Dipecho iii final evaluation bcrd report june 09
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Dipecho iii final evaluation bcrd report june 09 Dipecho iii final evaluation bcrd report june 09 Document Transcript

  • Building Community Resilience to Disaster (BCRD)Sarlahi, Makwanpur and Rupandehi (SAMARUP) A joint project of DIPECHO and ActionAid Nepal 2006-2007
  • Table of contents PageAbbreviations and AccronymsForeword1. Disaster Scenario in Nepal 2. Disaster Preparedness 3. ActionAid Nepal 3.1 AANs EDM Response 3.2 Key Strategies of AAN on Disaster Preparedness4. AAN and DIPECHO III Project 4.1 Building Community Resilience to Disaster - SAMARUP5. Key programs and activities conducted by BCRD 5.1 Awareness generation and advocacy 5.2 Capacity Building 5.3 Reducing river cutting and protection of livelihood6. Policy Advocacy for Change7. PVA process in BCRD8. Search and Rescue Training9. Lessons Learnt from BCRD10. Key achievements of BCRD project11. Testimonies12. Annexes13. References
  • AbbreviationsAAN ActionAid NepalBCRD Building Community Resilience to DisasterCARE Cooperation for American Relief EverywhereCBO Community Based OrganizationCDO Chief District OfficerDDC District Development CommitteeDDRC District Disaster Relief CommitteeDMC Disaster Management CommitteeDP-Net Disaster Preparedness NetworkDWIDP Department of Water Induced Disaster PreventionDRR Disaster Risk ReductionECHO European Commissions Humanitarian Aid Department (ECHO)EDM Emergency and Disaster ManagementFSCN Friend Service Council NepalGLOFs Glacial Lake Outburst FloodsHFA Hyogo Frame Work of ActionICIMOD International Centre for Integrated Mountain DevelopmentMDGs Millennium Development GoalsNRS Nepali RupeesNRCS Nepal Red Cross SocietyPVA Participatory Vulnerability AnalysisSAR Search and RescueUNDP United Nations Development ProgramVDC Village Development CommitteeWCDF Women and Children Development ForumYMC Youth Mobilisation Commitee
  • Foreword rewrite by ShashankaNepal is highly prone to various types of natural disaster. A decade long conflict hasfurther created vulnerabilities in the lives of people. Widespread illiteracy, lack ofeducation, limited assets ownership, lack of access to food, limited income opportunitiesand exclusion have further marginalized people and their daily lives are worst affected.Within these complicated socio-political contexts, the situation of poor, women, childrenand Dalits is under the hardest hit.Within this looming scenario of disaster in Nepal DIPECHO/AAN jointly initiated aproject "Building Community Resilience to Disaster" from March 2006 up to 15 months.Raising awareness and advocacy, capacity building and the small scale mitigationprograms were three major components of this project. Project has been able to addressesto different aspects of Disaster Risk Reduction in the community primarily focussing thepoor and marginalized groups. The project was implemented in three districts of Nepalnamely Sarlahi, Makwanpur and Rupandehi. A rights based framework was adopted toimplement the program.DIPECHO/AAN envisaged the comprehensive awareness in community, sensitizationand education, capacity and skill building training and workshops, media advocacy, smallscale mitigation program. One of the achievements of this project is that it has been ableto change the perspectives of the people regarding disasters which were largelyinfluenced by the notion of acknowledging disaster as the divine creation. Similarly, itrevealed the hidden strengths of community on disaster preparedness and created apotential environment for community mobilization. This project has been successful increating the space for communities to explore their community based knowledge and inthe mean time project has also gained series of learning processes from the community aswell.With an aim to bring the learning, reflections and best practices this report has beenprepared. In the mean time, the community based learning will definitely enrich thepolicy priorities from the community perspectives.
  • 1. Disaster Scenario in NepalNepal is a high-risk disaster prone country. Every year people here are subject to floods,land slides, cold waves, hail storms, fire, snow avalanches, Glacial lake Outburst Floods(GLOFs), etc. A study (UNDP/BCPR, 2004) ranked Nepal as the 11th most high riskcountry to earthquakes and the 30th for floods. Another study (World Bank 2005)classifies Nepal as a "hot-spot" for geophysical and climatic hazards.Earthquake has proved to be another violent disaster putting the population of thiscountry at a greater threat. The earthquakes of 1934, 1980, 1988, the flood of 1993 andthe landslides of 2002 are some examples of the disasters that we have experienced inrecent history. In 1993 alone floods and land slides caused huge disasters where in 1336people lost their lives, nearly 17,000 households were destroyed and 5600 hectors offertile land were washed away. Similarly in 2002 nearly 450 people died due to floods.Recent studies have shown that Nepal is under great threat of an impending earthquakewhich may occur any time in future and as predicted with a magnitude of over 8.0 on theRichter scale. Various studies and reports have shown that if another earthquake similarto that of 1990 occurs in Nepal, Kathmandu Valley will alone witness the death of 40thousand people, 95 thousand others will be seriously injured and 60% of the housesvalley will be collapse.People’s vulnerability to disasters in Nepal is compounded by severe poverty,displacement due to hazards and unplanned settlements. There are human settlements onmost vulnerable sites both in rural and urban areas such as near river banks, dense forestareas and mountainous regions. These settlements are highly vulnerable to hazards suchas earthquakes, landslides and floods. Informal settlements are increasingly growing onthe river beds and flood plains.Considering these disasters, Nepal made legislation in the beginning of 1980s for crisismanagement. While Nepal was one of the first countries in South Asia to have created apolicy and legal environment for disaster risk management, there has been a growingrealization on the need to redefine the existing policies in order to accommodate theconsiderable advances in the field of disaster risk management. This act has still notincluded Cold Wave as a natural hazard where millions of people living in the Terairegion are mutely affected each year.The Government of Nepal is now in the process of formulating the National Strategy forDisaster Risk Management which is expected to be a gap analysis of all the phases of theDisaster Management cycle for Nepal and to be a road map of where Nepal intends to beby 2015 (the deadline for the Hyogo Framework of Action and Millennium DevelopmentGoals).The devastation caused by disaster looms larger than ever. Analyzing all these facts andscenario we can conclude that Nepal is at high risk of natural disasters. All forms ofdisasters have caused heavy losses of human lives and physical assets and adversely
  • affected the development process of the country. However, we are least prepared formitigation of the impact of possible danger. Disaster vulnerability has been proved to beone of the contributing factors in aggravating and perpetuating poverty in Nepal.2. Disaster PreparednessDIPECHO III project was launched in Nepal with the support of European CommissionsHumanitarian Aid Office (ECHO). ECHO is a service under the direct responsibility ofCommissioner Louis Michel. Since 1992, the Commission has funded relief to millionsof victims of natural and human made disasters outside the European Union.DIPECHO projects have been launched worldwide since 1996. In Nepal, the firstDIPECHO project was implemented in 2001. Since then DIPECHO has significantlyworked on addressing, mitigating and developing coping mechanisms in disastersituations. Its aid is channelled impartially to the affected populations, regardless of theirrace, ethnic group, religion, gender, age, nationality or political affiliation. Part of theHumanitarian Aid Office’s mission is to raise public awareness of the issue at stake.ECHO is providing support for disaster preparedness in Nepal as well as many othercountries in Asia. In Nepal the following 9 international organizations implemented theDIPECHO III project 2006-2007 - ActionAid Nepal, Belgium Red Cross/Nepal RedCross Society, UNDP, CARE Nepal, Oxfam, Danish Church Aid/Lutheran WorldFederation, Practical Action, UNICEF and ICIMOD.DIPECHO projects have fostered a large number of people like poor women headedhouseholds, marginalized and excluded groups, ethnic minorities, youth volunteergroups, school children and their parents, local government officials, and civil societythrough various activities to sensitize about disaster.With support of DIPECHO III, street dramas were performed and group discussions heldto raise awareness about natural disasters. Alongside, media campaign activities werealso milestone tools for advocating issues related to disaster, which played a major role tofill in the gap of dialogue between government stakeholders and disaster affected groupsand simultaneously raising awareness at the grassroots level.The project activities were implemented in 17 high risk districts of the country by thenine implementing partners of DIPECHO III project in partnership with community-based organizations. The activities included training to local people to build communityresilience to disaster, establishing Disaster Management Committees at local level toaddress disaster preparedness and conduct small scale mitigation activities by buildingsafe shelters and embankments in a cost effective manner. The project has developedawareness raising programs for various actors such as students, youths, parents, children,women, farmers etc. The programs particularly provide information such as buildinghouses that are resistant to earthquakes or building check dams to protect land and housesfrom floods.
