Final report acorab drr programme

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  • 1. Completion ReportPanel discussion with community radio stations on DRR December 2010 Submitted to DIEPCHO Partners c/o Mission East Lalitpur Association of Community Radio Broadcasters Nepal (ACORAB) Chakupat, Lalitpur 0
  • 2. CONTENTSBackground ....................................................................... 2Objective ........................................................................... 3Overview of the Programme ............................................. 3Outcome ............................................................................ 8Conclusion ......................................................................... 8ANNEX I : Pokhara Declaration of ACORABANNEX II : Presentation of Surya DhakalANNEX III : Presentation of Dr Meen DhakalANNEX IV : Radio Programme Production Guideline to Community Radio for Disaster Risk Management 1
  • 3. Completion Report Panel discussion with community radio stations on DRRBackgroundOver the last 13 years community radio stations in Nepal have promoted that right byestablishing themselves as a highly credible, fair and socially-responsive form of media that hassubstantially changed the landscape of the media in Nepal by allowing for more pluralism andfreedom of expression. In many rural areas of the country, these stations are the only forms ofmedia available and they have been providing services to the marginalized and disadvantagedwho have been ignored by the mainstream media. Community radio stations in Nepal havedemonstrated at a global level that community radios are very efficient to reach the remoteareas of Nepal, raise awareness, provide information and mobilize rural communities, promotedemocratic culture, protect human rights, enhance participatory development, contribute topeace-building and promote equitable society and contribute to the overall transformationprocess of the nation As a result, community radios of Nepal have gained social legitimacy andhave become integral part of the communities they serve.The key to engaging the people in the transformation process is to increase their access toinformation, by means of which they can have better understanding of the different issues andconcerns. This will also enable them to take active participation in public dialogues anddebates. However, enhancing the knowledge and understanding of the people is not easy.Communication in many parts of the country is seriously underdeveloped, more than half thepopulation is illiterate, and people live in scattered rural villages.In this context, it has been widely acknowledged that the best way of delivering information topeople across Nepal and empowering them is through the nation’s dynamic community radionetwork. Due to this existing opportunity, the Association of Community Radio Broadcasters(ACORAB), an umbrella body of community radios in Nepal, is geared towards helpingcommunity radios become capable of carrying out these contextual responsibilities morestrategically. As an umbrella organization, ACORAB is also better placed to undertake theresponsibility of empowering the community radio stations.ACORAB had organised its Annual General Meeting on 22 and 23 November 2010 in Pokhara.Representatives, mostly decision makers, of 135 community radio stations from across thecountry participated at the meeting. ACORAB tapped the opportunity to sensitise therepresentatives on different contemporary issues, including on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)by organising panel discussion on 22 November 2010. 2
  • 4. ObjectiveThe main objective of the programme was to sensitise and upgrade knowledge of communityradio stations on issues related to DRR so that the stations would raise the issue moreeffectively in their respective radio stations.Overview of the ProgrammeThe AGM was held when the community radio sector in Nepal is spearheading a campaign forenhancing their role for social transformation. The Annual General Meeting of ACORAB is oneof the major platform for the community radios of Nepal to sensitise on the DRR issue and, atthe same time to define how can ACORAB and the community radio increase social impact ofthe radio, build a stronger community radio movement and develop clear strategies and actionplans for positively influencing on the issue.Community radio stations have long beenraising issues related to the DRR andACORAB has recently accomplished the firstphase of project with DIPECHO partners toprepare and broadcast one episode of radiomagazine and 32 news reports throughcommunity radio stations. ACORAB is verymuch encouraged to raise the issue and wouldlike to institutionalise the issue at the radiostations. For the purpose, ACORAB believe onthat if the decision makers of the stationsbecome more aware on the issue and its Minister of Information and Communicationimportance, they would play a catalytic role Shankar Pokhrel launching the book "DRRfor addressing the issue more effectively. Guideline for Community Radio Stations of Nepal"The schedule of first day of the AGM was as follow:Day 1: November 22, 2010 (Monday)10:00 AM- 1:00 PM Inaugural SessionChief Guest: Minister of Information and CommunicationKeynote speakers: Jeevan Shahi (Leader, Nepali Congress) Pradip Gyawali (Leader, CPN UML) 3
