Dipecho aan evaluation final report

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Dipecho aan evaluation final report

  1. 1. Surakshit Samudaya: Building Safer Community through Disaster Management To enable communities towards disaster management through awareness, empowerment and enhanced capacity of accountable stakeholders A DIPECHO SUPPORTED PROJECT EVALUATION REPORT Evaluated by Dhruba Raj Gautam February-March 2008
  2. 2. FINAL EVALUATION REPORT OF ACTIONAID NEPAL SURAKSHIT SAMUDAYA: BUILDING SAFER COMMUNITY THROUGH DISASTER MANAGEMENT (SUPPORTED BY DIPECHO) Evaluator: Dhruba Raj Gautam Contact Details: Kathmandu-Sachetan Marg, Nepal Phone: +977-1-4464716/98510-95808 Email: drgautam@wlink.com.np Project Title: Surakshit Samudaya: Building Safer Community through Disaster Management Implementing Agency: ActionAid Nepal Donor: DipECHO Project Start Date: 01 November 2007 Project End Date: 28 February 2009 Project Duration: 15 months Duration of evaluation: 24 days Field visit dates: 20th February to 3rd March 2009 Project Objective: To enable communities towards disaster management through awareness, empowerment and enhanced capacity of accountable stakeholders, contributing towards the overall aim of building safer communities in the project area through disaster management initiatives. This report has been produced and financed at the request of ActionAid Nepal. The comments contained herein reflect the opinions of the consultant only.
  3. 3. Acknowledgements This evaluation report has been possible because of the support of so many people personally and professionally. We would like to extend our sincere gratitude to all persons who contributed to this evaluation in many different ways: by sharing their experience, thoughts and opinions about the project, and by contributing time, advice and hospitality. First, we would like to acknowledge the hard work that is being done by the multitude of active teams, and groups organized under the DIPECHO project. Next, our particular thanks go to all project staff and people involved from partner NGOs that is excellently prepared the evaluation process and arranged our field visit on the field sites. Their dedication, input and willingness to share about critical issues were extremely valuable. We are grateful to Mr PV Krishnan, DIPECHO Project Manager of DIPECHO/AAN and Mr Shyam Sundar Jnavaly, Sr. Theme Leader/EDM for their feedback and suggestion in the methodology as well as coordination of the whole evaluation. The painstaking efforts made by Mr. Dinesh Singh and Mr Ashok Pokharel, the Project Officers, DIPECHO/AAN during the whole evaluation administration were highly commendable. I would like to appreciate Mr Saurabh Sharma, Finance and Admin Office, for his valuable comments in the draft report. Similarly, the PSOs including all the DIPECHO team of Makwanpur, Sarlahi, Udaypur and Rupandehi's assistance and support have been critical to undertake evaluation. We are indebted to DMC, task force and REFLECT group members of all project districts for their patience, co- operation and good understanding without their support; it would not have been possible to complete this evaluation. We were encouraged when people accepted our presence, answered our queries passionately and made us internalize the key project achievements and outcomes. Therefore, we remain obliged to them. I would like to appreciate the key role played by two evaluation interns-Ms Durga Rai and Ms Neelima Poudel for their hard and dedicated work during the evaluation consultation at both field and Kathamndu level. Last but not least, our thanks go to all senior personnel from AAN who entrusted us with the task of conducting this evaluation. Thanks Dhruba Raj Gautam Kathmandu March, 2009
  4. 4. FINAL EVALUATION REPORT OF ActionAid Nepal Surakshit Samudaya: Building Safer Community through Disaster Management (SUPPORTED BY DIPECHO) Executive Summary 1. Background of the Project and Evaluation: 'Surakshit Samudaya: Building safer community through disaster management initiatives’ was implemented in five districts for 16 months from November 2007 under a funding support of the European Commission through its Humanitarian Aid department. The project's specific objective was to contribute towards building safer communities through disaster management initiatives by enhancing communities’ awareness, empowering them and enhancing the capacity of stakeholders. With the project scheduled to be completed in February 2009, Actionaid commissioned an external evaluation of the project. The broad objective of the evaluation was to analyse the overall achievements, document and draw on the key learning to suggest possible future direction for disaster preparedness (DP) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives. The evaluation methodology mainly consisted of gathering primary information through field visit, review of secondary information, and consultations with AAN, partner NGOs, DPNet, National Society for Earthquake technology (NSET) and government officials (GOs). Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were held to explore overall achievements and perceptions of the project’s contributions. 2. Fulfilment/achievements of key objectives/results: The 14 Disaster Management Committees (DMCs) are the backbone of the project and are working as facilitators to carry out DP activities. The critical components of the project including awareness generation; grassroots institution building and capacity enhancement as well as mobilization of resources for risk reduction have been accomplished. Comparison of the originally stated indicators against the achievement clearly indicates that the project has been successfully completed with all agreed initiatives fully and efficiently accomplished. The disaster management committees are functioning and their discussions on disaster related issues and vulnerability reduction is well informed and coordinated. There is an organic relation between REFLECT and the DMCs. REFLECT circles has given new meaning to community mobilization, ensuring that every member of the community is involved in the decision making process. The presence of trained volunteers and youth in the community has resulted in increased capacity of the people to respond to disasters. Though severe disasters have not tested the utility of the trained volunteers, their presence and benefit to the community was apparent during Koshi floods and floods in Rupandehi in 2008. The information, education and communication (IEC) materials designed to suit the local culture and context and 40-episode radio programme were successful in imparting the basic knowledge about DP and DRR. The Gaunghar FM radio programme run by the youth of Jogidaha in Udaypur was highly appreciated. In Sarlahi, in spite of the listener clubs, outreach was limited because of the broadcast hours and language. The street theatre, drill rehearsals and school-level competitions helped to understand disasters, causal relationships and to take steps to cope with them. The youth, volunteers, teachers, students, masons, women, and community-and district-level stakeholders were involved in capacity-building programmes. The communities were trained in disaster management (DM) and Participatory Vulnerability Analysis (PVA) to identify risks, hazards and vulnerable areas and cope with risks through local actions. Comprehensive risk assessment and action plan imparted knowledge and skills to deal with multiple risks and hazards. Training in first aid 4
  5. 5. enabled the trained local women to serve people injured during floods. The members of communities trained in light search, rescue and evacuation operations and fire fighting and training of contractors/masons helped them translate the skills into action. Two schools were equipped with retrofitting technology for safety from earthquakes. The 28 REgenerated Freiren Literacy through Empowering Community Techniques (REFLECT) groups had learned to identify the possible disaster risks and their local solutions. The women of Butwal-5 were able to secure Rs 75,000 from the municipality to construct culverts. With seven municipality and five district-level networks, it became easy to do resource mapping and resource sharing/generation for coping with disasters. In Sarlahi, district-level DMC network had been engaging in developing a district DM plan. Now, DDRC had become more accountable towards DMCs. However, disaster information centres (DICs) were not fully functional because of resource constraints and inadequate guidelines. The Disaster Relief Fund (DRF) was considered a ray of hope for emergency and disaster situations. The ‘fistful rice campaign’ was instrumental in raising grains on voluntary basis. The project had built the capacity of a large number of constituent assembly members, GOs, NGO representatives and members of SMCs, parents and teachers’ associations, students on DP and HFA. School building EQ-proof retrofitting, culvert construction, emergency shelters, plantation area, protection work, retention wall and safe exits have greatly contributed to provide safe places and to protect agricultural land. In Udaypur and Rupandehi, about 650 bighas (1 bigha =0.67ha) of land was safeguarded. In Sunsari and Udaypur, plantation of saplings has contributed to protecting land and human settlements. The riverbank protection work has raised the value of land in Hadikhola in Makwanpur. The emergency shelter in Jogidaha in Udaypur can be said to be a model work. The DMC of Butwal-13 in Rupandehi has mobilized its own resources to construct a safe shelter. The construction of raised hand pumps has ensured safe drinking water during floods. In Sarlahi, the provision of ramps has increased the access of the people with disability (PWD) to water and toilets. The formulation of DM plans has made it easy to build up linkages to access external resources. The GO supports ranged from 5 to 35 per cent in all mitigation works. The contingency plan prepared by each DMC has also ensured management of relief work within 72 hours of a disaster. DMC of Butwal-5 was able to secure municipality’s resources for construction of culverts; the DMCs of Rupandehi and Udaypur were lobbying with the Village Council for greater allocation of funds to DP and DRR. However, as the DMCs are at cluster level, there is some doubt on its ability to generate resources from the government. In sum, these achievements are evidences of the fulfilment of the four results and thus its key objective. At a higher level, the comprehensive risk mapping exercise in Triyoga municipality and the orientation on HFA and DRR to government officers, NGO leaders and constituent assembly members have succeeded in ensuring informed policy makers at various levels. The multi-hazard risk mapping in Triyoga was a successful pilot initiative that will help the municipality not only to integrate risk reduction into the ongoing development initiatives but also help them mobilize resources towards that. Working together, the DIPECHO project and the DRR through Schools project (supported by DFID) ensured that there is complementarities and continuity in pursuing school curricula on DRR. Where as DRRS project ensured that the school curriculum was developed, DIPECHO project trained the master trainers of the Education Department on the new curriculum. 3. Project efficiency and effectiveness: The project was implemented with immaculate plan and systems. Though Nepal was facing acute crisis through fuel shortage, power shortage and constant road blocks and strikes that hampered movement, particularly in the project areas, AAN DIPECHO project was implemented without being overtly hampered by such incidents. This happened only because of the strong planning and closes monitoring, giving adequate room to accommodate last minute changes and alterations without affecting the overall project performance. 5
