x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷1
k|sf]k–1fgdfnf–!!




x'/Latf; / o;af6
     aRg] pkfo




          n]vs
     /fdrGb| Gof}kfg]


         k|sfzs


       ...
s[lt            M x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo

n]vs            M /fdrGb| Gof}kfg]

k|sfzs          M jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]s...
k|sfzssf] egfO
k|sf]ksf ljleGg 36gfdWo] x'/Latf;, cl;gfkfgL, r6ofªsf] hf]lvdaf6
klg g]kfn d'Qm 5}g . k|To]s jif{sf] kmfu'g...
ljifo;"rL
 x'/Latf; / o;sf] k|efj                                %–(
    k[i7e"ld                                    %
   ...
x'/Latf; / o;sf] k|efj
k[i7e"ld
xf]nL ev{/} ;lsP/ /ªuLla/ªuL wAafsf] cfefif dfq afFsL
/x]sf] x'G5 . 3fd Kof/f] nfUg] lbg k...
6]Sb5 . t;y{, o; n]vdf x'/Latf;, r6Øfª / cl;gfsf]
kl/ro, To;af6 k|sf]k pTkGg x'g] sf/0f / Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf
pkfonufotsf ;Gb...
x'/Latf;sf] k|sf]kdf ;d]t j[l4 x'b} cfPsf] 5 .
                                 F
x'/Latf; cfpg] sf/0f
k[YjLsf] ;txeGbf af...
o;/L jfo'sf] 3gTj 36]sf] jfo'd08nsf] vf; :yfgdf jfo'sf]
kl/k"lt{ x'g ;Sb}g . jfo'sf] cfoftg lng] u'0fsf sf/0f csf]{
If]qdf...
If]qafx]ssf cGo If]qdf df};d kl/jt{gsf cfwf/df x'/Latf;
rNg] x'bf hf]lvdsf] klxrfg klg df};dcg';f/ lgwf{l/t x'G5 .
       ...
:j¿k b]lvG5 . ToxfFaf6 cfFwLa]x/Lsf a]nf cyfx zlQm /
s7f]/tf;fy crDd;Fu jfo'sf] emf]Ssf Pscfk;df 7f]lSs/x]sf]
b] l vG5 . j...
pTkGg ePkl5 o;n] ;d'bsf] tftf] kfgLdf 7Ss/ lbFbf tfk /
                            |
zlQm k|fKt ub{5 . o;af6 kfgLsf] jfikL...
x'/Latf;af6 x'g] Iflt
           tyf k|efj
x'/Latf;sf] k|sf/, k|s[lt / ef}uf]lns cj:yfcg';f/ o;af6
x'g] Ifltdf cGt/ cfpF5 ...
cu|kªlQmdf /x]sf] 5 .
ljZjsf cf“wLa]x/Lsf k|d'v 36gf / Iflt
ljZjJofkL¿kdf t'ngf ug]{ xf] eg] cd]l/sf k|r08 cfFwLa]x/L
cfpg...
ug{] ul/G5 . t/ ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n'ssf u|fdL0f If]qdf ;~rf/
;'ljwfsf] cefj, clzIff, r]tgf, oftfoft / ljsf;sf cGo
k"jf{wf/sf] ...
cfFwLa]x/L jf rqmjft cfpg] ;Defjgf 5}g . tyflk, aªufnsf]
vf8L / c/a ;fu/af6 l;lh{t ;d'bL cfFwL ;fdfGo x'gqmdsf]
          ...
ePsf sf/0f o;n] cfuf] p8fP/ 3/ / hªundf ;d]t cfunfuL
x'g] ;Defjgf w]/} a9b5 . x'/Latf; rn]sf] ;dodf x'g] cfunfuLn]
l;ªu} u...
cl;gf
g]kfndf cl;gf sflQs–dªl;/b]lv g} ;'? eP/ r}t–j}zfvlt/
a9L kg]{ ub{5 . jfo'd08nsf] ;fdfGo ultzLntfsf] lgodcg';f/
tNnf...
e";txdf cfOk'Ubf klUn ;s]sf x'Fb}gg / 7f];¿kdf jif{G5g
eg] To:tf] jif{nfO{ cl;gf–jiff{ elgG5 .
;fgf–7"nf cl;gfn] ds} / cGo...
r6ofª
                                           r6Øfªaf6 Iflt
r6Øfª kg'{ tyf lah'nL rDsg'
klg x' / Latf;, cl;gfh:t} jif{ ...
eP To;af6 ljB'tk|jfx k[YjLdf ;dflxt eO{ l:y/Ls/0f x'g]
x'Fbf To:tf] :yfg ;'/lIft x'G5 . To;}n] 3/ agfpFbf pko'Qm
tj/n] cly...
x'/Latf; / cfunfuLsf] k|efj ;x/LIf]qdf kb}{ gkg]{ xf]Og, t/
g]kfnsf] u|fdL0f If]q o;af6 a9L k|efljt x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 .
cl...
nufpg'xbg . o:tf ¿v xfjfsf] ;fgf] emf]Ssfn] g} 9fNg] x'bf
       F' }                                            F
;8s, la...
clUglgoGq0f
slxn]sfxLF cfunfuLaf6 ;ts{ x'bfx'b} klg cfunfuLsf] 36gf
                              F F
pTkGg x'g ;S5 . To:t...
;Ddfgk"j{s afFRg kfpg] clwsf/ /xG5 . k|sf]k kLl8tnfO{
bofsf kfqsf ¿kdf xf]Og, ;xL xs k|bfg ug]{ st{Jo :j¿k
/fHon] p4f/, /f...
x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷26
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11. windstromet dks 11

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11. windstromet dks 11

  1. 1. x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷1
  2. 2. k|sf]k–1fgdfnf–!! x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo n]vs /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷2
  3. 3. s[lt M x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo n]vs M /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs M jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn (ECO-Nepal) ;jf{lwsf/ M k|sfzsdf ;'/lIft ;+:s/0f M k|yd, ;fpg @)^$ ;ªVof M @,))) k|lt cfj/0f l8hfOg M /d]z bfxfn d'b|s M lszf]/ ckm;]6 k|; -k|f=_ ln=, kmf]g M $#%!)$$ ] d"No M ?= %)÷– ISBN : 978-99946-865-1-3 k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;fd'bflos Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu ;r]tg cleofgcGtu{t k|sf]k–1fgdfnf k|sfzgdf cf+lzs ¿kdf cfly{s ;xof]u ug]{ lgDg ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx¿k|lt Osf]–g]kfn xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5 M PS;gP8 g]kfn cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfn kf]= a= g+= ^@%&, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kf]= a= g+= @%)), sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kmf]gM $$#^$&& kmf]gM %%@)%*^ kmofS;M (&&–!–$$!(&!* kmofS;M (&&–!–%%@#!(& j]e;fO6M www.actionaid.org/nepal j]e;fO6M www.oxfam.org.uk x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷3
