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k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷1
k|sf]k–1fgdfn–!


k|sf]k M kl/ro
tyf Joj:yfkg


                  /fdrGb| Gof}kfg]




                             k|sf]k...
k|sf]k–1fgdfnfsf] ;DaGwdf
1fgsf] cefjdf ul/g] s'g} klg sfo{ /fd|f] / e/kbf]{ x'bg . lbuf] ljsf;åf/f ;'/lIft
              ...
ljifo;"rL
k|sf]k 1fgdfnfsf] ;DaGwdf M                              #
k|sf]ksf] kl/ro M                                    ...
k|sf]ksf] kl/ro
ljifo–k|j]z
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dflg;nfO{ w]/} jiff{ ePdf...
k|sf]ksf] kl/efiff
;x/ xf]; jf ufpF, ;do–;dodf ;a}lt/ ljleGg k|sf/sf ljgfzsf/L 36gf
x'G5g . slxn] a]ujfg x'/Latf;;Fu} cl;g...
lj:kmf]6s jf ljiffQm kbfy{åf/f x'g]
b'36gf tyf o:t} s'g} klg k|sf/sf]
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9ªuaf6 a'‰g] tyf a'emfpg] ul/Psf] 5 . tL wf/0ff j:t'ut / tYok/s gePs}
sf/0f ljZjf; ug{ nfos 5}gg . jf:tjdf k/Dk/fut wf/0ff...
k|sf]ksf k|sf/
k|sf]knfO{ k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 pTkGg x'g] / dfgjLo sf/0faf6 pTkGg x'g] u/L
b'O{ k|sf/df ljefhg ug{ ;lsG5 . o;...
tLj| pTyfg x'g] k|sf]k
k|fs[lts tyf dfgjLo sf/0fn] Hofb} 5f]6f] ;dodf pTkGg x'g] k|sf]knfO{ tLj|
pTyfg x'g] k|sf]k elgG5 ....
hLjgof]Uo agfO/fVg hnrqmn] g} dxŒjk"0f{
                                    e"ldsf lgjf{x ub{5 . t}klg kfgLs} sf/0f
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hnjfo'hGo k|sf]k
jfo'd08ndf ljleGg k|sf/sf
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;f]emf] k|efj k[YjLdf kl//x]sf]
x'G5 . ;"oaf6 k...
h}ljs k|sf]k
hg;ªVofsf] cTolws j[l4sf sf/0f
jgdfly dflg;sf] rfk tyf cltqmd0f
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k|sf]ksf sf/0f
;d'b;txaf6 dfq ^) ld6/ cUnf] d}bfgb]lv *,*$* ld6/ cUnf] ljZjs} ;jf]Rr
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lgDgcg';f/ dflgPsf] 5 M

k|fs[lts sf/0f
g]kfnsf] s'n...
jfo'd08nLo sf/0f
jfo'd08ndf x'g] ljleGg k|ltlqmofsf sf/0f cl;gf, r6Øfª, x'/Latf;, cfFwLa]x/L,
lxdkft, zLtnx/, cltj[li6, v0...
bafa lbg] sfo{ tLj| ¿kdf rln/x]sf] 5 . le/fnf] kfvfdf vf]l/of kmfF8/ ul/g]
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k|sf]ksf] k|efj
k|sf]ksf] ljgfzsf/L cj:yf To;n] kfg]{ k|efjsf cfwf/df lgwf{l/t x'G5 .
k|sf]ksf] :t/cg';f/ dfgj ;dfhdf ljle...
e"ldsf] Iflt M v] t , af/L,
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e'Orfnf]sf sf/0f pTkGg ;'gfdLn] ljZjcy{tGqnfO{ lgs} k5fl8 ws]nsf] ljZn]if0f
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/fli6«o k|efj
k|sf]kn] dfgjLo pkof]usf ef}lts ;+/rgf gi6 ubf{ ;/sf/dfly k'glg{df{0f /
Ifltk"lt{sf] ef/ ylkG5 . lj:yflkt eP...
k|sf]kn] ljsf;nfO{ kl5 ws]N5
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lgld{t ;+/rgfnfO{ If0fe/d} ...
k|sf]k Joj:yfkg
kl/ro
k|sf]khGo 36gf x'g;Sg] cj:yfdf ;d'bfonfO{ ;'/lIft :yfgdf :yfgfGt/0f ug{,
k|sf]ksf] k|efjnfO{ oyf;Dej...