  6. 6. The project developed highly innovative planning and monitoring tools that was well structured and informed. The tools were easy to understand and accomplish even by grassroots workers. The monitoring formats gave precise indication to team at all levels on levels of achievements, ensuring bidirectional flow of information at all levels. It goes to the credit of DIPECHO team to have ushered appropriate project management tools, which are being adapted and used by other projects within Actionaid as well as other DIPECHO partners in the country. While project processes are indeed commendable, it also increased the overall efficiency of implementation and thus contributed to visible changes in the community. There is a clear correlation between inputs and output and resource sharing. In Butwal-5, the REFLECT group constructed a water tank to serve around 50 households with Rs 10000 only. With good functional linkages with GOs, funds were mobilized for emergency shelter at Jogidaha in Udaypur. The plantation and emergency shelter at Jogidaha, small-scale mitigation work at Shantinagar and safe exit at Raitole in Makwanpur are other examples of good resource sharing. With the increasing participation of women and endangered/indigenous sections of society, positive message was sent to the project communities to undertake local actions for DP and DRR. All plans and programmes were executed through systematic processes and procedures and within the timeframe. Despite poor security situation and road blockades in the Terai, the work plan was followed due to flexibility in plans and periodic review and reflection (R&R). The district-level project launching, direct agreement with the DMC to execute project activities, competitive bidding, display of details of expenditures on the notice and hoarding boards, and social audit at the time of project completion have collectively demonstrated good efficiency and effectiveness of the project. One of the key areas to improve in the project is emphasis on too many activities and adopting scattered and diverse areas. This has resulted in some of the activities like disaster information centres and early warning systems loosing focus and relevance, due to inadequate technical back up as well as resource allocation. The scattered project area also might have reduced the ability of the project to influence administrators at the municipal or district levels. 4. Gender, social inclusion, equity and ownership: Gender balance has been maintained in the DMCs, taskforces, and capacity-building training, which has helped to fill the knowledge gaps among the women about DP and DRR. With improved leadership skills, in Udaypur and Makwanpur, some women DMC members were also involved in forest user groups, water users groups and self-help groups. Adequate space had been provided to people with disability, indigenous/endangered peoples in the project activities. Equity was ensured in resource sharing in riverbank protection work, fistful rice campaigns and regular savings. The involvement of DMCs in DDRCs' meeting revealed that different actors owned the project. The empowerment of women as social change agents can be gauged from the active role they have played in Sunsari during Koshi floods as well as in resource mobilization process. REFLECT circles have given women a new understanding about their roles and have since then become more vocal and involved in the grassroots affairs. 5. Project methods and approach, management and implementation processes: While the project has successfully developed innovative and appropriate models and tools towards a systemic approach to implementation, discussions with the team members at various levels indicated the high level of confidence and increased capacities they have garnered through this project. The overall management has been highly participatory and ensured that the project gave scope and space for each and every members to build on their existing strengths and learn new ideas and concepts. Partner organizations and project staff has learned many things from this project and their confidence levels are very high. The implementation process was participatory at all levels, transparent in its dealings. Information was shared without any inhibition that resulted in each and every member involved in the project, from ActionAid senior management to the grassroots workers and DMC members feeling ownership of the project. The project had adopted some methods such as community mobilization and capacity building to mobilize rights holders for enabling, bargaining, institutionalizing and mobilization to serve a large 6
  7. 7. number of disaster-affected people/families to claim their rights. Partnership and hazard-centric approaches were found effective, and has made it easy to focus the project activities on individual-, family- and community-level preparedness. The staff had clear understanding about the FPA guidelines with good visibility of the project from community to national level. The community-based institutions, capacity building and involvement of these institutions in the project initiatives with acquired knowledge and skills have helped to build clear understanding about future DP and DRR. The monthly PSO meeting and periodic R&R had enlarged the scope for sharing and cross learning in these areas. 6. Ensured rights of rights holders: Through careful processes and procedures like awareness of basic rights, capacity building for claiming rights and institutionalization of rights through policy advocacy, it was easy to ensure rights in favour rights holders. The Prakop Chetana radio programmes and REFLECT added value. Now, people took relief as their right not a favour. A culture of collective bargaining for claiming the rights to protection, safety and participation is now in place. For instance, the issues of disability allowance and advocacy to enforce the disaster regulations and building code are some examples. 7. Alignment with EDM theme and Updated AAN CSP III: A good correlation between the overall objective of DIPECHO IV, key thrust of EDM theme and strategy of AAN updated CSP III shows proper alignment. 8. Relevance: As the design is sound, people are equipped with new skills, knowledge and institutions, the access of disaster-affected people to GOs has been increasing. The major issues and concerns of disaster-affected families who were suffering due to multiple vulnerabilities have been addressed. The project has reached the un-reached through humanitarian support. The project was based on the government’s Three-Year Interim Plan, Millennium Development Goals and Hyogo Framework of Action (HFA), which reflects the relevance of the project. 9. Sustainability: The project communities were enabled towards DP and DRR through awareness, empowerment, knowledge and skills through capacity-building initiatives, rehearsals and mock drills. The local resource persons (LRPs) that have been developed have sufficient capacity and willingness to continue fistful rice campaign, DRFs and REFLECT classes. As some of the task forces members are in the DMC and some DMC members are in the municipal/district level networks, there are good institutional linkages. The provision of DRF will enable the community to response and face emergencies, which will support the sustainability of the project. 10. Impact: The LRPs have started to act as planners, designers and potential responders for any kinds of disaster at local level. DMCs are able to assess the potential hazards, vulnerability for immediate action through action planning. Risks and vulnerability zoning has made it easy to convince local/district-level stakeholders to generate resources. Through careful small-scale mitigation, a large number of people and areas have been protected from physical and psychological vulnerabilities. The project's comprehensive design was successful in changing the perception and mindset of communities who used to interpret disasters as divine interventions. These are some of the preliminary impacts. 11. Key lessons/practices: At local level, DM and contingency plans, fistful rice campaigns, school retrofitting, PVA, mainstreaming PWD in DRR and the REFLECT approach for community empowerment were found to be some of the good practices. Visibility material development, celebration of EQ safety and ISDR days, publication of thematic bulletin, and training among DIPECHO projects in Nepal in collaborative approach are some good practices. The pre-and post- monsoon workshops, orientation to teachers and political leaders on HFA/DDR education are other good practices at national level. At international level, the coordination mechanism among DIPECHO partner's for resource sharing and synergy could be said to be some of the best examples. 12. Recommendations: Based on the overall analysis, the following recommendations are made: 7
  8. 8. • The hazards, risks and vulnerability maps should be modified on periodic basis to gauze people's changing perceptions and actions. Training need assessment is important before training selection. • DMCs should be formed at VDC and ward/NP level for claiming GO resources. Inter-DMC visits are required to assess the strengths, main learning and areas for improvement for DP. DRF should be used for dealing with emergencies. Use of existing social platform instead of creating new organizations is suggested, wherever possible. The project should channelize the project fund from GOs for involving technicians from design phase for future sustainability. The project should work with wider stakeholders such as market, civil society, NGO, political parties/leaders, GOs, etc in comprehensive approach for DP and DRR. Municipality should lead DIC and the role of the project is just to facilitate the process with some budget provisions. People's indigenous knowledge/practices should be link while improving early warning systems at local level. • Clear guidelines/strategies should be prepared for DRR based-REFLECT, CBDP, DRF and DMC networks for uniformity in understanding and for making strategic inputs for sustainability. The project should be designed for limited areas and population in a few districts to demonstrate tangible output and exemplary work. Humanitarian assistance should be linked with long-term development work with government without compromising on the core humanitarian values and norms. • It will be more effective if the project is concentrated in specific locations. Compact areas will surely contribute to higher impact and higher involvement with the government and other stakeholders. Tendency to use a short term project to implement all activities should be avoided and project like DIPECHO should be used more as complimenting and gap filling initiative to the long term development, thereby effectively integrating DRR into the long term development initiatives of ActionAid 8
  9. 9. TABLE OF CONTENT Acknowledgements 3 Executive summary 4 1. Preamble 10 1.1 The context 10 1.2 Overview of DIPECHO project 10 2. Background to Evaluation 10 2.1 Objectives of Evaluation 10 2.2 Evaluation methodology 11 2.3 Limitations 11 3. Evaluation Findings and Analysis 11 3.1 Fulfilment/achievements of key objectives/results 11 3.2 Project efficiency and effectiveness 20 3.2.1 Project efficiency 20 3.2.2 Project effectiveness 20 3.3 Gender, social inclusion, equity and ownership 21 3.4 Project methods, approach, management and implementation processes 22 3.4.1 Project methodology and approach 22 3.4.2 Project management 22 3.4.3 Implementation process 23 3.5 Ensured rights of right holders 23 3.6 Alignment with EDM theme and Updated AAN CSP III 24 3.7 Relevance 24 3.8 Sustainability 24 3.9 Impact 25 4. Key lessons/practices 26 5. Recommendations 26 APPENDICES 29 Appendix 1: Terms of References 29 Appendix 2: Evaluation Team Members and Schedule 36 Appendix 3: Fieldwork tools and techniques 39 Appendix 4: List of people consulted during the evaluation process 42 Appendix 5: Quantitative analysis in terms of project achievements 46 Appendix 6: Acronyms 49 9
  10. 10. Surakshit Samudaya Building Safer Community through Disaster Management DIPECHO Project Evaluation Report 1. Preamble 1.1 The context 'Surakshit Samudaya: Building safer community through disaster management initiatives’ was implemented in five districts of Nepal (Makawanpur, Rupandehi, Sarlahi, Sunsari and Udaypur) in association with the local partners of ActionAid Nepal (AAN), directly benefiting nearly 135,000 people in 14 wards, including 12 municipality and two village development committee (VDC) wards. In addition, refresher activities were carried out in eight VDC wards covered by the DIPECHO III project. The project implemented for 16 months, beginning 01 November 2007, under a fund received from the European Commission through its Humanitarian Aid Department (under DIPECHO IV Action Plan for South Asia). 1.2 Overview of DIPECHO project The specific objective of the project is to contribute towards building safer communities in the project area through disaster management initiatives by enhancing communities’ awareness, empowering them and enhancing the capacity of stakeholders. The key components of the project include community mobilization and strengthening of leadership skills through REgenerated Freiren Literacy through Empowering Community Techniques (REFLECT) and participatory processes, awareness generation, capacity building, skill enhancement, model small-scale mitigation measures and networking, to be implemented based on principles and values of participation, transparency and accountability. 2. Background to Evaluation 2.1 Objectives of Evaluation The broad objective of the evaluation is to analyse the overall achievements and limitations of the project. The evaluation is a part of AAN’s own accountability measures for documenting key learning for future reference. It was expected to draw on the key learning to suggest possible future direction of the disaster preparedness (DP)/disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives of AAN. The specific objectives of the evaluation are to: • Review the level of project achievement against the set objectives and expected results based on the indicators forecasted in the project proposal. • Analyse the efficiency, effectiveness and possible effects of the activities and measures taken to sustain the results achieved through the project. • Analyse the project outcomes in terms of empowerment, particularly with respect to building the capacity of women and other differentially vulnerable groups to participate and contribute to the decision-making process. • Review the management and implementation processes adopted by the project. • Analyse the level of ownership and receptiveness of the communities and their participation in the implementation processes. • Explore the potential for sustainability, scaling up and replication of the approaches used by the project in disaster preparedness and risk reduction. • Review and analyse the contribution of the project to AAN’s core strategy on human security, emergency and disaster management. • Review and suggest some of the key learning and practices that have potential for wider application and replication in similar approaches elsewhere, if any. 10
  11. 11. 2.2 Evaluation methodology This evaluation report is based on the findings and results of the field research conducted in nine project communities in the five project districts. Those communities were chosen following random sampling methods. Before preparing checklists and guidelines for administering them in the field, project documents and relevant literature were reviewed. A number of reports, original proposal, interim reports, various periodic communication bulletins and reports were reviewed to understand the project as well as its context. A consultation was held with AAN and partner NGOs (PNGOs) before the fieldwork to identify the key areas of intervention, emerging issues and concerns of the disaster-affected people with respect to DP and DRR. Sharing meetings with district-level stakeholders helped to identify the level of coordination and networking that existed for providing technical backstopping and creating synergetic impact through resource sharing. Primary data was collected using participatory tools and techniques such as focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs). FGDs were carried out with disaster management committees (DMCs) and taskforces to get insights into the project's key accomplishments. KIIs were conducted with coordinators of subcommittees/taskforces, project volunteers, schoolteachers and students to explore their perceptions of the project’s contributions towards building safer communities through DRR. Apart from these groups of respondents, dalits, women, elderly, children and youth were consulted to capture their views about the project's overall achievements. Transect walks with DMC members were held to observe the extent of mitigation work carried out by the communities, make physical verification of key small-scale mitigation work, the processes and procedures they followed during that work and their benefits. Extensive interviews were held with the key members of staff of the project, AAN, PNGOs, government officials (GOs) and other key stakeholders to capture their perceptions of the project's achievements. Similarly, an interaction meeting was held with government officials, DIPECHO partners such as Practical Action, Mercy Crops, Care Nepal and UNDP to review the degree of coordination and overall benefits. Consultative meetings were also held with Disaster Preparedness Networks (DPNet), National Society for Earthquake technology (NSET) and AAN management. 2.3 Limitations The evaluation team faced some problems during the evaluation process, which could be taken as the limitations of the evaluation. First, the evaluation was delayed by two days due to some unavoidable problems faced by the Expatriate Evaluation Consultant, which delayed the fieldwork and caused it be conducted in a hurried manner. Second, due to frequent road blockades, the planned field trip to Sunsari, one of the DIPECHO project districts, could not be made. Third, despite prior notification about the consultative meetings with government officials, the evaluation team could not meet all the officials. Despite these limitations, the evaluation team used the available time tactfully to consult as many people and stakeholders as possible to capture the key project output, as well as their perceptions and views about the DIPECHO/AAN project. 3. Evaluation Findings and Analysis 3.1 Fulfilment/achievements of key objectives/results Result 1: Raised awareness and enhanced capacity of communities and stakeholders to cope with disasters a. Raised awareness of disaster management The 14 Disaster Management Committees (DMCs) are the backbone of the project and are working as facilitators to carry out DP activities. The critical components of the project including awareness 11
  12. 12. generation; grassroots institution building and capacity enhancement as well as mobilization of resources for risk reduction have been Box 1: Capacity building is more important than material support Initially we were not very optimistic about the project initiatives for building accomplished. capacity through training. However, our perceptions were proved wrong. The PVA taught us how to analyse the degree of vulnerability and prepare actions Comparison of the plans to reduce them with the mobilization of local resources. As vulnerability originally stated is a dynamic process, we have realized the importance of updating the mapping indicators against the during PVA. We have also benefited from the CBDP, SAR and fire-fighting achievement clearly training. Since the hazard and vulnerability contexts are different for each indicates that the project district, different training is needed for different districts. Now, we are has been successfully convinced that capacity building is more important than material support in completed with all dealing with disaster risks. agreed initiatives fully -Madhav Gautam, Chairperson, DMC Networks, Makwanpur and efficiently accomplished. The disaster management committees are functioning and their discussions on disaster related issues and vulnerability reduction is well informed and coordinated. There is an organic relation between REFLECT and the DMCs. REFLECT circles has given new meaning to community mobilization, ensuring that each and every member of the community is involved in the decision making process. The presence of trained volunteers and youth in the community has resulted in increased capacity of the people to respond to disasters. Though severe Objectively Verifiable Indicators for RESULT 1 • 14 (14) new formation of community-based Disaster Management Committees • 150 (125) volunteer trained on DM • Participatory Vulnerability Analysis and Risk Mapping • 31 (25) PVA TOT trained in 5 districts; PVA conducted in 7 (7) municipalities and (1) VDC • Disaster Management Training for grassroots volunteers • Basic First Aid Training provided to 128 (125) people in five districts • 27 (14) Activate and sustain REFLECT centres in project area • 27 (14) Reflect/ Reflect cum DMCs trained on Reflect • 160 (125) persons from five districts trained in fire fighting • Awareness through 40 (40) episodes radio and 32 (32) street theatre • IEC materials of 5 (5) types • 1 (1) drill rehearsal and school competitions conducted in each district • 150 (35) SAR trained in the target area... • 50 (50) contractor/mason will be trained about safe construction and adopting building code issued by the municipalities • Risk mapping of two wards in Trijuga municipality completed with multi-stakeholder participation and accepted by district administration • ToT for teachers on the curriculum on DRR/disaster preparedness (one training for 22 (25) participants) • Food security during disasters improved in 14 (14) wards through fistful of rice campaign and advocacy effort Note: The number in parenthesis is revised target disasters have not tested the utility of the trained volunteers, their presence and benefit to the community was apparent during Koshi floods and floods in Rupandehi in 2008. The awareness of disaster-related issues and the possible coping mechanisms against them was further strengthened by Box 2: Guanghar radio programme raises awareness of DM the five types of The Gaunghar FM run by the youth for disseminating disaster-related information information, usually covers the local news published in newspapers and the initiatives taken by GOs education and and NGOs for disaster management, and play the Prakop Gyanmala. These initiatives communication are very beneficial for us for making individual-, family- and community-level (IEC) materials preparedness and for coping with disasters. that had been -Sita Devi Chaudhary, DMC Member, Jogidaha produced and 12