  • ActionAid Nepal launched "Building community resilience to disaster" under DIPECHOIII project in Sarlahi, Makwanpur and Rupandehi districts focusing primarily onawareness raising and advocacy, capacity building and small scale mitigation programs.Similarly, other project activities include carrying out rescue and relief operations andnatural calamity impact mitigation measures.Programs in "Building community resilience to disaster" were conducted at both localand policy levels. Particularly, work was done to formulate a strategy at the nationallevel. Discussions and seminars were conducted among the concerned governmentagencies, NGOs and stakeholders. A national strategy was formulated considering theconclusions drawn from these seminars and conferences, based on the Hyogo Frameworkof Action adopted by 168 nations across the world in 2005.Hyogo Framework of Action aims at minimizing the risk of natural disasters by 2015 andmitigates impacts in environment and human lives. According to the Hyogo framework,the national strategy will include security of agriculture, food, health and education. Thisnational strategy will also include physical planning, safety, water supply, sanitation andcommunications. Coordination between national and local government bodies, nationaland international NGOs and donor agencies is needed to enable the formulation of thestrategy which is now in a final stage. This strategy aims to ensure human rights anddignity of people suffering from disaster.3. ActionAid NepalActionAid has been working in Nepal since 1982. Its mission is to empower poor andexcluded people to eradicate poverty and injustices. The work of ActionAid Nepal(AAN) over the years has undergone various changes informed by its engagement at thegrassroots and other levels. In 1996, AAN changed its approach from direct servicedelivery to partnerships with local NGOs. It adopted a rights-based approach todevelopment in 1998 with the larger ActionAid global family. AAN believes that poorpeople have a right to protection, human security as well as right to access appropriateassistance to survive in and recover from disasters. Based on this belief, AAN workstowards building appropriate capacities to ensure a more strategic and rapid response todisasters- before, during and after occurrence. According to the Country Strategy PaperIII 2005-2010 "Fighting Poverty and Injustice" AAN analyzes poverty as themanifestation of economic, social and political exclusions and discriminations whereinrights of women, men, girls and boys are violated, denied or deficient. AAN believes thatpoor people forced into perpetual poverty by systematic denial of their rights.3.1 AANs EDM ResponseAAN’s analysis identifies emergency and disaster as more than just a threat to life but tolivelihoods and dignity of life. It increases risks to peoples livelihoods and leads todestructions which may lead to vicious cycles of chronic poverty, destitution andimpoverishment. Disaster has been articulated as one of the key contributing factors in
  • aggravating and perpetuating poverty in Nepal. Hence, AAN has recognized Emergencyand Disaster Management as one of its cross-cutting initiatives.Emergency and disaster management is both preventive and curative. AAN entails riskreduction by addressing issues of vulnerability and hazards, increasing capacity of poor,marginalized and the vulnerable groups in collaboration with appropriate institutions toinfluence development actors to formulate comprehensive programs to deal withdisasters.AAN broadly translates its commitments in emergency and disaster management throughCreation of Information Base, Capacity Building, Alliances and Resource Mobilization,Emergency Response, Information and Knowledge sharing at all levels, and VulnerabilityAnalysis. AAN has undertaken activities that will mitigate the effects of emergenciesincluding capacity-building, communication about people’s rights and promoting earlywarning systems. AAN’s emergencies strategy primarily aims ‘to reduce poor people’svulnerability by empowering them to build their resilience and develop their capacity tocope’.3.1.1 Key Strategies of AAN on Emergency and Disaster Management • Building the understanding of AAN staff, partners, rights holder groups and Nepali citizens about the link between poverty and emergencies and disasters • Improving the ability of vulnerable communities to cope with disasters through community-based disaster preparedness strategies • Establishing and capacity building of alliances and networks for effective disaster preparedness and response • Building the capacity of partners to conduct hazard mapping and vulnerabilities assessment of disaster prone areas and advocating for necessary mitigation measures • Providing immediate relief and rehabilitation to the most needy poor people in disaster and post-disaster situation. • Advocating for the formation of appropriate policies by the government to ensure the rights of the disaster victims to realise compensation and rehabilitation.4. DIPECHO III ProjectAAN implemented the DIPECHO III project from 1st March 2006 to 31st May 2007.AAN has conceptualized the key objective of Hyogo Framework of Action [HFA] 2005-2015 to build resilience of community against disasters. This project was funded byECHO under DIPECHO III Action Plan in South Asia. The total fund ofDIPECHO/AAN was Euro 290, 727, 84 and an additional Euro 48000 to strengthenprocesses and financial management.4.1 Building Community Resilience to Disaster - SAMARUP
  • AAN implemented "Building Community Resilience to Disaster (BCRD)" from March2006 for 15 months in three districts of Nepal which were Sarlahi, Makwanpur andRupandehi (SAMARUP) with local partner organizations WCDF, Prerana and FSCN.(PNGO profile in Annex1)These three districts represent two physiographic regions, middle mountains, and, easternand western Terai. Makwanpur, which surrounds the then Mahabharata range in the northalong Churia hills and inner Terai, is very rugged and fragile due to its weak geology.Sarlahi and Rupandehi in the Terai are extensions of the Indo-Gangetic plains withChuria in the northern border.The areas immediately south of the mountain front (Churia range) called Bhabhar zone isprone to floods by the short-lived rivers which frequently change their course with waterlevels rising very fast leading to floods in large areas during the monsoon. On the otherhand, another flood problem in the southern part of Terai arises where the dams andembankments along many rivers constructed across the border in the south impoundmonsoon flood water within the Nepalese border creating severe flood situation everyyear. These areas have become harsh and regular flood prone localities in Nepal.To collect essential information for the project, representatives of potential partnerorganizations were invited to a Consultative Workshop with a request to bring baselinedata of selected districts, hazard maps, PVA, district maps, case studies and otherrelevant information. Various documents produced by different organizations werereviewed during the concept development process. AANs broad programme experiencesand learning from other projects provided valuable insights. Learning shared by otherorganizations working in the field of disaster during different forums and meetings alsosignificantly contributed to shape the idea of prioritising the geographical area andactivities when designing the concept.(See the methodology and various sources of information and Annex 2 for organizationsinvolved in assessment in Annex 3.)5. Key programmes and activities of BCRD5.1 Awareness generation and advocacyAwareness generation was undertaken to increase peoples’ knowledge and provideadequate information on disaster and preparedness. This was particularly to enhancepeoples understanding of how disasters occur and its consequences in human lives.BCRD focused on people’s rights to survival, education, health and development.Awareness plays a vital role in sustainable disaster response and ensures protection of lifeand properties. With this notion BCRD addressed hazard mapping, research anddocumentation, vulnerability assessment, situation analysis, sharing meetings andmobilization of theatre and media for raising awareness among community people.