O{Zj/nfO{ bf]if lbg'eGbf ;dod} Go"gLs/0f jf ;Defljt Iflt 36fpg] k|of; ug'{ g}
k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgsf] d"n s8L x'g cfpF5 .

hf]l...
vt/f / ;ªs6fled'v cj:yfsf] klxrfg u/]/ k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd 36fpg cfjZos
k"jtof/L u/]df w]/} xb;Dd k|sf]k–Go"gLs/0f x'G5 . e'O...
k|sf]kaf/] ;dod} ;r]t eP/ To;sf] ;fdgf ug{;Sg] Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ul/Pdf
hgwgsf] Iflt sd x'G5 . To;}n] k|sf]ka9L x'g] If]qsf ;...
hgr]tgf clej[l4 tyf tflnd
k|sf]k–k"jtof/Lsf] sfo{ yfNg'klxn] ;d'bfosf ;b:onfO{
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k|sf]k;DaGwL ;}4flGts 1fg lbg'k...
;'/lIft :yfgdf hfg] aGbf]j:t u/L a;f]af;sf nflu 3/, af6f] tyf v'nf 7fpF
5f]8g] aGbf]j:t ug{;s] /fd|f] x'G5 .
     
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;fj{hlgs tyf ljBfno ejg klg k|of]u ug'kg]{  {
cj:yf cfpg ;S5 . To;}n] To:t...
p4f/ tyf /fxt
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h'6gkg]{ x'G5 . k|sf]k ePsf] :yfgdf...
k|sf]kkl5 ug'{kg]{ sfo{
k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgdf k|sf]kkl5 nfdf] cjlw;Dd ug'kg]{ sfo{x¿ klg kb{5g .
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elgG5 . o:tf ;+/rgf ;fj{hlgs jf lghL b'j} k|sf/sf x'g ;Sb5g . ;fj{hlgs
;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0fsf nflu ;/sf/ jf u}/;sf/L ;+:yfn] ...
ljsf;sf] ;+1f lbg ;lsG5 . o:tf sfo{n] g} ;d'bfosf] k|sf]k ;fdgf Ifdtf
clej[l4 ug{ tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug{ cfwf/e"t e"ldsf...
k|sf]k–Go"gLs/0fsf pkfo
k|sf]ksf]    Go"gLs/0fsf nflu o;sf] Joj:yfkgcGtu{t pNn]v ul/Psf sfo{sf
cltl/Qm cGo lqmofsnfk klg u...
lj:tf/, vfg]kfgL tyf hnljB't cfof]hgf, vlgh j:t'sf] pTvggh:tf sfo{ ubf{
ef}uf]lns tyf ef}ule{s agf]6df cfpg;Sg] kl/jt{g jf...
5g . k|sf]knfO{ b}jsf] s'bl[ i6 dfGg] k/Dk/fut e|dn]] k|sf]k–Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{
cf]em]nd} k/]sf 5g . To;}n] k|sf]kaf6 x'g] I...
;fd'bflos d]nldnfk / ;xof]u
k|sf]kaf6 aRg 5/l5d]sdf cfk;L ;befj / ;xof]usf] efjgf ljsl;t ug'k5{ .    {
To;f] ePdf l5d]sdf ...
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cksif{0f    M   s'g} j:t' lau|g' jf v/fj eP/ ;dfKt x'g] cj:yfdf k'Ug'' .
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lgSof]{n    M lgZro tyf lgwf{/0f ug]{ sfo{ .
lg:t]h      M t]h gePsf] . zlQm tyf Ifdtf sd ePsf] .
Go"g        M yf]/, 36]s...
