbx?_ M ljkb (Disaster) M ;dfh jf ;d'bfosf] ;+rfngdf cfOkg]{ Ps uDeL/ cj/f]w h;n] dfgjLo, ef}lts, cfly{s tyf jftfj/0fLo?kdf Iflt k'¥ofp“b5 . k|sf]kx?sf] ;+of]hg, ;+s6f;Gg cj:yf / ;DefAo hf]lvdsf gsf/fTds c;/nfO{ sd ug]{ Ifdtfsf] cefjn] ljkbnfO{ lgDTofp“b5 . k"jtof/L (Preparedness) M ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg / o;;“u ;DalGwt { :j:y hf]lvd ljZn]if0fdf cfwfl/t ljkbkj{ ul/g] lqmofsnfkx? g} k"jtof/L xf] . " { o; cGtu{t k"jtof/L /0fgLlt, gLlt, ;+:yfut ;+/rgf, k"jrtfjgL, k"jf{gdfg { { ] ' Ifdtfsf] ljsf;÷;'b9Ls/0f ug]{ Pjd ;+s6f;Gg ;d'bfosf] hLpwgsf] /Iffsf] [ nflu k|sf]k cufl8 g} sfo{ ug]{ of]hgfx? kb{5g . /fxt÷k|ltsfo{ (Relief / Response) M ljkbsf] a]nf jf ljkb nuQ} k|efljt ;d'bfo tyf gful/sx?sf] hLjg;'/Iff tyf cfwf/e"t cfjZostf k"lt{ ug{sf nflu ul/g] ;xfotf jf k|aGw . of] tTsfnsf], 5f]6f] cjlwsf] / nfdf] cjlwsf] klg x'g;S5 . pTyfgzLntf (Resilience) M k|sf]ksf] c;/nfO{ sfo{;rfng jf ;+/rgfsf] + :jLsfo{ tx;Dd k'Ug jf sfod /fVg;Sg] ;+s6f;Gg ;d'bfo, ;dfh jf k|0ffnLsf] k|lt/f]wfTds / cg'sng Ifdtf . ljutsf cg'ej / l;sfOx?af6 kf7 l;Sb} " cfkm"nfO{ ;+ul7t ug]{ / Ifdtf a9fpg] ;Ifdtf ;fdflhs k|0ffnLx?df slQsf] 5 eGg] s'/faf6 g} ;d'bfosf] pTyfgzLntfsf] tx lgSof}n ug{ ;lsG5 . { Ifdtf ljsf; (Capacity Building) M dfgjLo Ifdtf / ;fdflhs k"jf{wf/sf] ljsf; u/L hf]lvdsf] tx Go"gLs/0f ug{tkm{ pGd'v k|of;x? . o;n] ;dfhsf] x/]s tx / If]qdf ;+:yfut, ljlQo, /fhg}lts / c? ;|ftx?sf] ljsf;nfO{ klg ] ;d]6sf] x'G5 . ] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !$%
  • k'gnf{e (Recovery) M ljkbkl5sf] sl7g cj:yfnfO{ ;'wf/ ug]{ jf ljkbcl3sf] cj:yfdf k'¥ofpg] sfo{ / lg0f{ox? . k'gnf{eleq k'gM:yfkgf / k'gM;+/rgf kb{5 . ;+s6f;Ggtf (Vulnerability) M ef}lts, ;fdflhs, cfly{s / jftfj/0fLo sf/0f jf k|lqmofdf l;lh{t x'g] cj:yf h;n] ;d'bfodf k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd j[l4 ub{5 . hf]lvd (Risk) M dfgj jf k|slthGo k|sf]k / ;+s6f;Gg cj:yfsf] cGtlqm{ofåf/f [ x'g;Sg] 3fts kl/0ffd / Ifltsf] ;DefAotf . h:t} M d[To' , 3fOt], ;DklQ gfz cflb . k|sf]k ljZn]if0f (Hazard Analysis) M s'g} klg k|sf]ksf] klxrfg, cWoog / cg'udg u/]/ o;sf] pTklQ, ljz]iftf, Aojxf/ / ;Defjgfx?sf] lglZrttf ug]{ . hf]lvd lgwf{/0f (Risk Assessment) M ;Defljt k|sf]ksf] ljZn]if0f / ljBdfg ;+s6f;Ggtfsf] d"Nof+sg u/]/ hf]lvdsf] k|jl[ Q / tx lgZro ug]{ ljlw . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f (Disaster Risk Reduction) M of] Pp6f cjwf/0ffut sfo{ ;+/rgf xf] h;n] lbuf] ljsf;sf] a[xb ;Gbe{df ;+s6f;Ggtf sd ug{, ljkbsf] hf]lvd 36fpg, k|sf]ksf] gsf/fTds c;/nfO{ ;Lldt t'Nofpg cfjZos tTjx?nfO{ ;dflji6 u/]sf] x'G5 . ax';/f]sf/jfnf (Multi-stakeholder) M AolQm jf ;+u7gx?sf] ;d"x h;n] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug{ rf;f] jf ;/f]sf/ /fV5g / ;d:of lg/fs/0fsf] sfo{df ;xof]u k'¥ofp“b5g . k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnL (Early Warning System) M klxrfg ul/Psf ;+:yfaf6 { ] ;dod} / k|efjsf/L ;"rgf k|jfx u/L k|sf]k;Dd'v AolQmx?nfO{ hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug{ / k|efjsf/L k|ltsfo{sf] nflu tof/ agfpg] Aoj:yf . k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnL;“u { ] w]/} s'/f uf“l;Psf x'G5g M h:t} k|sf]ksf] a'emfO / gS;f+sg, cg'udg / ;Defljt 36gfsf] k"jf{gdfg, nlIft hg;+Vof / /fhg}lts lgsfodf ;d]t ' a'emg;lsg] r]tfjgLx?sf] k|jfx Pjd pko'Qm / ;dod} k|ltsfo{ cflb kb{5g . !$^ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • jftfj/0fLo ¥xf; -Environmental Degradation_ M ;fdflhs / kfl/l:yltsLo p2]Zo / cfjZostf k"/f ug]{ jftfj/0fLo Ifdtfsf] sdL . jftfj/0fLo k|efj d"Nof+sg -Environmental Impact Assessment_ M jftfj/0fdf s'g} gof" tTjsf] k|jzn] kfl/l:yltsLo ;Gt'ngnfO{ kfg{;Sg] k|efj ] d"Nof+sg ug]{ cWoog . EIA df lj:t[t?kdf hf]lvd d"Nof+sg ul/g'sf] ;fy} j}slNks ;dfwfg jf /f]hfO klg pNn]v ul/Psf] x'G5 . e"–pkof]u of]hgf (Land-use Planning) M of] ef}lts / ;fdflhs–cfly{s of]hgfs} c+u xf] h;n] hUufhdLgnfO{ s;/L k|of]u ug], s;/L k|of]u ubf{ s] x'G5 { / ljljw ju{sf hg;+VofnfO{ s:tf] k|efj kf5{ egL lgSof}n ub{5 . e"–pkof]u { of]hgf cGtu{t jftfj/0fLo / k|sf]k tYof+ssf] cWoog / ljZn]if0f, j}slNks e"–pkof]u lg0f{osf] lgdf{0f, ljleGg ef}uf]lns / k|zf;sLo txsf] nflu bL3{sfnLg of]hgf lgdf{0f cflb kb{5 . lgdf{0f ;+lxtf (Building Codes) M of] /fli6«o ;/sf/ jf :yfgLo ;/sf/åf/f agfOPsf] cf}krfl/s lgod xf] h;n] s'g} klg ;+/rgf lgdf{0fsf] ?k/]vf, lgdf{0fljlw, ;fdu|L cflb OToflbnfO{ lgoGq0f u/]/ dfgjLo ;'/Iff / sNof0fnfO{ ;'lglZrt u/fpg ;xof]u ub{5 . lgdf{0f ;+lxtfdf k|fljlws / sfo{ut b'j} dfkb08 ;dfj]z ul/Psf] x'G5 . dxTjk"0f{ ;'ljwf÷cfkTsfnLg ;]jf (Critical Facilities/Emergency Service) M dxTjk"0f{ ;'ljwf eGgfn] c:ktfn, ljB't, 6]lnkmf]g cflb / cfkTsfnLg ;]jf eGgfn] k|x/L, PDa'nG;, bdsn, /]8qm; nufotnfO{ a'emg ] ;lsG5 . ljkbsf] a]nfdf ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ / hLpwgsf] ;'/Iff ug]{ ljlzi6 pQ/bfloTj / p2]Zo o;n] af]ssf] 5 . ] k|anLs/0f (Retrofitting) M ;+/rgfx?nfO{ k|fs[lts k|sf]kx?af6 cem a9L k|lt/f]wfTds / pTyfgzLn agfpg ;anLs[t ug]{ . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !$&
  • ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f of]hgf (Disaster Risk Reduction Plan) M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL gLlt / k|:tfjgfx?sf] b:tfj]h . of] of]hgfnfO{ ljsf; of]hgf / ljsf; sfo{df klg ljrf/ ul/g'k5{ . ef}uf]lns cj:yf cg';f/ ;/sf/sf ljleGg txsf nflu ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f of]hgf km/s km/s x'g;S5 . cNkLs/0f (Mitigation) M