  • Youth to raise awarenessYouths, with their strong will and energy, were mobilized to campaign, advocate andfacilitate mitigating activities. Youth groups of Basamadi and Handikhola VDCs ofMakwanpur district proved that they can be agents of change in society. They havebecome catalysts for community building resilience to disaster for disaster risk reduction.Ram Prasad Poudel, YMC treasurer of Basamadi says, "We formed the youth committeeto be more actively engaged on disaster risk reduction activities because youth have theresilience to act during any circumstances." The YMC of Basamadi has 13 membersamongst whom 5 are girls. Similarly, the YMC of Handikhola has 19 members with amajority of girl members. They have been mobilising youths in the rest of the VDCs.They have acquired knowledge and skills on DRR. YMC of Basamadi have organizeddistrict level Folk Song Competition focusing on disaster awareness campaigning andadvocacy. On the final day of the folk song competition about 4000 people gathered inthe open space of local school premises. This program was aired live by the local FMradio station. "It was a really encouraging moment for us,” says Ramchandra Poudel,treasurer of Basamadi YMC, "there was real participation of thousands of peoplegathered at one place listening to disaster risk reduction songs.”The youths of these two VDCs are becoming proactive towards addressing disasterissues. "Prior to DIPECHO/AAN project we were not aware about disaster issues and wewere largely fatalistic. Now we have realised there are many consequences of disaster.The important thing we learnt is community people can mitigate and reduce the risks ofdisaster in many circumstances. If we are aware and able to develop coping strategiesand mechanisms we can save our lives and livelihoods,” says Shree Krishna Dhakal,president of Handikhola YMC.Gayatri, a young girl, member of Handikhola YMC says, "Only muscle power is notenough to tackle disaster, we need skills and knowledge. We did not have the skills andknowledge in previous years, which BCRD has now given us leading to a sense ofsecurity.” The youths of these VDCs have collected dry food and crops to help floodaffected communities in other parts of Nepal in the western region. Youth coordinator ofHandikhola YMC Prakash Thapa says, "now we are ready to mobilize youth volunteersanywhere in the country and these volunteers are competent on first aid training, searchand rescue.”5.2 Capacity buildingThe capacity building component of the project has contributed to enabling people tocope with disasters while small-scale mitigation activities reduce the loss of lives andproperties, thereby reducing the chances of falling into an irrecoverable condition. Thecapacity building component has helped harness the positive attitudes of people towardsdisaster preparedness and mitigation creating resilience. This has enabled a culture ofprevention and protection. While working towards capacity building enhancing thecapacities of communities and supporting their institutions so that they could plan and
  • implement activities for disaster response was a key element. The activities undercapacity building mainly included trainings on CBDP, TOT, SAR, PVA, First Aidnurtured DMCs, YMCs, Womens groups, Teachers, Students and other stakeholders. Capacity Building Training: Effective Tools for DRRAfter the formation of DMC in Twangra village of Handikhola VDC in Makwanpurdistrict DIPECHO/AAN conducted PVA training where 35 people from the VDCparticipated. With this PVA training, the community identified the intensity of theproblems caused by disaster. The foremost problem was land-cutting due to floods. Thisthreatened people’s livelihoods entrapping poor people further into poverty. Afterconducting PVA the community decided to make check-dams in the river, raiseawareness, organise advocacy programmes to cope during emergencies caused by floodsand build safe shelter for those who have been displaced due to floods during monsoons.Communities of this village were trained on CBDP, First Aid and SAR through whichthey have gained confidence to address issues and problems related with disastermitigation. "PVA trainings provided us the knowledge about identifying the nature ofdisaster, how and why it occurs, and ways for control, reduction and mitigation,” saysMadhav Gautam, President of DMC.Manju Karki, a 27 year-old woman DMC member of Twangra VDC says, "With CBDP,SAR, PVA and First Aid trainings we realized our roles to move forward on raisingawareness on and mitigate disaster. Even our small efforts can play a big role in disasterreduction.” In the same village, community people have built a safe shelter for floodaffected displaced families. DIPECHO/AAN provided the seed money of Rs. 142,735 tobuild this safe shelter; the shelter is now worth almost 700,000 NRS. Shanti CommunityForest Users Group provided the wood worth Rs. 400,000 to construct this site.5.3 Reducing river-cutting and protection of livelihoodSmall scale mitigation can prevent people and properties from falling victims to disastersand demonstrate practical measures useful to other communities living in similarconditions and positions. The success can also contribute to influence national policies tomake local level small community groups and their organizations, which, if assisted, canbe instrumental in disaster preparedness. Small scale mitigation activities conducted byBCRD greatly contributed to minimizing the effects of disaster. BCRD providedtechnical and financial support to identify and implement small-scale mitigation activitiessuch as embankments, culverts, repair and maintenance of infrastructure to reduce theeffects of emergency disasters. These low cost measures are taken by communities oncethey are exposed to appropriate and replicable measures. This also included selection anduse of safe route for evacuation and means of emergency transportation. Move for MitigationWe have to cross the Rapti River close to the East West highway to reach Twangravillage in Handikhola of Makwanpur District. There is a temporary wooden bridge over
  • this river which is a daily route for villagers from this VDC. During monsoons the waterlevel rises, submerging the bridge and leaving the entire VDC disconnected and isolated.Flood occurrences have made life in this village miserable. Due to the cutting of fertileland every year, villagers loose cultivable land. Male populations of Twangra Village areforced to migrate to nearby cities and even to India (neighbouring country shares openborder with Nepal from east, west and south) to work as daily wage labourers. Inbetween these rivers, there are about 150 house holds."We see our land being cut every monsoon by floods and we fear it will destroy ourshelters and us one day," Madhav Gautam, president of DMC shares his experiences withgrief. "We have lost hope. Every monsoon we are caught with fear of the flood destroyingour homes,” says Suntali Karki, a woman from this village.The community heard about WCDF engagement on addressing the issues and providingsupport to communities through FM Radio. With this information the people approachedWCDF to support them to deal with flood related disaster. WCDF initiated awarenessraising, capacity building and small scale mitigation programs in this VDC with thesupport of BCRD project. "The villagers believed disasters to be caused by divine powersand nobody would be able to stop them,” says Madhav Gautam, "When DIPECHO/AANproject activities started it opened our eyes to possibilities of reducing and mitigatingdisasters with our own efforts.”The villagers have now constructed a 178 meter long check dam in Twangra River.BCRD project provided Rs. 470,000 and community people raised Rs. 227,000 toconstruct this check dam. "We were able to get 18 iron nets for the check dam fromWater Induced Disaster Reduction