  4. 4. k|sfzssf] egfO k|sf]ksf ljleGg 36gfdWo] x'/Latf;, cl;gfkfgL, r6ofªsf] hf]lvdaf6 klg g]kfn d'Qm 5}g . k|To]s jif{sf] kmfu'gb]lv ;fpg;Dd ljz]ifu/L t/fO{ If]qdf o; k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd /x]sf] x'G5 . r6ofª / cl;gfn] d'nssf ;a} If]qdf hgwgsf] Iflt u5{ eg] x'/Latf;åf/f x'g] Iflt ' kxf8L If]qsf] t'ngfdf t/fO{df a9L /x]sf] x'G5 . k|sf]ksf oL ;a} 36gfnfO{ ;/sf/n] ;d]t k|sf]ksf] ?kdf :jLsf/ u/]sf] 5 . o:tf 36gfaf6 ePsf] hgwgsf] Ifltk"lt{ lgwf{l/t dfkb08cg'?k ;/sf/n] pknAw u/fpg] u/]sf] klg 5 . t/ klg ;/sf/L ;xof]un] dfq kLl8tsf] /fxt x'g] ;Defjgf 5}g . To;}n] o:tf k|sf]ksf 36gfaf6 x'g] Iflt sd ug]tkm{ ;dod} ;r]t /xg' { cfjZos x'G5 . x'/Latf;, cl;gf / r6ofªaf6 x'g] Iflt / o;af6 x'g] Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf pkfoaf/] ;/n efiffdf k|:t't ug'{ ePsf] k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfsf] o; P3f/f}F z[ªvnfn] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf If]qdf sfo{/t ;a}nfO{ nfe k'Ug] ck]Iff xfdLn] u/]sf 5f}F . k|sf]k 1ffgdfnf k|sfzg ug{ k|/0ff k|bfg ug]{ PS;gP8 g]kfnsf ] l;lgo/ lydln8/ Zofd;'Gb/ 1fjfnL / cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnsf sfo{qmd ;+of]hs lji0f'k;fb v/]n ;lxt o;sf] z'4fz'l4 / | ;fh;Hhfdf ;xof]u ug]{ Osf]–g]kfnsf ;a} ;xofqLk|lt wGojfb JoQm ub{5f}F . Osf]–g]kfn ECO-Nepal x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷4
  5. 5. ljifo;"rL x'/Latf; / o;sf] k|efj %–( k[i7e"ld % x'/Latf; s] xf] ^ x'/Latf; cfpg] sf/0f & x'/Latf;sf] hf]lvd If]q * x'/Latf;df ;d'bsf] e"ldsf | ( x'/Latf;af6 x'g] Iflt tyf k|efj !@–!* ljZjsf cfFwLa]x/Lsf k|dv 36gf / Iflt ' !# g]kfndf x'/Latf;sf] ;d:of !$ x'/Latf;sf] k|sf]kaf6 aRg] pkfo !^ – cl;gf !& – r6ofª !( Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf pkfo @)–@@ hgr]tgf clej[l4 @) ;"rgfk|jfx @! j[If/f]k0f tyf sf“65f“6 @! dd{t;Def/ @@ cfunfuLk|lt ;ts{tf @@ clUglgoGq0f @@ gful/s clwsf/ / /fHo @# pk;+xf/ @$ x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷5
  6. 6. x'/Latf; / o;sf] k|efj k[i7e"ld xf]nL ev{/} ;lsP/ /ªuLla/ªuL wAafsf] cfefif dfq afFsL /x]sf] x'G5 . 3fd Kof/f] nfUg] lbg klg JotLt eO;s]sf x'G5g . sf]OnLsf] …s'x's'x'Ú n] j;Gt Ct'cfudgsf] pb3f]if ug{ yfNb5 . k|r08 udL{ / tftf] xfjfsf] lbgsf] sNkgfn] dflg;nfO{ cTof; nfUg yfNb5 . ¿vsf kft e'O{+df em/]/ ;f]Q/ aGg yfN5g eg] kfn'jf gofF hLjgsf] ;~rf/ ug{] k|of; u5{g . xf]nL ;lsPkl5 jiff{Ct' k|f/De geP;Ddsf] of] j;Gt df};d jf:tjd} xfdLn] rfx]h:tf] ;'vb x'bg . ¿vaf6 F } e'O{+df em/]/ ;'s]sf kft, k/fnh:t} ;'s]/ p/f7nfUbf ag]sf 3fF;dbfg, w"naf6f], cfFvfel/ sl;ªu/ x'Tofpg] tftf] xfjfsf] ] } ] emf]FSsf / t'jfFnf]n] 9fs]sf] 3'd}{nf] cfsfzn] 7fs]sf] cf;Gg lbg hLjgsf lglDt lgs} si6s/ aGg ;S5g . of] df};ddf gbL, tfn, s'jf, wf/f cflbsf] kfgLsf] ;|ft ;'Sg] dfq xf]Og, ] e"ldut kfgLsf] ;tx;d]t tn emg]{ x'bf sf7df8f}F pkTosf / F w]/}h;f] kxf8L If]qdf vfg]kfgLsf] xfxfsf/ eP/ Ps yf]kf kfgLsf nflu klg t8lkg'kg]{ cj:yf ;w}F cfpg] u/]sf] 5 . of] ;'Vvf v8]/Lsf] df};ddf x'/Latf; ylkFbf dflg;n] cfunfuL, ef]sd/L / /f]usf] dxfdf/Lh:tf w]/} k|sf/sf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug{'k5{ . sltko cj:yfdf r6Øfªaf6 pTkGg cfunfuLn] klg ljWj+; dRrfpg] ub{5 . x'/Latf;;Fu} k/]sf] cl;gfn] v]tLkftL gi6 kfb{5 . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df x'/Latf;, r6Øfª, cl;gf, v8]/L, ef]sd/L, /f]usf] dxfdf/Lh:tf k|sf]k o;} df};dsf kfx'gf x'g] u5{g . tLj| j]udf rNg] x'/Ln] t/fO{ / dWokxf8sf w]/} e"efunfO{ o;} df};ddf k|To]s jif{ cftªlst kfg]{ u/]sf] 5 . of] df};dn] k|To]s jif{ h:tf] x'/Latf;, r6Øfª, cl;gf, cfunfuLnufotsf k|sf]ksf] ;Defjgf lnP/ ;w}F ;ª3f/ x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷6
  7. 7. 6]Sb5 . t;y{, o; n]vdf x'/Latf;, r6Øfª / cl;gfsf] kl/ro, To;af6 k|sf]k pTkGg x'g] sf/0f / Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf pkfonufotsf ;Gbe{df qmda4 rrf{ ug]{ k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . x'/Latf; s] xf] < lgoldt ¿kdf jfo' axg] tyf l;/{l;/{ xfjf rNg] cj:yf jfo'sf] lgoldt ultzLntf xf] . t/, x'/Latf; jfo'd08nLo ultljlwsf sf/0f jfo'd08nsf] tNnf] ;txdf pTkGg x'g] xfjfsf] tLj| ultsf] axfj xf] . x'/Latf; rNbf jfo'sf] axfj x'g] lbzf nuftf/ PstkmL{ x'G5 . o;/L rn]sf] x'/Latf;n]] cfˆgf] ultsf cfwf/df ;–;fgf j:t'blv jhgbf/ kbfy{nfO{ ;d]t cfk"m;Fu} ] ;d]6L p8fP/ n}hfG5 . x'/Latf;n] v]taf/L tyf jghªunsf ¿vsf xfFuf efFRg] jf ¿v g} n8fpg], dflg;sf 3/, uf]7, lah'nL jf 6]lnkmf]gsf vDaf 9fNg], cfuhgL km}nfpg], oftfoft cj?4 ug]{h:tf ljgf;sf/L sfo{ ub{5 . o;/L hnjfo'sf] k|fs[lts lqmofsnfkaf6 