k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷41
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Transcript of "1. disaster k introduction"

  1. 1. k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷1
  2. 2. k|sf]k–1fgdfn–! k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷2
  3. 3. k|sf]k–1fgdfnfsf] ;DaGwdf 1fgsf] cefjdf ul/g] s'g} klg sfo{ /fd|f] / e/kbf]{ x'bg . lbuf] ljsf;åf/f ;'/lIft F} eljio lgdf{0f ug{ ;dofg'sn 1fgsf] cfjZostf kb{5 . k|sf]k;DaGwL 1fg klg " jt{dfg ;dodf ;a}lt/af6 cfjZos cg'ej ul/Psf] To:t} 1fg xf] . ToxL vfFrf]nfO{ k"/f ug{ k|sf]k;DaGwL k|sf]k–1fgdfnfsf] of] klxnf] z[ªvnf tof/ ul/Psf] 5 . k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Ifltsf] jf:tljs cfsng ug{ lgs} sl7g x'G5 . tyflk xfdLn] k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Iflt Go"g ug]{ k|of;nfO{ ;docg';f/ kl/dfh{g ug'{ cfjZos 5 . o;sf nflu k|sf]k;DaGwL hfgsf/Lsf] cfjZostf kb{5 . o;} ;Gbe{df ;dfhsf] k|sf]k ;fdgf Ifdtf clej[l4åf/f k|sf]k Joj:yfkg / Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L agfP/ k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd sd ug{ o; If]qdf sfo{/t JolQm / :yfgLo txsf ;/sf/L jf u}/;/sf/L lgsfosf k|ltlglwnfO{ ;r]t u/fpg' cfjZos 5 . efjL lkF9Lsf] Joj:yfksLo Ifdtfaf6 g} ;'/lIft eljiosf] cfwf/ tof/ x'g] ePsfn] k|sf]k ;fdgf Ifdtf clej[l4 sfo{qmd cGo JolQmsf ;fy} lzIfs–ljBfyL{dfkm{t ;dfhdf k'¥ofpg' k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd 36fpg]] pko'Qm pkfo x'g;Sg] tYonfO{ gsfg{ ;lsFbg . oxL ;f]r } lnP/ k|sf]k–1fgdfnfsf] klxnf] efusf ¿kdf …k|sf]kM kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkgÚ k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 . k|sf]k–1fgdfnfsf] k|sfzg ug{ k|/0ff k|bfg ug]{ PS;gP8 g]kfnsf l;lgo/ lydnL8/ ] Zofd;'Gb/ 1jfnL / cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnsf sfo{qmd ;+of]hs lji0f' k|;fb v/]nnfO{ o;sf] ;kmntfsf] klxnf] >]o hfG5 . k|sf]k–1fgdfnfsf] efiff–;Dkfbg u/L ;xof]u ug]{ >4]o x]d/fh kf}8n …lxds/Ú k|lt cfef/ JoQm ub{5' . o; z[ªvnfnfO{ pTs[i6 ] agfpg ;Nnfx lbg'xg] k|sfzs ;+:yfsf ;Nnfxsf/Ho"x¿sf] of]ubfgsf] hlt k|z;f ' + u/] klg yf]/} x'G5 . To;}u/L k|sf]k 1fgdfnfsf] k|sfzgsf nflu sfo{qmds} ¿kdf cfly{s ;fem]bf/L ug]{ PS;gP8 g]kfn / cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnk|lt d]/f] JolQmut tyf k|sfzs ;+:yf …Osf]– g]kfnÚ sf tkm{af6 cfef/ JoQm ub{5' . k|sf]k–1fgdfnfsf] o; z[ªvnfdf ljz]ifu/L g]kfndf x'g] k|sf]k;DaGwL ;fdfGo hfgsf/L, ;fdflhs wf/0ff, k|sf]ksf k|sf/ Pj+ sf/0f / Joj:yfkg;DaGwL cfwf/e"t 1fg k:sg] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . o;n] ;dfhdf /x]sf] k|sf]kk|ltsf] e|dnfO{ x6fP/ ;d'bfonfO{ k|sf]k;DaGwL k"jtof/Ldf nfUg yf]/} dfq k|/0ff lbg ;Sof] eg] klg { ] k|sf]k–;'/Iffsf nflu k|f/De ul/Psf] xfd|f] cleofg ;fy{s ePsf] 7fGg]5' . – /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷3