k|fs[lts k|sf]k, jftfj/0fLo ¥xf; / k|fBf]us } k|sf]ksf] c;/nfO{ ;Lldt t'Nofpg ul/Psf ;+/rgfTds / u}/;+/rgfTds sfo{x? . ;+/rgfTds sfo{ eg]sf] k|sf]k k|lt/f]wfTds lgdf{0f, OlGhlgol/ª cflb / u}/;+/rgfTds eg]sf] 1fg clej[l4, ;r]tgfd"ns sfo{, gLltlgodx? cflbnfO{ a'emg;lsG5 . n3'ljQ / n3'C0f (Micro Finance & Micro Credit) M clt ljkGg AolQmnfO{ :j/f]huf/L jf cfocfh{gsf] nflu lbOg] yf]/} /sdsf] C0f jf ljlQo ;]jf h;n] ubf{ pgLx?sf] hLljsfdf ;xof]u k'uf]; . lghL–;fj{hlgs ;fem]bf/L (Public-Private Partnership) M ;femf p2]Zo k|flKtsf] nflu ;femf ;|ft, ;femf Ifdtf / ;femf lj1tfsf] k|of]u ul/g] ;/sf/L ] / u}/;/sf/L ;+u7gx?aLrsf] :jod;jL u7aGwg . o;df ;/sf/L sfof{nosf] ] cnfjf Aoj;flos, k]zfut, k|fl1s ;+3;+:yf nufot gful/s ;dfhsf] klg ;xeflutf /xG5 . ;fem]bf/x? lhDd]jf/L af“8kmf“8 ub{5g / ;+oQm?kdf lg0f{o ' ub{5g . hf]lvd ?kfGt/0f (Risk Transfer) M ljkbsf sf/0fn] x'g] ef}lts Iflt / ;]jf cj?4tfsf] abnfdf gub Ifltk"lt{ kfpg] u/L ul/Psf] aLdf jf k'gMaLdf . hf]lvd ?kfGt/0fsf] nflu x'g] aLdf vr{nfO{ hf]ufpg o;sf] bfo/f / kl/df0f a9fpg] s'/fdf Wofg lbOg'kb{5 . h:t}M cTofjZos gful/s ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfx?df clgjfo{ aLdfsf] gLltnfO{ Nofpg ;lsG5 . !$* xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f cu'jf (Disaster Risk Reduction Champion) M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf ?lr /fVg] k|efjzfnL AolQm hf] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ cfdk|fyldstfsf] ljifo agfpg bQlrQ eP/ nfluk/]sf] x'G5 . o:tf AolQmx? k|lta4 ;/sf/L sd{rf/L, Aoj;foL, ;fdflhs sfo{stf{ cflb x'g;S5g . ;+:yfx?n] klg of] e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{;Sb5g . ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg (Disaster Risk Management)M of] Pp6f k|0ffnLut k|lqmof xf] h;n] k|fs[lts, jftfj/0fLo / k|fBf]usLo ljkbsf] k|efjnfO{ } Go"gLs/0fsf nflu k|zf;lgs lg0f{o, ;+u7g, sfo{;rfng ;Lk, Ifdtfsf] + k|of]u u/L ;fGble{s gLlt,/0fgLltsf] sfof{Gjog ub{5 . o;df ;+/rgfTds / u}/;+/rgfTds ;a} lsl;dsf lqmofsnfk / pkfox? ;d]l6Psf] x'G5 . /fli6«o gLlt ;+/rgf (National Policy Framework) M s'g} lglZrt ;jfnnfO{ kl/eflift / ;Daf]wg ug{ Pjd lg0f{ok|lqmofdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpgsf] nflu /fli6«o lgsfoåf/f cjnDag ul/Psf gLltx?sf] ?k/]vf . oL gLltx?n] ;fGble{s d"Nof+sg, /0fgLlt, nIo, lgod, of]hgf, lqmofsnfk, k|fyldstf, lgsfo / pQ/bfloTjh:tf ljifox?nfO{ ;d]6sf] x'G5 . pbfx/0fsf nflu ljkb ] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] /fli6«o gLlt ;+/rgfn] ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ -h:t} If]qut lgsfox?, :yfgLo ;/sf/ cflb_ kl/k"/s lsl;dn] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f gLltx?sf] ljsf; ug{ dfu{lgb]zg lbG5 . { cfkTsfnLg Aoj:yfkg (Emergency Management) M cfkTsfnsf ;a} kIfx? vf;u/L k"jtof/L, k|ltsfo{ / k'g:yf{kgf h:tf ;jfnx?df pQ/bfloTj { / ;|ftx?sf] Aoj:yfkg tyf ;+u7g . cfkTsfnLg cfjZostfnfO{ a[xb?kdf ] ;Daf]wg / ;dGjo ug]{ Pjd ;/sf/L, u}/;/sf/L / lghL If]qnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg] of]hgf, ;+/rgf / Aoj:yfkg of] leq kb{5 . kfl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnL -Ecosystem_ M k|f0fL / jg:kltx?n] Pp6} OsfO{sf] ?kdf sfo{ ug]{ / ef}lts jftfj/0f;“u cGtlqm{of ug]{ k|0ffnL . kfl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLsf] bfo/f lgs} ;fgf] If]qb]lv ;Dk"0f{ k[YjL klg x'g;S5 . -;|ft M UN / ISDR Terminology, OCHA_ ] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !$(
  • References : Action Aid Nepal . (2009) : Final Evaluation Report of "Surakshit Samudaya : Building Safer Community Through Disaster Management". Cannon, T. (2007) : “Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction into the Millennium Development Goals”, Review of Activities up to the Present Commissioned by Action Aid and UNISDR. CRED database. (2009). CRED and ISDR. (2008) : “2008 Disasters in Numbers”. International Strategy for Disaster Reduction and Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, p.1-2. Disaster Management Section, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of Nepal. (2008) : “Interim National Progress Report on the Implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action”. International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). (2006) : “Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 : Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters”. www.unisdr.org, 2006. Mercy Corpse Nepal. (2009) : Final Evaluation Report on "Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives". NSET. (2009) : "Views From the Frontline : Draft Country Report Nepal", an Unpublished Report of Study Conducted in Association with Civil Society Institutions of Nepal Under the VFL-Lead Monitoring of HFA Implementation Programs by the Local Governments, Communities and the Civil Societies. !%) xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  • NSET. (2008) : “National Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction Management in Nepal”. Kathmandu. United Nations (UN). (2005) : Report on “The World Conference on Disaster Reduction”. Kobe, Hyogo, Japan. UN / ISDR. (2008) : “ Terminology : Basic Terms of Disaster Risk Reduction”. www.unisdr.org/terminology UN / ISDR. (2007) : “Words Into Action : A Guide for Implementing the Hyogo Framework”. Geneva. xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !%!
  • xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn