13. cold wave dks 13
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

13. cold wave dks 13

on

  • 525 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
525
Views on SlideShare
525
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

13. cold wave dks 13 Document Transcript

  • 1. zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷1
  • 2. k|sf]k–1fgdfnf–!# zLtnx/ aRg] pkfo /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷2
  • 3. s[lt M zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo n]vs M /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs M jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn (ECO-Nepal) ;jf{lwsf/ M k|sfzsdf ;'/lIft ;+:s/0f M k|yd, !% ;fpg, @)^$ ;ªVof M @,))) k|lt cfj/0f l8hfOg M /d]z bfxfn d'b|s M lszf]/ ckm;]6 k|; -k|f=_ ln=, kmf]g M $#%!)$$ ] d"No M ?= %)÷– ISBN : 978-99946-865-3-7 k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;fd'bflos Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu ;r]tg cleofgcGtu{t k|sf]k–1fgdfnf k|sfzgdf cf+lzs ¿kdf cfly{s ;xof]u ug]{ lgDg ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx¿k|lt Osf]–g]kfn xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5 M PS;gP8 g]kfn cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfn kf]= a= g+= ^@%&, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kf]= a= g+= @%)), sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kmf]gM $$#^$&& kmf]gM %%@)%*^ kmofS;M (&&–!–$$!(&!* kmofS;M (&&–!–%%@#!(& j]e;fO6M www.actionaid.org/nepal j]e;fO6M www.oxfam.org.uk zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷3
  • 4. k|sfzssf] egfO ef}uf]lns ljljwtf, hnjfo'df /x]sf] ljljwtfn] g]kfnnfO{ pTs[i6k|fs[lts ;f}Gbo{ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . ;d'b|;txaf6 ^) ld6/b]lv ;'? ePsf] ef}uf]lns agf]6 !@) lsnf]ld6/sf] 5f]6f] b"/Ld} ljzjsf] ;jf]{Rr lzv/ ;u/dfyf / xg'nfO{ ;fdfGo ?kdf lng ;sFb}g . k|fs[lts ;f}Gbo{ tyf h}ljs ljljwtfdf wgL eP/ klg g]kfnn] ljleGg yl/sf k|sf]khGo 36gfsf] ;fdgf klg ToxL cg'kftdf ul//x]sf] 5 . e'OFrfnf], af9L, klx/f], x'/Latf;, cfunfuL, dxfdf/Lh:tf 36gfn] ;b}j k|sf]ksf] ?k wf/0f ul//x]sf 5g . TolQ dfq xf]Og, g]kfnsf] cGge08f/ dflgPsf] t/fO{df jiff{ofddf af9Ln] hlt Iflt k'¥ofpg] u/]sf] 5 To;s} xf/fxf/Ldf lxpFb} afnL ;vfk kfb}{ bh{gf} dflg;sf] Hofg klg lng] u/]sf] 5 zLtnx/n] . x/]s jif{sf] dªl;/sf] clGtd ;ftf jf k';sf] klxnf] ;ftfaf6 k|f/De x'g] zLtnx/ klZrd Pl;ofdf /x]sf] ;fOa]l/og d¿e"ldaf6 axg] rL;f] xfjfsf sf/0f x'g] u/]sf] ljz]if1x?sf] egfO /x]sf] 5 . zLtnx/ kfls:tfgaf6 ef/ tsf] pQ/L If]q x'Fb} g]kfn k|j]z u5{ / k"j{lt/ ef/ts} aªufn, cf;fd x'Fb} aªnfb]z k|j]z u5{ . o;n] Dofgdf/sf] ;LdfIf]q;Dd cfkmgf] k|efj lj:tf/ ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . g]kfndf o;af6 slt Iflt x'g] u/]sf] 5 eg] jf:tljs tYofªs pknAw 5}g . t/fO{df Jofks ?kdf pTkfbg x'g] tf]/Lsf] pTkfbg zLtnx/s} sf/0f () k|ltzt;Dd 36g] u/]sf] cg'dfgn] o;af6 x'g] cfly{s Iflt s/f]8f}F ¿k}ofFa/ fa/ x'G5 eg]/ ;xh} cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 . g]kfndf jif]{gL $) b]lv *) hgf dflg; zLtnx/ / o;sf sf/0f pTkGg x'g] /f]u nfu]/ dg]{ u/]sf] cg'dfg 5 . o;af6 :ki6 x'G5 zLtnx/ klg ljgfzsf/L k|sf]ksf] 36gfsf] ?kdf ljsl;t eO/x]sf] 5 / o;af6 x'g] Iflt Go"g ug{ k"j{tof/L / tTsfnLg Joj:yfkgdf Wofg lbg' h¿/L 5 . k|sf]k 1ffgdfnsf x/]/ z[ªvnf 1ffga4{s / k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ;xof]uL b]lvPsf 5g . k"j{k|sflzt z[ªvnfx?n] ckmgf ljifodf lbPsf] of]ubfgh:t} o; z[ªvnfn] zLtnx/sf] k|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf ;xhstf{, ljsf; sfo{stf{, ;|f]tJolQm ;a}nfO{ /fd|f] ;xof]u lbg]5 ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 . k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfsf x/]s z[ªvnfnfO{ ;/n efiffdf k|:t't ug{ ;kmn n]vs Gof}kfg] ;lxt o;nfO{ k|sflzt ug{ k|/0ff k|bfg ug]{ PS;gP8 g]kfnsf l;lgo/ ] lydln8/ Zofd;'Gb/ 1fjfnL / cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnsf sfo{qmd ;+of]hs lji0f'k;fb v/]n tyf o;sf] z'4fz'l4 / ;fh;Hhfdf ;xof]u ug]{ Osf]–g]kfnsf | ;a} ;xofqLk|lt wGojfb JoQm ub{5f}F . Osf]–g]kfn ECO-Nepal] zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷4
  • 5. ljifo;"rL e'Orfnf]sf] kl/ro tyf o;af/]sf] e|d “ %–* k[i7e"ld % e'Orfnf]sf] cy{ “ ^ e'Orfnf];DaGwL e|fds wf/0ff “ ^ e|fds wf/0ffdflysf] ljZjf; / c;/ * e'Orfnf hfg] sf/0f / k|sf/ “ (–!@ g]kfndf e'Orfnf] hfg] sf/0f “ ( e'Orfnf]sf] Ifdtf “ !) e'Orfnf]sf] k|sf/ “ !! e'Orfnf]sf] clen]vg “ !@ e'Orfnf]sf] Oltxf; “ !#–!% e'Orfnf]sf] pTklQ “ !# ljZjdf uPsf e'Orfnf] “ !# g]kfndf e'Orfnf]sf] Oltxf; “ !% e'Orfnf]sf] hf]lvd tyf k"jtof/L “ { !&–@# e"sDkLo hf]lvdsf sf/0f !& hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k"jtof/L { !* cfGtl/s k"jtof/L { @! e'Orfnf] uPdf ckgfpg' kg]{ zts{tf “ @# kLl8tsf] p4f/ tyf /fxt Joj:yfkg @%–#! e'Orfnf] /f]lsgf;fy ug]{ p4f/ “ @% p4f/ sfo{sf] juL{s/0f / Joj:yfkg @^ pk;+xf/ #! zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷5
  • 6. zLtnx/sf] kl/ro tyf k|efjIf]q k[i7e"ld hl6n ef}uf]lns agf]6 ePsf] g]kfn e'Orfnf] / hnpTkGg k|sf]ksf F sf/0f dfq hf]lvdk"0f{ 5}g . lxdfnL / kxf8L If]qdf rL;f] tyf a];Ldf F udL{ / vf;u/L t/fO{df tftf] xfjf -n"_ af6 k|sf]ksf] ¿k lng] u/]sf] 5 . o:tf k|sf]khGo l:yltdf sltko dflg;sf] d[To' x'g] / wgdfnsf] ;d]t Iflt x'g] u/]sf] 5 . t/ kxf8 / lxdfndf udL{af6 vf;} Iflt x'bg t/ F } t/fO{df eg] ljgfzsf/L rL;f] a9]/ x/]s jif{h;f] hgwgsf] Jofks Ifltx'g] u/]sf] 5 . g]kfnsf] r'/] z[ªvnfeGbf blIft0flt/ km}lnPsf] ljzfn d}bfgL e"If]q cyf{t t/fO{df x/]s jif{ dªl;/b]lv df3sf] bf];f] ;ftf;dd zLtnx/ | rNb5 . t/fO{df u[id Ct'df a]hf]8sf] udL{ x'g] / hf8f] df};dfg ;d]t kfl/nf] 3fd nfu]/ pkf]i0f ¿kdf Gofgf] x'G5 . kxf8L / dWolxdfnL If]qdf klg jif{sf] cfwfeGbf a9L ;do Gofgf] hnjfo' g} x'G5 . o; If]qdf sflQsb]lv kmfu'g;Dd lgs} hf8f] x'G5 . afx|df; lxpF kl//xg] pRrlxdfnL } If]qdf l;/{l;/{ xfjf rn]/ nueu jif}el/ hf8f] x'G5 . o; cj:yfdf afx|} { dlxgf lxpF hld/xg] 708Ldf lxdjiff{ x'g] lxdfnL If]qdf rL;f]n] dfG5] dg]{ 36gf :jfefljs b]lvP klg hf8f]sf] ofddf ;d]t t'ngfTds¿kn] Gofgf] x'g] t/fO{If]qdf rL;f]n] dflg; dg]{ 36gf ckTofl/nf] nfUg;S5 . kfls:tfg x'Fb} ef/tsf] klZrd–pQ/L If]q / g]kfnsf] t/fO{b]lv aªunfb]z;Ddsf] d}bfgL e"If]qdf x/]s jif{sf] dªl;/b]lv df3sf] klxnf] ;ftf;Dd afSnf] x':;' nfu]/ cTolws rL;f] klZrdL xfjf rN5 . o; If]qsf] hnjfo'sf] jf:tljs cj:yfsf af/]df hfgsf/L gx'gsf nflu ] zLtnx/ c;fdfGo x'bf x'b} klg o;af6 kg]{ k|efj / IfltnfO{ ;fdfGo F F ¿kdf lng] k|rng /x]sf] 5 . jif{sf] cfwf ;do vKg} g;lsg] udL{ x'g] t/fO{df c;f]h dlxgfb]lv la:tf/} rL;f] a9]/ dªl;/, k'; / df3sf tLg dlxgf s7ofªlu|g] hf8f] x'G5 . o; ;dodf x'g] zLtnx/sf sf/0f nfdf] ;do;Dd Psgf; /xg] rL;f]sf dflg;sf] Hofg hfg], 3/kfn'jf tyf zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷6
  • 7. jgohgt' dg]{ / lxpFb} afnL gi6 x'g] 36gfdf s]xL bzsb]lv j[l4 x'b} F cfPsf] 5 . rL;f]sf sf/0f x'g] dxfdf/L / afSnf] x':;'sf sf/0f x'g] oftfoft b'36gfaf6 hgwgsf] y'k}| Iflt x'g] u/]sf] 5 . { k|sf]ksf cGo 36gfsf t'ngfdf zLtnx/af6 kg]{ k|efj / Iflt ;':t x'g] x'bf o;tkm{ dflg;sf] Wofg hfg ;s]sf] 5}g . t/ zLtnx/n] k'¥ofpg] F Ifltsf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ kl/df0f lgs} eofjx b]lvG5 . zLtnx/sf] kl/ro zLtnx/ jfo'd08n / e"d08naLrsf] cglqm{ofaf6 pTkGg x'g] jfojLo k|sf]k xf] . o;nfO{ s;}s;}n] hnjfo';u ;DalGwt k|sf]ksf ¿kdf klg F lng] u/]sf] kfOG5 . lxpFb dlxgfdf x'g] jiff{kl5 / slxn]sfxLF jiff{ geP klg ;dy/ kmfF6sf ¿kdf km}lnPsf] t/fO{If]qnfO{ s'lx/f]sf] ¿kdf /x]sf] afSnf] x':;'n] 9fS5 . o;/L afSnf] s'lx/f]n] lbgel/ 9fls/xg] qmd xKtf / ;f]eGbf a9L nfdf] x'g;S5 . o:tf] afbn?kL x':;' slxn]sfxLF Ps–b'O{ lbg x6g] t/ km]l/ nfdf] ;do;Dd nfUg] qmd klg ljsl;t x'g ;S5 . o;/L x':;' nfUbf lbge/ 3fd nfUb}g / of] qmd x':;' nfu];Dd sfod /xG5 . o:tf] x':;';u} klZrdaf6 k"jtkm{ rL;f] l;/]7f] rN5 . afSnf] F { afbn tyf x':;' nfu]/ klZrdL l;/]7f] lg/Gt/ rn]sf] o; cj:yfdf tfkqmd ;fdfGoeGbf lgs} sd x'G5 / hf8f] w]/} a95 . e"ld / jfo'd08nsf] oxL c;fdfGo ;+of]hgnfO{ g} zLtnx/ eg]/ lrlgG5 . ck]Iffs[t Gofgf] t/fO{sf] ;dy/ If]qdf x':;' nfu]sf] ;dodf tLgb]lv ;ft l8u|L ;]lG6u|8sf] lemgf] km/sdf tfkqmd l:y/ /xG5 . of] qmd xKtf ] jf dlxgfe/ klg sfod /x]sf] x'G5 . cfsfzdf afSnf] s'lx/f] nfu]/ e"lddf ;"osf] tfksf] s'/} 5f]8f},F k|sfz jf pHofnf] klg cfpgaf6 { /f]lsG5 . o; cj:yfdf klZrdaf6 rn]sf] rL;f] l;/]6f] cfsfzaf6 hldglt/ axG5 h;nfO{ zLtnx/ elgG5 . o;/L zLtnx/ rn]sf] cj:yfdf ;fdfGo ;dosf] t'ngfdf tfkqmd c;fdfGo¿kdf tn em5{ . s'lx/f] nfUbf g kfgL k5{, g t cfsfz v'nf eP/ 3fd g} nfU5 . ;fdfGo cj:yfdf hf8f]sf] ofddf ;d]t laxfg / lbpF;f]sf] tfkqmddf sDtLdf klg !) b]lv !% l8u|L ;]lG6u|8;Dd km/s /xg] u5{ . t/ zLtnx/ ] rn]sf] ;dodf laxfg / lbpF;f]sf] tfkqmddf vf;} cGt/ x'bg . F } zLtnx/ rn]sf] ;dodf lbpF;f] cfSsn–e'mSsn dw'/f] 3fd nfu]/ ;fdfGo tfkqmd a9]sf] cg'ej eP klg laxfg, a]nsf / /flt tfkqmd ' zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷7
  • 8. c;fdfGo ¿kdf tn em/]sf] x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf laxfg, a]nsfsf] ' tfkqmd tLg l8u|L ;]lG6u|8b]lv ;ft l8u|L ;]lG6u|8sf] aLrdf x'G5 eg] ] ] lbpF;f] s]an Ps l8u|L ;]lG6u|8b]lv tLg l8u|L ;]lG6u|8;Dd tfkqmd ] ] a9g ;S5 . o; ;dodf sf7df8f}F pkTosfnufot kxf8L If]qdf laxfg, a]nsf / lbpF;f]sf] tfkqmd ef}uf]lns l:yltcg'¿k Hofb} Go"g x'G5 eg] ' lbpF;f]sf] tfkqmd !@ b]lv !$ l8u|L ;]lG6u|8;Dd /x]sf] kfOG5 . zLtnx/ ] grn]sf] o;} ;dodf klg g]kfnsf] t/fO{, ef/tsf] pQ/L /fHo laxf/ / pQ/k|bz, pQ/f~rn, lxdf~rnnufotsf If]q tyf aªunfb]zsf] Go"gtd ] tfkqmd laxfgsf] * b]lv !) l8u|L ;]lG6u|8af6 a9]/ lbpF;f] !* b]lv ] @$ l8u|L ;]lG6u|8;Dd k'Ug] u5{ . o;nfO{ lzlz/ Ct' cyjf hf8f] ] df};dsf] ;fdfGo cj:yf dflgG5 . o; ;dodf t/fO{df rL;f] w]/} a9]/ tfkqmd PsfPs tn em5{ / Go"gtd / clwstd tfkqmdsf] km/s s]jn ! b]lv # l8u|L ;]lG6u|8aLr /xG5 . ] zLtnx/ rn]sf] ;dodf t'ngfTds ¿kdf udL{ x'g] t/fO{sf] tfkqmd klg # b]lv & l8u|L ;]lG6u|8df l:y/ /x]sf] x'G5 . ] zLtnx/sf] k|efjIf]q u|Lid Ct'df cTolws udL{ / lzlz/ Ct'df klg w]/} rL;f] gx'g] kfls:tfg, ef/tsf] pQ/L If]q / g]kfnsf] blIf0fL efu x'b} aªunfb]z;Dd F km}lnPsf] ljzfn d}bfgdf zLtnx/ rNg] u/]sf] 5 . zLtnx/ slxn]bl] v rln/x]sf] 5 eGg] cflwsfl/s clen]v geP klg o;n] k|frLg sfnb]lv g} cl:tTj sfod /fv]sf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . t/ klg zLtnx/n] k|sf]khGo ?kdf b]vf k/]sf] w]/} nfdf] ;do ePsf] 5}g eGg] cg'dfg klg ul/Psf] 5 . ljut tLg bzsb]lv zLtnx/sf] k|efj t'ngfTds ?kdf a9b} uPsf] cg'ej t/fO{af;Ln] ub}{ cfPsf] kfOG5 . otfsf s]xL jif{df t zLtnx/af6 lxpFb} afnL dfq gi6 ePsf] 5}g, dflg;sf] Hofg g} hfg] u/]sf] 5 . b'O{ bzsotf zLtnx/af6 g]kfndf dfq k|To]s jif{ bh{eGbf a9L dflg;sf] d[To' x'g] u/]sf] 5 . kfls:tfg, ef/t / aªunfb]zdf klg ;of}F dflg;sf] d[To' x'g] u5{ . zLtnx/sf] k|efj ef}uf]lns ¿kdf kfls:tfgb]lv ef/tsf] pQ/k|bz, lxdf~rn, aªufn x'b} aªunfb]z / Dofgdf/;Dd ] F km}lnG5 . To;}u/L o;sf] ;fdflhs tyf cfly{s If]qdf kg]{ k|efj klg Jofks b]lvPsf] 5 . zLtnx/ rn]sf ;dodf ljz]ifu/L s'kf]if0fsf] zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷8