  13. 13. disseminated by the project. These materials were designed to suit the local culture and context so that even illiterate people could easily understand their key themes and enhance their awareness of DP and DRR. The respondents expressed that the (40-episode) radio programme had imparted them with the basic knowledge of how to reduce the impact of disasters (see appendix 5, table 5.7). The initiative taken by the youth of Jogidaha in Udaypur to run the Gaunghar (village) FM radio programme in the local language was highly appreciated. The listener clubs prepared articles covering grass roots-level disaster-related issues and sent them to the FM radio for broadcast for wider dissemination. In Sarlahi, however, the radio programme aired by the local FM radio had limited outreach because of the limited broadcast hours and language. Nevertheless, it had enhanced the communities’ and stakeholders’ awareness and knowledge, as well as helping them take initiative to cope with disasters. The street theatre (32 events) organized at community and district level made it easy to understand the importance of local resource mobilization and management to reduce disaster risks (see appendix 5, table 5.7). Drill rehearsals and school-level competitions in each district also raised the awareness of DP and DRR. After observing the street theatres and drill rehearsals, people have now become fully aware of what disasters are, their causal relationships and the steps to be taken to cope with them. In an innovative measure, on the initiative of Budhnagar DMC, the locals of Jogidaha-7 in Udaypur put up red flags in each house to demonstrate that they were living in a disaster-prone area. Once the individual- and family-level DP was fully in place, these flags would be replaced by green ones, but this task could not be Box 3: Comprehensive risks assessment and action planning is very materialized properly. fruitful This kind of the training was very new to us. The training has successfully b. Increased confidence imparted the knowledge to us how the local people face the threats of through capacity-building multiple hazards and risks, as well as how to deal with those with initiatives comprehensive risks assessment and action plan. It will ease the pressure The project has built on government resources by setting up a basket fund for dealing with risks community people's from multiple hazards. confidence to translate their -Bishnu Chaudhary, DMC Vice-chairperson, Triyoga-5 , Partaha plans into action by promoting coping mechanisms and increasing their resilience to disasters. The youth, volunteers, teachers, students, masons, women, and community- and district-level stakeholders were involved in capacity-building programmes. A total of 125 volunteers had received training in DM, which made it easy to mobilize them in community-level DRR initiatives. Thirty-one persons from seven municipalities were trained in Box 4: REFLECT helps to build leadership the Participatory Vulnerability Though we were already involved in the adult and women literacy Analysis (PVA) so that they programmes with support from the District Education Office, the could analyse different types process and approach was somewhat new in REFLECT. Its main of vulnerability and prepare strength is the learning by doing approach. Before the REFLECT class, action plans to cope with we were fully dependent on outsiders to deal with even small problems, them. The respondents from but now we are not. We learnt many things such as how to analyse the communities claimed that disaster risks, their implications, local actions to response through the now they could identify the mobilization of local resources, etc. risks, hazards and vulnerable -Ms Jayadevi Lamsal, REFLECT participant, Butwal-5 areas, the underlying reasons thereof, the ways to cope with risks and hazards through local actions, thanks to the intensive PVA process. The comprehensive risk assessment and action planning training, conducted in two wards in Trijuga municipality, had provided knowledge and skills to the participants to deal with multiple risks and hazards and undertake community actions through mobilization of external resources. Altogether 128 local women had received first aid training that enabled the trained local women to serve people. For instance, the DMCs of Raitole in Makwanpur and Jogidaha in Udaypur claimed that they had served a 13
  14. 14. large number of people injured by floods during the last monsoon. A majority of the DMCs had become able to procure additional medicines from the local sub-health posts through proper coordination. The project has trained 150 persons in light search, rescue and evacuation operations, which has imparted to them the knowledge and skills of how to search for and rescue missing people after a disaster. The emergency kits have helped them in search and rescue work. These materials are being properly managed and used by Box 5: The youth become the change agents for DM the DMCs. Similarly, the In my view, the recognition of the role of youth by this project is project has trained 160 people in highly appreciable. With the involvement of training as well as fire-fighting and 50 community-level disaster management initiatives, we have developed contractors/masons in our skills and confidence, raised our understanding about the disaster constructing earthquake-proof and enhanced our capacities. We are confident that we will manage buildings. Two schools have disaster risks in the future with acquired knowledge and skills. been equipped with retrofitting -Ram Kumari Rai,DMC Chairperson, Raitole, Makwanpur technology, which are evidence of the newly acquired knowledge. In Udaypur, after the retrofitting of Laxmi Secondary School, the school management committee (SMC), inspired by the new technology, has started constructing additional buildings by using earthquake-proof technologies. The trained masons claimed that the demand for them, as well as their fees, had risen several folds after the training. Similarly, training in fire fighting to the people of an area that is vulnerable to fire hazards had imparted knowledge of simple but important preparedness measures. According to Neelam Devi Ram, DMC member of Malangawa-5, Panitanki, Sarlahi, fire-fighting training had also changed behavioural practices; keeping buckets full of water all the time, putting out fire after cooking, using wet sand or blankets to extinguish fire, etc were some of the practices that had been adopted. Training of trainers (ToT), imparted to 22 teachers, was conducted to develop a suitable curriculum on DRR/DP. Apart from this, the study visit to Bangladesh helped the participants to learn more about individual- and family-level preparedness before community-level preparedness. c. Leadership developed at local level REFLECT was considered a highly effective participatory tool for empowering and mobilizing women, as well as for strengthening their collective leadership. Altogether 133 male and 434 female have benefited from 28 REFLECT groups (see appendix 5, table 5.2). Through Prakop Gyan Mala series, REFLECT has helped to identify the possible disaster risks and their solutions at local level. Thanks to REFLECT, the women of Butwal-5 were able to secure Rs 75,000 from the municipality to reduce the risks through constructing a culvert. DM training for 150 grass roots volunteers had helped to mobilize those volunteers in times of disaster with new energy and action. All these initiatives confirm that the communities and stakeholders have become more aware to cope with disasters. Thus, it can be said that result 1 has been fulfilled. Result 2: Established functional network of disaster preparedness committees and stakeholders a. DMC networks are functional Networks have been formed at municipality and district level following a series of advocacy, lobbying and campaigning. These networks Box 6: Municipality-level disaster network is praiseworthy have been useful for Initially, I was not much enthusiastic about the idea of forming disaster networks at resource mapping, municipality level. However, it was effective and, with the active role of networks, it resource was easy to distribute relief in a collaborative way in times of disaster. It was also sharing/generation appreciated by many agencies. All agencies agreed to follow a common format to do and information damage and need assessments, raise resources in a collaborative way and distribute dissemination and relief materials through the Nepal Red Cross Society (NRCS) to cover larger number of families effectively and efficiently. If there had been no network, the distribution of in increasing relief materials would not have been equitable or not much efficient to reach the community services immediately for the needy families. resilience to cope -Mr Krishna Prasad Jaisi, Executive Officer/Butwal Municipality with disasters. With 14
  15. 15. the formation of seven municipality- and five district-level networks, people are directly involved in advocacy and lobbying work (see appendix 5, table 5.6). The networks have helped the grass roots initiatives to establish good linkages with relevant stakeholders, including GOs. However, as these networks were established only recently, their effectiveness is yet to be seen, but their willingness to work in favour of disaster-affected people, acting as a conduit between communities and duty-bearers, is really commendable. As an offshoot, it became possible to link with schools, fire control units, GOs, including District Disaster Relief Committee (DDRCs), for resource utilization and with other I/NGOs for formulating a comprehensive DM plan. For instance, in Sarlahi, district-level DMC network has been developing a district DM plan in partnership with Bagmati Sewa Samaj/Oxfam. In Objectively Verifiable Indicators for RESULT 2 • 7 (7) municipal level networks formed • 22 (22) DMCs networks active during disaster • 14 (14) DMCs (new) have access to disaster preparedness fund • 8 (8) DMCs have sustained their disaster preparedness fund regulated and raised. • More than (at least) 100 members from SMC, PTA, students, school teachers active in DP • 3 (5) Disaster Information centers established at municipalities • 5 (5) DNDRC active in disaster preparedness works • 2 (2) interactions workshops organized per year among the networks among the government stakeholders • More than (75) newly elected members to the constituent assembly are orientated on HFA/DRR • More than (75) government officials are orientated on HFA/DRR • 150 (100) NGO representatives from 5 districts are oriented in HFA/DRR At least 2 interaction workshop organized per year Note: The number in parenthesis is revised target addition, the values, social recognition and weightage of networks had increased. For instance, realizing the potential of the DMC network, it was invited to the DDRC meeting. Because of 22 strong DMC networks at municipality and district level, GOs, including the DDRCs, had become more accountable towards the DMCs and disaster-affected people. Thanks to the networks’ advocacy and campaigning, it had become possible to secure external resources, both cash and kind. In Rupandehi, the advocacy of policy issues by the Disaster Management Forum through media mobilization was bearing desirable fruits. The Forum was also advocating the issues of disaster- affected people through media mobilization (one of the basic provisions of the Disaster Relief Acts and the Disaster Bill). b. Increase in access to disaster-related information The Disaster Information Centres (DICs) have enhanced communities’ access to disaster-related information. Three of the proposed five DICs have been established at municipality level to streamline the disaster information system. However, the DICs were functional only in Sarlahi and Rupandehi districts. DMCs were receiving more disaster-related information through the DICs than in the past. The DICs were not fully functional because of resource constraints and inadequate guidelines. c. Disaster Relief fund: ray of hope for the communities The Disaster Relief Fund (DRF) was considered a ray of hope for emergency and disaster situations. It not only provided Box 7: DRF is a friend in hard times immediate relief for For me, the greatest achievement that the project brought to our community is the disaster-affected establishment of the DRF by practising regular savings and fistful rice campaigns. people in the We love the DRF as our own children and nurse it. In my observation, we can never aftermath of a get response from government in time. It needs damage and need assessment and disaster, but also management of necessary documents. When Shambhu Paswan's house was damaged showed potential by strong winds, we provided Rs 500 and 10 kg rice as immediate relief and for reducing long- advocated for more from the NRCS and DAO based on the extent of damage. The term disaster risks fistful rice campaign has also been contributing to a hunger-free society. -Mehroom Khatun, DMC member, Malangawa-7, Dom Tole, Sarlahi and people's 15