rNg] x'/Latf;n] ljZjdf jif]gL xhf/f}sf] { F Hofg lng] / caf}F{ ?k}ofFa/fa/sf] cfly{s Iflt k'¥ofpg] u/]sf] 5 . udL{ df};ddf jfo'd08nsf] s'g} :yfgdf tfkqmd a9bf To; :yfgsf] xfjf tft]/ xn'sf x'G5 / dflylt/ hfG5 . o; k|lqmofåf/f To:tf] :yfgdf xfjfsf] pkl:ylt 365 . To; :yfgdf xfjfsf] kl/k"lt{ ug{ jl/kl/sf cGo If]qdf /x]sf] lr;f] xfjf ax]/ cfp“5 . of] k|lqmofsf] tLj|tfsf sf/0f xfjfsf] axfjsf] ult klg a95 . o;/L jfo'd08ndf xfjfsf] ljt/0f ldnfpg] k|fs[lts lqmofsnfkaf6 pTkGg jfo'sf] j]ujfg cj:yfnfO{ x'/Latf; tyf cf“wLa]x/L elgG5 . :yfgLo x'/L, ;fd'lb|s cf“wL / rqmLo cfF w L -rqmjft_ x' / Latf;sf ljleGg ¿k x' g . k| f s[ l ts lqmofsnfkaf6 l;h{gf x'g] eP klg x'/Latf; cfpg] cj:yfnfO{ ljleGg dfgjLo lqmofsnfkn] a9fjf lbO/x]sf] x'G5 . jt{dfg ;dodf eO/x]sf ljsf;sf ultljlwaf6 pTkGg jftfj/0f k|bif0f " tyf hnjfo' kl/jt{gn] jfo'sf] ultdf kl/jt{g x'Fb} hfFbf x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷7
  8. 8. x'/Latf;sf] k|sf]kdf ;d]t j[l4 x'b} cfPsf] 5 . F x'/Latf; cfpg] sf/0f k[YjLsf] ;txeGbf aflx/sf] jfo' jf xfjfn] 9fs]sf] cfsfzsf] lglZrt efunfO{{ jfo'd08n elgG5 . xfjf kbfy{sf] To:tf] cj:yf xf] , h;n] lglZrt cfsf/ / cfoftg lnF b } g . jfo'd08ndf pTkGg x'g] rfk, tfk / zlQmsf sf/0f xfjfsf] 3gTj lgwf{l/t x'g] u5{ . tfkqmd a9bf jfo'sf] rfk sd x'G5, xn'sf aGb5 / dflylt/ km}lnG5 . xn'ªuf] j:t'nfO{ yf]/} anzlQmsf] wSsfn] klg ultzLn agfpg ;S5 . jfo'd08ndf k| T o] s Ps lsnf] l d6/ dflylt/ hfF b f nueu Ps l8u| L ;]lN;o;sf b/n] tfkqmd 36b} hfG5 . t;y{, tnaf6 p7]sf] tftf] xfjf dflylt/ hfFbf ;]nfpg] qmd klg k|f/De x'G5 . xfjfsf lqmofsnfksf plNnlvt u'0fn] jfo'd08n lgoldt ¿kdf ultzLn eO/x]sf] x'G5 . jfo'd08nsf] dflyNnf] If]qsf] t'ngfdf tNnf] If]qsf] tfkqmd a9L x'g] x'Fbf jfo'sf] ultzLntf klg tNnf] If]qd} a9L x'G5 . tyflk k[YjLsf] tNnf] ;txdf ePsf ljleGg dfgjlgld{t ;+/rgfnufot kxf8 / jghªunh:tf k|fs[lts ;+/rgfn] jfo'sf] ultzLntfnfO{ clws lgoGq0f ug]{ x'bf xfjfsf] j]u lgoldt ¿kdf tLj| x'g kfpFbg . o:t} cj/f]wsf F } sf/0f jf jfo'd08ndf jfo'sf] sd pkl:ylt ePsf] If]qdf jfo' cf]Ol/g] k|lqmofaf6 jfo' axfj jf x'/Latf;sf] lbzf klg km]l/g] ub{5 . udL{ df};d k|f/De ePkl5 k[YjLsf] afXo ;txdf /x]sf] kfgLsf] jfikLs/0f k|lqmof tLj| x'b} hfg] x'gfn] rf/}lt/sf] lr:ofg sd F x'b} hfG5 . o;}sf] kmn:j¿k kfgLsf] d"n ;'Sg], gbL, tnfp, F kf]v/L, s'jfdf kfgLsf] dfqf 36g,] e"ldut kfgLsf] ;tx tn emg]{ cflb cj:yf l;h{gf x'G5g . udL{ a9b} hfFbf k[YjL e";tx dflysf] jfo'd08ndf /x]sf] xfjf klg tft]/ xn'sf eO{ cem dflylt/ hfG5 . k[YjLsf] ;txaf6 ePsf] jfikLs/0faf6 dfq x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷8
  9. 9. o;/L jfo'sf] 3gTj 36]sf] jfo'd08nsf] vf; :yfgdf jfo'sf] kl/k"lt{ x'g ;Sb}g . jfo'sf] cfoftg lng] u'0fsf sf/0f csf]{ If]qdf /x]sf] lr;f] xfjf jfo'sf] 3gTj sd ePsf] If]qtkm{ axG5 . o;/L 3gTj sd ePsf] :yfgtkm{ lr;f] xfjf x'lQg yfNb5 . Psgf;;Fu xfjf x'lQFbf cufl8sf] xfjfnfO{ k5fl8sf] xfjfn] lg/Gt/ wSsf lbG5 / To;sf] ann] jfo'sf] ult ck|Tofl;t ¿kdf a9b5 . o;/L pTkGg ePsf] jfo'sf] tLj| ultzLntfnfO{ x'/Latf; jf cfFwL elgG5 . x'/Latf; jf cfFwLsf] ¿kdf jfo' axFbf k|fs[lts tyf dfgjlgld{t ;+/rgfdf uP/ 7f]lSsG5 . To; cj:yfdf jfo'sf] annfO{ ;+/rgfn] y]Ug;s] x'/Latf; l;lyn x'G5, jf j]ucg';f/ To;n] lbzf kl/jt{g ub{5 . cfkmgf] annfO{ y]Ug g;Sg] ;+/rgfnfO{ x'/Latf;n] 9fNg] tyf p8fP/ n}hfg] ubf{ hgwgsf] Iflt x'g k'U5 . x'/Latf;sf] hf]lvd If]q k[YjLsf] ljleGg ef}uf]lns cjl:yltdf df};dcg';f/ tfkqmd kl/jt{g x'g] ub{5 . e"dWo/]vLo If]qdf tfkqmd ;fdfGotof jif}el/ a9L eP klg udL{ofddf emg a9b5 . o;/L e"dWo/]vfsf] { cf;kf; If]qdf o; ofddf tfkqmd clws x'G5 . To;}n] xfd|f] If]qdf klg o;} ofddf ;"o{ pQ/fo0f eO{ udL{ a9bf x'/Latf;sf] k|sf]k klg a9g] ub{5 . e"dWo/]vLo If]qcf;kf;sf w]/} efudf x'/Latf; a9L rNg] ub{5 . k|zfGt dxf;fu/sf] klZrdL If]qdf jif}el/ x'/L rNb5 . { To;}u/L o;sf] k"jL{ If]qdf d] dlxgfsf] dWo -j}zfv_ af6 x'/Latf; ;'? x'G5 eg] P6nflG6s dxf;fu/ / blIf0f cd]l/sL k|foåLkdf h'g -h]7_ df ;'? eP/ ;]K6]Da/ -c;f]h_ dlxgf;Dd /xG5 . otf aªufnsf] vf8L tyf c/]laog ;fu/af6 pTkGg x'g] x'/L r}tb]lv ;fpg;Dd rNb5 . o; If]qdf cfpg] x'/Laf6 ef/tsf] cfGw|kbz, pl8;f, laxf/, cf;fd, klZrd aªufn / | ] aªunfb]zsf clwsfªz e"efu a9L k|efljt x'G5g eg] g]kfndf klg s] x L dfqfdf c;/ k' ¥ ofpF 5 . o;k| s f/ e" d Wo/] v Lo x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷9