  • 5. Anil Sah (Leader, Madhesi Jana-Adhikar Forum) Mahendra Guragain (Secretary, MOIC) Bishnuhari Dhakal (President, Broadcasting Association Nepal) Raghu Mainali (Vice President, AMARC Asia Pacific) Shiva Gaunle (President, SAFMA) Laxman Upreti (President, NEFEJ) Lars Christensen (Coordinator, DanidaHUGOU) Upendra Rijal (Chairperson, Equal Access) Representatives of Federation of Nepalese Journalist and Press Union of Kaski1:00 PM- 2:00 PM Lunch2:00 PM - 6:00 PM Panel Discussion on ʺDisaster Risk Reduction and Community Radio in NepalʺFacilitator: Subas Khatiwada (Treasurer, ACORAB)Pannelists: i) Dr Min Bahadur Poudel (President, Disaster Preparedness Network) ii) Mr Laxman Upreti (President, Nepal Forum of Environmental Journalists- NEFEJ) iii) Dr Surya Dhakal (Nepal Red Cross, Kaski Chapter)The first day of AGM began with the inaugural session in which Honourable Minister ofInformation and Communication Shanker Pokhrel was the Chief Guest. Among others, helaunched the ʺDRR Guideline for Community Radio Stationsʺ. As per the project agreementwith the DIPECHO partners, ACORAB had planned to carry out formative research to identifyDRR issues so that ACORAB would effectively raise DRR issues in its radio programme. Lateron ACORAB decided to prepare the guideline for all community radio stations so that theguideline guide the radio stations to prepare radio programme on the DRR issue.The second session began after the lunch. The main topic of the panel session was ʺDisasterRisk Reduction and Community Radioʺ. The session was facilitated by Treasurer of ACORABMr Subas Khatiwada and he allocated 20 minutesʹ time for three pannelists.Beginning the Pannel Session began by DrSurya Dhakal made a presentation on statusof disaster risk in Nepal. He presentedstatistics of nature of disaster and its impactIN Nepal since 1971. Showing communitylevel initiatives inm different districts fordisaster risk reduction, he stressed on thatʺDRR is Saving lives and protecting rightsʺ. 4
  • 6. Followed by the presentation of Dr Poudel, DrMin Bahadur Poudel made a presentation onDRR, risk reduction and preparedness. At the endof the panel session, Mr Laxman Upreti explainedabout DRR in Nepal by showing videodocumentary.Followed by the panel session, the floor wasopened for discussion.During the open discussion, some suggestions andqueries were presented by the participants. Themajor questions raised by the participants are asfollows:• How media can contribute in DRR?• How we can raise resources so that we can contribute in DRR? Where we can get enough information about DRR?• What can we can minimize the risk of Disaster?Similarly, the participants comments about DPNet and other disasters risk reduction initiativeswere as follows:DPNet is formed, but does not exist in the grass roots level. Can community radios and DPNetwork together. Similarly, Red Cross also can increase its collaboration with CommunityRadios.Most of the Nepalese people are depend on agriculture, but because of the uncontrolled use ofchemical fertilizers and pesticides, we might face extreme consequences in the future resultingin low productivity and hunger. Therefore, we may also note that this end-result also might bea disaster, where none of the agencies are seemed concerned with.Representative from from Solu FM shared an experience about after disaster information. Therewas a fire in a village burning 21 houses, where radio broadcasted and informed community,police army etc., who could gather early and could save around 90 houses from burning. SoluFM also collected donations and helped the victim after the disaster. This kind of initiatives canbe replicated for greater impact.The summary of the response made by the resource persons on participantsʹ queries andcomments is as follows: 5
  • 7. Media can play a vital role for a Disaster RiskReduction. Community Radios might havelimited resources, but there are also many thingswhich could be done with very limitedresources. For example, Community Radios caninform people about what they can do in theevent of flood, landslide etc. As they have accessto the grass roots level, CRs have a ability ofcontributing a lot. CRs need to designprogramme in such way that more and morepeople could benefit from it.There are very limited trainings in the disasterarea but we have plenty of research activities.Research activities have been carried out byHome ministry, UNDP, ActionAid, DPNet andso son. However, we don’t have enoughdissemination and distribution mechanism. Weeven have the topographic map of Nepaloutlining the areas suitable for residence,bridges, roads etc., but the people donʹt haveaccess to it. We need to get it and inform people.For example, if we can inform people about theRed Book of the government, then the peoplewill know who is halting the development anddemand. We can also find resources in locallevel.Disaster issues are very vital since they areassociated with our lives. Nepal is a disaster prone country, where even two kings have diedfrom earthquake (in twelfth and thirteenth centuries). Disaster does not discriminate on thebasis of position and power. Community Radio can hold a panel discussion about DRR at locallevel. We have been able to identify problems but might not have enough will power andresources. Community radios can find out available articles and information and read it out.For example, community Radio can inform how to be safe in earthquakes, specifications abouthow we can build earthquake safe houses and how to minimize damage in case of earthquakes.Small pieces of information like this can be very useful for the community.There is plenty of resource in the DRR area, which might not have been utilized properly.Community radios can advocate for the proper utilization of the resources. 6