  16. 16. vulnerability. So far, Rs 314700 in cash and 6.5 quintals of grain (paddy, rice and maize) have been collected from the DRFs (see appendix 5, table 5.8). DMC member contributes from Rs 10 to Rs 50 per DMF every month. A sum of Rs 25,000 was provided by the project to each DMC as seed money for raising its fund. The ‘fistful rice campaign’ was instrumental in raising grains on voluntary basis. This hunger-free campaign strengthened food security during disasters. The DRF effectively supported the households in immediate relief after disasters and helped them to mobilize external resources. So far, 14 DMCs have accessed and sustained their DRFs by regulating and raising them. In a few DMCs, the operation of the DRF is questionable due to inadequacy of guidelines; some members want to follow the cooperative model, whereas others want to follow the savings and credit model. Various groups of people have been actively contributing to the DRF. For instance, the Youth DMC (YDMC) of Shrameekpath in Hetauda raised Rs 50 from every student studying at a SLC tuition centre for the DRF. Similarly, some Nepalese working in Malaysia contributed to the DRF of Hadikhola in Makwanpur. d. Increase in the knowledge of HFA The knowledge of newly elected members of the constituent assembly, government officials and NGO representatives about HFA/DRR has increased. Altogether 75 newly elected members to the constituent assembly, 75 government officials and more than 150 NGO representatives from five districts were oriented on the Hyogo Framework of Action (HFA)/DRR. It had built up the resilience of the communities to disasters as the HFA provides a strong basis for priority actions for governments and governmental organizations as well as for local, regional and international organizations. Similarly, the orientation in DP for more than 100 members from SMCs, parents and teachers’ associations, students, schoolteachers were found beneficial. At a higher level, the comprehensive risk mapping exercise in Triyoga municipality and the orientation on HFA and DRR to government officers, NGO leaders and constituent assembly members have succeeded in ensuring informed policy makers at various levels. The multi-hazard risk mapping in Triyoga was a successful pilot initiative that will help the municipality not only to integrate risk reduction into the ongoing development initiatives but also help them mobilize resources towards that. Working together, the DIPECHO project and the DRR through Schools project (supported by DFID) ensured that there is complementarities and continuity in pursuing school curricula on DRR. Where as DRRS project ensured that the school curriculum was developed, DIPECHO project trained the master trainers of the Education Department on the new curriculum. In sum, the formation of networks at municipality and district level has helped to link people’s grass roots initiatives with government and other stakeholders to ensure community resilience to disasters, which indicates that result two has been fulfilled. Result 3: Ensure protected sites through small-scale mitigation for disaster preparedness Objectively Verifiable Indicators for RESULT 3 • 1 (1) safe exist identified/developed with (a replicable model), safe exit identified in 7 municipalities • 1 (1) emergency shelter constructed with participation augmented hygiene and sanitation facilities and support (only roofing) to one safe shelter in community at 1 VDC (new) in Sarlahi • 2 (2) school retrofitted with community participation and contribution as model school for DP in Sunsari and Udayapur • EWS functional at 7 municipalities and 1 VDC (new) • 3500 Plantation conducted in Sunsari and Udaypur district • 11 (16) existing tube wells raised in 8 wards and 3 (2) water storage tanks provided in 2 wards to ensure water security during disasters, all with community participation and contribution • 2(2) check dams (total 14 m length) constructed with community participation in Butwal • 2(2) retention wall of total length 72 m developed in Hetauda • 2 embankments and 2 spur (4) net-stone flood protection embankments of total length of approximately 250 m construction with community participation and contribution in Udayapur (3) and Rupandehi (1) Note: The number in parenthesis is revised target 16
  17. 17. a. Decrease in disaster risks with increased accessibility to infrastructures The project has initiated small structural support and mitigation work simultaneously to mitigate the impact of disasters. Emergency shelters, safe exits, flood control structures and environmental management through community afforestation were some of the effective activities for small-scale mitigation. The emergency shelter at Jogidaha in Udaypur, early warning tower at Hadikhola, safe exit at Raitole and flood control structures at Shantinagar in Makwanpur, plantation and school retrofitting work at Udaypur are some of the best examples. The details of small-scale mitigation are presented in appendix 5, tables 5.4 and 5.5. Emergency shelters have been built to provide safe places to live during and after a disaster. These shelters are equipped with hygiene and sanitation facilities. In Sarlahi, only a roof support was erected as part of emergency shelter, which was not much effective, considering the available space and the dense population of the area. The emergency shelter in Jogidaha in Udaypur, built with the co- financing of several local organizations, can accommodate up to 200 people. The DMC of Butwal-13 in Rupandehi has mobilized its own resources to construct a safe shelter. Each of these emergency shelters were appropriately located in a disaster-prone area. The identification and marking of safe exits has reduced physical vulnerability and increased safe mobility in seven municipality areas, and are standard replicable models. Learning from the example of Udaypur, the DMC of Raitole in Makwanpur has constructed a model safe exit to reduce physical vulnerability. The construction of 11 raised hand pumps has ensured safe drinking water during floods. In Sarlahi, the provision of ramps has increased the access of the people with disability (PWD) to water and toilets. At Portaha in Udaypur, impressed by the benefits of raised hand pump with slabs, community people have been replicating the Box 8: Now we fear the monsoon less practice of placing With the improvements in physical infrastructures, the inherent fear of monsoon has been greatly allayed. We are largely benefited by saving our villages and slabs in their private cultivable land. Inspired by the DMC’s work in Udayapur, we have started to hand pumps to frame rules and regulations for safeguarding forest resources and zero grazing in prevent contamination some of the vulnerable areas along the riverbank. We are also trying to replicate of their water sources. similar interventions through the mobilization of GOs. For example, we have Three water storage already held discussions with DWIDP and river training division to make tanks have been available some support. The project has offered numerous alternatives to protect constructed, with lives and valuable belongings. We are very much aware of the future O&M work meaningful of these infrastructures. community -Sudarshan Basnet, DMC member, Hadikhola, Makwanpur participation and contribution, to ensure the supply of pure and clean water even during floods. With the increased knowledge, people have started to make safer houses through minor adjustment. For instance, in Ithari-7, Sunsari, people have started making houses in the raised platform. Around seven newly renovated houses are built raising 3 feet height seeing the flood level of last 20 years. According to Anita Chaudhary, a DMC member, now locals are fully aware about the reasons of inundation (because their houses were made in low height). The project has made clear understanding about the rationale of raised tube well with raised platform and raised plinth-level of house to safe during inundation (source: project documents). In Butwal, the construction of one culvert has made crossing of the river safe. The riverbank protection work has significantly contributed to protecting settlements and productive agricultural land. In Butwal, two check dams (total 14 m in length) have been constructed with active community participation and contribution, which has made communities safe from floods. In Hetauda, two retention walls (total length 72 m) have been erected to safeguard settlements. In Udaypur and Rupandehi, about 650 bigha1 of land was successfully safeguarded through the construction of two 1 Unit of land mostly used in terai region of Nepal. 1 bigha equals 0.67ha. 17