  4. 4. ljifo;"rL k|sf]k 1fgdfnfsf] ;DaGwdf M # k|sf]ksf] kl/ro M %–( ljifok|jz] % kl/efiff ^ k|sf]k;DaGwL e|fds wf/0ff & k|sf]ksf k|sf/ M (–!# ;':t/L pTyfg x'g] k|sf]k ( tLj| pTyfg x'g] k|sf]k !) k|sf]ksf sf/0f M !$–!* k|fs[lts sf/0f !% dfgjLo sf/0f !^ k|sf]ksf] k|efj M !(–@# tTsfnLg k|efj !( bL3{sfnLg k|efj @) ul/aL / k|sf]k @@ ljsf;df k|sf]ksf] k|efj @@ k|sf]k Joj:yfkg @$–#$ kl/ro @$ hf]lvd ljZn]if0f @% k|sf]k Joj:yfkg rqm @^ k"jtof/L tyf k|sf]kklxn]sf] sfo{ { @& k|sf]ksf] ;dodf ug'kg]{ sfo{ { #) k|sf]kkl5 ug'kg]{ sfo{ { #@ lbuf] ljsf; ## k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf nfe #$ k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf pkfo #% s]xL sl7g zAb / ltgsf] cy{ #( k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷4
  5. 5. k|sf]ksf] kl/ro ljifo–k|j]z x/]s dflg;n] s'g} g s'g} ¿kaf6 k|sf]ksf] cg'ej u/]sf] x'G5 . clwsf+z dflg;nfO{ w]/} jiff{ ePdf af9L, klx/f] hfg], udL{df tftf] xfjf -n"_ / lxpFbdf zLtnx/ rNg], :jR5 lkpg] kfgL / ;/;kmfOsf] cefj ePdf jf k|bi" f0f a9]df dxfdf/L km}lng], vfBfGgsf] cefjdf ef]sd/L jf clgsfn nfu]/ s'kf]if0f x'g,] ;'Vvf df};ddf cfFwLa]x/L rNg], cfunfuL x'g] / s'g} klg ;dodf e'Orfnf] hfg ;Sg] 1fg x'G5 . F ;d'baf6 lgs} 6f9f ePsfn] g]kfndf ;d'bL| cfFwLsf] k|ToIf k|efj kb}g . t/fO{df | { rNg] tftf] xfjf kxf8L tyf lxdfnL If]qdf rNb}g . To;}n] ef}ule{s agf]6, w/ftnLo :j¿k, hnjfo'sf] ljt/0fh:tf cGtlg{lxt cj:yf g} k|sf]khGo 36gf pTkGg ug]{ sf/s x'g eGg ;lsG5 . g]kfndf af9L, klx/f], x'/Latf;, cfunfuL, e'Orfnf], lxdtfn ljikmf]6, v8]/L, dxfdf/L, zLtnx/h:tf 36gfn] hgwgsf] Iflt F ug]{ ePsfn] o:tf 36gfnfO{ g} k|sf]khGo 36gf dflgG5 . g]kfnh:tf] ljsf;f]Gd'v d'nsdf ljsf;lgdf{0fsf sfo{ ubf{ k|sf]ksf] ;Defljt ' hf]lvdk|lt /fd|/L Wofg lbOPsf] kfOFbg . kxf8L If]qdf ;8s lgdf{0f ubf{ klx/f] } hfg ;Sg] ;Defjgf 36fpg :t/Lo tyf lbuf] ;+/rgf lgdf{0f gul/g',' e"sDk– k|lt/f]ws ejg gagfOg', gbLlsgf/sf] a;f]af; tyf cltqmd0fdf lgoGq0f gul/g' / jgljgfz a9g' k|sf]khGo cj:yf pTkGg x'g] sf/0fsf ;fdfGo pbfx/0f x'g . k|sf]ksf k|dv tŒjsf ¿kdf /x]sf vt/f / ;ªs6fled'vtf 36fpg ;s] k|sf]ksf] ' hf]lvd w]/} xb;Dd sd x'G5 . o:tf sfo{sf nflu k|fKt x'g] ;}4flGts tyf k|fljlws 1fgaf6 k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtfdf clej[l4 x'g] ePsfn] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf ;sf/fTds k|efj kb{5 . cfw'lgs k|ljlwsf] b|tt/ ljsf; / lj:tf/ ' eO/x]sf cj:yfdf k':tf}bl] v k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug{ ;Sg] df}lns 1fg, k|ljlw / ;Lk klg F nf]k x'b} uPsf 5g . o;n] :yfgLo txsf] 1fg, Ifdtf tyf cfTdljZjf;nfO{ lg:t]h F agfO/x]sf] 5 . o; cj:yfdf cfw'lgs k|ljlwsf] 1fgsf cfwf/df :yfgLo cj:yf ;'xfpFbf] k|ljlwsf] ljsf; u/L pkof]u ug{ ;s] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd sd ug]{ k|of; ;fy{s aGg ;Sb5 . o;sf nflu k|sf]k;DaGwL j:t'ut 1fg x'g' h¿/L 5 . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷5
  6. 6. k|sf]ksf] kl/efiff ;x/ xf]; jf ufpF, ;do–;dodf ;a}lt/ ljleGg k|sf/sf ljgfzsf/L 36gf x'G5g . slxn] a]ujfg x'/Latf;;Fu} cl;gfkfgL kb{5 . slxn] nfdf] ;do;Dd v8]/L k/]/ v]tdf /f]ksf] afnL ;'Sb5 . slxn] d';nwf/] kfgL k/]/ af9L, 8'afg ] / klx/f]sf] ljgfzsf/L nLnf rNb5 . ufpF3/df dxfdf/L km}lnP/ w]/} dflg;sf] d[To' x'G5 . o:tf 36gfdf k/L vfBfGg, n'ufkmf6f], wgdfn, v]taf/L / afnLgfnL klg gi6 x'G5g . o:tf ljgfzsf/L 36gfdf k/]sf kLl8t JolQm jf ;d'bfonfO{ 5/l5d]s, u}/;/sf/L ;ª3;+:yf cyjf ;/sf/sf] ;xof]u cfjZos kb{5 . k|fs[lts jf ck|fs[lts 36gfaf6 pTkGg x'g] o:t} ljgfzsf/L cj:yfnfO{ g} k|sf]k elgG5 . af9L, klx/f], cfunfuL, r6Øfª, e'Orfnf], x'/Latf;, v8]/L, zLtnx/, F lxdtfn–ljikmf]6, dxfdf/L, b'36gf cflb k|sf]khGo 36gfsf s]xL pbfx/0f x'g . { k|sf]knfO{ ljleGg ljåfg / ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿n] km/s–km/s lsl;dn] kl/eflift u/]sf 5g . ;fdfGotof dflg;, 3/, sfof{no ejg, ;8s, k'n tyf v]taf/L, 3/kfn'jf kz'kG5L / hLjgofkgsf ;|ftdf Iflt k'¥ofpg] k|fs[lts jf ] ck|fs[lts 36gfnfO{ k|sf]k eGg] ul/G5 . 36gfsf] lsl;d, ef}uf]lns cj:yf, ljsf;sf] :t/, dflg;sf] r]tgf:t/, cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs cj:yfh:tf ljleGg sf/0fn] k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Ifltsf] kl/df0fdf leGgtf x'G5 . km/s :yfgdf x'g] Ps} k|sf/sf] 36gf st} k|nosf/L aGb5 eg] st} ;fdfGo /xG5 . To;}n] ;fdfGo efiffdf aflx/L ;d'bfosf] ;xof]usf] cfjZostf kg]{ u/L hgwgsf] 7"nf] Iflt ug]{ s'g} klg ck|Toflzt b'MvbfoL 36gfnfO{ g} k|sf]k eGg ;lsG5 . xfn cGt/f{li6«o /]8qm; dxf;ª3df kl/0ft ePsf tTsfnLg …nLu ckm /]8qm; P08 /]8lqm;]G6 ;f];fO6LÚ sf cg';f/– ‘cfsl:ds ¿kdf hghLjg c:tJo:t aGg] ljklQk"0f{ cj:yf g} k|sf]k xf] . o:tf] cj:yfdf dflg;n] w]/} b'Mv kfp“5g . t;y{, pgLx¿sf nflu ;'/Iff, vfgf, n'ufkmf6f], cfjf;, cf}iflwpkrf/ tyf ;fdflhs ;]jfh:tf b}lgs hLjgdf ge}gx'g] j:t' / ;]jf