  10. 10. If]qafx]ssf cGo If]qdf df};d kl/jt{gsf cfwf/df x'/Latf; rNg] x'bf hf]lvdsf] klxrfg klg df};dcg';f/ lgwf{l/t x'G5 . F tyflk o;sf] ljZjJofkL cj:yf x]bf{ cfFwLa]x/L cfO/xg] ljz]if hf]lvdk"0f{ If]qsf ¿kdf lgDg If]qnfO{ lnOPsf] kfOG5 M klZrd åLkLo ;d"x, d]lS;sf] vf8L, Sof/]laog ;fu/ / cf;kf;sf cfjf;Lo If]q . lkmlnlkG; åLk, rLg ;fu/, hfkfgsf åLk;d]t pQ/L k|zfGt dxf;fu/cf;kf;sf If]q . c/a ;fu/ tyf aªufnsf] vf8L . d]lS;sf] tyf dWocd]l/sfsf] k"jL{ k|zfGt dxf;fu/Lo If]q . blIf0fL lxGb dxf;fu/Lo If]q . klZrd–blIf0f k| z fGt dxf;fu/ -;' d fcf] , lkmhL tyf c:6«]lnofsf] pQ/L efu_ . x'/Latf;df ;d'b|sf] e"ldsf jfo'd08ndf x'/Latf;sf] s'g} lsl;dsf] lglZrt k|0ffnL x'bg F } . t/ klg jfo'd08ndf x'g] lgoldt lqmof–k|ltlqmof tyf lqmofsnfkn] x'/Latf;sf] pTklQ x'G5 . k|f/Dedf pTkGg ;fdfGo x'/L ;d'b|sf] tftf] kfgLdf 7f]lSsG5 / To;af6 tfk Pjd zlQm k| f Kt ub{ 5 . o;af6 ;fd' l b| s jfikLs/0f tLj| eO{ x' / Ldf yk lr;f] jfo' ldl;G5 / k| r 08 zlQmsf] jfik OlGhgh:tf] aGb5 . pi0f;d'b|L ;txdf 7f]lSsPkl5 x'/Ln] yk an / zlQm k|fKt ub{5 . o;/L pTkGg x'/LnfO{ jfo'd08nLo lqmofsnfkn] kl/kSj agfpF5 / To;n] ljgf;sf/L ¿kwf/0f ub{5 . t;y{, x'/Latf; / cfFwLa]x/Ln] ;d'b|t6Lo If]qdf w]/} ljgfznLnf dRrfpg] ub{5 . x'/Latf;sf k|sf/ k[YjLsf] e";txeGbf xhf/f}F lsnf]ld6/dflyaf6 cjnf]sg ubf{ jfo'd08nsf] tNnf] ;tx …cwf]d08nÚ df cfFwLa]x/Lsf] 8/nfUbf] x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷10
  11. 11. :j¿k b]lvG5 . ToxfFaf6 cfFwLa]x/Lsf a]nf cyfx zlQm / s7f]/tf;fy crDd;Fu jfo'sf] emf]Ssf Pscfk;df 7f]lSs/x]sf] b] l vG5 . j} 1 flgs cWoogcg' ; f/ k[ Y jLaf6 sl/a !* lsnf]ld6/leq /x]sf] cwf]d08nsf] dWoefudf ultzLn jfo'sf] eoªs/ cfFwL rn]sf] x'G5 . o;/L rNg] cfFwLsf klg ljleGg ¿k x'G5g . jfo'sf] ult / k|s[ltsf cfwf/df x'/Latf;nfO{ d"ntM rf/ efudf afF8g ;lsG5 M :yfgLo x'/L jfo'd08nsf] s'g} vf; If]qsf] tfkqmd a9]/ jfo'sf] pkl:ylt 36b} hfFbf csf]{ If]qsf] lr;f] jfo' To;tkm{ x'lQP/ :yfgLo x'/L pTkGg x'g] ub{5 . o;/L jfo' x'lQFbf slt If]qdf jfo' el/g'kg]{ xf] eGg] cfwf/df jfo'sf] ult a9b} hfG5 . 7"nf] If]qdf jfo' el/g'kg]{ ePdf cufl8sf] ultzLn jfo'nfO{ k5fl8af6 axg] jfo'n] wSsf lbFbf o;sf] ult a9]/ x'/Latf;n] k|r08 ¿k lnG5 / jfo' el/g'kg]{ If]qaflx/sf] axfjlbzfsf] :yfgdf ;d]t k|efj b]vfkb{5 . o;k|sf/sf] x'/Lsf] ult ;fdfGotof ## dfOn k|lt3G6feGbf sd x'G5 . o:tf] x'/L cfpFbf sfnf] afbn d8fl/g], lah'nL rDsg], r6Øfª kg]{ tyf kfgLsf l56f b]vfkg]{ ub{5 . g]kfndf clwsfªz cj:yfdf o;} k|sf/sf x'/Latf; cfpg] ub{5 . cf“wL cfFwL x'/Lsf] k|r08 ¿k xf] . o;sf] pTklQ klg vf; :yfgdf pTkGg jfo' vfnL ePsf] If]qdf csf]{ If]qsf] jfo' el/g]qmdd} x'g] eP klg jfo'sf] j]u cTolws x'G5 . ;fd'lb|s jfo'df o:tf] x'/L ldl;P/ jfo'sf] 3gTj / j]udf j[l4 x'g ;S5 . lah'nL rDsFb} j]ujfg jfo' axg' o; >]0fLsf] cfFwLsf] k|sl[ t xf] . o; cfFwLsf] j]u #( b]lv &# dfOn k|lt3G6f;Dd x'G5 . ;d'bL cf“wL | ;d'bL cfFwL ljgf;sf/L / 8/nfUbf] x'G5 . cd]l/sfdf o;nfO{ | …lx/]sgÚ elgG5 . o;n] cd]l/sfsf] blIf0fL If]qnfO{ lgs} k|efljt ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . ;d'bdflysf] jfo'd08ndf ;fdfGo x'/Lsf] cj:yf | x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷11
  12. 12. pTkGg ePkl5 o;n] ;d'bsf] tftf] kfgLdf 7Ss/ lbFbf tfk / | zlQm k|fKt ub{5 . o;af6 kfgLsf] jfikLs/0f a9gfn]] lr;f] afkm x'/Ldf ;dflxt ePkl5 o;n] ;d'b|L cfFwLsf] ¿kwf/0f ub{5 . o; cfFwLsf] j]u k|lt3G6f &$ dfOneGbf a9L x'G5 . o;sf] j]un] ;d'bdf 5fn pTkGg u/]/ t6Lo e"–efutkm{ x'TofpF5 | / t6Lo aGb/ufx, a;f]af; If]qnfO{ xflg k'¥ofpF5 . o:tf] cfFwLn] t6Lo If]qsf] ljzfn e"efudf $–% ld6/;Dd ulx/f] hnfzo klg pTkGg ug{ ;S5 . cd]l/sfsf] 6]S;f; /fHodf * ;]K6]Da/, !()) df cfPsf] o:t} ;d'bL cfFwLaf6 ^ xhf/ dflg;sf] Hofg | uPsf] lyof] . ;d'b|L cfFwL w]/} zlQmzfnL x'G5 . o;n] cfˆgf] k|efj If]qdf /x]sf ¿v, 3/, lah'nL / 6]lnkmf]gsf vDaf n8fpg], p8fpg] jf x'TofP/ ˆofFlslbg] ub{5 . ;d'bL cfFwLn] ljZjsf ljleGg efudf | jif]gL lgs} 7"nf] xflg k'¥ofO/x]sf] x'G5 . ;+oQm/fHo cd]l/sfsf] { ' blIf0fL If]q, rLg ;fu/df cjl:yt rLgsf] k"jL{ tyf blIf0fL t6Lo If]q, hfkfg, lkmlnlkG;, d]lS;sf], ef/t, aªunfb]z, c:6«]lnofh:tf ;d'b|t6Lo d'n'sdf ;d'b|L cfFwLn] a9L k|efj kfg]{ ub{5 . ;d'bL cf“wLa]x/L -rqmjft_ | ;d'bL cfFwL ;d'bsf] tftf] kfgLdf 7Ss/ vfFbf ToxfFsf] kfgLdf | | 7"nf] ljrng k}bf x'G5 / kfgLsf] 5fn w]/} dfly;Dd p7b5 . lg/Gt/ pl7/xg] To:tf] kfgLsf 5fndf tfk / zlQm k|fKt u/]sf] cfFwL 7f]lSsFbf o;n] ljgf;sf/L cfFwLa]x/L tyf e'j/Lsf] ¿kwf/0f F ub{5 / jfo' Pp6f uf]nf] rqmsf] ¿k lnP/ a6fl/Fb} cufl8 a9g yfNb5 . o;k|sf/sf] cfFwLa]x/Ln] ;d'bsf] 5fn cfk"mdf ;dflxt | u/]/ p8fpg] jf ws]Ng] x'bf ;d'bt6Lo If]q 8'Ag] / d';nwf/] jiff{ F | x'g] cj:yf;d]t pTkGg x'G5 . o;sf] k|efjdf k/]sf] If]qsf k|fs[lts tyf dfgjlgld{t ;+/rgf Wj:t x'G5g . o:tf] cfFwLa]x/Lsf] ult &$ dfOn k|lt3G6feGbf a9L x'G5 . vf;u/L, tftf] kfgL ePsf] ;fu/ jf dxf;fu/af6 pTkGg x' g ] x ' F b f e" d Wo/] v Lo pi0fhnjfo'If]qdf cfFwLa]x/L ljgf;sf/L k|s[ltsf] x'g] ub{5 . x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷12