  18. 18. embankments of total length of approximately 250 m, constructed with community participation and contribution. In Sunsari and Udaypur, planting of 3,500 varieties of different saplings over an area of 8180 sq. m. has largely contributed to flood protection work, and safeguarded productive land and human settlements. It is hoped that the planting of saplings will contribute to afforestation in the flood catchments areas in the near future. It was reported that the riverbank protection work had raised the value of land in Hadikhola in Makwanpur (Khet2 land: from Rs 10,000 to Rs 40,000; Bari3 land: from Rs 5,000 to Rs 18,000). For the construction of these infrastructures, government resources were mobilized to create ownership. As in some cases, government agencies are involved only during implementation, whereas their active participation is also required during design and planning stages to generate resources and to create sense of ownership of the project for sustainability. b. Making schools safe through retrofitting Apart from making safer communities, the project has also contributed to making safer schools through school retrofitting. In Sunsari and Udaypur, a school each has been retrofitted with community participation and contribution. The quality of retrofitting work in Shree Laxmi Higher Secondary School at Portaha, Udayapur, was highly lauded by the district-level stakeholders. Students felt secure, and teachers felt proud of their school being different from other schools. Inspired by this school, the teachers of some neighbouring village schools had tried to replicate similar technologies and had even held consultations with trained Box 9: Retrofitting helps to save lives masons for this. An Until last year, we had heard about earthquakes, but had not much idea about its possible impact on community and schools. The mock drills have increasing number of opened our eyes. If we are aware of the preparedness activities, the impact of schools were requesting earthquakes can drastically be reduced. Now, we have realized that the District Education retrofitting is the best option to make the existing buildings quakeproof. At Office for replication of the same time, this technology should be used in the construction of all school similar technology in their buildings, hospitals, emergency shelters and even private house in the future. schools. -Shyamwati Chaudhari, Adviser of DMC, Partaha, Udaypur Overall, the quality and operational status of infrastructures were satisfactory. Small-scale mitigation had protected people and property from disasters, and had demonstrated practical measures useful to other communities living in similar conditions. The small-scale mitigation sites have been made as demonstration and replication models as a part of DP initiatives, although they are few in number. c. Enhanced knowledge of indigenous early warning system The project has promoted low cost and indigenous knowledge-based traditional early warning systems (EWSs) to protect human lives from possible disasters by disseminating in advance key messages from loudspeakers. Such EWS are functional in seven municipalities and VDCs. Even though EWS initiatives are inadequate in technology, they are being used before every hazard to make the people aware, alert and to make necessary arrangements to mitigate the impact of disasters. In a nutshell, with decreased disaster risks with increased accessibility to infrastructures, making schools safe through school retrofitting work and increased knowledge of indigenous knowledge- based EWSs, the project communities have successfully reduced the impact of disasters; hence, result 3 has been fulfilled. 2 Khet are low land mostly cultivated paddy and wheat 3 Bari land are upland suitable to cultivate maize and barley 18
  19. 19. Result 4: Increased access to locally available resources through accountable and responsible stakeholders Objectively Verifiable Indicators for RESULT 4 • DP action plan developed at 7 municipalities, 9 VDCs and 5 districts • all mitigation works through the DMCs/networks • Rescue and relief materials distributed by stakeholders to 14 (14) Reflect/ Reflect cum DMCs • At least 80 (80)% disaster affected people/victims received support from the government and relief agencies • Maximum 25 (15)% government support ensured in all mitigation work through DMCs/networks • Dissemination workshop conducted at the national level • Documentation published and activity focused (process) broadcasted in television • Grain banks established with community participation and contribution, in 6 new project sites and 8 old project sites, ensuring food security during disasters (This indicator is related to the last indicator generated through same activity) Note: The number in parenthesis is revised target a. Increase in access to resources and local participation The development of concrete DM plans has facilitated mobilization of government resources for disaster management. The DM plans (in seven municipalities and nine VDCs) has made it easy to build linkages to access external resources. It was reported that more than 80 per cent of the disaster- affected people had received support from the government and relief agencies, and government support, ranging from 5 to 35 per cent, was ensured in all mitigation works through the DMCs/networks. This is an outcome of the active involvement of relevant stakeholders from the beginning. A total of Rs 2686714 in cash has been contributed by VDCs, District Development Committees (DDCs), municipalities, CFUGs, individuals for small-scale mitigation works (see appendix 5, table 5.9). The project has also mobilized the resources of municipalities such as fire brigade for mock drills, sweepers for sanitation campaigns, resource persons and training hall for training, etc. The contingency plan prepared by each DMC has also ensured management of relief work within 72 hours of a disaster. The DMCs have also been able to mobilize external resource. For example, the DMC of Butwal-5 was able to secure municipality’s resources for construction of culverts; the DMCs of Rupandehi and Udayapur were lobbying with the Village Council for greater allocation of money to DM and government resources for small-scale mitigation work. Despite enhanced awareness of the Box 10: DMCs successfully generate external resources importance of The DMC of Butwal-5 has secured Rs 75,000 for the construction of a check dam; resource sharing, that of Jogidaha has mobilized Rs 250,000 from CFUGs for building emergency stakeholders should shelters; for early warning tower construction at Hadikhola in Makwanpur, VDC has raised Rs 20,000, Rs 25,000-30,000 from DDC for roofing, timber equivalent become more to Rs 2-2.5 lakhs from CFUG. Similarly, Malangawa municipality has contributed accountable and Rs62,000 for shelter construction and Rs 4,000 for community plantation work. responsible through Hetauda municipality has contributed Rs 160,000 to the DMC of Raitole of their involvement in Makwanpur for the construction of a safe exit. Inspired by the DMCs, the Ministry project activities from of Water Resources has allocated Rs 300,000 for landslide control in Butwal 5 design and planning and Rs 30 million for river protection work along the Tinau River. These are only stages. As the DMCs a few examples. are at cluster level, Source: FGDs and KIIs there is some doubt on its ability to generate resources from the government. As the government contribution to small- scale mitigation work is not on equitable basis, it is difficult to mobilize local stakeholders, including the community, for contribution. 19
  20. 20. b. Communities are equipped with skills and rescue and relief materials All rescue and relief materials provided by the project were found in good condition for immediate use. Visibility was ensured in each of the materials. With such provisions, the DMCs are striving to improve linkages with other stakeholders to access relief during disasters on behalf of the disaster- affected people. In sum, the project communities have been successful to set up the process and procedures, as well as mobilizing government resources, for DP and mitigation. These initiatives have demonstrated that the DMCs have enhanced access to locally available resources through accountable and responsible stakeholders. This satisfies the key aspects of result 4. With the fulfilment of the four results of the project, the overall objective of the project 'to enable communities towards disaster management through awareness, empowerment and enhanced capacity of accountable stakeholders, contributing towards the overall aim of building safer communities in the project area through disaster management initiatives' has been fulfilled. 3.2 Project efficiency and effectiveness The evaluation team gathered several evidences that demonstrate that the project is efficient. Some of these evidences are as follows: 3.2.1 Project efficiency Correlation between inputs and output and resource sharing: Good correlation exists between inputs and output. Tangible output was achieved with little project resources. For instance, in Butwal-5, the REFLECT group was able to construct a water tank to serve around 50 households (HHs), with a support of Rs 10,000 from DIPECHO. Such small initiatives were even possible because of the efficient financial (resource) management tools and techniques adopted by the project. Culture of resource sharing: The culture of resource sharing is in place. The project has been able to maintain functional linkages with GOs at local and district level for the sustainability of the initiatives through resource and technology sharing. In some cases, communities raised significant contributions (e.g. more than 50% for emergency shelter at Jogidaha in Udayapur), including from the government, which ranged from 5% (plantation work in Sarlahi) to 35% (emergency shelter construction in Sarlahi). Examples of locally available resources are saplings from local nurseries, bamboo for making nets for newly planted plants used for small-scale mitigation work, etc. Increased participation of women and marginalized people: The participation of women and marginalized sections of society in project work, REFLECT and DMC meetings has increased. With the increasing participation of these sections of society, positive message was sent to the project communities to build up their capacity to undertake local actions for DP and DRR. Even during the evaluation consultations, the number of women was high, which indicates the motivation and ownership of women towards the project. Functional project process and procedures: All plans and programmes were executed through systematic processes and procedures and within the timeframe, through development of various monitoring tools. The project has maintained quality in all its endeavours. For instance, the quality of plantation and emergency shelter at Jogidaha, small-scale mitigation work at Shantinagar and safe exit at Raitole in Makwanpur are some of the best examples. 3.2.2 Project effectiveness The level of project effectiveness was judged on the basis of the following achievements: Correlation between work plan and achievement status: Despite poor security situation and frequent bandhs (strikes) and road blockades by different parties in the Terai, the work plan was by and large 20