  • 8. News tends to highlight the event and loses of disaster, but we also have to go in more in detailabout the preparedness and management. Community radios, if can help in transparency bybringing out the facts, we could save more resources and utilize. There is a mandatoryprovision that each VDC should allocate minimum of 10% if its fund in humanitarian sector,which is not implemented properly because of low peopleʹs awareness, where communityradios can play an in important role.Most of the disasters are manmade. For example, we use bull dozen since we want the roadfinished early. We do not have skilled human resources who could convince people involvedin this area.Some agencies think that if you use radio, you have to pay, but community radio also can helpthe community without receiving money. Agencies like Red Cross should think about that.Community radio personnel invited the experts to their community to provide information tothe community through the community radios.Natural events are natural but disasters are mostly man made. For example, we cannot stopearthquakes but can minimize the damage. Human activities are most responsible for changingthe natural changes to disaster.NGO have a very important role. Communities trust NGOs than the government. Since, mostof the community radios are operated by NGOs, it will strengthen the role community radiosare willing to play in the disaster reduction area.DPNet is a network of around eighty member organization including Police, Army, UNDP,Action Aid etc., but we have very small budget and resources. Therefore, we are not able toreach the grassroots. Some organizations have started local organizations in affiliation toDPNet. DP Net have not been able to do more, and intends to focus in coordination otherʹsefforts rather than acting itself. DPNet provides information resources and Training, whichcould help the community radios.DPNet will be happy to provide trainings to reporters and information resources to thecommunity radios so they can inform their listeners. We can also try to find other place forresources together.After the conclusion of the AGM on second day, i.e. 23 November, ACORAB made a 9 pointPokhara Declaration. One of the points of the Declaration has expressed commitment to workon DRR issue by the radio stations. 7
  • 9. OutcomeThe workshop had following outcomes: i) Sensitisation to community radio representatives on DRR issue ii) Clarity on the strategies for the radio station to work on the issue iii) Expression of commitment of the radio stations on Pokhara Declaration to work on the DRR issuesConclusionACORAB appreciates the initiative of DIPECHO partners to raise the DRR issue through thecommunity radio stations. Community radios have certain characteristics that make themadvantageous for disaster communication: they provide easy access to large publics (especiallyrural population), information provided by community radios can be crucial in motivating andenabling them to prepare for the disaster, to act reasonable during the disaster and to recoverafter the disaster, and some of them constitute a robust communication system which remainsworking even in cases of a partial breakdown of the infrastructure. All in all, the communityradios have a social responsibility to play its pro-active role at different phases of disaster, frompreparedness through response, from prevention, mitigation and readiness, through relief,recovery and rehabilitation. For the purpose, the community radios need to feel theirresponsibility and accordingly act at their capacity towards disaster management. SinceACORAB is an umbrella organization of all community radios of Nepal and sociallyresponsible organization, it has taken a lead facilitative role to own the issue by the memberradio stations.The recently held panel discussion has further helped to sensitise on the issue and make theradio stations commit to effectively raise the issue. ACORAB expects such mutual collaborationwith the DIPECHO partners will lead to work more effectively for a common cause in future. 8