Department and community bought another 10 ironnets. Much of the credit goes to BCRD project that showed us the way to seek supportfrom government agencies as well.” says DMC president Madhav Gautam.6. Policy advocacy for changeThe beneficiaries (see Annex 4) of BCRD project are mainly poor and marginalizedpeople primarily women, children, people with disabilities, elderly people, dalits andother ethnic minorities vulnerable to disaster. Therefore, Policy advocacy is an integratedpart of the BCRD project. AAN believes that people centered policy can ensure thereduction of vulnerabilities of and risks faced by people in the most susceptible areas. Building consensus for legitimacyDMC of Devdaha in Rupandehi joined hands with the local government authorities.There are 13 members in Devdaha DMC with an 11 member advisory committee. VDCSecretary and former President are also in the advisory committee. "It is important toengage local government authorities on disaster risk reduction programmes so that theycan lobby at district, regional and national level of government,” says Rishiram Sapkota,DMC president of Devdaha, "At the same time it is also their (local government)responsibility to be responsive being members of the same community.” Devdaha VDCauthorities are also showing interest in the DMCs activities and promise their support.
  • "With this participation we are hoping to build consensus of local government authoritiesto address disaster risk reduction issues effectively in the community. Our primaryconcern is to work with VDC so that it can release the government budget for disasterrisk reduction program and activities for the community. We now plan to register theDMC at district level to be able to work more effectively,” accounts Rishiram Sapkota.7. PVA process in BCRDThrough Participatory Vulnerability Analysis (PVA) communities are empowered to takecharge of their own efforts to address their vulnerability. Being aware of ones ownvulnerability is a big step, but the essence of PVA is not only for the community todevelop action plans, but to be able to constantly seek opportunities to enhance theirresilience to difficult conditions. PVA itself evolved from a workshop convened byActionAid in Dorset, UK in 2000. The workshop recognised the importance ofvulnerability in development and emergencies related work. It also identified that one ofthe gaps was in translating the knowledge of vulnerability into practice. Specific areasincluded how to build community resilience to disasters; link emergencies anddevelopment; influence policy and most of all motivate the most vulnerable.AAN has widely incorporated the PVA methodology while implementing DIPECHO IIIproject BCRD in Sarlahi, Makwanpur and Rupandehi districts. This has proven veryeffective in identifying the nature and intensity of disaster at local levels along withcommunity understanding. PVA was conducted in 8 VDCs of the three districts.Advantages of PVA- See Annex 5.8. Search and Rescue TrainingSearch and Rescue (SAR) is a critical component for any post-disaster situation.According to SAR experts, more than 80 percent of survivors of disaster rescued by thecommunity may be prompted with trained and disciplined action. However, very littleinitiatives have been taken to build or enhance the capacity of the community for skilledSAR, which can prevent major injuries, deaths and chances of higher level of disability inpost-disaster situation. With this view DIPECHO/AAN project organised week-long SARtrainings in its project implemented districts in Sarlahi, Makwanpur and Rupandehi in themonth of April 2007. Team of experts in SAR came from Bangladesh EmergencySupport Corps (ESC).These trainings have helped build capacity of youth groups, disaster activists and somestaffs of Nepal Red Cross Society on SAR at the community level focussing on floodrelated disasters. SAR trainings focused on theoretical knowledge, practicaldemonstration and exercise through lectures, multi media, demonstration, individualpractice, simulation, questionnaire and evaluation. Altogether 68 participants from threedistricts attended the SAR trainings. Basic concepts on SAR training were set in ruralsettings and this training was able to provide knowledge and skills for search and rescueduring flood disasters as well as during accidents in normal course of life. Similarly, withthe use of local materials available in the rural settings, SAR training highlighted the use
  • of local materials such as ropes, bamboos, Jerry can and whistle which could be easilyavailable. Use of pulleys for various rescue operations were also demonstrated andpracticed. With the help of these materials participants were able to build Bamboo andRope Ladder, Bamboo and Jerry can raft, Rope Bridge and Aerial Runway Techniques. Ready to RescueBabita Das 20 years and Rubi Saha 19 years of age, from Madhesi community in Terai -are REFLECT facilitators. They both actively participated in the 5-day First Aid trainingand 5-day Community Building Disaster Preparedness Programme (CBDP) trainingsconducted by Prerana - a local NGO partnering with DIPECHO/AAN in Sarlahi district."We learnt how to be safe during disasters like fire, flood or earthquake. We have sharedwhat we learnt from the trainings with family and community members. In the past we didnot have any idea about disaster preparedness but we now have the confidence to savelives as well ,” says Rubi.According to Rubi and Babita the SAR volunteers learnt about constructing temporarysafe evacuation bridge and how to rescue victims trapped in top floors using pulley andropes. "Time consciousness is another important factor in rescue during emergencies andin fact we realised this from this SAR training. Preparedness is very important, so wemust keep the instruments like ropes, pulleys, life jackets, torch lights etc. beforeemergency comes because it comes without notice,” say Rubi and Babita.Expectations, Achievements and Recommendations of SAR Training, See Annex 69. Lessons LearntDIPECHO/AAN project has provided effective support and resources to vulnerablegroups to cope with disaster and emergencies. The Project was committed to buildcommunity resilience to disaster. It emphasised building the capacity of local humanresources by working in close collaboration with district level stakeholders. It promoted arights-based approach to work and involved key stakeholders including government,community, education and family institutions.BCRDs comprehensive design was successful in changing the perception and mind set ofcommunity people who largely identified disaster as a divine creation and empoweredcommunity people for disaster preparedness and helped create an environment forcommunity mobilization for disaster preparedness. The Project also facilitated thecommunity to build a competent network of community people and local governmentauthorities. It created networks of people such as students, teachers, parents, youthgroups, women groups, community leaders etc. Among the various importantinterventions that BCRD carried out are training on CBDP, PVA, First Aid and SARwhich has helped communities to prepare themselves to mitigate disaster challenges.a. Disaster Preparedness and Livelihood support can be effective tools to mobilizecommunities: DIPECHO/AAN has been able to bring significant changes in the lives ofpeople for disaster preparedness. It has supported people in securing their livelihoods.This unique combination of disaster preparedness and livelihood opportunities could