  21. 21. followed. It was basically due to flexibility in the monthly plan, periodic review and reflection (R&R) and effective project management initiatives. Processes and procedures were locally made in such a way that the DMCs could continue the local activities even during bandhs. Community-focused project: According to Mr Suresh Raut, Project Support Officer (PSO) of Sarlahi, as most of the field-based staff of the partner NGOs were from the project communities, it became easy to understand their problems, local context and culture and even work during bandhs. A substantive role was given to the flood-affected people, which empowered them and made them feel ownership of the activities being implemented. Ensured transparency and accountability in project work: The project has initiated several efforts such as district-level project launching to share detailed plans and budget, direct agreement with the DMC to execute project activities, competitive bidding for procuring materials, and detailed monitoring of work before the final release of funds for maintaining transparency. Though details of expenditure were not displayed at VDC/Nagarpalika (NP) level, transparency was ensured through media mobilization by collecting people's voices and opinions and display of details of expenditures on the notice and hoarding boards, and social audit at the time of project completion. The details of cost with co-financing are clearly displayed in the hoarding boards at each mitigation site. The project is accountable to the DMC, and the DMC is accountable to the community and vice versa in terms of decision-making, resource and benefit sharing. Good capacity of AAN and PNGOs for advocacy and lobbying: The project has built appropriate linkages with various stakeholders at both local and national level through networks for resource mapping and mobilization. PNGOs are equipped with sufficient human resources with knowledge and resource backup. With clear and concise human security/EDM strategy, they have also acquired proven knowledge and information about DP and DRR. Immaculate plan and systems: The project was implemented with immaculate plan and systems. Though Nepal was facing acute crisis through fuel shortage, power shortage and constant road blocks and strikes that hampered movement, particularly in the project areas, AAN DIPECHO project was implemented without being overtly hampered by such incidents. This happened only because of the strong planning and closes monitoring, giving adequate room to accommodate last minute changes and alterations without affecting the overall project performance. Innovative planning and monitoring tools: The project developed highly innovative planning and monitoring tools that was well structured and informed. The tools were easy to understand and accomplish even by grassroots workers. The monitoring formats gave precise indication to team at all levels on levels of achievements, ensuring bidirectional flow of information at all levels. It goes to the credit of DIPECHO team to have ushered appropriate project management tools, which are being adapted and used by other projects within Actionaid as well as other DIPECHO partners in the country. One of the key areas to improve in the project is emphasis on too many activities and adopting scattered and diverse areas. This has resulted in some of the activities like disaster information centres and early warning systems loosing focus and relevance, due to inadequate technical back up as well as resource allocation. The scattered project area also might have reduced the ability of the project to influence administrators at the municipal or district levels. 3.3 Gender, social inclusion, equity and ownership The project has ensured gender, social inclusion and equity on the following grounds. Gender: Gender balance has been maintained in the DMCs, taskforces, and various capacity-building training, workshops and orientations (see appendix 5, table 5.1, 5.2, 5.3.5.6.5.7). The policy of positive discrimination was followed with the result that more than 96% women were involved in the REFLECT groups, which contradicts the overall gender approach. Both men and women are given equal treatment 21
  22. 22. and opportunity to involve in project processes and activities. According to Kamala Khatiwada, a local REFLECT Facilitator, with gender balance in all endeavours, except REFLECT groups, a sound environment had been created at local level to initiate DP and DM activities. It was claimed that the knowledge gaps among the women about DP and DM was narrowed and their leadership had been enhanced. For instance, in Udayapur and Makwanpur, some women DMC members were involved in community forest user groups (CFUG), water users groups and self-help groups. The involvement of women in project activities was substantiated by the fact that the majority of the male members of the family were outside the home to run their livelihood. Social inclusion: Adequate space had been provided for PWD, indigenous and endangered peoples like Bankariya, Chepang and Mushahar in Makwanpur and Udayapur. These people were involved not only in the DMCs and taskforces to carry out DP and DM initiatives, but were also given priority in service delivery and decision-making. In the opinion of Ram Prasad Chepang, DMC member of Hadikhola, Makwanpur with the socially inclusive approach, awareness of hazards, their types, causes and effects and needed actions to cope with the impact of each hazard with local efforts was increasing. Equity: Equity was ensured in resource sharing in riverbank protection work, fistful rice campaigns and regular savings. Despite the importance of equity in participation of people from all walks of lives in project initiatives, the elite groups exercised greater influence in the decision-making process. At Hadikhola in Makwanpur, the community members were contributing money for DRF on equality basis to preclude unnecessary influence of high payers in the DMC. Ownership: An enabling environment was created for resource sharing by civil society organizations and GOs, which had increased the sense of ownership and participation. According to Mahmod Akthar Raja Mansoor, DMC Secretary, Malangawa-7, Dom Tole, Sarlahi, the provision of identifying human resources at local level had made this project pro-community and created a sense of ownership, resulting in active participation of people in the project. The youth were being used as change agents to claim rights in favour of disaster-affected people, in contributing through taskforce and collecting resources for the DRF; the co-financing generated from various local-, district- and national-level stakeholders; involvement of DMC networks and DMCs in DDRC meetings; and nomination of Prerana, a PNGO in Sarlahi, to the DDRC show that the project was owned by different actors at different levels. 3.4 Project methods and approach, management and implementation processes Overall, the project management and implementation process was judged by the following indicators: 3.4.1 Project methodology and approach The project has adopted methods such as community mobilization, capacity building and mobilization of rights holders for enabling, bargaining, institutionalizing and mobilization to serve a large number of disaster-affected people with DP and DRR to claim their rights. For the institutionalization, additional time is required for these good initiatives to mature. Partnership and hazard-centric approaches were found effective, which has made it easy to focus the project activities on individual-, family- and community-level preparedness with collaborative approach. The project's framework, processes and methods were found appropriate to the ECHO/DIPECHO framework. Finance and Administrative Officers (FAOs) were clear about the FPA guidelines. The visibility of the project from community to district to national level was high. 3.4.2 Project management Human resources: The current modality of project management at centre and district/community level was sound and effective. The provision of PSO and full-time FAO (it was on part-time basis during DIPECHO III) in each district had greatly contributed to updating the progress and financial reports. The female REFLECT facilitators and field mobilizers selected from the project communities had sent a positive message to project stakeholders. 22
  23. 23. Coordination between and among projects: The coordination mechanism of DIPECHO/AAN with Central and Eastern Resource Centres was limited to administrative and logistic level. This may be partly because of the previous Country Strategic Plan (CSP) modality, and many activities within the DIPECHO project also hindered meaningful coordination with these centres at programmatic level. However, good coordination existed among the Emergency and Disaster Management (EDM) theme, Disaster Risk Reduction through School Project and DIPECHO at central level. 3.4.3 Implementation process The project followed a systematic process during its implementation, which enabled its stakeholders to deliver tangible output. The formation of community-based institutions, allocation of roles and responsibilities among institutions, capacity building and involvement of these institutions in the project initiatives with acquired knowledge and skills were some of the key processes. According to Mr Raksu Chaudhary, DMC Vice chairperson, Triyoga-7, Jogidaha, Udaypur, local stakeholders participated in resource sharing and implementations but inadequately involved in design, planning process and vulnerability and risks analysis process on periodic basis, which is also equally for ideas and resource sharing. The monthly PSO meetings and periodic R&R have enlarged the scope for sharing and cross learning for DP and DRR. The project followed the log-frame for monitoring and follow-up of the activities. Though there was a provision for quarterly R&R meetings, the project could not strictly follow these meetings, partly because of strikes in the project districts. The provision of periodic R&R among the PNGOs has helped to collate and adopt good practices through learning from each other. Interestingly, municipalities were involved in the area selection of the project, which is itself a praiseworthy initiative. In sum, while the project has successfully developed innovative and appropriate models and tools towards a systemic approach to implementation, discussions with the team members at various levels indicated the high level of confidence and increased capacities they have garnered through this project. The overall management has been highly participatory and ensured that the project gave scope and space for each and every members to build on their existing strengths and learn new ideas and concepts. Partner organizations and project staff has learned many things from this project and their confidence levels are very high. The implementation process was participatory at all levels, transparent in its dealings. Information was shared without any inhibition that resulted in each and every member involved in the project, from ActionAid senior management to the grassroots workers and DMC members feeling ownership of the project. 3.5 Ensured rights of right holders Through careful processes and procedures like awareness of basic rights, capacity building for claiming rights and institutionalization of rights through policy advocacy, the project was successful in ensuring the rights of disaster-affected people and PWD. In the opinion of Upendra Prasad Yadav, REFLECT Facilitator, Malangawa-4, Pani Tanki tole, Sarlahi, the Prakop Chetana Radio programme was successful in spreading the awareness of the rights of disaster-affected people and PWD and in raising the issues of the right holders. With ensured awareness of rights, these people took relief as their right and not a favour. During the evaluation consultations, the right holders proudly expressed that they were able to get some relief and response for the first time from the District Administration Office (DAO) once they had organized themselves through REFLECT groups and DMCs. REFLECT is a good platform for enhancing leadership, collective actions and culture of collective bargaining for claiming the right to protection, safety and participation. The issue of the rights of the PWDs is being discussed for the first time. As a result, one public toilet and raised hand pumps with ramp were constructed in Sarlahi and provision for ramps made in public offices, including municipalities. The issue of disability allowance (Rs 300 per month) is being raised with the DAO. A signature campaign has been launched to draw the attention of the government to immediately enforce the disaster regulations and the building codes. The Community Based Disaster Preparedness (CBDP) training has helped to increase the awareness of policy and regulations (for instance, Ministry of Home 23