  • 10. ANNEX 1: Pokhara Declaration of ACORAB POKHARA DECLARATION ADOPTED AT 7TH ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF ASSOCIATION OF COMMUNITY RADIO BROADCASTERS 22 – 23 NOVEMBER 2010 POKHARA, NEPALWe, the representatives of the community radios of Nepal present at the 7th Annual General Meetingof Association of Community Radio Broadcasters Nepal (ACORAB), the umbrella organization of 169community radios of Nepal support the right to information of the people and pass the followingdeclarations:1. We, all community radios of Nepal commit to implement the Gender Equality and Social Inclusion Policies for community radios of Nepal, being developed by ACORAB in collaboration with the community radio stations.2. Demand to end existing political deadlock on formation of government and stalemate of constitution making process;3. Express increased solidarity for persecuted community radio broadcasters and deepening the social impact of community radio;4. Call for the government of Nepal to endorse the Community Radio Broadcasting Act;5. Demand for adequate measures for the Safety and security of media persons;6. Demand for unbiased and regulated distribution of radio frequencies;7. Commit to establish a community radio development fund;8. Demand for discounts for the radio stations in terms of electricity and customs duties; and9. Demand Government advertisements, such as public announcements, to be made available to the radio on a regular basis.23 November 2010 9
  • 11. ANNEX II: Presentation of Surya Dhakal 10
  • 12. ANNEX III: Presentation of Dr Meen Chettri 11
  • 13. ANNEX IV: Radio Programme Production Guideline toCommunity Radio for Disaster Risk Management1. BackgroundDisaster Risk Reduction and Management is the great challenge to econimically poornation like Nepal. The case is further aggravated dut to the lack of knowledge andinformation mostly at high risk community from disaster like pro-poor community,ethnic and marginalized community, women, child, adult and differently-abled people.The earthquake, water-induced disaster and impact of climate change are the primefactors to hamper the life and livelihood in Nepal.Having the fragile geology and complex topography, the Hindu-Kush HimalayaRegion is highly prone to the disaster events and it is further hightened by the povertyand lack of eduction. In this regard it is the urgent need to increase the awareness tostrengthen capacity of the community to cope such challenges. To increase theunderstanding level of community; make them the responsible to tackle suchchallenges are the key efforts. It is the great responsibility of the media personnel todisseminate the information and knowledge on DRR/DM as being the forth body of thenation. The media persons, who are responsible with the reader, listener and audience,should move in a pro-active way to make alert and sagacious to that community whoare at high risk with contributing for SAFER NEPAL.It is not sure that the media personnel who provide the full effort to sensitize thepublic, are the expert even having the various subject knowledge. The discussion andadvocacy on DRR/DM has been starting since only last few years. During this time dueto the polical transition period, media has given very less priority to such humanitariansensitive issues. However, there are lots of opportunities for the media personnel toknow about DRR/DM, even the political liquidity of the nation compelling it to narrowthe sector. By curbing such situation, it is further expected that with providing the factand true information, media can play the vital role to make the community more safer.2. Objective of guidelinesThe main objective is to provide the guideline while producing and broadcasting theprogramm related to DRR/DM to increase the coping capacity of community by 12
  • 14. awareness through Community Radio Stations. The specific objectives of the guidelinesare as follow; • To air or broadcast the programme to the stakeholders by identifying the local and national issues of disaster • To disseminate the fundamental knowledge and information to safeguard the right of disaster affected commuities • To contibute mass awareness and advocacy for DRR/DM making effective programme production, distribution, and its broadcasting3. Guideline methodsAs per the urgent need to identify the different components and mechnism tomainstream the disaster issues into media, mostly for community F.M. Radio Stations,this guideline is preparing on the basi of followinng methods; 1. Study, review and analysis of published and broadcasted reports and other related materiasl 2. Discussion and interaction with the representative from concerned stakeholders and organisations. 3. Meeting, dissucion and interaction with disaster affected community. 4. Information collection and development of the questionnaire. 5. Information collection on subject matter and mechnism through the questionnaire. 6. Preparation of guidelines by analysing the information and suggestion4. Status of disaster and its risk in NepalIt is clear by considering the ʹBig Bangʹ theory, the disaster has occured since the originof the Earth. We know nature is dynamic which is changing in its own slow pace butnowadays anthropogenic factors has been causing the occurrance of disaster event in avery erratic way. Through the statistic of disaste events and its loss over human andproperty for many past years, Nepal is at high risk.Nepal is highly effected by frequent occuring of disasters like flood, landslide, highrainfall, fire, epidemic, hurricane, drought, thunderstorm and lightening every year.Furthermore, it has been clear from history that Earthquake that take place after longinterval of time would be highly dangerous. Nepal is in 11th position at high risk ofearthquake and 30th position at high risk of water-induced disasters (UN/BCPR 2004). Inaddition, it has stated that 97% of Nepali are being affected by disaster in any form. 13