  • 9. df/df k/]sf, sdhf]/ zfl//Ls cj:yf ePsf, lj/fdL / Gofgf] n'ufkmf6f]sf] aGbf]j:t ug{ g;Sg] ul/a ;d'bfosf dflg;sf] Hofg Hofg hfg] u/]sf] 5 . o;af6 t]nxg, t/sf/Lh:tf lxpFb] afnL gi6 x'g,] ;8s tyf xjfO oftfoft ;~rfngdf afwf k'Ug] / t/fO{sf] hghLjgdf k|lts"n k|efj kfg]{ u5{ . o;sf ;fy} zLtnx/n] jfg:klt hutdf ;d]t k|efj kf/]/ jftfj/0fLo Iflt u5{ . ;"osf] k|sfz / tfksf] cefjdf k|sfz;+Zn]if0f { k|lqmof ca?4 dfq x'bg, rL;f] ;xg ug]{ Ifdtf gePsf t/fO{ If]qsf F } jg:kltsf] j[l4 / k'g?Tkfbg Ifdtf ;d]t gi6 x'G5 . zLtnx/sf] sf/0f lxpFbdf nufOPsf vfBfGg / gub]afnLdWo] cfn', cGo t/sf/L / tf]/Lsf] pTkfbg (% k|ltzt;Dd 36g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . gkTofpFbf], t/ ljgfzsf/L ¿kdf rNg] zLtnx/n] g]kfnnufot blIf0f Pl;ofnL d'ns kfls:tfg, ef/t / aªunfb]z tyf Dofgdf/df dfq ' Iflt k'¥ofpg] u/]sf] 5}g . o;sf] k|efj ljZjs} ;jf{lws ljsl;t / wgL d'ns cd]l/sfdf klg b]vf kg]{ u/]sf] . cd]l/sfsf ljleGg /fHodf ' zLtnx/af6 jif]gL xhf/f}F dflg; kLl8t x'g] u/]sf] tYofªs kfOG5 . t/ { cd]l/sf / ljZjsf cGo d'nsdf rNg] zLtnx/sf] t'ngfdf blIf0f ' Pl;ofdf rNg] zLtnx/, To;sf] sf/0f / k|sl[ t leGg k|sf/sf] /x]sf] lj1x¿sf] egfO 5 . cd]l/sfdf c:jfefljs rL;f]nfO{ zLtnx/sf ¿kdf lng] ul/G5 eg] g]kfnnufot kfls:tfg, ef/t / aªunfb]zsf] d}bfgL efudf xKtf}F afSnf] s'lx/f]n] cfsfz 9fSgfn] c:jfefljs ¿kdf a9g] rL;f]nfO{ zLtnx/ dflgPsf] 5 . Pltxfl;s k[i7e"ld zLtnx/n] Ps bzscl3;Dd vf;} rrf{ kfPsf] lyPg . laxfg / slxn]sfxLF lbpf;f] x':;' nfu] klg hgwgsf] Iflt TolQ w]/} ePsf] cg'dfg gul/gfn] klg dflg;df o; ;d:ofk|lt TolQ rf;f] ga9]sf] x'g;S5 jf hfgsf/L g} lyPg eGbf klg x'G5 . o;sf] tfTko{ klxn]– klxn] zLtnx/ rNb}gYof] eGg] rfxLF xf]Og . udL{ w]/} x'g] If]qdf sd hf8f] x'bf klg rL;f]sf] cg'el" t a9L x'G5 . hf8f]ofddf cTolws rL;f] a9bf F dfG5]sf] d[To' x'gnfO{ ;fdfGo ¿kdf lnOPsf] klg x'g ;S5 . lzlz/ ' Ct'df To;} klg hf8f] a9g] x'bf dflg;sf] Wofg zLtnx/sf] c;fdfGo F cj:yfk|lt guPsf] x'g ;S5 . dflg;df r]tgf a9b} uPkl5 zLtnx/ klg Ps k|sf/sf] k|sf]k g} xf] eGg] 1fg a9]sf] kfOG5 . PsfPs a9g] rL;f], 3fd gnfUg] / xKtf};Dd l:y/ /xg] x':;'sf sf/0f dflg;sf] Hofg F zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷9
  • 10. hfg], 3/kfn'jf kz'sf] dg],{ lxpFb} v]tL gi6 x'g] / k|fs[lts Pj+ dfgjLo lqmofsnfknfO{ ;d]t k|efljt kfg]{ qmd a9]kl5 dflg;sf] rf;f] o;tkm{ a9sf] x'g' k5{ . P]ltxfl;s sfnb]lv g} zLtnx/n] w]/yf]/ gf]S;fg ub}{ cfPsf] eP klg ;g !(() sf] bzsb]lv dfq zLtnx/n] hgwgsf] Iflt ug]{ ljifonfO{ dxŒjsf ;fy x]g{ yflnPsf] kfOG5 . k|sf]ksf ljleGg k|sf/dWo] zLtnx/ cln gf}nf] ePsf]n] o; ;DaGwdf vf;} cg';Gwfg ePsf] klg kfOFbg . } oltv]/ eg] zLtnx/nfO{ ljZj kof{j/0f / hnjfo'' kl/jt{g;Fu ufFl;P/ cfPsf] k|sf]ksf] ¿kdf klg lng] u/]sf] kfOG5 . lxdkft zLtnx/ xf]Og pRr lxdfnL If]qdf jif{el/ g} lxpF kl//xG5 . To:t} tNnf] lxdfnL v08df eg] lxpFbdf dfq lxdkft x'G5 . lxdkftsf sf/0f lxdfnL If]qdf ;d]t rL;f] lgs} a9]/ hghLjg k|efljt x'G5 tfklg To;nfO{ zLtnx/ elgPsf] 5}g . udL{ ofddf ;d]t hf8f] g} x'g] lxdfn / Gofgf] x'g] kxf8sf dflg;nfO{ rL;f] ofddf w]/} hf8f] x'G5 eGg] 1fg /x]sf] x'G5 . To;}sf/0f pgLx¿ rL;f]af6 aRg cfˆgf] ef}uflns cj:yf / ljutdf ePsf] rL;f]sf] cg'ejsf cfwf/df ;dod} Gofgf] n'ufsf] Joj:yf u5{g . pgLx¿ cfˆgf] 3/ dfq geP/ 3/kfn'jf kz'sf uf]7nfO{ klg tftf] agfpg] ljlwx¿sf] k|of]u u5{g . tftf] 3/–uf]7sf] Joj:yf, kf]lifnf] vfgf, cfuf] tyf Gofgf]sf nflu OGwgsf] Joj:yf ;dod} u5{g . hf8f]af6 aRg k|z:t tftf] k]okbfy{ lkpg] / z/L/nfO{ Gofgf] agfO/fVg] s'/fdf klg lxdfnL If]qsf dflg; ;r]t /x]sf] kfOG5 . To;}u/L lxpFbdf rL;f] x'g' lgoldt k|lqmof ePsfn] pgLx¿nfO{ w]/} hf8f] eP klg c:jfefljs nfUb}g . pgLx¿df rL;f] ;xg ug]{ zf/Ll/s Ifdtfsf] ljsf; klg ePsf] x'G5 . To;}sf/0f pgLx¿ rL;f]sf] ;fdgf ug{ t'ngfTds ¿kn] ;Ifd x'G5g . lxdfnL If]qdf hf8f]af6 aRg] k/Dk/fut pkfosf] cjnDag g} pko'Qm x'g] ePsfn] clwsf+z dflg; :yfgLo tyf k/dk/fut ljlw g} k|of]u ug{ cEo:t eO;s]sf x'G5g . o;sf/0f klg kxf8L / lxdfnL If]qdf rL;f]af6 ;fdfGo k|efj k/] klg c:jfefljs Iflt ePsf] ;'Gg kfOFbg .} obfsbf cTolws lxdkft eP/, lxdklx/f] uP/ / lxdtfn ljikmf]6 eP/ eg] Iflt x'g] u/]sf] 5 . zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷10
  • 11. zLtnx/ rNg] sf/0f zLtnx/ jfo'd08df x'g] cGtlqm{ofsf] kl/0ffd xf] . o;df jftfj/0fsf ef}lts / h}ljs tTjsf] klg ;xeflutf /x]sf] x'G5 . zLtnx/ rn]sf] a]nf afSnf] s'lx/f]n] cfsfzsf] tNnf] efu / hldg 9flsPsf] x'G5 . afSnf] s'lx/f]h:tf] x':;' nfu]sf] To; ;dodf dflg;n] b]Vg ;Sg] b"/Ldf ;d]t ;ªsrg cfpF5 . cfk"meGbf s]xL ld6/ 6f9f /x]sf] 7f]; a:t', ' dflg;, hgfj/;d]t b]Vg sl7g x'G5 . lxpFb dlxgfdf o:tf] 36gf lsg x'G5 jf zLtnx/ lsg rN5 eGg] hfgsf/L lnPdf o;af6 ;'/lIft /x]g] pkfo kQf nufpg ;lsG5 . zLtnx/af/] hfgsf/L lng g]kfnsf] t/fO{ If]qsf] dfq j0f{g u/]/ k'Ub}g . o;sf nflu zLtnx/n] k|efj kfg]{ kfls:tfgsf] e"–efu, pQ/L ef/t, aªunfb]z / g]kfnsf] t/fO{nfO{ ;d]t ;d]6/ x]g{' cfjZos b]lvG5 . ] ef}uf]lns cj:yf kfls:tfg x'b} ef/tsf] pQ/L laxf/, l;lnu'8L, cf;fd tyf g]kfnsf] F t/fO{ / aªunfb]zsf] d}bfgL e"efudf dfq