  24. 24. Affairs has circulated a norm that Rs 25,000 should be paid in the event of death, Rs 4,000 on the burning of a house and Rs 7,000 if a house is to be reconstructed in new land), and to advocate at local level to get rights. As the communities have become aware of their rights, they have been able to secure external resources (see appendix 5, table 5.9.). With the DMCs’ advocacy for claiming the rights of disaster-affected people, in Triyuga municipality, there persons were able to get Rs 15,000 each as immediate relief. DMCs are continuously lobbying with the VDC and ward/municipality for allocating Rs 30,000 for DM on annual basis. Shyam Bishwakarma, DMC member, Hadikhola, Makwanpur proudly said that ‘once we are able to know our rights, the local power dynamics and traditional leadership gradually shifting towards the vulnerable and marginal sections of society.’ In sum, the project was successful in raising awareness and build the capacity of the right holders to claim rights, but it could not adequately contribute towards the institutionalization of rights, as it needs continuous and long-term efforts in partnership with other like-minded institutions. 3.6 Alignment with EDM theme and Updated AAN CSP III The revised CSP III indicates that land, livelihood and food security; education; and women rights are the three basic themes, whereas governance and human security are the crosscutting themes. Urban poverty and the rights of the PWDs, dalits and indigenous peoples', etc are the other themes. One of the strategies of the CSP enabled vulnerable groups to mitigate the impact of disaster through ensured rights. Similarly, the key thrust of the EDM theme is to reduce the disaster risk by addressing the issue of vulnerability and hazards, increasing capacity of the poor, marginalized and vulnerable groups. The evaluation found good correlation between the overall objective of DIPECHO IV, key thrust of the EDM theme and strategy of AAN updated CSP III, which shows proper alignment between them. 3.7 Relevance The project has brought forth several evidences that confirm its relevance to the local and national contexts. The design of DIPECHO IV was based on DIPECHO III, which shows that designs are strategically logical and relevant. In DIPECHO III, the project was designed with a rural setting with focus on capacity building, advocacy and lobbying and small-scale mitigation. DIPECHO IV was designed with an urban setting for the mobilization of local/district-level stakeholders to enable communities towards disaster management through awareness, empowerment and capacity enhancement of stakeholders. As the design was sound, people are equipped with new skills, knowledge and institutions, the access of disaster-affected people to GOs has been increasing. The major issues and concerns of disaster-affected families who were suffering from multiple vulnerabilities have been addressed. Community empowerment, increase in resilience capacity and social inclusion are some of the key thrusts that have helped to ensure the rights of disaster-affected people. On the other side, the project has reached the un- reached through humanitarian support. At national level, the project was set within the essentially enabling national policy context like the Three-Year Interim Plan of government, Millennium Development Goals and HFA, which has collectively ensured the project relevance. 3.8 Sustainability Some strong evidences confirm that the initiatives taken by the project are likely to sustain even after the phase-out of the project. Increased knowledge management: The project communities were enabled towards DM through awareness, empowerment, knowledge and skills through capacity-building initiatives, rehearsals and mock drills. As a result, 1427, local resource persons (LRPs) have been developed for DRR (refer appendix 5, table 5.3). The LRPs—the social/human capital of the community in the long run—have sufficient capacity and willingness to continue the project initiatives such as fistful rice campaign, 24
  25. 25. operation of DRFs and REFLECT classes. Some preliminary arrangements have been made to continue these initiatives at local level. The youth are at the forefront to provide backstopping support and technical guidance to the DMC. Capable institutions are in place: The project has designed institutions at three levels: task force, DMC and district/municipal networks. Some task force members are on the DMC, and some DMC members are members of the municipal/district level networks. This shows existence of institutional linkages from bottom to top and vice versa. DMCs have developed community safety nets to some extent. The networks are formally recognized by the district authorities, which ensures regular linkages in terms of resource sharing and technical backstopping. Recognizing the role of networks, GOs have started to channelize their resources for DP and DRR. Simple but tactful operation of DRF: Seeing the enthusiasm of the DMC members, as well as the simple but tactful operation of the DRF through regular savings and fistful rice campaign, the DRF is expected to continuously augment, which will enable the community to get immediate support during crises. Many disaster-affected people have already received relief from the DRFs, which has encouraged them to cope with even bigger disasters. Adequate knowledge and information for external resource mobilization: The DMC members are familiar with the variety of resources at local level, the process and procedures to secure those resources. In the opinion of Dilip Rai, Raitole of Makwanpur, the formulation of DM and contingency plans is the main basis for winning the trust of stakeholders for external resource mobilization. Once the plan is ready, it would become easier to convince GOs for resources. Knowledge of DP at individual and family level: With the project inputs, people have become familiar with the needed actions for DP at individual and family level. With increased knowledge and skills, it has become easier to prepare at individual-level. The respondents have learnt to keep safety bags to keep important belongings, advance management of dry foods in times of emergency, and change behavioural practices for pre-, during and post-disaster situations. All these practices were helpful to deal with community-level DP. 3.9 Impact Being a short duration project, not many long-term impacts could be identified at the time of evaluation. However, there were some short-term impacts, which are discussed below. Increased self-confidence through capacity-building initiatives: Through the various capacity-building initiatives, more than 150 teachers, youth, REFLECT facilitators and people are trained and developed as LRPs. They could be mobilized during emergencies by being equipped with skills and inputs. They have been developed in such a way they can efficiently and effectively act as planners, designers and potential responders to any kinds of disaster. Identified the vulnerable and risk areas for local action: The series-wise risks and vulnerability mapping has equipped the local people with sufficient knowledge and skills to assess potential hazards, vulnerability for immediate action through action planning. Risks and vulnerability zoning is also done based on priority order. The zoning work has made it easy to convince the local people and local/district-level stakeholders to generate resources. This has added value for overall risk reduction at community level. Risk minimized through small-scale mitigation: With the construction of school retrofitting for making them earthquake-proof (2), hand pumps (14), culvert (2), emergency shelters (1), safe exits (1), people have been protected from risks. Similarly, protection work, retention wall, plantation area have contributed to save roughly 15000 sq. m area and more than 135000 population. The construction of culverts has helped to minimize risks while crossing rivers during torrents, while the construction of emergency shelters (2) has made the population safe during disasters. The retrofitting of two school 25
  26. 26. buildings has made around 2,400 students safer. With the installation of raised hand pumps, drinking water facilities have been made available for 2,100 people for six days during inundations. The incidence of water-borne diseases during monsoon has reduced. Inspired by these benefits, the people are becoming increasingly willing to replicate these initiatives. Made policy advocacy for external resource mobilization: Through careful implementation, the project has built good linkages with DDCs, municipalities, local NGOs and CBOs, which has ensured people's right to human security. The GOs are willing to allocate their resources for the execution of the DM plan. For example, the Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR) has allocated Rs 30,000 for landslide control in Butwal-5 and Rs 30,000,000 for riverbank protection in Butwal-13. Change in beliefs and understanding: The project's comprehensive design was successful in changing the perceptions and mindset of communities who used to interpret disasters as divine interventions. Clearer understanding has now resulted in small initiatives in terms of preparedness on people’s part to reduce the effects of big disasters. 4. Key lessons Based on overall analysis, the following could be said to be some of the good practices of the DIPECHO/AAN project that could be taken as lessons to be replicated at local, national and international level. At local level, the evaluation team found the modality of the DMC networks, DM and contingency planning, fistful rice campaign, school safety net approach through retrofitting as some of the good examples that could be used for wider replication. The PVA for in-depth vulnerability analysis and immediate action, mainstreaming the PWD in the DRR and the REFLECT approach for community empowerment were other good practices. The REFLECT approach is already being replicated by the Danish Red Cross in Katari, Udayapur. Some of these good practices are gradually being replicated in neighbouring villages. For instance, in Inaruwa 3, Sunsari, observing the changes made by project activities, the people of another cluster has formed new DMC in their own initiatives called 'Latimai Prakop Byabasthapan Samitttee' to carry out similar types of initiatives. They also initiated savings for the emergency purpose. Finally, the project supported them in fistful of rice campaign. They made the campaign big success. At national level, apart from the good practices at local level, visibility material development, celebration of EQ Safety and ISDR days, publication of thematic bulletin, mainstreaming DDR education in school curriculum and joint training for the DIPECHO projects in Nepal through collaborative approach are some good practices. The pre- and post-monsoon workshops, orientation to teachers and political leaders on DDR and HFA, collaborative approach with DPNet, NSET and Disaster Management Networks are other good practices that could be replicated by other institutions. At international level, apart from the national-level initiatives, the coordination mechanism among the DIPECHO partners for resource sharing and synergy could be replicated at international level. 5. Recommendations Based on the evaluation findings and analysis, the following are some of the recommendations for the future. The recommendations are divided into six different headings. a. Approach and strategy • As the PVA is a dynamic process, the hazards, risks and vulnerability mapping should be modified to gauze the people's changing perceptions and actions on periodic basis. • As hazards and people's vulnerability are different in each district, training need assessment is important before the selection of training. It is important to link impact of the training with the next training. Training should be taken as a process and not an event. b. Capacity building 26

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