  • 15. The following statistic, since 1971 to 2006 reveals the risk and damage occured bydisaster: (Table 1.)Table 1: Disaste events and its impact during 1971-2006S.N Event Death Injured Affected House House loss of Cattle people loss danage land loss (ha)1. Drought 1 1512 329,3322. Earthquake 873 6842 4539 33710 63 22573. Epidemic 15529 37773 323,896 1 784. Wildfire 1081 735 218,128 62634 2762 352 113,9225. Flood 2884 349 3315,781 70115 1041 196,955 311176. Landslide 3899 1188 480,069 16799 1209 21797 9046Source: Nepal Disaster Report, 2009, MoHA/GoN, DPNet-Nepal, UNDP and Oxfam GB NepalWithin the narrow range of average 90km, Nepal has extended from 60m amsl ofKechanaka, Jhapa to 8848m amsl, Mt. Everest, with high risk of disaster due to thevariable climatic and edaphic factors with fragile geology being highly prone to flood,landslide, snow avalanches and GLOF. Due to illiteracy and unable to adopt themeasures of Risk reduction, hygiene and safe drinking water, Nepal is suffering fromfrequently occuring disasters like epidemics, fire, hurricane and other where it is verytough to note yearly destruction of property and lives in Nepal. Table 1 shows the factsthat flowing of more than 6,000 rivers and rivulets originated from Himalayan of Northto Chure range of South are extremely risky and destructive. Based on the geographicalsturctural, description of disasters and destruction by them are very pitiful (Table 2).Table 2: Disaster events and its impact on the basis of geographical area Geographical Area Types of Cause Disaster Highly Less impact impact Techtonic movementEarthquake Mountain TeraiFlood, High rainfall and dam made by Terai MountainInundance India on boarder 14
  • 16. Weak, instable and steep terrain, soilLandslide Mountain erosion, deforestation etc. Lack of knowledge on proper use ofWildfire Terai Mountain fire, Dense settlement, Unmetaled house Lack of hygiene and safe drinking Terai, –Epidemic water, malnutritution lack of access Mountain to heath service Climate Change: According toGLOF Mountain, ICIMOD and UNEP, among 3,115 Terai hill galcial lakes, 22 are at risk of outburst.Source: Ram Chandra Neupane, Disaster Management Training Report, Lutheran WorldFederation, Nepalgunj, banke 2066Nepal has not only been suffering from frequently occuring disasters like flood,landslide, epidemic, hurricane, fire, cold wave but also from the earthquake and GLOFthat occur in certain interval of time.5. Cause of DisastersThere are mainly two causes for occurance of disaster:5.1 Natural cause: Disasters occur due to internal process of earth, for example: Rainfall, flood, landslide, earthquake, volcano, tsunami etc.5.2 Anthropogenic cause: Disasters occur due to human activities are called Man-induced disaster. For example: Environment pollution, malnutrition, Vehicle accidents, industrial and chemical accidents etc. 15
  • 17. 6. Types of Disasters:6.1 Slow motion disasters like Desertification and drought6.2 Fast motion disaster (occur in short period or immediately) • Geographical Disaster: Earthquake, Volcano • Water-induced Disaster: Flood, Landslide,inundance, snow avalanche, hailstorm, GLOF • Air-induced Disaster: Hurricane, Cold wave, thunderstorm and Lightening, Tsunami • Man-induced Disaster: Social war, conflict, quarrel • Fire-induced Disaster: Forest fire, fire on industry, home, vehicle etc • Food-induced Disaster: Famine, Malnutrition, Epidemic • Technology-induced Disaster: Chemical, Industrial and Vehicle accident • Biological Disaster: Attack of wildlife, Epidemic, Attack of pest • Disaster-induced Disaster: Fire, Epidemic, Flood due to the blockade of river7. Impact of Disaster:7.1 Human destruction: Death, Injured, lost7.1 Economic Destruction: • Personal Property: Food, Clothes, Jeweleries, Improtant papers • Physical infrastructure: House, Shed, Electricity, Drinking water • Land: crop Field, Fish pond • Crop: Cash crop, food, garden, • Livestocks: Cow, Buffalo, Goat, Hen, pork • Public Property: School, Library, Road, Bridge, drinking water system, electricity • Long term impact • Mental effect • Economic impact: Individual and social, Livelihood • National impact • Internation impact • Effect on human resource8. Disaster Risk Management 16