c;fdfGo rL;f] a9]/ zLtnx/ rNg] u/]sf] cWoogn] b]vfPsf] 5 . To;f] eP kxf8L If]qdf lsg zLtnx/ rNb}g eGg] k|Zg p7g klg ;S5 . t/ l:y/ ¿kdf afSnf] s'lx/f] nfUg ef}uf]lns cj:yf / jfo'sf] rfkn] dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ x'bf kxf8L If]qdf zLtnx/ rNb}g eGg] lj1x¿sf] egfO 5 . oBlk F kxf8L If]qsf pkTosf / a];Lx¿df afSnf] x':;' nfUg] u/]sf] 5 . To:tf] F x':;' nfUbf t'ngfTds ¿kdf rL;f] x'g] eP klg t/fO{s} h:tf] zLtnx/ eg] rNg] u/]sf] 5}g . cToGt rL;f] x'g] ;fOa]l/osf] d?e"ldaf6 lxpFbdf rL;f] xfjf k"jtkm{ { axG5 . Tof] rL;f] xfjf kfls:tfg x'b} ef/tsf] pQ/L If]qdf k|jz u5{ . F ] k"jl{ t/ axg] qmddf klZrdL jfo' g]kfnsf] r'/] kj{t z[ªvnfdf 7f]lSsG5 . To;/L cfˆgf]] axfadfu{df cj/f]w cfPkl5 To;n] cfˆgf] af6f] kl/jt{g u5{ / t/fO{sf] tNnf] jfo'd08nLo efudf km}lng yfN5 / lj:tf/} afSnf] s'lx/f]sf] ¿kdf x':;' ag]/ l:y/ /xG5 . r'/] kj{tdfnfn] klZrdaf6 cfPsf] jfo'sf] axfadfu{ cj?4 u/]kl5 rL;f] jfo';u} cfPsf]] s'lx/f];d]t F zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷11
  • 12. To; kj{tdfnfeGbf tNnf] efud} hDdf x'G5 . o;/L w]/} rL;f] xfjf k"jtkm{ ax]sf] cj:yfdf zLtnx/ w]/} If]qdf km}lnG5 eg] yf]/} rL;f] jfo' { ax]sf] ;dodf ;Lldt If]qdf dfq /xG5 . ctM t/fO{sf] pQ/L l;dfgfdf kvf{nh:t} ag]/ k"j–klZrd km}lnPsf] r'/] kj{t z[ªvnfdf ;fOa]l/og { d?e"ldaf6 cfPsf] rL;f] jfo' 7f]lSsO{ blIf0fsf] t/fO{tkm{ y'lk|bf zLtnx/ F rNg ;'? u5{ . jfo'd08nLo rfk jfo'sf] rfk sd ePsf] If]qdf s'lx/f] nfUb}g . jfo'sf] rfk sd ePsf] cj:yfdf afbndf bafa kb}g / tnlt/ lylrg kfpFbg . To:tf] jfo' { } cfsfzdf km}lnP/ kftlnG5 / cfsfz v'nf / ;kmf b]lvG5 . kxf8L If]qdf jfo'sf] rfk sd x'g] ePsfn] / lxpFb] afbndf hnjfik sd x'g] x'bf afSnf] s'lx/f] l:y/ eP/ Ps} :yfgdf /xg] cj:yf pTkGg x'bg . F F } To;}n] hf8f] df};ddf kxf8lt/ obfsbf s'lx/f] nfluxfn] klg 5f]6f] ;dod} kftlng] / cfsfz pl3|P/ / 3fd nfUg] ;Defjgf a9L x'G5 . jfo'sf] rfk a9L x'g] kxf8sf a];L / vf]r / pkTosfdf eg] x':;' nfU5 . F To:tf] If]qdf s]xL ;do x':;' nfu] klg t/fO{sf] h:tf] nfdf] ;do nfUb}g / zLtnx/ klg rNb}g . kxf8L If]qsf] t'ngfdf t/fO{sf] jfo'df cfb|tf klg a9L x'g] rfk klg w]/} { x'g] ljz]if1x¿sf] egfO /x]sf] 5 . r'/] kj{t z[ªvnfeGbf tNnf] If]qsf] d}bfgL e"If]qdf jfo'sf] rfk w]/} x'g] x'bf klZrd ;fOa]l/ofb]lv axFb} F cfPsf] rL;f] xfjf dflyNnf] txsf] jfo'sf] rfkaf6 lylrP/ afSnf] x'b} F e";txlt/ em5{ . o:tf] cj:yfdf afXo If]qsf] jfo' ToxfF k:g] jf lelqg] ;Defjgf klg go"g x'G5, g tNnf] efusf] jfo' dflylt/ p7]/ km}lng g} g} kfpF5 . cTolws rfkdf k/]sf] tNnf] e";tx glhs}sf] xfjfsf] axfault klg sd x'G5 . To;}n] x':;' l:y/ /xG5 o;/L jfo'sf] pRrrfk /x]sf] t/fO{If]qdf Pslqt eP/ afSnf] ag]sf] s'lx/f] ;Fu} klZrdaf6 axg] rL;f] xfjfn] zLtnx/ pTkGg u5{ . xfjfsf] axfa g]kfndf k"jtkm{af6 rNg] xfjf tftf] x'g] ePsfn] hf8f] dlxgfdf klg k"jL{ { xfjf rNbf Gofgf] cg'ej x'G5 . zLtnx/sf] cj:yf pTkGg x'g s7ofªlu|g] rL;f] xfjf rNg' k5{ h'g hf8f] dlxgfdf klZrdaf6 k"jl{ t/ axG5 . zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷12
  • 13. vf;u/L lxpFbdf rL;f] ag]sf] ;fOa]l/ofaf6 k"jl{ t/ rNg] rL;f] xfjf kfls:tfg / ef/tsf] pQ/L v08 x'b} g]kfnsf] r'/] z[ªvnfdf 7f]lSsP/ F t/fO{lt/ df]l8G5 . o; cj:yfdf cfoftg lng] jfo'sf] cˆgf] u'0fcg';f/ a9L 3gTj ePsf] :yfgsf] jfo' sd 3gTj ePsf] :yfgtkm{ axG5 . To;}u/L pRrrfk ePsf] If]qsf] rL;f] jfo' g dflylt/ axg kfpF5, g t zfXo If]qdf g} km}lng kfpF5 . cfb|tf tyf hnjfik ;lxtsf] rL;f] { klZrdL jfo' ux|fF} x'g] ePsf]n] r'/sf] sfF7df 7f]lSsP/ tnlt/ emg{ afWo ] x'G5 . To;/L af6f] kl/jt{g u/]sf] jfo'nfO{ qmlds ¿kdf cfpg] klZrdL jfo'n] k5fl8af6 lg/Gt/ ws]N5 / la:tf/} k"jl{ t/ g} axG5 . o;/L klZrdL If]qaf6 g]kfn k;]sf] zLtnx/ lj:tf/} ef/tsf] l;nLu'8L, cf;fd, aªunfb]z x'b} Dofgdf/sf] ;LdfIf]q;Dd k'Ug] u/]sf] 5 . F jfo'd08nLo tfk ljkl/t cj:yf k[YjLsf] ;txaf6 hlt prfO a95 jfo'sf] tfkqmd / rfk klg To;} cg'kftdf sd x'b} hfG5 . ;fdfGotof jfo'd08nsf] tfkqmd 36g] dfqf F k|ltlsnf]ld6/ sl/a Ps l8u|L ;]lN;o; x'G5 . jfo'd08nsf] prfO;Fu} tfkqmd 36g] oxL qmdn] jfo'd08ndf $) lsnf]ld6/eGbf dflysf] tfkqmd z"GoeGbf ^) l8u|L ;]lG6u|8;Dd tn cyf{t dfOg; ^) l8u|L ] tn em/]sf] x'G5 . o;sf] 7Ls ljkl/t zLtnx/ rn]sf] ;dodf e";txsf] jfo'sf] tfkqmd w]/} tn em/]sf] x'G5 . afSnf] s'lx/f] nfu]sf] ;dodf To; s'lx/f]sf] dflyNnf] efusf]] tfkqmd tNnf] efusf] tfkqmds} xf/fxf/Ldf /x]sf] x'G5 / To;eGbf dflysf] jfo'd08ndf s'lx/f] jf x':;' gnfu]/ ;kmf cfsfz b]lvg] x'bf ToxfF 3fd nfu]sf] x'G5 hxfF /flknf] 3fdsf sf/0f tfkqmd F tnsf] eGbf a9L /x]sf] x'G5 . o;af6 :ki6 x'G5, e";txb]lv hlt dfly uof] TolQ g} tfkqmd Go"g x'g' kg]df dflyNnf] jfo'd08nsf] tfkqmd eg] { tftf] x'G5 . o:tf] c;fdfGo cj:yfsf sf/0f jfo'd08nsf] ;fdfGo l;4fGtsf] ljk/Lt afSnf] s'lx/f] dflysf] jfo'd08sf] tfkqmd a9L x'G5 . s'lx/f] nfu]sf] :yfgsf] jfo' To;eGbf dflysf] jfo'eGbf rL;f] ePsf] x'g] x'bf g dflylt/ p7g ;S5 g t x':;'n] 3fdsf] k|sfz / tfknfO{ tnlt/ F l5g{ lbG5 . o;/L s'lx/f] nfu]sf] dflyNnf] If]qsf] jfo' jfo'd08nsf] tNnf] If]q xFb} k[YjLsf] ;txtkm{ rL;f] nx/ pTkGg ub{} emb{5 . dflyaf6 ' tnlt/ emb}{ k"jL{lbzftkm{ axg] rL;f] jfo'sf] l;/{l;/{ nx/n] zLtnx/sf] ¿k lnP/ c;fdfGo rL;f] pTkGg u5{ . zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷13