  • significantly enable people to life secure and dignified lives, and a good alternative tomobilize communities through generating local economies.b. Working together with community is effective tool to resilience to disaster: TheProject identified local human resource such as elders, community leaders whichincluded local government leaders at VDC, teachers, students, women and youth groups.The strength of identifying human resource at local level made this project pro-community people and created ownership resulting in active participation of people in theproject.c. Community Based Trainings can address peoples immediate concerns:DIPECHO/AAN facilitated the PVA, CBDP, First Aid and SAR trainings through whichpeople have been empowered, sensitized, and are ready to act for DRR. The process wasparticipatory and there was inclusion of marginalized groups. With these trainingscommunity people gained skills and knowledge to reduce and mitigate disasters.d. Mobilization of women helps sustain the program: Women were a major focal groupof the project. As women have to face multiple burdens of disasters in a family, theirengagement in the project was a must. Consequently, over the period women havebecome more vocal and they have gained knowledge around disaster issues. Some of theinitiatives facilitated by womens groups have been very successful clearly indicating thatthe mobilization of women helps sustaining the spirit of the program. A number ofwomen are active members in the youth groups and DMCs.e. DMC- pillars of the project: DMC became the vital actor on DRR. Eight DMCs andone sub-committee were formed under DIPECHO/AAN project. The process offormation of DMC was people centred, inclusive and participatory. There is equalparticipation of men, women, ethnic communities, dalits in the DMCs. Local men andwomen and youth including those from marginalized groups were involved in makingkey decisions in the disaster response.f. PVA could be an effective participatory methodology: PVA methodology wasincorporated in DIPECHO/AAN project. PVA became the most influential methodologyas it fully gave mandate to local people to make action plans and work on those plansimmediately. In DIPECHO/AAN project areas the local people identified various types ofdisasters and its intensity. There are numerous problems associated with disaster andcommunity have very minimum resources to deal with this. With PVA communitydecided to disburse the available resource towards most vulnerable areas.g. Youths engagement on DRR: DIPECHO/AAN recognized the mobilization of youthas valuable resources for disaster preparedness because they often have the ability toadapt quickly and creatively to rapidly changing situations.10. Key achievements of BCRD project
  • • Community people of 8 VDC are aware about the risk and vulnerabilities associated with hazards at the local level.• They are well informed about hazards and preparedness and they have been organized to take action. 24 community groups [DMC, youth groups, and advisory volunteers] have been formed with significant participation of women.• Nearly 600 persons including school teachers, DMC, youths, people with disability and students have been trained in First Aid, CBDP, SAR and PVA.• 21 youths were trained in street Drama methods for campaigning/advocacy and 23 streets Drama were organised on disaster preparedness in three districts.• Local government officials (CDOs, LDOs and DNDRC) have been oriented to disaster issues and they have largely expressed support to the project. There has been effective partnership with local media and government. As a result poor people’s voices are being heard at local level and national level through media, and there has been effective engagement at the policy level.• Visibility of the project is significant among the NGOs, INGOs, national authorities, experts, national media etc.• 10 community safe shelters have been built to accommodate the most vulnerable (women, children, pregnant mother, people with disability, elderly and marginalized people). All the shelters have easy accessibility and are flood proof, earthquake resistant and friendly for women and religion minorities.• 6 check dams and dykes have been constructed.• Safe exits for school going children and other marginalized groups have been identified. Table 1. Beneficiaries by district and ethnicities Districts and Target VDCs Social Groups/Institutions Beneficiaries Rupandehi : 3 Dalits (Damai, Kami, Kewat), Ethnic VDCs minorities (Tharu, Gurung, Magar) 49591 Keruwani Non-dalits ethnic majorities but living Dev Daha in extreme poverty and vulnerability. Makrahar Makawanpur: 2 Dalits (Kami, Damai, Sarki etc.) VDCs Ethnic minorities (Tamang, Newar, 31940 Handikhola Gurung, Magar etc.) Basamadi Non-dalits ethnic majorities but living in extreme poverty and vulnerability. Dalits (Khatwe, Dusadh, Dom, Sarlahi: 3 VDCs Chamar, Baitha, Kewat, Harijan and
  • Laxmipur Dhobi) Ethnic minorities (Tamang, 13548Sundarpur Newar, Gurung, Magar,Fulparasi Non-dalits ethnic majorities but living in extreme poverty and vulnerability.Total 95079 Testimonies
  • Replication of good efforts: learning from neighboursThe disaster mitigation activities are gradually being replicated in Siddhakali village ofHandikhola VDC. Learning of DRR from Twangra village, Siddhakali communityinitially formed a Disaster Management Sub-Committee with support from TwangraDMC. Siddhakali village is highly prone to flood and landslides. The village is trappedbetween Chyapal and Makari River. Nearly 1000 inhabitants are dwelling in fear.Ganga Bahadur BK, 46 years old, from dalit community migrated to this place about 3decades ago from a hilly district with hopes of easy livelihood. "When I came here theMakari River a very small water stream but you can see it expanding each year due tofloods destroying our land and shelters,” he says.The people of this village have heard about awareness, capacity building and the smallmitigation programme in its neighbouring village in Twangra. "There was no one to showus the way, but when we heard about Twangra villagers work for disaster risk reductionwe went there to seek advise and support," says Harish Chandra Poudel, President ofSiddhakali sub-DMC "We consulted with them and we are now acquainted with thelinkages with local NGO called WCDF in the district." Community people of Siddhakalivillage have recognized flood as the main cause of disaster so they decided to construct acheck dam between the Makari and Chyapal River. DIPECHO/AAN provided Rs.100,000 and the villagers collected Rs. 30,000 and provided free labour to construct the checkdam. Similarly, the DDC provided 40 wire nets for the check dam. Small things can make a differenceGaurigaun, is a village of about 26 households situated at the bank of Rohini River inDevdaha VDC of Rautahat District. The populations of this village mostly comprise ofDalits (marginalized group) who barely have land to grow crops for a living. Men andwomen work as labourers and make earnings on daily basis of work. Due to abjectpoverty women are highly burdened with both economic hardships and household work.The story of struggle of this small village does not end here. Every year they live in feardue to the floods.One end of the “Even adults use both hands and feet to crawl across the watervillage is covered path. It has affected our livelihoods and our daily lives.surrounded by the My family is also victim to floods and we lost our small landriver and the next where we used to grow crops. Now we have this small hut butend has low land fear it could also vanish any one of these day.” Chhumi Nepali.and jungle. Duringthe monsoon the lowland gets filled with water. Due to lack of culvert on the lowland,men and women have faced difficulties in reaching other villages or local market forwork. Similarly, children are unable to go school. Due to this problem, nearly 28children stay away from school during the monsoons. Most of the populations of thisvillage are squatters who have came to this land about 12 years ago. "When we firstarrived here a decade ago the river far away, now its almost close to our homes!" saysanother woman Kumari Pariyar.