aflx/af6 k"lt{ ul/lbg' cfjZos x'G5’ . To;}u/L a[xt g]kfnL zAbsf]ifdf ‘e"sDk, cltj[li6, cgfj[li6, cf“wLa]x/L, dxfdf/L cflbn] l;h{gf u/]sf] cfklQhgs l:ylt g} k|sf]k xf]’ elgPsf] 5 . g]kfnsf] b}jL k|sf]k -p4f/_ P]g, @)#( -bf];f| ] ;+zf]wg @)$(_ df ‘b}jL k|sf]k eGgfn] e"sDk, cfunfuL, cf“wLa]x/L, af9L, klx/f], cltj[li6, cgfj[li6, clgsfn, dxfdf/L tyf o:t} cGo k|fs[lts k|sf]knfO{ ;Demg'kb{5 / ;f] zAbn] cf}Bf]lus b'36gf, { k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷6
  7. 7. lj:kmf]6s jf ljiffQm kbfy{åf/f x'g] b'36gf tyf o:t} s'g} klg k|sf/sf] { k|sf]ksf ljz]iftf k|sf]knfO{ ;d]t hgfpg]5’ eg]/ k|sf]k crfgs pTkGg x'g] ljkbk"0f{ k|sf]ksf] kl/efiff lbOPsf] 5 . 36gf xf] . k|sf]k;DaGwL cWoog ug]{ ;+:yf k| s f] k n] dflg;sf] lgoldt …dxfdf/L tyf k|sf]ksf nflu hLjgk4ltnfO{ c;fdfGo / cg';Gwfg s]Gb| (Center for c:tJo:t agfpF5 . Research on the k|sf]ksf sf/0f dflg; db{5g, Epidemiology and 3fOt] x' G 5g / wg;DklQsf] Disasters -CRED) n] ‘k|sf]k xflggf]S;fgL x'G5 . eg]sf] To:tf] kl/l:ylt jf 36gf k|sf]k pTkGg ePsf] cj:yfdf xf], h;sf] k|ltsf/sf nflu :yfgLo vfgf, a;f] a f;, n' u fkmf6f] , ;fwg, ;|ft / Ifdtf dfq kof{Kt ] cf}iflwpkrf/ / ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf] x'bg / /fli6«o cyjf cGt/f{li6«o “} vfFrf] x'G5 . :t/sf] aflx/L ;xfotf cfjZos k|sf]ksf] cj:yfdf kLl8t kl/jf/ x'G5’ eg]sf] 5 . tyf ;dfhsf tTsfnLg cfjZostf pk/f]Qm kl/efiffx¿sf] ljZn]if0fsf k"/f ug{ pknAw ;|f]t, ;fwg / cfwf/df ‘dflg;nufot, k|fs[lts Ifdtf ckof{Kt x'G5 . jftfj/0fsf cGo h}ljs jf k|sf]kaf6 aRg / To;af6 ePsf] ch}ljs tŒjn] s'g} klg sf/0faf6 Iflt / kL8faf6 d'lQm kfpg JolQm crfgs pTkGg x'g] 36gfnfO{ ;xg jf ;d'bfonfO{ tTsfnLg /fxt, ug{ ;Sb}gg / To:tf] 36gfaf6 p4f/ / k' g M:yfkgsf nflu dflg; db{ 5 g , 3fOt] x' G 5g , 5/l5d]s, ;/sf/ tyf ljb]zLsf] 3/af/ljxLg x'G5g tyf cfly{s ;d]t ;xof]u cfjZos kg{ ;Sb5 . Iflt x'G5 / To:tf] ljkbsf] ;fdgf ug{ c?sf] ;xof]u cfjZos kb{5 eg] To:tf] cj:yfnfO{ k|sf]k elgG5 .’ k|sf]k;DaGwL e|fds wf/0ff k|sf]ksf ;DaGwdf ljZjd} km/s–km/s k|sf/sf lsDjbGtL tyf e|fds wf/0ff kfOG5g . ;fdflhs ;+/rgf, wfld{s tyf ;f+:s[lts k/Dk/fcg'¿k k|sf]knfO{ lrGg] / a'‰g] k|lqmof klg km/s x'G5 . ljZjsf clwsf+z ;dfhdf k|sf]knfO{ unt k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷7