  • 14. hnjfo' kl/jt{g ljZjJofkL pi0fLs/0fsf sf/0f eO/x]sf] hnjfo' kl/jt{gn] klg zLtnx/sf] ¿kdf kl/jt{g u/]sf] lj1x¿sf] wf/0ff 5 . ljZjJofkL ¿kdf ePsf] cf}Bf]lus ljsf; / k|fs[lts ;|ftdflysf] rfkn] jfo'kbif0fdf ] | " Jofks j[l4 ePsf] 5 . o;n] k[YjLsf] pi0fLs/0fnfO{ tLj| dfq agfPsf] 5}g jfo'd08nLo ultljlwdf ;d]t c;fdfGo kl/jt{g cfpg yfn]sf] 5 . pBf]u / cGo dfgjLo ultljlwn] sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8, sfa{g df]gf]cS;fO8, Snf]/f]ˆn'/f] sfa{gh:tf k|bl" ift Uof;sf] pT;h{g lg/Gt/ al9/x]sf] 5 . Pslt/, Snf]/f]ˆn'/f] sfa{gsf] pTkfbg / jfo'd08ndf x'g] lj;h{gn] cf]hf]gtx kftlnFb} uP/ k/fa}hgL ljls/0f l;w} k[YjLdf cfpg] qmd a9]sf] 5 eg] csf]tkm{ jfo'd08ndf xl/tu[x Uof;sf] dfqf a9]/ { k[YjLaf6 tfk jfo'd08naflx/ hfg glbP/ tfkqmd j[l4 x'g] qmd al9/x]sf] 5 . jfo'kbif0fsf] o; ljs/fn ;d:ofn] cltj[li6, cgfj[li6, v8]/Lh:tf | " ljleGg k|sf]k a9fpg] / ltgsf] k|efjaf6 pTkGg x'g] cGo k|sf]ksf] z[ ª v nf r/0fa4¿kdf cfpg] s' / f lglj{ j fb 5 . lgoldt cfsl:dstfcGtu{t x'g] jftfj/0fLo tTjx¿sf] lqmof–k|ltlqmofsf sf/0f e";txdf k|b"lift jfo'sf] rfk a9]/ zLtnx/ rn]sf] wf/0ff klg df};dlabx¿n] /fv]sf 5g . oBlk zLtnx/k|efljt kfls:tfg, ef/t, g]kfn / aªunfb]zn] o; ljifodf cWoog eg] ug{ ;s]sf 5g}gg . lxpFb]jiff{ aªunfb]z, ef/t / g]kfndf rNg] dg;'gL jiff{ k"jL{ jfo'af6 k|efljt x'g] u/]sf] 5 . aªufnsf] vf8Laf6 dg;'gL jfo' klZrdlt/ axFbf g]kfndf jiff{ x'G5 . t/ dªl;/kl5sf] lxpb dlxgfdf klZrdL jfo'sf] k|efjaf6 dfq jiff{ x'g] u/]sf] 5 . ;fOa]l/og d?e"ldaf6 k"j{ axg] jfo'sf sf/0f g} zLtnz/ rNg] / ToxL jfo'sf sf/0f lxpFb] jiff{ klg x'g] ePsfn] zLtnx/ / lxpFb} jiff{aLr ;DaGw /x]sf] dfGg ;lsG5 . o;sf ;fy} lxpFb} jiff{ ePkl5 nfdf] ;do zLtnx/ rNg] / jiff{ gePdf zLtnx/ 5f]6f] ;do dfq rNg] ljutsf] tYon] oL b'O{ 36gfaLr ;DaGw /x]sf] k'li6 u5{ . ljutsf jif{df rn]sf] zLtnx/sf] tYofª cg';f w]/} kfgL k/]sf] jif{ nfdf] ;do;Dd zLtnx/ rn]sf] kfOPsf] 5 tfklg @)%( ;fndf lxpFbjiff{ geO{ dlxgfF} nfdf] ] ;do;Dd zLtnx/ rn]sf] lyof] . zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷14
  • 15. zLtnx/sf] k|efj tLg bzscl3;Dd klg zLtnx/sf] k|efjaf/] dflg; cgle1h:t} lyof] . s'g} s'g} jif{sf] hf8f] df};ddf afSnf] x':;' nfUg] s]xL dflg; lj/fdL x'g] tyf lxpFbafnLsf] pTkfbg 36g] cj:yf /x] klg To;k|lt ] dflg;sf] rf;f] sd ePsf] /xGYof] . ljut s]xL bzs otfaf6 dflg;df o;;DaGwL hfgsf/L x'g yfn]sf] eP klg zLtnx/ klg Ps k|sf/sf] k|sf]khGo 36gf xf] eGg] 1fg eg] uPsf] rf/ jif{af6 dfq k|sfzdf cfPsf] 5 . zLtnx/af6 bh{gf}F dflg; d/] klg jf s/f]8f}sf] afnL F pTkfbgdf c;/ kf/] klg ;/sf/n] ;d]t o;nfO{ ;fdfGo ?kdf lng] u/]sf] lyof] . k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf If]qdf sfd ug]{ u};/sf/L ;+:yfx¿n] zLtnx/ klg k|sf]khGo 36gf ePsfn] o;af/]sf] ax; cufl8 a9fpg' kg]{ tyf kLl8tnfO{ ;xof]u ug'{ kg]{ ljifo p7fpg yfn]kl5 cxn] zLtnx/nfO{ klg ;/sf/n] k|sf]khGo 36gf dfg]sf] 5 . jf:tjdf zLtnx/n] gkTofpg] lsl;dn] hghLjg 7Kk agfpg] qmd a9b} uPsf] 5 . zLtnx/ rn]sf] ;dodf c;fdfGo rL;f] x'g] x'bf o;sf] k|efjaf6 F ;Dk"0f{ hghLjg c;fdfGo ¿kdf k|efljt x'G5 . nfdf] ;do;Dd Ps} :t/sf] rL;f] lg/Gt/ /xg] ePsf sf/0f zfl//Ls ?kdf sdhf]/ dflg; a]xf]; x'g] / cGtdf d[To';d]t x'g] ;Defjgf /xG5 . zLtnx/sf] k|lts"n k|efj hghLjgsf] Ps kIfdf dfq kb}g, o;af6 w]/} If]qdf Jofks c;/ { k5{, h;nfO{ lgDg cg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M ;fdflhs k|efj zLtnx/ t/fO{df rNg] ePsfn] o;sf] jf:tljs k|efj t/fO{af;Ldf k5{ . jif{sf] clwsf+z ;do udL{ x'g] / ;fdfGotof k'; tyf df3df Gofgf] xfjfkfgL x'g] o; If]qdf rL;f]af6 ;'/lIft /xg] pkfo ckgfpg' h?/L 7fGg] u/]sf] kfOFbg . t/fO{af;Ln] hf8f] dlxgfsf nflu ;fdfGo } Gofgf] sk8fsf] hf]xf] ug]{ u/] klg clwsf+z dflg; To;k|lt ;r]t /x]sf x'bgg . dWo lxpFbdf klg zLtnx/ grn]df ;fdfGo s'yf{, wf]tL, ;6, F } zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷15
  • 16. KofG6h:tf ;'tL sk8fn] wfGg] ePsfn] afSnf] / w]/} Gofgf] sk8fsf] hf]xf] ug'{ cfjZos 7flgFbg . t/ w]/} ;d'bfodf ul/aLsf sf/0f Gofgf] } sk8f / zLtnx/af6 aRg] cGo pkfo cjnDag ug]{ Ifdtf geP/ klg dflg;df k|ToIf k|efj kg]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 . x/]s jif{ d'nsdf hfg] af9L / klx/f]af6 xhf/f}F dflg; 3/af/ljxLg x'g] ' u/]sf 5g . ljz]ifu/L t/fO{df a9Laf6 xhf/f}F kl/jf/ lj:yflkt eO/x]sf x'G5g . @)^$ ;fnsf] ;fpgsf] !$ ut];Dddf d'nssf #& xhf/' kl/jf/sf ;jfnfv dflg; a9Laf6 lj:yflkt ePsf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . af9Lsf] of] kL8f ;lsg gkfpFb} t/fO{df rNg] zLtnx/af6 tL lj:yflkt g} a9L k|efljt x'g] u/]sf] oyfy{nfO{ ljutsf] Oltxf;n] k'li6 u5{ . o;y{ af9Lk|efljt ;d'bfosf] ;'/Iffsf ;Gbe{df ul/g] sfo{qmddf s]xL dlxgfkl5 x'g] csf]{ k|sf]khGo 36gfk|lt klg ;+jbgzLn x'g' ] cfjZos 5 . dfgjLo Iflt Gofgf] sk8fsf] hf]xf] ug{ g;Sg] ul/a kl/jf/sf w]/} ;b:o zLtnx/sf] k|ToIf k|efjdf kg]{ u/]sf 5g . x'g t h'g;'s} k|sf]ksf 36gfaf6 klg ul/a ;LdfGt ;d'bfo g} kLl8t x'g] u/]sf 5g, oBlk o;af6 klg ul/a ;d'bfo g} a9L k|efljt x'g] u5{g . kf]if0fo'Qm vfgfsf] cefj / Gofgf] sk8f tyf tftf]sf nflu OGwgsf] sdLsf sf/0f clwsf+z dflg;n] d[To'sf] k~hfdf kg'{ k/]sf] 5 . zLtnx/af6 g]kfndf olt dflg;sf] d[To' x'g] u/]sf] 5 eg]/ s'g} 7fpFdf cflwsfl/s tYofªs /fVg] Joj:yf gePsfn] To:tf] tYofªs pknAw 5}g . pknAw s]xL cgf}krfl/s tYofªscg';f/ @)^) ;fndf g]kfn, ef/t / aªunfb]zdf rn]sf] zLtnx/df k/L] Hofg u'dfPsf nueu b'O{ xhf/ dflg;dWo] *) hgf g]kfnsf lyP . ;f] jif{ g]kfndf sl/a Ps dlxgf zLtnx/ rn]sf] lyof] . To;}u/L sl/a !% lbg rn]sf] @)^@ ;fnsf] zLtnx/sf sf/0f sl/a &) hgfsf] d[To' ePsf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . hg:jf:Yodf ;d:of zLtnx/ rn]sf] a]nf rL;f]sf sf/0f x'g] /f]udf cTolws j[l4 x'G5 . rL;f] ;xg] Ifdtfsf] cefj ePsf ;fdfGo /f]uL JolQmsf] Hofg klg zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷16