  • 18. Human-induced disasters can be controlled in high extent but natural cause of disasterscannot be controlled. However, research and experiment have proved that destruction ofproperty occured as a result of disasters can be reduced.We are facing the disaster eventin daily life directly or indirectly. As establishig the tradition of washing hand beforemeal and after toilet regularly, it is necessary to establish safe habit to increase the copingcapacity against disaster. There are several cause for the occurance of diasater and it isnecessary to have micro level study for the cause and impact of disaster. Disastermanagement is defined as the entire activities done to reduce the disaster in three stagesi.e pre disaster, during disaster and post disaster9. Disaster Management CycleThere are three stages of disaster management. Pre-disaste, during disaster and postdisaster. Following cycle clearly shows the Disaster management cycle.There is only response after incidence of disaster that means there is no dueconsideration of such disaster cycle for disaster management and most of the activitiesare targeting for during and post disaster events neglecting the pre-disaster event whichis foremost important. Thus the entire activities done to reduce the disaster consideringthese disaster cycle is called disaster management cycle.10. Terms to consider while preparing the programme 10.1 Timeline of Disaster It is necessary to know the disaster with noting its occurance time (timeline) and area for the media personnel while producing material related to disaster risk management which are listed below; Event/Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Flood landslide Epidemic Windstorm Wildfire Earthquake Hailstorm GLOF Cold wave 17
  • 19. 10.2 Pre-disaster (Preparedness, Early Warning System) • Identification of disaster:Identification and mapping of hazard • Contingency(Emergency) plan • Policies, Act, Rule and Program • Human resource mobilization, training, workshop, seminar etc • Resource management • Framework for resettlement and rehabilitation • Framework for re-construction • Outline of re-buildment program • Measures for the reduction of disaster (Structural, Non-structural, food security) • Disaster Preparedness plan • Emmergency fund, first Aid box and Go bag • Coordination with every aspects of disaster management • Identification of Stakeholders and work division • Practice of disaster resistance technology on development work • Considering Disaster Imapct Anasysis while development10.3 During disaster • Patience, control and use of safety measures • Go for rescue and releif you are safe • Wait and follow the govermen’s guidelines • During emergency, move to a safe area with GO Bag • Rescue and relief management10.4 Post Disaster (Releif and rescue, re-settlement, re-construction) • Regularity on releif management activities • Disaster Impact Assesement • Re-construction and maintenance of affected structures • Re-settlement and resettlement • Assessment of current disaster management plan • Minimal use of important services11. Main approach of subject matter or issuesMedia personnel have to prepare the following materials due considering the differentstages of disaster managementS.N. Subject Issuess Area • Flood1 Information Preparedness • Landslide • Epidemic • Wildfire 18
  • 20. • Windstorm • Earthquake • Drought/Food insecurity/Malnutritio n • GLOF • Snow Avalanche2 Approach/Kn Disaster management Disaster and its origin owledge Vulnerable Risk and its nature Disaster and its condition as a result of hazard Search and Rescue Information collection and condition amalysis during emergency Releif management Re-settlement Re-construction Reduction Disaster Impact Assessment while development Community based Disaster Management Committee Minimal criteria for humanitarian support Sphere Project Right of Disaster affected community 19
  • 21. Socio-cultural structure Economic and technical capacity3 Interaction Local, national and international norms and values, Safeguard of human rights during disasters4 Disaster management and risk policy National strategy of reduction plan on national plan advocacy disaster risk management Responsibility of working group on response, releif and rescue Disaster management act, policy and law Compensation and its criteria Activities and implementation Duty and right of effected or victim peoples Participation of affected community in programe and access on decision making5 Social Field Study desire/event Effectiveness of disaster management description and risk reduction programme Success and failure of program Community acceptance • Replicable and scalable best practice and success story Non-Replicable practice and failure6 Inclussivenes Community participation Gender approach, issues 20
  • 22. s Participation and issues of poor, marginalized community Community who are compelled to stay at vulnerable place Issues of differently-abled (Disabled) persons Issues of adult, Children and Women Approach of ʹwhose issues; their leadingʹReference materials for studyIt is necessary to read and listen following materials by media personnel to learn issuesand boost up knowledge. • National Strategy of Disaster Risk Managemnet 2066, Government of Nepal • Preparedness in practice 2007, Dpnet-Nepal • Disaster Knowledge Series (Series 1-15), Ram Chandra Neupane • Paryawaran Monthly, ECO-Nepal • Chetana Radio and Television program, ECO-Nepal • Tragedy of Disaster, Documentry, Oxfam GB-Nepal • Disaster risk reduction tool kit for CA members, 2066, Action-Aid nepal, Oxfam GB-Nepal and other stakeholdersProgramme outline (for 30 min) Time - minuteAnnouncement 2Report 5Song 5Drama 7Information 2Interaction 5Other 3 21