  • Now, the people of this village have built a small bridge over the lowland where heavywater used to collect during monsoons. For this Rohini Community Forest Users groupprovided wood worth Rs. 15,000 and local people raised Rs. 3450. Similarly the households of this village Chhumi "It was possible with the support of this provided free labour project which taught us and boosted our capabilities." equivalent nearly to Rs. 9,000to build the bridge. Mostly women were engaged to build this bridge and they carriedheavy stones from the river. The bridge was made with local efforts, resources andtechnical support from DIPECHO/AAN project. The villagers are now having plannedfor plantation the trees at the bank of Rohini River to protect their land and home fromthe flood. Skills to save lives“I learnt many things about how to be safe from disaster through DIPECHO/AANactivities. I am sharing whatever I learnt with community people especially to women."Rupkali Darlami Magar says. Rupkali, a widow, 49 years old, could hardly spell writtenwords or write. Today, she is an out spoken lady advocating for disaster preparedness inthe community.The 1993 flood displaced her family. "We moved from where we were residing for yearsand working hard for a secure future for our children," she recalls. It was during Dasain (the most important Hindu "When I received the First Aid training, I realized festival celebrated in Nepal) in that I could have tried to save my husbands life the year 2003, "One neighbour through artificial respiration to keep him alive till we came and told me that my reached hospital. This is the change that I can feel in husband drowned in a nearby my life. Now I am convincing others about the canal. I hurried and importance of capacity building and skills to save approached where he was. He lives of victims of disaster, so that people do not was unconscious but was loose their loved one.” Rupkali breathing.” Rupkali madearrangements to take him to the nearest hospital but her husband died. DMC an effective agency to make a differenceRapti River has posed great risk to mainly the 5 wards of Basamadi VDC in Makwanpurdistrict. Villagers were worried with their situation but very few people were showingconcerns over mitigating the disaster. "We came to know about WCDF, a localorganization that is working in the field of disaster. They agreed to support us throughDIPECHO/AAN project,” says Loknath Pandey, President of DMC of Basamadi. TheDMC formed under DIPECHO/AAN decided to construct check dam on Rapti River inward number 5, where there are 200 households. DIPECHO/AAN provided Rs. 182,000and community people raised 56,000 RS and provided free labour to construct 2 meterlong check dam. The DMC is becoming more proactive. Community members arecontributing their efforts by collecting funds and contributing free labours.
  • Recently, the community renovated one check dam constructed a year ago by thegovernment. DMC has started to raise Rs. 10 per month from every household andmaking its use on disaster risk reduction activities in the village. Basamadi DMC also hasbuilt safe shelter for flood affected families. DIPECHO/AAN has supported Rs. 142,735where as community people have invested Rs. 650,000 worth of liabilities like land,wood and free labour. "We will make its use during emergencies and other time use it forconducting DMC activities," says Kamala Shilwal, female member of DMC. Women in frontBagkumar is a small village and the flood occurring in close by rivers has put 11households at great risk. Through PVA community people were able to decide that thepriority was to construct the check dam first to save the land and inhabitants ofBagkumar. Thecheck dam in "As male members are away from home and busy in workBagkumar ward outside they could not give quality time to construct the checknumber 8 of dam. We decided to make the check dam in the river which isDevdha VDC is close to our village as every year it has been cutting the land. Itcompletely built by has almost approached our homes,” says Laxmi Chaudhari,women of this President of CCC.village. The women from this village formed a Check dam Construction Committee(CCC) under Disaster Management Committee of Devdaha. All 7 members are women.DIPECHO/AAN agreed to provide Rs. 100,000 for constructing of the check dam. Thesewomen instantly generated an additional Rs. 27,500 by approaching variousorganizations. Sports Development Committee in Bhaluhi VDC provided 10 iron netsand 2,000 polyvinyl shacks. Similarly, the women collected another 21 iron nets fromdifferent organizations. The CCC then approached the VDC to free the royalties for thestones collected from the river for constructing check dam. VDC prepared the paperwork. Then they collected 26 tractors trolley stones. After stacking all the requiredmaterials they proceed to construct the check dam. "We hope that this years monsoon wewill be safe and the womens effort to make this check dam will save our village," saysLaxmi Chaudhari. Flood affected people become resilientHari Darlami, 34 years old is a flood survivor from Tatera village in Rupandehi district.He still recalls the sufferings caused by the flood. "There was a flood in the middle of thenight and all of us climbed trees to be safe. We took shelter in the trees for 10 hours andit was a frightening experience. As we came down from the tree our shelter andeverything has been washed away by the flood,” recalls Hari Darlami. The villagersprovided his family some unused public land of 4 kaththas, which is also at great riskfrom floods. There are 50 households in Tatera village of Makrahar VDC where thevillagers live in fear like Hari Darlami. Nilu Rana, member of Gyanjyoti Womens groupsays, “During this short span of time half the land we left have been cut by the floods."Tatera village is surrounded by Rohini and Kajarar River. The rivers are extremely wideand the resources available in the village could not cope with the problem duringmonsoons.