  • 17. rL;f]s} sf/0f hfG5 . hf8f]sf sf/0f aflx/ lxF88'n ug{ sl7g x'g] x'bf F 3/af/Ldf ug'{ kg]{ b}lgs sfo{df klg cj/f]w l;h{gf x'G5 . lgDg:t/sf] cfly{s cj:yf ePsf dflg;n] cfˆgf] b}lgs /f]huf/L;d]t ug{ g;Sgfn] ef]sd/Lsf] kL8f ;xg'kg]{ cj:yf pTkGg x'G5 g}, nfdf] ;do;Dd zLtnx/ rNbf vfg} gkfP/ k|f0f TofUg] cj:yf klg cfPsf] kfOG5 . s}of}F a"9f–a"9L / s]6fs]6L vfBfGgsf] cefjsf sf/0f k|tfl8t x'G5g / s'kf]if0fsf] l;sf/ aG5g . zLtnx/sf] ;d:of;Fu} hg:jf:Yo;DaGwL b]lvg] ljleGg ;d:of;Fu clwsf+z ;/sf/L lgsfo cgle1h:t} /x]sf] 5 . zLtnx/ rn]sf] ;dodf t/fO{ If] q df lgdf] l gof, sf] N 8 8fOl/of, bdnufotsf Zjf;k|Zjf;;DaGwL ;d:ofn] lgs} hl6n ;d:of pTkGg u/]sf] x'G5 . oBlk o:tf ;d:ofnfO{ st} klg clen]vsf ¿kdf /fVg] k|rng 5}g / cfkTsfnLg pkrf/sf] Joj:yf x'g ;s]sf] klg b]lvFbg . } zLtnx/sf ;dodf k|efljt If]qsf afnaflnsf / a"9fa"9L / lj/fdLn] :jf:Yo;DaGwL ;d:ofsf] ;fdgf ug'{ k5{ . hf8f]n] s]6fs]6Ldf lgdf]lgof / j[¢x¿df bd, Zjf;k|Zjf;sf] ;d:of a9L b]lvg] u5{ . ljutsf t'ngfdf zLtnx/sf] rfk a9b} uPsf] / ;d:of klg lg/Gt/ a9b} uPsf] ;Gbe{df ;/sf/, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf / gful/s ;dfhn] rgfvf] x'g' h?/L b]lvPsf] 5 . cfly{s If]qdf Iflt zLtnx/n] b}lgs dfgj hLjgdf kfg]{ k|efj t 5Fb5, o;sf] k|lts"n } k|efjsf] ;fdgf ;du| cy{tGqn] ;d]t ug'{ kg]{ l:ylt pTkGg x'G5 . zLtnx/n] vf;u/L lxpFbdf nufOg] t/sf/L, t]nxg / cGo gub]afnL / vfBfGgdf k|lts"n k|efj kf5{ . o;af6 kz'kfng Joj;fo, cf}Bf]lus If]q, :yn tyf xjfO oftfoft, Jofkf/–Jojf;fodf ;d]t k|lts"n k|efj kg]{ u5{ . o;/L zLtnx/n] ax'cfoflds ¿kdf cfly{s Iflt k'¥ofpg] x'bf b]zsf] cy{tGq;d]t k|efljt ePsf] 5 . F s[lif If]q ux'F lxpFbdf nufOg] k|dv vfBfGg afnL xf] . tf]/LnfO{ d'nsdf t]nsf] ' ' zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷17
  • 18. dfu k"lt{ ug]{ dxŒjk"0f{ gub]afnLsf ¿kdf lnOG5 . d'nssf ljleGg ' ;x/L If]q / ef/t;Dd lgof{t x'g] ljleGg hftsf t/sf/Lsf] v]tL klg lxpFbd} x'g] u5{ . hf8f]df pTkfbg x'g] ux',F tf]/L, cfn', km"n uf]eL, aGbf uf]eL, a|fsfpnL, ] v';f{gL, n;'g, Kofhh:tf afnLn] nfdf] ;do rNg] zLtnx/sf] ;fdgf ug{ ;Sb}gg . To;df klg tf]/L / cfn', uf]eLh:tf t/sf/L zLtnx/af6 cTolws k|efljt eP/ ltgsf] pTkfbgdf *) b]lv () k|ltzt;Dd x|f; cfpg] u/]sf] 5 . nuftf/ t';f/f]h:tf] jiff{ x'g] zLtnx/ nfdf] ;do;Dd sfod /x]df rL;f] ;xg;Sg] ux'sf] pTkfbg;d]t &) k|ltzteGbf F w]/} x|f; x'g] u5{ . nfdf] ;do;Dd w'Dd k/]/ x':;' nfUg] x'bf jg:kltsf] k|sfz;+Zn]if0f F k|lqmof ca?4 x'G5 . kl/0ffd:j?k nufOPsf afnLsf la?jfn] df6f]af6 kf]ifstŒj u|x0f ug{ ;Sb}g . To:t} lxpFb] afnLsf kft cToGt} sf]dn x'G5g, hf] rL;f] ;xg g;s]/ v'dL k/]/ / cf]OnfP/ dg{ yfN5 . df};dL | lx;fan] lxpFb dlxgf t/fO{df cfn', tf]/L, ux'F / w]/} k|sf/sf t/sf/L v]tL nufpg] ;do eP klg ToxL ;dodf zLtnx/ rNg] x'bf tL anL F k"/} gi6 eP/ pTkfbg g} z"Go x'g] u/]sf] 5 . zLtnx/af6 lxpFb] afnLdf cTolws k|efj kg]{ eP klg o;n] slt cGgafnL gi6 kf5{ / To;af6 cy{tGqdf s:tf] c;/ kg]{ u/]sf] 5 eGg] ljifodf xfn;Dd s'g} cWoog x'g g;s]sf] sf/0f Iflt jf:tljs tYofªs ;d]t pknAw 5}g . kz'kfng Joj;fo xKtf};Dd x':;' nfUbf 3/kfn'jf kz'sf] ;d]t x]/rfx ug{ sl7gfO{ pTkGg F x'G5 . hf8f]sf sf/0f b'Anf / sdhf]/ zfl//Ls cj:yf ePsf kz' dg{ klg ;S5g . kz'sf nflu Gofgf] uf]7, kf]lifnf] vfg]s/f / tftf] v]n] ' Vjfpg ;Sg] cj:yf gePsf kl/jf/ jf ;d'bfosf 3/kfn'jf kz' dg]{ ;Defjgf x'G5 . cTolws rL;f]sf] ;fdgf ug{ ufO{j:t'nfO{ klg dflg;nfO{ h:t} tftf] / kf]if0fo'Qm vfg]s/fsf] cfjZostf k5{ eGg] hfgsf/L clwsf+z dflg;df ' x'bg . kl/0ffd:j?k zLtnx/ rNg] ;dodf ufOuf]?sf] uf]7, afv|f, F } s'v/f, aªu/ cflb kz'sf] vf]/nfO{ af/a]/ u/]/ Gofgf] agfpg] rng ' ' Hofb} sd 5 . To;}n] zLtnx/ rn]sf] ;dodf ;Dk"0f{ hghLjg c:tJo:t zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷18
  • 19. x'g] / ;fdfGo cj:yfdf h:t} 3/kfn'jf kz'sf] plrt x]/rfx x'g g;Sg] x'bf sltko kz'wgsf] gf]s;fg x'g] u/]sf] 5 . u|fdL0f If]qdf v]tLsf] F ;xfos Joj;fosf ¿kdf kflng] kz'sf nflu plrt / Gofgf]] uf]7sf] Joj:yf ldnfOPsf] la/n} dfq b]Vg kfOG5 . w]/h;f] v'nf 7fpFdf uf]7 } x'g] x'bf klg rL;f] / vfg]s/fsf] cefjaf6 w]/} 3/kfn'jf hgfj/ d5{g . F ' o;/L s[lifIf]q;Fu cfa4 kz'kfng Joj;fo klg zLtnx/sf] k|lts"n k|efjaf6 d'Qm /xg ;Sg] cj:yf b]lvFbg .} snsf/vfgf tyf cGo Joj;fo zLtnx/ rn]/ rL;f] a9]kl5 dflg;sf] b}lgs hLjgk4ltdf c;/ kg]{ x'bf sfdsf nflu aflx/ lg:sg c;dy{ x'g' c:jefljs xf]Og . sltko F cf}Bf]lus k|lti7fgdf rL;f]sf] ;fdgfsf nflu Gofgf] jftfj/0f agfpg] Joj:yf gx'g ;S5 . To; cj:yfdf sfdbf/ tyf sd{rf/L sfddf pkl:yt x'g ;Sb}gg . o; cj:yfdf pBf]u, snsf/vfgf tyf Jofkf/– Joj;fo 7Kk x'g] jf dGb x'g] ;Defjgf x'G5 . w]/} rL;f]df pBf]u tyf sf/vfgfsf d]l;g rnfpg klg sl7g x'G5 . ctM pBf]usf d]l;g rNg tftf] jftfj/0f agfpg yk cfly{s nufgL a9fpg' kg]{ x'G5 . kl/0ffd:j?k pTkflbt j:t'sf] nfut a9]/ dxFuLsf] ;Defjgf a9fpF5 . o;/L Pstkm{ pBf]u ;~rfng x'g g;s]/ jf sd rn]/ pTkfbg 365 eg] csf]tkm{ { pTkflbt j:t'sf] d"No a9]/ gful/s ;dfhn] dxFuLsf] ;fdgf ug'{ kg]{ cj:yf pTkGg x'G5 . oftfoft If]sf] k|efj :ynoftfoft zLtnx/ rn]sf] ;dodf k[YjLsf] ;txb]lv g} afSnf] s'lx/f]n] 9fs]/ glhs}sf] j:t' klg b]Vg g;lsg] cfj:yf pTkGg x'G5 . o; cj:yfdf /fhdfu{df rNg] nfdf] b"/Lsf ;jf/L;fwg dfq xf]Og ;x/L If]qdf rNg] 5f]6f] b"/Lsf ;jf/L ;fwg klg b3{6gfdf k5{g . o:tf] cj:yfdf :ynoftfoftsf ;fwg clt sd ultdf rnfpFbf;d]t af6f] b]Vg sl7g x'G5 . zLtnx/ grNg] t/ afSnf] s'lx/f] nfUg] g]kfnsf cGo If]qdf klg w]/} oftfoft b'36gf x'g] u/]sf ;dfrf/ k|sfzdf cfpF5g . oBlk, { zLtnx/sf] afSnf] s'lx/f] nfu]sf a]nf b'36gfsf] ;Defjgf a9L x'G5 . { zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷19