  13. 13. x'/Latf;af6 x'g] Iflt tyf k|efj x'/Latf;sf] k|sf/, k|s[lt / ef}uf]lns cj:yfcg';f/ o;af6 x'g] Ifltdf cGt/ cfpF5 . ;d'bL cfFwL tyf cfFwLa]x/L -rqmjft_ | af6 ;a}eGbf a9L Iflt k'Ug] u/]sf] kfOG5 . o;sf] k|efj If]qsf 3/, ejg, ;8s, vfg]kfgL, ljB't ljt/0f k|0ffnLh:tf ;+/rgf eTsg] / ;~rf/;Dks{ ljR5]b x'g,] s[life"ld, jghªun gi6 x'g]h:tf Ifltsf :j¿k b]vf kb{5g . k|foM x'/Latf;sf] ;dod} kg]{ r6Øfªaf6 crfgs cfunfuL eP/ w]/} dflg;n] Hofg u'dfpg] cj:yf;d]t cfpg] ub{5 . o:tf]a]nf p4f/sfo{ emg hl6n aGb5 / To;sf nflu x'/Latf; yfldg] k|tLIff ug'{kg]{ cj:yf cfpg ;S5 . rqmjftaf6 ljljw k|sf/sf Iflt Nofpg] x' / Latf;sf] cGo ¿ksf] t' n gfdf ljs/fn Iflt k'Ug] ub{5 . w]/h;f] cj:yfdf x'/Latf; rNbf dfgjlgld{t sdhf]/ ;+/rgf, } v]taf/L tyf jghªunsf ¿v, lah'nL tyf 6]lnkmf]gsf vDaf cflb n8]/ lsRbf dflg; tyf hgfj/sf] d[To' x'g] ub{5 . 3/ p8fP/ dfgj ;d'bfo 3/af/ljxLg x'g,] u|fdL0fIf]qsf ljBfno elTsP/ lzIffh{g ug{af6 jl~rt x'gkg],{ c:ktfn eTs]/ /f]uLn] ' :jf:Yo;]jf k|fKt ug{ g;Sg]h:tf cj:yf l;h{gf x'G5 . o;/L x'/Latf; / cfFwLa]x/Laf6 ljZjdf k|To]s jif{ nfvf}F dflg;n] Hofg u'dfpg' k/]sf] 5 eg] caf}F ?k}ofFsf] xflg a]xf]g{' kl//x]sf] 5 . g]kfndf r6Øfªsf] df/df k/]/ x'/Latf;af6 eGbf klg clws dflg;sf] d[To' x'g] ub{5 . t/ oL k|sf]kdWo] cfly{s Iflt / ;fdflhs kl/j]zdf b"/ufdL c;/sf b[li6n] x'/Latf; g} ;a}eGbf x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷13
  14. 14. cu|kªlQmdf /x]sf] 5 . ljZjsf cf“wLa]x/Lsf k|d'v 36gf / Iflt ljZjJofkL¿kdf t'ngf ug]{ xf] eg] cd]l/sf k|r08 cfFwLa]x/L cfpg] k|d'v If]qdf kb{5 . cd]l/sfsf] n'l;ofgf k|fGtdf ;g !(%& df cfPsf] cfFwLa]x/Ln] 7"nf7"nf ¿v, ;dflw:tDe, cfjf;Lo ejgnfO{ #@ lsnf]ld6/ 6f9f;Dd x'TofPsf] lyof] eg] %%) dflg; d/]sf lyP . To:t} ;g !(&) df 6]S;f;df cfPsf] cfF w La] x /Ln] lgs} 7" n f] Iflt k' ¥ ofPsf] lyof] . of] cfF w La] x /L olt zlQmzfnL lyof] ls !! 6g tf} n ePsf] a]ngfsf/ 7f]; j:t'nfO{ ;d]t !%)) ld6/ k/;Dd x'TofOlbPsf] lyof] . cd]l/sfd} ;g !(&@ df cfPsf] cfFwLa]x/Laf6 $ ;o dflg; d/]sf lyP eg] Ps nfv ^) xhf/ kl/jf/ 3/af/ljxLg ePsf lyP . To:t}, ;g !((^ df cfPsf] cfFwLaf6 #! hgfsf] Hofg uPsf] lyof] eg] caf}F 8n/sf] cfly{s Iflt x'g k'u]sf] lyof] . cd]l/sfdf jif{el/ cfpg] sl/a % ;o cfFwLa]x/Lsf 36gfdf ;oj6f clt ljgf;sf/L x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . t'ngfTds¿kdf cd]l/sfdf cfFwLa]x/L a9L cfP klg o;sf] k|sf]kaf6 ljsf;f]Gd'v / ljsf;zLn d'nsdf g} a9L dfgjLo ' Iflt x' g ] ub{ 5 . sdhf] / dfgjlgld{ t ;+ / rgf, df} ; d eljiojf0fLsf] cfw'lgs k|ljlwsf] cefj, oftfoftsf] c;'ljwf, ;~rf/;]jf ck|fKo, ul/aL / clzIffsf] cj:yfn] x'/Latf; tyf cfFwLa]x/Lsf sf/0f t];|f] d'n's t'ngfTds¿kdf hgwgsf] Iflt cTolws a]xf]g{ afWo 5g . ljsl;t d'n'sdf df};d eljiojf0fLsf] cfw'lgs Joj:yf, ;'/Iffsf pkfox¿sf] plrt Joj:yf tyf cfjZos k"jf{wf/sf] ljsf; eO;s]sf sf/0f cGo Ifltsf] t'ngfdf dfgjLo Iflt Hofb} yf]/} x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . ;g !((@ df cfFwLa]x/Laf6 @% s/f]8 8n/a/fa/sf] Iflt ePsf] cd]l/sfdf dfgjLo Iflt eg] t'ngfTds lx;fan] cToGt Go"g x'gnfO{ o;sf] pbxf/0fsf ¿kdf lng ;lsG5 . ' jt{dfg ;dodf ljZjsf k|foM ;a} d'nsdf df};dsf] eljiojf0fL ' x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷14
  15. 15. ug{] ul/G5 . t/ ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n'ssf u|fdL0f If]qdf ;~rf/ ;'ljwfsf] cefj, clzIff, r]tgf, oftfoft / ljsf;sf cGo k"jf{wf/sf] cefj x'gfn] tL d'nssf u|fdL0f afl;Gbfn] df};dsf] ' eljiojf0fLaf6 vf;} nfe lng ;s]sf 5}gg . ctM df};dsf] ;Defljt :j¿k / To;af6 x'g] Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ckgfpg'kg]{ pkfosf af/]df ;dod} ;';"lrt x'gaf6 jl~rt u|fdL0f If]q, vf;u/L b'ud If]qsf dflg;n] cTolws hf]lvdsf] ;fdgf ug'{' { kl//x]sf] 5 . cd]l/sfdf x'/Latf;sf] eljiojf0fL cd]l/sfdf cfFwLa]x/Lsf] eljiojf0fL ToxfFsf] …g];gn x'l/Sofg ;]G6/Ú (NHC) n] ub{5 . blIf0ft6Lo ˆnf]l/8f /fHodf /fli6«o hnjfo' ;]jfsf] zfvfsf] ¿kdf :yflkt To; s]Gb|n] blIf0fL P6nflG6s ;fu/, dfgjLo Ifltsf b[li6n] ljZjsf k|dv cf“wLa]x/L ' Sof/]laog ;fu/, ;g b]z d[To' ;ªVof d] l S;sf] vf8L !(@# hfkfg @%),))) tyf k"jL{ k|zfGt !(&) aªunfb]z #)),))) d x f ; f u / s f ] !(&^ aªunfb]z !)),))) jfo'sf] ultljlwsf] !(&& ef/t %),))) ;"Id cWoogaf6 !(*% aªunfb]z !!,))) p k n A w !((( ef/t !!,))) tYofªssf cfwf/df eljiodf cfpg;Sg] cfFwLa]x/L tyf x'/Latf;sf] eljiojf0fL ub{5 . ;f] s]Gb|n] cfFwLa]x/Lsf ultljlwnfO{ sDKo'6/ df]8naf6 ljZn]if0f u/]/ eljiojf0fL ug]xbf lgs} e/kbf]{ kfOPsf] ] { F' 5 . o;/L k|efjsf/L k"j{;"rgf k|fKt xF'bf To;af6 k|efljt x'g;Sg] ;Dk"0f{ If]qsf afl;Gbfn] ;'/lIft x'g] cj;/ k|fKt ul//x]sf 5g . g]kfndf x'/Latf;sf] ;d:of g]kfnsf] e"agf}6 ;d'b|;Fu g5f]OPsf], cyf{t of] e"kl/j]li7t d'n's ePsfn] oxfF dxfljgf;sf/L k|s[ltsf cfFwL / ;d'b|L x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷15