  • BCRD project with FSCN- a local NGO provided Rs. 100,000 to build check dam toprotect the village from flood. Community people provided free labour and constructed acheck dam on Rohini River. "There was no hope and alternative means till last year butwe are gradually gaining hope and confidence from BCRD project which has raisedawareness and provided capacity building skills and knowledge," says Keshav Rana,DMC vice-president of Makrahar VDC. Community people of this village appreciatedthe PVA, CBDP, First Aid and skill to weave iron nets. "This year children will have a wonderful surprise!"Janta Primary School in Sundarpur VDC where nearly 300 children study was establishedin 1978. It has not been renovated since then. "The Government pays no attention orresponds to requests for renovating it. During monsoons the water enters in to the classrooms," says Jaggu Ram Yadav, Headmaster of the school. The flow of debris due to theflood has piled up on the school ground. Due to this, the ground level has ascended upand the water flows down towards the class rooms.Jaggu Ram Yadav, "We are happy now for the support provided by DIPECHO/AAN andthe local NGO Prerana for showing keen interest on the continuation of children’s studydisrupted by flood." At the initiation of the DMC of Sundarpur VDC, BCRD projectprovided Rs. 150,000 and the School and Community people raised Rs. 22,000. With thismoney they renovated the school building and constructed a compound wall to savewater and debris flow entering into the school premises.Similarly, DIPECHO/AAN constructed a Bamboo Bridge over the river in betweenSundarpur and Laxmipur VDC where flash flood occurs every monsoon season. There isDevdhari Higher Secondary School in Laxmipur just after crossing the river fromSundarpur. Nearly 200 students from 3 VDCs surrounding this school come to studycrossing this river. "When floods arose students from the other side of the river could notcome to school," says Narayan Prasad Baral, a school teacher, "the flood disrupted notonly the students but too the teachers coming from across the river. We were facing thissort of problem for about 15 years." BCRD project provided Rs. 94,034 to construct thisBamboo Bridge and community people collected Rs. 7,600 and provided free labour toconstruct this bridge. With the use of locally available resources the construction becamecost effective and easy for maintenance by local people. Mohammad Femuddin, DMCSecretary of Sundarpur VDC says, "The Bridge will serve not only the students andteachers but all the community people." Safe for shelteringThe Sukhchaina ward in Laxmipur VDC of Sarlahi district is habitat for Sahanicommunity (an indigenous group whose ancestral profession is fishing). This village issurrounded by Lakhandehi River in the west and Dhwangra River in the east. Duringmonsoons the village becomes an island. There are 44 households in this village. Inwinter they suffer from severe cold waves and during summer they fall trap to rampantfire.
  • Karmatiya Devi Shani, a 60 year old woman, lost her home due to the floods. Altogetherthere are 24 members in her family. She possesses a few kaththas of land where the cropsgrown are barely enough to feed the family for a bare minimum of 3 months. Young malemembers of this family have migrated to India for labour work. Monsoon is a terrifyingtime for them. "We see clouds up in the sky and find highlands so that flood does notreach us," says Tetri Dvi Shah, another woman from the village "for months we spendsleepless nights." "Disaster has made us poor and poverty makes us vulnerable," saysKrishna Dev Saha, member of DMC. "We have not received any relief from thegovernment. Sometimes NGO people come here and distribute relief materials but howcan it sustain us!"DIPECHO/AAN with Prerana- a local NGO intervened in this village to make the peoplehere safe from the floods. Community people proposed safe shelter as the immediaterequirement for emergencies in flood. But they do not have public land to build theshelter. So after several consultations among themselves, community people agreed tocollect the money from each house hold. They collected Rs. 54,000 and bought land.DIPECHO/AAN provided financial supported of Rs. 332,000 to construct the safeshelter. Women as change makers!Rajkali Devi Gosai, is a 45 year old woman from Sundarpur VDC of Sarlahi district. Sheis a REFLECT facilitator as well as a Woman Health Volunteer in the community. She isnow the President of Disaster Management Committee (DMC) formed underDIPECHO/AAN, which has 11 members, amongst whom 9 are women. "In our villagemen do not work, they only talk and quarrel," says Rajkali Goai "so community peoplechose us for the DMC and we are working efficiently on disaster risk reduction. We areworking on awareness raising and capacity building activities to strengthen thecommunity to response to disaster."Rajkali believes that with the support from DIPECHO/AAN people are more aware ofand ready to speak to ensure their rights. "The trainings provided to us on disaster riskreduction is useful to daily life," she explains. Rina Devi Baitha, a 28 years old womanfrom dalit community of Phulparasi VDC of Sarlahi district, is the DMC treasurer. Thefew acre of land that her family possessed was turned into sand desert by the flood. Herhusband has migrated to India to earn for the family. Rina has 3 daughters. Rinas efforthas now become a model for the community. DIPECHO/AAN with Prerana hasconducted bio-engineering trainings for the villagers. Rina Devi on her initiation plantedbanana trees in the desert land and a kind of vegetable which grows on dry and sandysoil. "I grow banana and vegetables in that unused field. I sold crops worth Rs. 10, 000within a year. The Banana plantation also saves the land from flood,” she says happily.Bhuli Devi Sahini, is another leading woman from Sukhchaina village of Laxmipur VDCof Sarlahi district. There are 8 members in her family and they do not own any land forgrowing crops. Fishing and working on daily wages is the profession of her husband andsons. Her family has been repeatedly displaced by the flood. "We changed our place forseven times and still we are living in fear of being displaced again," says Bhuli Devi "so I
  • mobilised the community people of my village to construct the safe shelter.” At 60 shealone took the pony cart to get construction materials like cement and iron rods from themarket. She did all these voluntarily. She happily expresses, "Now villagers have faith inmy strength and they listen to what I have to say."