  • 23. Annex-1: Disaster Terminology(Hazard): Incidents that can cause disasters like flood, landslide, hurricane, lightening are hazard.(Disaster) : Condition of human and property loss due to the incident of hazard. Situation in which it needs otherʹs support while peopleʹs replacement due to the incidents like death, injury, vanish and death of domestic animals and destruction of crop field and other property is called disaster.Risk: Condition or Potentiality of destruction as a result of hazard. Community near the bank of river is in the risk of flood. Houses or community on deep steep and ………….are in high risk of landslide.Vulnerable: The condition which is prone to disaster, emergency situation and high risk. For eg, the settlement in landslide prone area or house in river basin while flooding seasonReduction: Preparation done to decrease the destruction caused by disasters or preparedness done before the occurance of disaster to cope disaster. Preparedness, early warning system etc. are the activities done for disaster risk reduction.Mitigation: Activities done to reduce the loss caused by Disaster. Activities like making embankment near river side, build walls around the place that has possibility of flood. Adopting procedures which can reduce the possibility of destruction while development work.Capacity: Conditions having the resources, skill, knowledge, and technology that help to cope disaster. Preparedness done before the occurance of disaster if it is prone to disaster. Condition when emergency materials are reserved for emergency period. Coping capacity can be increased by preparedness.Retrofitting: Activities making stronger. Reconstruction and maintenance of old houses, sheds, road, bridge, school using specific technology that can prevent the possibility of risk.Building code: The criteria and guideline made by government of Nepal, 2060 to construct the building. This is normally the safety measures for general earthquake 22
  • 24. Emergency: The condition of destruction of human and physical property as a result of disaster. In such situation, it is hard to balance the situation by family and neighbourhood and it needs support of government and Non-government organization.Forecast: Prediction done on the specific subject and issues. Flood can be predicted during high rain fall. Daily weather condition broadcasted by Radio is forecast.Early Warnings: Pre information provided to the communities where there is possibilities of disasters. Development and practice of Early Warnings systems help cope such disasters.Preparedness: Preparedness is the activity that is done before the occurance of any disaster to reduce the destruction caused by it. Use of Siren to make alert the vulnerable community during chance of flood is a preparedness activity.Response: Activities like, rescue, relief and humanitarian support done during the period of disaster. Take away the people and neighbours from disaster area, take homeless people to safe shelter and support for livelihood.Cope : Capacity to response and solve the problem occurred by disaster. Swiming is the coping capacity to be safe from flooding area.Duck, Cover and Hold: The way of sitting mostly during the earthquake and can also be applied during landslide to safe the sensible body organs.Go Bag: Bag that can be put in convenient place and can be carried during the period of disaster which contain first aid materials, light food, useful instruments to save family and neighbours.After shocks: Minor shocks that is felt after the occurance of huge earthquake. 23
  • 25. Annex 2: Minimal criteria for humanitarian supportEmergency plan is used during the disaster to reduce the destruction from it. During thisperiod, social, economic and cultural conditions are not in balance. These criteria are developeddue considering fundamental umanitarian norms and value to protect the right of disasteraffected communities. Government of Nepal has already endorsed the criteria determined buthe Sphere Project. It is essencial to apply the basic criteria determined for humanitariansupport during disaster. Summary (brief) of this criteria are as given below; 1. Sector of Coordination, information and early-warning system • Coordination meeting once in two days in first week and once in second week. • Information about coordination meeting and report. • Support and distribute the releif materials to people or group that are at risk. • Based on the condition and necessity conduct MIRA (Multi-sectoral Rapid Assessment) team • Prepare report everyday of the first week. Prepare report once in a week or once in two days as per need. • Send news to communication media on everyday of first week wihin 24 hours • Attempt to activate the regional disaster releif committee. • Follow coordination and camp management, Prepare report and inform everyone about it. 2. Food sectors Following things will be on access of effected people: (1) Management of foodstuffs of 2,100 calories for each person per day. (2) There should be complementary of one or two differennt foodstuff along with the accessible and currently provided foodstuff (3) Management of complementary food along with basic food for specific group of people (small children, HIV effected, malnutritional etc.) 24