  16. 16. cfFwLa]x/L jf rqmjft cfpg] ;Defjgf 5}g . tyflk, aªufnsf] vf8L / c/a ;fu/af6 l;lh{t ;d'bL cfFwL ;fdfGo x'gqmdsf] | ] cj:yfdf cfOk'u/ / t/fO{ If]qdf x'/Latf;sf] ¿kwf/0f ub{5 . ] klZrd g]kfnsf h'Dnf, x'Dnf, dgfª, d':tfª cflb kxf8L lhNnf;lxt cGo e]udf :yfgLo x'/Latf; lgoldt ¿kdf rNg] ub{5 . g]kfndf r}tb]lv c;f/–;fpg;Dd x'/Latf; rNg] ub{5 . df};dL kmnk"mn cfFk, lnrL, ;'Gtnf cflbsf] km"n k'mNg] / lrlrnf nfUg] o; df};ddf cfpg] x'/Latf;n] kmnk"mn pTkfbgdf k|lts"n k|efj kfb{5 . o;sf cltl/Qm vf;u/L t/fO{ / u|fdL0fIf]qsf sdhf]/ 3/, uf]7 / ljsf;sf ;+/rgf eTsfpg] / dfgjLo Iflt;d]t k'¥ofpg] u/]sf] 5 . g]kfnsf t/fO{ If]qdf o; df};ddf rNg] x'/Latf;n] sRrL k'm;sf 3/, uf]7, lah'nL jf 6]lnkmf]gsf sdhf]/ vDaf eTsfpFbf jf n8fpFbf dflg; / 3/kfn' j f g]kfndf x'/Latf;af6 Iflt hgfj/;d] t dg] { ;fn Iflt tyf ;~rf/ / ;g d[To' ;ªVof Wj:t 3/;ªVof cfly{s Iflt -?=_ ljB' t ;] j f aGb x' g ] u/] s f 5g . !((% % @$^ @),$!!,)$*÷— af6f]df ePsf ¿v !((^ $& !!,%$& *!,^^!,#%%÷— n8] / klg !((& ) %%% &#,##%,@%*÷— oftfoft cj?4 !((* ^ !$) @@%,#$*,@*)÷— x' g ] / obfsbf !((( ^ %! %,%!^,(*%÷— ofqfdf /x] s f @))) # %& !@^,##^,&&#÷— dflg;n] Hofg @))! @ *#) #*,&)@,!#$÷— u'dfpg'kg]{ cj:yf @))@ # &) !!,*$&,%))÷— cfpg] ub{ 5 . x'/Latf;sf] df};d @))# @) ck|fKt !*,*%!,%))÷– ;' V vfofddf kg] { hDdf ( @ !#$(^ %*#,!%(,@##.— ;|ftM g]kfn ;/sf/, u[xdGqfno . ] x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷16
  17. 17. ePsf sf/0f o;n] cfuf] p8fP/ 3/ / hªundf ;d]t cfunfuL x'g] ;Defjgf w]/} a9b5 . x'/Latf; rn]sf] ;dodf x'g] cfunfuLn] l;ªu} ufpF g} ;vfk kf/]sf 36gf klg xfdLsxfF w]/} kfOG5g . o; cj:yfdf x'g] cfunfuL lgoGq0f ug{ jf?0foGq tyf clUg;dgssf cGo pkfo k|efjsf/L x'g g;Sg] x'bf hgwgsf] F Iflt klg w]/} x'G5 . x'g t cfunfuL x'/Latf;s} sf/0fn] dfq x'bg, dfgjLo c;fjwfgL / cGo sf/0faf6 ;fdfGo cj:yfdf F } klg cfunfuL x'G5, t/ x'/Latf;;Fu} nfu]sf] cfunfuL a9L k|nosf/L / ljgf;sf/L x'G5 . x'/Latf; rNbf lah'nL rDsg], r6Øfª kg],{ ljB't ljt/0fk|0ffnLdf cj/f]w l;h{gf eP/ pTkGg cfunfuL lj:tfl/t x'g] ;Defjgf a9b5 . o;/L g]kfndf k|To]s jif{ x'/Latf; / cfunfuLsf sf/0f lgs} 7"nf] hgwgsf] Iflt x'g] u/]sf] 5 . x'/Latf;sf] k|sf]kaf6 aRg] pkfo • x'/Latf;sf] k|sf]k x'g] :yfgdf To;nfO{ 5]Sg] lsl;dsf af“; jf alnof] sf08 eO{ h/f hldgleq;Dd hfg]] hftsf ¿v /f]k]/ x'sf{pg] . • 3/jl/kl/sf cUnf, sdhf]/ / x'/Latf;af6 n8g;Sg] ¿v sf“65f“6 ug]{, cyjf x6fpg] . • sdhf]/ 3/ jf uf]7sf] dd{t;Def/ ug]{ . • cfuf]sf] k|of]u ;fjwfgL;“u ug],{ x'/Latf; nfu]sf] ;dodf cfuf]sf] k|of]u gug]{ . • x'/Latf; rNbf n8g;Sg] sdhf]/ ;+/rgf5]p5fp ga:g] / 3/aflx/ glg:sg] . x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷17
  18. 18. cl;gf g]kfndf cl;gf sflQs–dªl;/b]lv g} ;'? eP/ r}t–j}zfvlt/ a9L kg]{ ub{5 . jfo'd08nsf] ;fdfGo ultzLntfsf] lgodcg';f/ tNnf] ;txsf] jfo' sd tfkqmd ePsf] dflyNnf] ;txlt/ hfG5 . hlt prfOtkm{ uof], jfo'sf] tfkqmd ToxL cg'kftdf 36g] x'bfF dflylt/ hfg]qmddf hnjfiko'Qm jfo'sf c0f' lr;f]n] ubf{ la:tf/} hDg yfNb5g / a/km aGb5 . a/km ag]sf] jfo'sf] 3gTj a9L x'g] ePsf] sf/0fn] tnlt/ emg{ yfNb5 . o;/L emg]{qmddf jfo'd08ndf a/km ag]/ /x]sf] hnjfik Pscfk;df h]lnFb} hfG5 / uf]nf] l9Ssf aGb5 . jfo'd08nsf] dflyNnf] ;txdf x'/Latf; klg rNg] ePsfn] a/kmsf l9SsfnfO{ xfjfn] ws]N5 . xfjfsf] ultzLntf, 3gTjsf] rfk / u'?Tjfsif{0fn] ubf{ Tof] emg j]ujfg eP/ tnlt/ emb{5 . cl;gfsf] cfsf/ slxn]sfxLF lgs} 7"nf] x'g] ub{5 eg] w]/h;f] cj:yfdf a8sf}nfh:tf ;fgf } cl;gf kg]{ ub{5 . cl;gf aGg] prfO / w/ftnLo tfkqmd;Fusf] leGgtfsf cfwf/df cl;gfsf] cfsf/ klg k/s x'g] ub{5 . w/ftnLo tfkqmd / cl;gf ag]sf] :yfgsf] tfkqmddf vf;} cGt/ 5}g eg] dflyaf6 emg]{qmddf cl;gf kUnFb}g / 7"n} x'G5 . t/, To:tf] tfkqmddf lgs} cGt/ cfPsf] 5 eg] w/ftndf cfOk'Ubf cl;gf klUn;s]sf] x'G5 . jfo'd08nsf] a9L prfOdf ag]sf] cl;gf tn emg]qmddf lxdo'Qm jfo'df a9L h]lng kfpF5, { o:tf] cj:yfdf klg tfkqmd cGt/ a9L 5 eg] cl;gf hldg;Dd cfOk'Ubf w]/} ;fgf] eO;s]sf] x'G5 . jfo'd08df lgs}dfly cl;gf ag]sf] 5 / ToxfFsf tfkqmd / k[YjLsf] ;tx;Fu hf]l8Psf] jfo'd08nsf] tfkqmddf a9L cGt/ cfPsf] 5}g eg] w]/} 7"nf cl;gf kb{5g . jfo'sf] ultljlwsf] vf; sf/0fn] hnjfiko'Qm jfo' sd tfkqmd /x]sf] jfo'd08nsf] dflyNnf] If]qdf k'u]/ hDb5 . jfo'd08nsf] dflyNnf] ;txeGbf tNnf] ;txsf] tfkqmd clws /xg] eP klg o;/L hnjfik hd]/ ag]sf a/kmsf l9sf x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷18
  19. 19. e";txdf cfOk'Ubf klUn ;s]sf x'Fb}gg / 7f];¿kdf jif{G5g eg] To:tf] jif{nfO{ cl;gf–jiff{ elgG5 . ;fgf–7"nf cl;gfn] ds} / cGo afnLsf la?jf gi6 x'G5g eg] kmnk"mnsf lrlrnf em/]/ ;vfk x'G5g . sflQs–dªl;/lt/ k/]sf] cl;gfn] g]kfnsf] k|dv vfBfGg afnL wfg gi6 ug]{ x'bf ' F To;sf] k|efjaf6 ef]sd/L tyf clgsfnsf] k|sf]k kg]{ ;Defjgf /xG5 . crfgs kg]{ cl;gfaf6 v]tLkftL t gi6 x'G5 g}, rl/r/gdf /x]sf 3/kfn'jf hgfj/ / 3/aflx/ ePsf dflg; cl;gfsf] lk6fOaf6 3fOt] x'g] jf Hofg} hfg] cj:yf;Dd cfpF5 . cl;gfaf6 v]tLkftLsf] ;'/Iff ug'{ lgs} sl7g sfo{ xf] . t/ x'/Latf; rn]/ cfsfz jiff{ xf]nfh:tf] b]lvPdf cl;gf kg]{ ;Defjgf /xG5 . To:tf] cj:yfdf cfk"m ;'/lIft :yfgdf a:g] / a:t'efpnfO{ klg ;'/lIft :yfgdf cf]t nufpgfn] dfgjLo / 3/kfn'jf kz'df x'g] Iflt sd ug{ ;lsG5 . cl;gfaf6 aRg] pkfo • cfsfz w'lDdP/ x'/Latf; ;lxt jiff{ xf]nfh:tf] b]lvgf;fy tTsfn ;'/lIft :yfgtkm{ hfg] . • r/Lr/gdf ePsf 3/kfn'jf hgfj/nfO{{ ;s];Dd ;'/lIft :yfgtkm{ n}hfg] . • cl;gf kg{ 5f8]kl5 klg x'/Latf; g/f]lsOsg jf cfsfz gpl3|Osg aflx/ glg:sg] . • g;{/Ldf ePsf la?jf arfpg drfg agfP/ c:yfoL 5fgf] nufpg] . x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷19