  • 20. o;af6 hgwgsf] 7"nf] Iflt x'g ;S5 . xjfOoftfoft xjfOhxfhsf] p8fg / cjt/0f ug]{ sfo{df zLtnx/n] w]/} ;d:of pTkGg ub{5 . afSnf] s'lx/f] nfUbf xjfOhxfhsf] p8fg eg{ / cjt/0f ug{ gldNg] cj:yf cfpF5 . jfo'sf] rfk, jfo'sf] tfkqmd, jfo'df hnjfiksf] dfqfh:tf hnjfo'sf ultljlwsf sf/0f ;+jbgzLn oftfoft dflgg] ] xjfO oftfoft klg k|efljt x'G5 . xjfO{ oftfoftdf ptkGg cj/f]wn] o; ;]jf pbf]un] klg 7"nf] cfly{s Ifltsf] ;fdgf ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 . jftfj/0f cksif{0f zLtnx/af6 k|efljt x'g] g]kfnsf] t/fO{If]qdf ul/a tyf ljkGg ju{sf] cTolws a;f]af; /x]sf] 5 . To; If]qdf a;f]af; ug]{ ;a} ju{sf ] kl/jf/n] c;fdfGo rL;f]sf] cj:yf pTkGg xf]nf eg]/ Gofgf] n'uf, pko'Qm a;f]af; / kf]if0fo'Qm vfgfsf] Joj:yf ldnfPsf x'bgg . PsfPs F } zLtnx/ rn]/ rL;f] a9]kl5 u|fdL0f afl;Gbf s[lifpTkfbgaf6 pT;lh{t 3'¥ofg, bfp/f, 6fo/ / cTolws jfo'kbif0f ug]{ Knfl:6s / l;Gy]l6s | " kbfy{;d]t afn]/ cfuf] tfKg ljjz x'G5g . o:tf k|bif0fhGo j:t' afn]/ " cfuf] tfKbf lg:sg] xflgsf/s w"jfF / Uof;sf sf/0f Zjf;k|Zjf;;DaGwL /f]usf] ;ªqmd0f a95 . zLtnx/n] k|efljt ug]{ jfo'sf] pRrrfkLo If]q x'g] x'bf of] k|bl" ift w"jfFnfO{ jfo'n] lyr]/ tnlt/} /fVb5 / o;af6 /f]udf F j[l4 x'G5 . zLtnx/ rn]sf] ;dodf jg:kltsf] k|sfz;+zn]if0f k|lqmofdf cj/f]w ptkGg eP/ jg:kltsf] j[l4b/ jf k'g?Tkfbgdf x|f; cfpF5 . 3fF;sf] cefj eP/ clwsf+z zfsfxf/L hLj ;ªs6df k5{g . To;sf] k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf k|efj cGo df+;fxf/L hgfj/df klg k5{ . To;}u/L rL;f]sf] lg/Gt/tfn] sltko jGohGt'df ;d]t k|lts"n k|efj k/]/ ;du| h}ljs ljljwtf ;ªs6fkGg x'g] ;defjgf /xG5 . zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷20
  • 21. zLtnx/sf] ;fdgf tyf Joj:yfkg zLtnx/ hf8f] dlxgfdf k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 pTkGg x'g] jfojLo k|sf]k xf] . ef}uf]lns cjl:ylt, jfo'sf] axfa, jfo'sf] rfk, jfo'd08nLo tfkqmdsf] cj:yf, ljZj jftfj/0fdf eO/x]sf] kl/jt{g tyf hnfjo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efjsf sf/0f zLtnx/ rNg] ePsfn] o;nfO{ lgoGq0f ug]{ ;fdYo{ dflg;;Fu 5}g tfklg o;sf] k|sf]kaf6 aRg / Iflt Go"g ug{ eg] ;lsG5 . zLtnx/sf] k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Iflt Go"gLs/0f ug{ ljz]if rgfvf] ;fy sfd u/]df o;n] k'¥ofO/x]sf] Ifltdf w]/} xb;Dd sd u/pg ;lsG5 . o;sf nflu k"jtof/L ug'{ k5{ eg] zLtnx/ rn]sf] ;dodf { s]xL zts{tf ckgfpg' k5{ . k"jtof/L { zLtnx/ rNg] ;do cufj} o;af6 aRg s]–s:tf tof/L ug'kb{5 eg]/ { hfgsf/L lnO{ c;fdfGo rL;f]af6 aRg / Iflt Go"gLs/0f ug{ cfjZostfcg';f/ aGbf]a:t ldnfpg' g} o;af6 aRg] pQd pkfo xf] . x/]s jif{sf] dªl;/sf] clgtd ;ftfaf6 k|f/de x'g] o; k|sf]kaf6 aRg a]ndf Gofgf] n'ufsf] aGbf]a:t ug'{ k5{ . o;sf cltl/Qm cfkmgf] 3/– } sf]7f tftf] agfpg] aGbf]a:t ug'{ k5{ . o;/L 3/–sf]7f tftf] agfpg] Joj:yf ubf{ sd k|b"if0f gx'g] OGwgsf] k|of]u ug'{ jftfj/0fLo / hg:jf:Yosf b[li6n] klg /fd|f] x'G5 . hf8f]df cfuf] tfKg] nIon] Knfl:6s, 6fo/, l;Gy]l6ssf] k|of]u ePsf j:t' afNg' /fd|f] x'bg . zLtnx/ rNg'eGbf F } klxn] g} ;fdfGo bfp/fsf] agbf]a:t ug],{ ;f}opmhf{ tyf ljB'tLo { pmhf{sf] aGbf]j:t ug'{ k5{ . zLtnx/af6 aRg / kl/jf/ tyf 5/l5d]sf ;b:onfO{ arfpg lgDcg';f/sf] k"jtof/L ug'{ k5{ M { zLtnx/sf af/]df hfgsf/L lng] / 5/l5d]sdf ;d]t o;sf] k|efj tyf aRg] pkfosf af/]df cfjZos hfgsf/L lbO{ hgr]tgf a9fpg] . zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷21
  • 22. zltnx/ rNg'eGbf cufj} Gofgf] sk8fsf] Joj:yf ug]{ . tftf]sf] Joj:yf ug{ w]/} k|bif0f gug]{ OGwgsf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . " 3/nfO{ /fd|/L af/a]/ u/]/ rL;f] xfjf l;w} leq k:g g;Sg] agfpg] . kf]lifnf] vfBfGg, vf;u/L u]8fu'8L / k|fl] 6go'Qm vfBj:t'sf] aGbf]j:t ug]{ . ufO{a:t' tyf 3/kfn'jf kz'sf] uf]7 / vf]/ rL;f] l;/]6f] l;w} l5g{ g;Sg]u/L /fd|/L af/a]/ ug]{ . gi6 x'g ;Sg] t/sf/L / cgo afnLnfO{ 5f]k/ ;'/lIft /fVg ] Knfl:6s, ;'ssf] k/fn jf ;f]Q/sf] aGbf]a:t ldnfO/fVg] . ] zLtnx/ rn]sf] cj:yfdf dfgjLo ;'/Iff zLtnx/ rn]sf] ;dodf rL;f]af6 aRg zts{tf;fy sfd ug'{ k5{ . o; k|sf]kaf6 sdhf]/ jf ue{jtL tyf ;'ts]/L dlxnf, afnaflnsf, a"9fa"9L, czQm / lj/fdL a9L k|efljt x'g5g . To:tf sdhf]/ ;b:osf] ;'/Iff ub}{ cfkmg} klg ;'/Iffsf nflu lgDgs'/fdf Wofg lbg' k5{ M zLtnx/ rNbf 3/sf] 5tdf /flvPsf] 6ofªsLsf] kfgL Hofb} rL;f] x'G5 . To;/L rL;f] ePsf] kfgLn] g'xfpFbf s;}–s;}sf] :gfo'k0ffnLdf | c;/ kg{ uO{ d[To';d]t x'g ;S5 . To;}n] ztnx/ rn]sf] jf rL;f] w]/} a9]sf] ;dodf tftf] kfgLn] g'xfpg] Joj:yf ldnfpg' k5{ . 6ofªsLdf hDdf ePsf] kfgLsf] t'ngfdf e"ldut kfgL ck]Iffs[t tftf] x'G5 . To;}n] kfgL ttfP/ g'xfpg g;lsg] ePdf 6oaj]naf6 kfgL tfg]/ g'xfpg ;lsG5 . t/ ue{jtL jf ;'Ts]/L ' dlxnf, la/fdL, a"9fa"9L, afnaflnsfnfO{ kfgL ttfP/} g'xfpg nufpg' k5{ . w]/} rL;f] a9]sf] cj:yfdf z/L/nfO{ tftf] agfpg] u/d jf Gofgf] x'g] sk8f nufpg' k5{ . To;sf ;fy} tftf] kfgL, u]8fu'8Lsf] emf]n, tfultnf] vfg]s/f k|z:t dfqfdf vfg' / lkpg' k5{ . ' w]/} rL;f] ;xg ug{ ug{ g;Sg] sdhf]/ dflg; zLtnx/sf] rL;f]n] zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷22