  • 12. ANNEXES:Annex 1: Introduction of DIPECHO/AAN local partnersWCDF is a non profit organization formally registered with District AdministrativeOffice, Makwanpur Hetauda under His majesty’s Government of Nepal on 2054 (inaccordance with institution registration act 2034). It is formed by a group of womenprofessionals with considerable experience in the sector related to social, education,Health, Sanitation, Environment, Support to Disaster Victims and Legal Reforms. WCDFenvisages facilitating the empowerment process of poor, women and children of thegrassroots by organizing training programs and conducting community-based initiativesin suitable areas. WCDF intends to work as a facilitator for the acquisition of Socialsecurity through creating Safety Nets for a healthy and safe environment to the grassrootspoor communities.PRERANA is a non-governmental social development organization registered undersociety registration act 2034 in district administration office Lalitpur in 1998. It is alsoaffiliated with the social Welfare Council (SWC) Nepal. PRERANA was established withactive involvement of professionals with long experience in the field of integratedcommunity development specifically, community organization, health and disability,micro-finance, gender and empowerment. Since 1999, Prerana is implementingcommunity empowerment programme in Sarlahi district with the aim to alleviate poverty.In Sarlahi, the programme is spread in twelve VDCs. The total population of the area is34,380 containing 16304 female and 18076 male. Of the total 6,101 households in thearea, 77.50% are lying in poverty situation. Thus all the programmes of Prerana focusthese households to help them to improve their living condition through right-basedApproach. BCRD project have implemented in 3 VDCs of Sarlhi district.FSCN is a non-profit making, non-government; volunteer based social developmentorganization established by the initiatives of a group of socially committed and dedicatedpeople from different walks of life and from different regions of the kingdom. Since itsinception, FSC/N has concentrated on implementing programs that address the issues ofpoverty reduction, community development and women’s empowerment through incomegenerating programs, health and sanitation, accessible rural drinking water, saving andcredit programs for women, human rights awareness raising, involvement of thecommunity in local governance, environment and sustainable agriculture, advocacy andlobbying, disaster mitigation and rehabilitation, peace and conflict prevention. Presently,FSCN has initiated innovative right-based interventions and approaches for sustainablemanagement of disaster and FSCN is scaling up its approach through participatoryprocesses by mobilizing the disaster affected community at grass roots and Advocacy andPolicy influencing at the National level.Annex 2: Methodology and Source of Information while implementing BCRDproject.Annex 2
  • Methodology Sources of information 1. PVA applying the following Along with community consultations, the methods: views of district line agencies (i.e. District Hazard mapping Administration Office, District Forest Vulnerability mapping Office, District Soil Conservation Office, Venn diagram Division office of Water Induced Power analysis Disasters, District Development Seasonal calendar Committee, District Public Health Office, Time-line District Livestock Service Office, District Semi Structures Interview (SSI) Agriculture Office and District Irrigation Focal Group Discussion Office), Nepal Red Cross Society, partner organizations, and the leaders of community organizations (CBOs) were also taken into account. Discussed with affected communities, women, children and Dalits. 2. Consultative workshop Representatives of partner organizations (PNGOs) and professional staff of ActionAid Nepal 3. Consultation meetings with other Organizations like ICIMOD (International national level stakeholders Centre for Mountain Development), Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG), CARE Nepal and Lutheran World Federation were consulted especially to avoid overlapping/double funding and for better cooperation, 4. Literature review Reports and background documents on disaster management prepared by AAN, its partners, government and other stakeholders.Annex 3: Organisations involved in assessmentFriends Service Council, Nepal (FSCN) in partnership with AAN, had conducted a PVAof Rupandehi district and submitted a report that envelopes demographic information andsome case studies. Likewise, Prerana a NGO from Sarlahi office collected informationfrom the disaster prone areas in and around their implementing VDCs of their respectivedistricts. Both the partners are working for providing humanitarian support to the disasteraffected people through their ongoing project activities.The vulnerability assessment prepared by Makwanpur District Development Committeehas ranked the flood and landslide on top most out of ten hazards. Handikhola andBasamadi VDCs fall in very high hazard possible categories. The DDC has also enlisted
  • ActionAid among the key stakeholders at the central level. Women and ChildrenDevelopment Forum (WCDF) further assessed the need of the area. Other mainstakeholders on assessment were the communities represented by DDCs and VDCs,Disaster Management Forums (DMFs), Media, NGOs, Civil Society Organizations andCommunity Institutions like schools, CBOs and clubs.As Disaster Management Committees are key actors at the grassroots level, VDCs andDDCs are the local governments that create an environment to resource sharing togetherwith policy support. Media is the key to educating by sharing information with theservice providers and general public as well. Apparently, community institutions likeschools and CBOs have vital role in disaster education and resource mobilization fordisaster preparedness. Similarly, development agencies like ICIMOD, Practical Action,CARE Nepal and Lutheran World Federation were consulted to avoid duplication/doublefunding and confusions to ensure a better coordination and cooperation. (From theproposal developed by AAN for DIPECH III).Annex 4: Advantages of PVA • It reveals different aspects and causes of vulnerability, and at the same time offers mechanisms for follow-up programmes. • It increases effectiveness of emergency and development activities in the long- term with vulnerability as an indicator by either categorising poor people into groups according to levels of vulnerability, thereby allowing better targeting, or being used to establish a baseline of new projects. • It addresses cross cutting themes like HIV/AIDS, gender etc providing an in- depth understanding of vulnerabilities which unveils the dynamics of power, inequality and discrimination between men and women, girls and boys - the analysis is a spring board for womens empowerment. • It reduces differences in approaches of locals and outsiders, merging them to create acceptability and ownership for both the community and development facilitators. • PVA can make future vulnerabilities predictive, based on levels of skills and analysis, as such planning and mitigation efforts are made to offset potential future vulnerabilities. • PVA Analytical Steps: Step 1: Situation Analysis of vulnerability Step 2: Analysing cause of vulnerability Step 3: Analysis of community action Step 4: Drawing Action from analysisAnnex 5: Expectation from SAR trainingThe Participants expectation from SAR trainings were: • To learn the process of SAR • To learn about how to rescue during accidents • To know how to save victims during disaster • To understand the process of SAR in simple and easy steps
  • • To learn about SAR procedures • To learn SAR techniques • To understand SAR in easy wayExpectations from community and Organizations • To implement what has been learned during SAR training • To learn the process of SAR during incidents like flood, landslides using local resources • To aware community about disaster • To teach other people what have learned about SAR • To learn how to swim and save others • To be mentally strong • To be well trained and train othersRecommendation made by SAR trainers • Physical fitness and high moral courage and skills are essential for a rescuer • It is strongly recommended that the persons selected for the SAR operation must be adult, i.e 18 years old • For the personal safety of the SAR volunteers it is recommended that the volunteers and their authority must know volunteers blood group • For avoiding the risk of Tetanus contamination, the SAR volunteers should vaccinated anti Tetanus Serum, which will reduce their risks during operation and in normal life • Knowing First Aid is a prediction for the SAR trainees and volunteers • A TOT is strongly recommended • In TOT curriculum need to include other SAR techniques. Fire incidents rescue and Landslide scenarios may be included in TOT. • More practice, refreshers need to be planned for the end users/volunteers. • Quarterly drill recommended for the SAR volunteers incorporating the community • Volunteers may transfer the knowledge to the community • Inclusion of more women and girls in the First Aid courses will enhance the end results in the community which finally help the rescuer in emergencies • Social maps need to be updated, community rescuers need to be included in the process • Discipline is vital in the SAR; volunteers/rescuers need to follow these strictly during the operations. In motivation, awareness building and Leadership training "DISCIPLINE" need to be addressed/discussed with importance
  • 13. References:1. DIPECHO/AAN proposal2. Quarterly Review Meetings (QRMs) reports)3. ActionAid Nepal Country Strategy Report (2005-2010)4. State of Disaster Management practice in Nepal with reference to the flood disasteroccurred in 2002, AAN/EDM report.5. The nexus between Natural Disasters and Development: Key Policy Issues in Meetingthe Millennium Development Goals and Poverty Alleviation; Prof, Dr. Bishal Nath Uprti,Oct 2006.6. Development of National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management in Nepal,information brochure prepared by Government of Nepal and United NationsDevelopment Program.7. Sixth Working Draft prepared by Inter- Agency Standing Committee (IASC) TaskForce on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support.