  20. 20. r6ofª r6Øfªaf6 Iflt r6Øfª kg'{ tyf lah'nL rDsg' klg x' / Latf;, cl;gfh:t} jif{ dfgj d[To' cfly{s Iflt ?= jfo'd08nsf] pRrultzLntfsf] !((% @( !),%$,(%)÷– pkh xf] . x'/Latf;sf] df};ddf !((^ @* ––– jf jiff{ o fddf jfo' d 08ndf !((& $$ !*,@(,#!)÷– ljk/Lt lbzfaf6 x'OlF sPsf] jfo' !((* !& !&,#(,#))÷– Pscfk;df k| r 08 j] u n] !((( !^ !^,^@,$@)÷– @))) @# !(,(),%))÷– 7f] l sG5 . To;af6 k} b f x' g ] cToGt a9L ef]N6sf] ljB'tLo @))! #^ ^,#@,)))÷– @))@ # ^#,@))÷– nx/ vf; ky agfP/ hfg] @))# $! %,!(,%))÷– ub{ 5 . o;/L pTkGg ePsf] hDdf @#& ($,(!,!*)÷– ljB'tLo nx/ k[YjLsf] ;txtkm{ ;|ft M g]kfn ;/sf/, u[xdGqfno . ] cfPdf To;n] e] 6 b f dflg;, hgfj/, af]6la?jf dg]{ tyf 3/, uf]7, ;'s]sf ¿v, k/fnsf] dfrcflbdf cfunfuL x'g] ub{5 . vf;u/L, r'Rrf] u/]/ 7l8Psf dfr, 3/ / cGo a:t'df r6Øfªsf] ljB't 7f]lSsg] ub{5 . o;af6 3/df k|of]u eO/x]sf On]S6«fl] gs ;fdfg tyf pks/0f klg lau|g ;S5 . r6Øfªaf6 x'/Latf;n] eGbf klg clws dfgjLo Iflt x'g] ub{5 . o;af6 g]kfndf ;/b/ @& hgf JolQmsf] jif]{gL d[To' x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . dfgjLo Ifltsf lx;fan] x'/Latf;af6 ;/b/ !) hgf eGbf a9Lsf] d[To' x'g] ub{5 . t/, cGo cfly{s Ifltsf lx;fan] eg] x'/Latf; g} a9L ljgf;sf/L /x]sf] b]lvG5 . cfsfz u8Øfªu'8'ª ug{ yfn]kl5 r6Øfª kg{ ;S5 . To:tf] ;dodf ;s];Dd ;'/lIft :yfgdf a:g' kb{5 . 3/df k|of]u eO/x]sf On]S6«fl] gs ;fdfg aGb ug'{ kb{5 . 3/df cly{ª ul/Psf] x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷20
  21. 21. eP To;af6 ljB'tk|jfx k[YjLdf ;dflxt eO{ l:y/Ls/0f x'g] x'Fbf To:tf] :yfg ;'/lIft x'G5 . To;}n] 3/ agfpFbf pko'Qm tj/n] cly{ ª ug' { pko' Q m x' G 5 . sltko :yfgdf 3/sf 5fgf]dfly nfdf] wft'sf] 58 /fvL To;df hf]l8Psf] ljB'tLo tf/nfO{ hldgleq uf8]/ r6Øfªsf] ljB't l:y/Ls/0f ul/Psf] klg b]lvG5 . r6ofªaf6 aRg] pkfo • 3/df pko'Qm lsl;dn] cly{ª ug]{ . • x'/Latf; cfpg] / cfsfz w'lDdP/ u8Øfªu'8ª ug{ yfn]kl5 ' tTsfn ;'/lIft :yfgtkm{ hfg] . • r/Lr/gdf ePsf 3/kfn'jf hgfj/nfO{ ;s];Dd ;'/lIft :yfgtkm{ n}hfg] . Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf pkfo pknAw tYofªssf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ g]kfndf x'/Latf;af6 lgs} 7"nf] Iflt x'gu/]sf] kfOG5 . x'/Latf;sf] pTklQ, axfj cj:yf ] / ef}uf]lns cjl:yltcg';f/ g]kfn ;ªs6fled'v If]qdf gkg]{ x'bf o;af6 x'gu/]sf] Ifltsf] sf/0f d"ntM dfgjLo c;fjwfgLnfO{ F ] g} dfGg'kg]{ x'G5 . g]kfndf x'/Latf; / r6Øfªaf6 l;lh{t cfunfuLsf 36gfsf] 5'§} tYofªs pknAw geP klg cfunfuLsf clwsf+z 36gf o;} df};ddf x'g] u/]sf] b]lvG5 . o;cy{df x'/Latf; / cfunfuLaf6 x'g] Iflt Go"g ug{ PsLs[t k|of; ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 . w]/}h;f] sf7sf] k|of]u u/L k/fnn] 5fPsf u|fdL0fIf]q 3/–a:tLdf x'/Latf; / cfunfuLaf6 w]/} Iflt x'g] ub{5 . o:tf] Iflt sd ug{ k"j{tof/Lsf sfo{ ug'{ h?/L 5 . x'/Latf;af6 k'Ug] Iflt Go"gLs/0f ug{ ;fdflhs r]tgf clej[l4 ug'{ g} klxnf] / k|efjsf/L pkfo x'g5 .] hgr]tgf clej[l4 x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷21
  22. 22. x'/Latf; / cfunfuLsf] k|efj ;x/LIf]qdf kb}{ gkg]{ xf]Og, t/ g]kfnsf] u|fdL0f If]q o;af6 a9L k|efljt x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . clzIff / ul/aLn] u|:t u|fdL0f hgtfdf k|sf]kaf6 aRg ug'kg]{ { k"jtof/L tyf ;ts{tfsf] 1fg gx'gfn] o;af6 cTolws Iflt { x'g] u/]sf] dflgPsf] 5 . ctM o:tf 36gfaf6 ;dfhdf x'g] Iflt sd ug{ cgf}krfl/s lzIff tyf ;fd'bflos sfo{qmddfkm{t k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf ljifodf ;dfhnfO{ ;hu agfpg' cfjZos 5 eg] cf}krfl/s kf7Øqmddf g} k|sf]ksf] k"jtof/L / Joj:yfkg { ljifonfO{ ;dfj]z ug]tkm{ lzIffljbx¿sf] Wofg k'Ug' klg cfjZos { 5 . ;"rgfk|jfx x'/Latf;, cl;gfjiff{ / r6Øfª jfo'd08nLo ultljlwaf6 l;h{gf eO{ cfpg] k|sf]k ePsfn] /fHon] o:tf] k|sf]k cfpg] ;Defjgfsf] eljiojf0fL ug{ cTofw'lgs pks/0fsf] Joj:yf ug'kg]{ x'G5 . { g]kfndf hnjfo'sf] eljiojf0fL df};d lj1fg ljefun] ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . t/, pks/0f / bIftfsf] cefjsf sf/0f ljefun] ug]{ hnjfo' k"jf{g'dfg Tolt k|efjsf/L b]lvFb}g . x'/Latf; cfpg] ;Defjgf ePdf To;sf] ;"rgf ;ªs6fled'v If]qdf tTsfn} k|jfx ug]{ / p4f/ sfo{sf nflu ;/sf/L ;+oGqnfO{ ;ts{ u/fpg] bfloTj ;/sf/n] axg u/] w]/xb;Dd Iflt Go"g } ug{ ;lsg]5 . j[If/f]k0f tyf sf“65f“6 au}Frf jf 3/nfO{ 5]Sg]u/L lglZrt b"/Ldf nufOPsf h/f ulxl/P/ hfg], emofDd km}lng], alnof] sf08 x'g] hftsf afF;, ljleGg hftsf ¿v tyf xf]rf af]6 x'g] s]/fh:tf jg:kltn] x'/Lsf] tLj| ultnfO{ /f]Sg] x'bf au}rf / 3/df x'/Lsf] bafa sd F + x'G5 . t/ 3/5]p5fp sdnf] sf08 x'g] cUnf hftsf ¿v x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷22