  • 23. a]xf]; x'g] jf s7ofªlu|P/ dg]{ ;d]t ;Defjgf /xG5 . To:tf dflg;nfO{ Gofgf] n'uf nufOlbO{ tftf] emf]nkbfy{ lkpg lbg], cfuf] afn]/ Gofgf] ttfpg] / z/L/df t]n dfln; ul/lbP/ ;'/lIft /fVg ;lsG5 . cfGtl/s jf 3/fo;L k|of;af6 lj/fdLnfO{ nfe gk'udf ] pkrf/sf nflu tTsfn} :jf:Yorf}sL tyf c:ktfn n}hfg' k5{ . z/L/df t]n nufpgfn] rL;f] ufl8g] jf leq k;]/ s7ofªlu|g] hf]lvd lgoGq0f x'G5 . To;}n] ;'ts]/L jf ue{jtL dlxnf, sdhf]/, czQm, afnaflnsf / a"9fa"9L;lxt tGb'?:t dflg;n] klg z/L/df t]n dfln; ug'{ >]o:s/ x'G5 . t]nn] z/L/sf] tfkqmd l:y/ /fVg] tyf rL;f] leq k:gaf6 lgoGq0f u5{ . rL;f]n] s]6fs]6L, /f]uL, ue{jtL dlxnf / zf/Ll/s ¿kn] sdhf]/ dflg;nfO{ l56} / cTolws xflg ug]{ x'bf ltgLx¿sf] x]/rfxdf F ljz]if Wofg k'¥ofpg' k5{ . 3/kfn'jf hgfj/sf] x]/rfx zLtnx/sf] k|efjaf6 3/kfn'jf hgfj/ klg hf]lvddf /x]sf x'G5g . t/fO{sf] xfjfkfgL pi0fk|bzLo hnjfo'h:t} x'g] ePsfn] To; If]qdf ] kflnPsf kz'n] w]/} rL;f] ;xg ug{ ;Sb}gg . To;}n] zLtnx/ nfu]sf] ;dodf tftf] hnjfo'df x'sg] hftsf ufO{, e};L, uf]?, afv|f, s'v/f / { F ' aªu/h:tf 3/kfn'jf hgfj/ klg dg]{ ;Defjgf /xG5 . To;af6 u|fdL0f ' s[ifsn] yk cfly{s Ifltsf] ;fdgf ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 . o:tf] gf]S;fgLaf6 aRg ;dod} ufO{a:t'sf] uf]7 tyf vf]/nfO{ :ofpnf, k/fn, ux'sf] 5jfnL, ds}sf] 9f]8 cflbn] /fd|f;u af/a]/ u/]/ uf]7 / F ] F vf]/sf] ;'/Iff ug'{ k5{ . zLtnx/ rn]sf] ;dodf kz'nfO{ k/fn, kf]if0fo'Qm bfgf, tftf] vf]n] jf g'gkfgL v'jfpg' k5{ . zLtnx/sf ;dodf hldg klg rL;f] x'g] ePsfn] uf]7 / vf]/df k/fn, e"; jf s[lif3'¥ofgsf] ;f]Q/ cf]5ofpg' k5{ eg] lgoldt ¿kdf esf/f] ;f]// uf]7 / vf]/nfO{ ;kmf ] /fVg' k5{ . cGgafnLsf] ;+/If0f zLtnx/ rn]sf] ;dodf ;"o{sf] k|sfz hldg;Dd cfpg ;Sb}g . o;af6 af]6la?jfsf] k|sfz;+Zn]if0f k|lqmof cj?4 x'G5 . o;sf cltl/Qm zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷23
  • 24. sdnf] kft ePsf gub]afnL / t/sf/Lsf la?jfn] cTolw rL;f] ;xg ug{ ;Sb}gg . rL;f]n] kft v'Olng], lhªlu|ªu kg]{ / h/f;d]t s'lxP/ dg]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 . ljz]ifu/L cfn' / tf]/Lsf] pTkfbg () k|ltzteGbf w]/} x|f; cfPsf] kfOG5 . cGo t/sf/L / ux'sf] pTkfbgdf klg %) b]lv F *) k|ltzt x|f; cfpg] u/]sf] 5 . o;/L pTkfbg 36g] qmdnfO{ k"0f{ ?kdf lgoGq0f ug{ ;lsg] ;Defjgf sd eP klg zLtnx/af6 x'g] cGgafnLsf] IfltnfO{ w]/} xb;Dd Go"g ug{ eg] ;lsG5 . o;sf lgldQ lgDg ljifodf Wofg lbg' h?/L x'G5 M cfn', tf]/L / rL;f] ;xg g;Sg] hftsf t/sf/LnfO{ t/sf/LnfO{ xn'sf Knfl:6sn] 5f]Kg] ;Dej eP;Dd zLtnx/sf] x':;'nfO{ aflx/} /f]Sg xl/tu[x agfpg] . o:tf] 3/ agfpFbf ufOa:t'sf] uf]7h:tf] agfP/ dfly / jl/kl/af6 Knfl:6sn] a]g{' k5{ . o:tf] 3/n] zLtnx/nfO{ leq k:g lbFbg, } a? 3fd nfluxfn]df tfknfO{ leq k:g lbP/ af]6la?jf x'sgof]Uo { tfk ;~ro u5{ . o:tf] uf]7nfO{ k/fn, 5jfnL jf cGo s[lif 3'¥ofgn] klg af/a]/ ug{ ;lsG5 . e/v/} /f]lkPsf] aLpsf] pld|g] IfdtfnfO{ arfpg, ;'ssf] k/fn, ] ux'sf] 5jfFnL, kftkltªu/h:tf s[lif 3'¥ofgn] 5f]lklbg' k5{ . F w]/} 7"nf] If]qdf nufOPsf] afnLsf] ;'/Iffsf nflu s[lif–k|fljlws;Fu ;Nnfx lnP/ rL;f]af6 arfpg] cf}iflw 5g'{ k5{ . ljz]ifu/L tf]/L, cfn' / t/sf/L v]tLnfO{ zLtnx/af6 arfpg k|of]u x'g] cf}iflw ahf/df kfpg ;lsG5 . o:tf] cf}iflwsf] u'0f:t/, k|of]usf] ljlw / ;'/Iffsf pkfoaf/] k|fljlws;Fu ;Nnfx lng' h?/L x'G5 . ljljw ;ts{tf zLtnx/ rn]sf] ;dodf hldgnfO{ afSnf] s'lx/f]h:tf] x':;'n] 9fs]/ rL;f] l;/]7f] rNg] x'bf glhs}sf] j:t' klg ;lhn} b]Vg ;lsFbg . o; F } cj:yfdf /fhdfu{ jf oftfoftsf ;fwg rNg] ;x/L jf u|fdL0f ;8sdf b'36gfsf];Defjgf k|jn /xG5 . To;}n] oftfoftsf ;fwg rnfpFbf { ljz]if xf]l;of/L ckgfpg' k5{ . To;}u/L cfk"m ;8sdf lxF8bf zts{ /xg' k5{ . afnaflnsf, a"9fa"9L, czQm / lj/fdLnfO{ aflx/ lgl:sg lbg' zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷24
  • 25. x'bg . To;}u/L ue{jtL tyf ;'Ts]/L / aRrfsf] x]/rfxdf ljz]if Wofg F } lbg' h?/L x'G5 . ^= pk;+xf/ g]kfnsf] t/fO{ If]qdf dªl;/sf] clGtd ;ftf jf k';b]lv df3;Dd zLtnx/ rN5 . o;sf] k|efjIf]q kfls:tfg, ef/tsf] pQ/L If]q, g]kfn, aªunfb]z x'b} Dofgdf/sf] ;Ldf;Dd /x]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . o;nfO{ af9L, F klx/f], x'/Latf;, cfunfuL, e'Orfnf] /dxfdf/Ln] h:t} 7"nf] Iflt k'¥pg] F k|sf]ksf ?kdf lng] ul/Psf] 5}g . t}klg o;n] sd gf]s;fgL ub}g . { Gofgf] n'uf / kf]lifnf] vfgfsf] cefj em]ln/x]sf ul/a ;d'bfosf] Hofg g} hfg] / t/fO{df pTkfbg x'g] lxpFb] afnLnfO{ o;n] k|ToIf ¿kdf Iflt k'¥ofpg] x'bf o;af6 x'g] IfltnfO{ sd cfFSg ldNb}g . s]xL jif{otfaf6 F zLtnx/nfO{ ;/sf/n] klg k|sf]ksf] >]0fLdf /fv]sf] x'bf o;k|lt ;/sf/sf] F ;d]t Wofg uPsf] oyfy{nfO{ c:jLsf/ ug{ ;lsFbg . oBlk clwsf+z } :yfgLo lgsfon] o;k|lt ;+jbgzLn eP/ rf;f] b]vfpg ;s]sf] kfOFbg . ] } zLtnx/af6 dflg;sf] 3/af/ jf hldg g} gi6 x'g] xf]Og . o;sf] k|efjaf6 tTsfn nufOPsf afnLgfnL gi6 ug],{ 3/kfn'jf hgfj/ dg]{ / czQm, sdhf]/ tyf /f]uL dflg;sf] Hofg hfg] ;Defjgf /xG5 . zLtnx/n] k|ToIf bL3{sfnLg ;d:of pTkGg gu/] klg ck|ToIf ¿kdf To;sf] k|efj bL3{sfn;Dd /lx/xG5 . w]/} vr{ nfUg] ePsfn] zLtnx/sf] k"j;rgf lbg]] /]l8of];f]G8 oGqsf] Joj:yf ;/sf/n] ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . { " o;tkm{, ;/sf/n] Wofg k'¥ofpg' cfjZos 5 . hgwgsf] Iflt ug]{ Ps k|sf]khGo 36gf ePsfn] o;af6 gful/snfO{ ;'/Iff k|bfg ug{ ;/sf/n] cu|ufdL sbd rfNg' kg]{ b]lvG5 eg] ;d'bfon] klg cfˆgf] :jf:Yo / v]tLkftLsf] ;'/Iffk|lt rgfvf] x'g' h?/L 5 . zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷25
  • 26. zLtnx/af6 aRg] pkfo ÷26