  • 26. Food list as per the criteriaIn a coordination with DPNet-Nepal, MoHA/GoN has recommended the folloing food list onthe basis of Hyogo Framework for Action; • Rice - per day per person 420 gram • Dal - per day per person 60 gram • Vegetable oil - per day per person 30 m.l. • Salt - per day per person 5 gram As per local situation, foodstuff distribution method should be decided. Distribution should be done on the basis of first domestic level and data obtained by latest account.3. Shelter and non-foodstuff and Camp management 1. In average, 3.5-4.5m2 area is available for single person, for the family of 5 membersʹ 4 x 5 m plastic seat along with rope and other urgent need materials are available, 2. Sufficient access of people from club 3. One full set of cloth to the children below 2 years. 4. One full set of cloth is there for women, girls, men and boys. In addition, regular sanitary and hygienic materials for girls and women are available. 5. People have enough domestic materials (one set of pot). 6. Strategy for close and abandoning the camp. 7. Before the establishment of camp, land should be identified. It should be safe and according to Sphere project. 8. Signature on MoU with school and public areas should be performed. 9. There should be the kind attention on cultural value and norms during the time of camp planning. 10. Keep the record and practice of past established camp place. 11. Establish the camp in taking proper counseling from governmental agencies, societal organization, local agency and stakeholders. 25
  • 27. 4.. Drinking water and cleanliness: 1. In hilly region, water is provided for 1 week through pipe or tank by establishing relation with district headquater drinking water plan. In terai region, minimum 5 liter water per day per person and within first 4 weeks the quantity of provided water should be made 15 liters.2 Provide enough tablets or water guard for 30 days to purify water and provide buckets to store water to the people who reside in camp or those whose properties and home are destroyed during disaster.3. Construct temporary toilets for proper cleanliness of the people who live in camp and proper bathing facility for ladies. (One toilet for each 20 people and within first week, constructs more toilet as per one toilet for every 10 people).4. Distribute the kits of first aid or other health related materials to affected people who reside in camp through the joint effor of staffs of district health and drinking water office, stakeholder organizations, volunteers of women health and Red Cross and organize activities that focus on habits like washing hand and methods of purifying water for drinking.5. Prepare and improve district contingency plan in line with national contingency plan for uniformity.5. Health and nutrition • Health surveillance is started at the same time when preliminary account is conducted. • Implementation of emergency health service programme can be performed by primary health post in local level for general patient and for serious case it can be reffered to central level health centre. • Transport facility can be provided for patients who are sent by recommendation to reach upto other referral centres.6. Education: • Organize Rapid Assessment on the fundamentals of eduction and status of people involved in education within first week of the occurance of the disaster • Identify the temporary place to provide regular eduction to displaced children from disaster in coordiation of District education office, disaster affected community and local cluster members 26
  • 28. • Establish temporary learning center or safe place for school children as soon as possible or within first two weeks or within 6 to 8 week as per minimum criteria. • Re-unite teachers and students and manage recreational materials along with providing educational materials and re-opening the schools, • Make sure that the school children are admitted or alternative management has been estblished or not. • Involve and manage the affected children for regular educational system7. Protection • Establish committee to report the voilance, misbehave and any harm to protect the right of the victim or bring the existing committee into practice. • Investigate whether pro-poor people or marginlized community are getting proper facility and treated properly or not in case of humanitarian support • Keep recod of stakeholders and make sure for the registration process. • Create safe environment for ladies and children. • Make integrate the support of social support for the programme related to education and protection • Help to prevent the act of neglecting the children from their care taker. • Support on identification, registration and health examination of teenager girls, children under 5 years and children without family and support stakeholders who are involved in finding lost people and their re-unity. • Care and protect children who are not with their family or group of people who are in other risk like: lost family, old, disable and patient of long term diseases. (management of residence and other service) • Make sure that information is internally transferring to displaced people about humanitarian support and temporary solution. • Make effort to involve displaced people internally in the activities done for temporary solution and bring them back to their home. • Advocacy for adequent security on camp and resettlement regions. 27