  23. 23. nufpg'xbg . o:tf ¿v xfjfsf] ;fgf] emf]Ssfn] g} 9fNg] x'bf F' } F ;8s, lah'nLsf vDaf ePsf If]qdf klg g/f]Kg' /fd|f] x'G5 . 3/glhs jf ;8saf6 k'/fgf, ;'s/ dlSsPsf jf x'/Latf;n] ] 9fNg] ;Defjgf ePsf ¿v ;dod} x6fpg' / sf“65f“6 ug'{ kb{5 . dd{t;Def/ x'/Latf;k|efljt If]qdf To;sf] k|lt/f]w ug{;Sg] vfnsf 3/ lgdf{0f ug'{ kb{5 . sf7sf jf sRrL 3/ w]/} cUnf] agfpg'xbg . F' } k'/fgf Pjd sdhf]/ 3/nfO{ ;dod} dd{t ug'{ kb{5 . x'/Ln] p8fpg;Sg] 5fgf jf j:t'nfO{ ux|f}F j:t'n] lyr]/ jf alnof] 8f]/Ln] afFw/ x'/Laf6 k'Ug;Sg]] Iflt 36fpg ;lsG5 . ] cfunfuLk|lt ;ts{tf x'/Latf; rn]sf] ;dodf cfunfuL pTkGg x'g] / km}ng] ;Defjgf a9L x'G5 . o;sf cltl/Qm, of] df};d ;'Vvf x'g] x'gfn] cfuf] rfF8f] ;lNsG5 . ;'Vvf / x'/Latf;sf] o; df};ddf ;ts{tfsf ;fy cfuf]sf] k|of]u u/L o;sf] sfd ;lsPkl5 /fd|/L lgefpg' kb{5 . x'/Latf; rn]sf] ;dodf cfuf]sf] k|of]u gug]{, r'/f]6– laF8L hyfefjL glkpg],] nfO6/, ;nfO{ / cfuf] pTkGg x'g] j:t' s]6fs]6Ln] ge]6g] 7fpFdf /fVg], 3/jl/kl/af6 3'¥ofg ;kmf ug]{ cflb sfo{ cfunfuLaf6 aRg] ;fdfGo pkfo x'g . x'/Latf; rn]sf]anf r6Øfªkg]{ ;Defjgf a9L x'G5 . ;s];Dd x'/Latf; ] nfu]sf a]nf 3/af6 aflx/ lg:sg] ug{' x'bg . d§Lt]n, k]6fn, F } «] Uof;nufot k| H jngzLn kbfy{ ;' / lIft :yfgdf /fVgfn] cfunfuLsf] k|sf]kaf6 aRg ;xof]u k'Ub5 . ;fy}, cfuf] jf 6'sL afNbf 3/sf] 5fgf], af/, k|HHjngzLn j:t'sf] glhs gafNg' pQd x'G5 . x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷23
  24. 24. clUglgoGq0f slxn]sfxLF cfunfuLaf6 ;ts{ x'bfx'b} klg cfunfuLsf] 36gf F F pTkGg x'g ;S5 . To:tf] cj:yfdf ;/sf/L lgsfo, jf?0foGqnfO{ va/ ug]{ / ;fd'bflos ¿kdf pknAw hgzlQm Pjd kfgLsf] ;|ft k|of]u u/L tTsfn} p4f/ / clUg lgoGq0f sfo{df h'6g' ] kb{5 . gful/s clwsf/ / /fHo cGo k|sf]kh:t} x'/Latf;, r6Øfª / o;af6 km}ng] cfunfuLaf6 g]kfndf jif]gL hgwgsf] 7"n} Iflt x'g] u/]sf] 5 . cfunfuLsf { clwsfªz 36gf t/fO{sf em'kfem'kL ePsf a:tLx¿df a9L x'g] | | / o;af6 ljkGg ju{ g} a9L k|efljt x'g] u/]sf] b]lvG5 . x'/Latf;, r6Øfª / cfunfuLaf6 g]kfnsf] t/fO{ g} a9L cfqmfGt x'g] u/]sf] 5 . o;af6 ufpFsf sRrL ;+/rgfdf a9L Iflt k'Ug] ub{5 . x'/Latf;, r6Øfª / cfunfuLsf o:tf ;Defljt If]qdf Iflt Go"gLs/0f ug{sf nflu hf]lvd If]qsf] gS;fªsg u/L ;/sf/n] jf?0foGqsf] oy]i6 Joj:yf u/L pRr;ts{ cj:yfdf /fVg], kfgLsf] hf]xf] ug]{ / ;fdflhs r]tgf clej[l4sf nflu ljz]if sfo{qmdsf] ;~rfng ug'{kg]{ b]lvG5 . To:tf If]qdf r6Øfªaf6 eg] dfgjLo Iflt a9L k'Ug] u/]sf]n] x'/Latf; rn]/ r6Øfª kg]{ ;Defjgf b]lvPdf 3/aflx/ glg:sg' o;af6 ;'/lIft x'g] pkfo x'g ;S5 . t/, g]kfnsf clwsfªz ljB'tLo ;'ljwf pknAw ePsf ejgdf ;d]t pko'Qm tj/n] cly{ª gul/g] x'bf r6Øfªaf6 a9L Iflt k'Ug] u/]sf] 5 . t;y{, r6Øfªsf] F hf]lvd /x]sf :yfgdf To;af6 pTkGg x'g] ljB'tLo t/ªunfO{ k[YjLdf ;dflxt u/L l:y/Ls/0f ug]{ k|ljlwsf] 7fpF7fpFdf h8fg u/]/ Iflt Go"g ug]{ kxn ug'{ cfjZos 5 . k|sf]kaf6 k|tfl8t ePsf x/]s gful/sdf cfd gful/s;/x x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷24
  25. 25. ;Ddfgk"j{s afFRg kfpg] clwsf/ /xG5 . k|sf]k kLl8tnfO{ bofsf kfqsf ¿kdf xf]Og, ;xL xs k|bfg ug]{ st{Jo :j¿k /fHon] p4f/, /fxt / ;du| k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf sfo{ ;~rfng ug'{ kb{5 . pk;+xf/ x'/Latf; lgoldt ¿kdf rNg]] df};dL k|sf]khGo 36gf xf] . jfo' d 08nLo k| l tlqmofsf sf/0f pTkGg x' g ] x' / Latf; / cfFwLa]x/LnfO{ jfojLo k|sf]ksf ¿kdf lnOG5 . g]kfndf vf;u/L kmfu'gb]lv ;fpg dlxgf;Dd k"jbl] v klZrd;Dds} t/fO{ e]udf { o; k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd /x]sf] x'G5 . o; k|sf]khGo 36gfn] klg d'n'sdf lgs} 7"nf] Iflt k'¥ofO/x]sf] oyfy{nfO{ k|:t't ePsf tYofªsn] :ki6 kf/]sf] 5 . x'/Latf; dflg;sf] lgoGq0feGbf aflx/sf] 36gf xf] . To;}n] o;sf] lgoGq0f ug{ ;lsFb}g . x'/Latf;;Fu} cfpg] cl;gf / r6ofªaf6 klg Iflt lg/Gt/ eO/x]sf sf/0f k|sf]ksf oL tLg 36gfaLr cGt;{DaGw /x]sf]n] oL 36gfaf6 x'g] Ifltsf] ;fdgf ug{ dflg;n] ;b}j tof/ x'g' k5{ . cfjZos k"j{tof/L tyf k|sf]kkl5sf ;d:ofsf] ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtfsf] ljsf; g} o; k|sf]kaf6 /fxt kfpg] pkfo x'g ;S5 . To;}n] k|sf]ksf o:tf 36gf lsg x'G5g / o;af6 Iflt Go"g ug]{ pkfo s] x'G5g eGg] hfgsf/L lng' h?/L 7flgPsf] 5 . k|sf]kkLl8tsf] ;xof]u / ltgLx?sf] ;Ddfgk"j{s afFRg kfpg] clwsf/sf] /Iff ug'{ klg ;a} ju{sf] bfloTj ePsfn] o;tkm{ ;/sf/, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf / gful/s ;dfhn] ;r]t /xg' h?/L b]lvPsf] 5 . x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷25
  26. 26. x'/Latf; / o;af6 aRg] pkfo÷26

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