  8. 8. 9ªuaf6 a'‰g] tyf a'emfpg] ul/Psf] 5 . tL wf/0ff j:t'ut / tYok/s gePs} sf/0f ljZjf; ug{ nfos 5}gg . jf:tjdf k/Dk/fut wf/0ffn] k|sf]k s] xf] < lsg / s;/L x'G5 < o;af6 ;'/lIft /xg s] ug'kb{5 < cflb ljifodf tYok/s 1fg lbg { ;s]sf] 5}g . xfd|f] ;dfhdf ljBdfg /x]sf k|sf]k;DaGwL s]xL e|d o:tf 5g M e'Orfnf], Hjfnfd'vL, af9Lklx/f], r6Øfª, x'/Latf;sf sf/0f pTkGg F k|sf]knfO{ b]jLb]jtf l/;fP/ dRrfPsf] pkb|f] dfGg] ul/Psf] 5 . OGb| l/;fPdf v8]/L, cgfj[li6 / cltj[li6 x'G5 eGg] wf/0ff 5 . e'Orfnf], Hjfnfd'vL, af9L, klx/f]h:tf k|sf]khGo k|fs[lts 36gfnfO{ k[YjLn] F ef/ y]Ug g;Sgfn] pTkGg ePsf] ljZjf; ul/G5 . zq' dfg{ OGb|n] jh| k|xf/ ubf{ r6Øfª kg]{ wfld{s dfGotf 5 . lxdfno r9bf s}nfzklt dxfb]j l/;fP/ lxpFklx/f] u/fpg] ljZjf; 5 . r]K6f] k[YjLnfO{ af]ssf df5f, s5'jf jf xfQLn] sfFw km]bf{ k[YjL xlNnP/ ] e'Orfnf] hfg] syf afnaflnsfnfO{ ;'gfpg] k|rng ufpF3/df ce}m 5 . F k|sf]kdf kg'nfO{ efUosf] v]n eGg] ul/G5 . { ;dfhdf k/Dk/fb]lv k|sf]knfO{ b}jL zlQmsf] k|efj tyf efUosf] v]n 7fg]/ k|sf]k pTkGg x'g] sf/0f hfGg] / aRg] tYok/s pkfo vf]Hg] k|of;nfO{ a]jf:tf ug]{ rng /lxcfPsf] 5 . To;}n] k|sf]k lsg pTkGg x'G5 / o;sf] k|efj s;/L sd ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] jf:tljs 1fg k|fKt eof] eg] k|sf]kaf6 aRg / Iflt 36fpg ;lsG5 . xfdL ;a}n] k|sf]k jf:tjdf s] xf]Og t eg]/ a'‰g' h¿/L 5 . efUosf] v]n jf k"jhGdsf] kfksf sf/0f k|sf]kdf kl/g] xf]Og / of] { b]jLb]jtf l/;fP/ dlRrg] pkb|f] klg xf]Og . kfgLsf b]jtf elgg] OGb| l/;fpFbf cltj[li6 eP/ af9Lklx/f] hfg], cgfj[li6 tyf v8]/L kg]{ / OGb|n] g} jh| k|xf/ u/]/ r6ofª kg]{ xf]Og . k[YjL r]K6f] 5}g, o;nfO{ df5f, s5'jf jf xfQLn] af]ssf] klg 5}g . To;}n] ] ltgn] sfFw km]bf{ k[YjL xlNnP/ e'Orfnf] hfg] dfGotf unt xf] . F ;dfhdf k|sf]k;DaGwL JofKt /x]sf e|fds lsDjbGtLnfO{ cfTd;ft u/]/ cndlng'' tyf eujfgnfO{ g} bf]if lbg' unt xf] . To;}n] k|sf]k ePsf] ;dodf eujfgsf] gfd hk]/ a:g'eGbf ;'/lIft /xg] pkfo ug{;s] hLjg / wgdfn hf]ufpg ;lsG5 . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷8
  9. 9. k|sf]ksf k|sf/ k|sf]knfO{ k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 pTkGg x'g] / dfgjLo sf/0faf6 pTkGg x'g] u/L b'O{ k|sf/df ljefhg ug{ ;lsG5 . o; juL{s/0fcg';f/ e'Orfnf], Hjfnfd'vL, af9L, F klx/f], x'/Latf;, cltj[li6, cgfj[li6 tyf v8]/L, r6Øfª, lxdtfn–lj:kmf]6, lxdklx/f], e"Ifo cflbnfO{ k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 x'g] k|sf]ksf] ju{df /flvG5 . To;}u/L oftfoft, cf0fljs / cf}Bf]lus b'36gf, ;fdflhs åGå jf o'4, efubf}8sf sf/0f lylrP/ dg]{ { jf 3fOt] x'g] 36gfnfO{ dfgjl;lh{t k|sf]k elgG5 . 8'afg, cfunfuL, dxfdf/Lh:tf 36gfsf nflu k|fs[lts / dfgjLo b'j} sf/0f lhDd]jf/ x'G5g . ;dosf] kl/jt{g;Fu} cl3 a9]sf] k|fljlws ljsf;n] dflg;sf] hLjgz}nLdf Jofks kl/jt{g NofPsf] 5 . cfw'lgs pBf]u, ;8s tyf oftfoftsf] Jofks lj:tf/af6 jftfj/0f–k|bi" f0f lg/Gt/ a9b} uPsf] 5 . u|Lgxfp; k|efjsf Uof;sf] pT;h{g, jgljgfz, ljZjJofkL tfkqmd j[l4 / k|bi" f0fh:tf sf/0fn] k|sf]khGo 36gfdf klg lg/Gt/ j[l4 eO/x]sf] 5 . o; kl/jlt{t cj:yfdf k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 x'g] eGg] 7flgPsf x'/Latf;, cl;gf, cgfj[li6, v8]/L, af9L, klx/f]nufotsf 36gfsf] j[l4 / lj:tf/ x'gdf dfgjLo sf/0f w]/} lhDd]jf/ /x]sf] 5 . To;}n] k|sf]ksf] juL{s/0f ' ubf{ o;sf] pTklQ x'g] sf/0f / k|jl[ QnfO{ k|dv cfwf/ dflgG5 . o; cfwf/cg';f/ ' k|sf]knfO{ lgDgcg';f/ juL{s/0f ul/G5 M ;':t/L pTyfg x'g] k|sf]k l9nf] tyf ;':t ultdf ljsl;t eO{ nfdf] ;dokl5 k|efj b]vf kfg]{ k|sf]knfO{ ;':t/L pTyfg x'g] k|sf]k elgG5 . v8]/L, ef]sd/L, d?e"dLs/0f / jftfj/0fLo k|bi" f0faf6 pTkGg x'g] k|sf]kx¿ o; k|sf/sf] k|sf]ksf pbfx/0f x'g . s'g} :yfgdf nfdf] ;do;Dd jiff{ geP/ v8]/L kbf{ d?e"dLs/0fsf] vt/f a95 . o:tf] cj:yfdf vfBfGg pTkfbg 36]/ ef]sd/Lsf] ;d:of pTkGg x'G5 . ljz]ifu/L k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 v8]/L kg]{ elgP klg o;nfO{ clxn] ljZjJofkL tfkqmd–j[l4sf] kl/0ffd dflgPsf] 5 . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷9
  10. 10. tLj| pTyfg x'g] k|sf]k k|fs[lts tyf dfgjLo sf/0fn] Hofb} 5f]6f] ;dodf pTkGg x'g] k|sf]knfO{ tLj| pTyfg x'g] k|sf]k elgG5 . e'Orfnf], Hjfnfd'vL, x'/Latf;, cfunfuL, af9L, klx/f], F dxfdf/L cflb tLj| pTkGg x'g] k|sf]ksf pbfx/0f x'g . o; >]0fLsf k|sf]knfO{ lgDgfg';f/ ljefhg ug{ ;lsG5M hnpTkGg k|sf]k k[YjLdf k|sl[ ts ¿kdf rNg] ljleGg rqmdWo] hnrqm klg Ps xf] . k[YjLnfO{ k|sf]ksf k|sf/ tLj|pTyfg k|sf]k ;':tpTyfg k|sf]k d?e"dLs/0f v8]/L ef}ule{s hnpTkGg hnjfo'hGo k|sf]k k|sf]k k|sf]k e'Orfnf] “ af9L x'/Latf; Hjfnfd'vL klx/f] ;d'bL cf“wL | 8'afg r6Øfª zLtnx/ dfgjs[t lxdkft tftf] xjf -n'_ k|sf]k cl;gfkfgL ;fdflhs åGå, o'4 lxdtfn–ljikmf]6 x'nbªuf tyf efubf}8 clUgpTkGg vfBpTkGg k|ljlwhGo h}ljs k|sf]k k|sf]k k|sf]k k|sf]k cfunfuL ef]sd/L oftfoft b'36gf { jGohGt' cfqmd0f 89]nf] s'kf]if0f cf}Bf]lus b'36gf{ dxfdf/L dxfdf/L /f;folgs b'36gf { sL/fsf] cfqmd0f k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷10
  11. 11. hLjgof]Uo agfO/fVg hnrqmn] g} dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ub{5 . t}klg kfgLs} sf/0f ljZjdf w]/} k|sf/sf k|sf]ksf] pTklQ x'g] u/]sf] 5 . kfgLsf] sf/0faf6 pTkGg x'g] ljkbk0f{ 36gfnfO{ hnpTkGg k|sf]k " elgG5 . af9L, klx/f], 8'afg, lxdkft, cl;gfkfgL, lxdtfn–ljikmf]6, k|b"lift vfg]kfgLsf sf/0f pTkGg dxfdf/L, cDnjiff{ cflb o; >]0fLdf kb{5g . clUgpTkGg k|sf]k hLjg–lgjf{xsf nflu cfuf] geO{ x'bg . ToxL cfuf]sf] k|of]udf F} x'g] q'l6sf sf/0f cfunfuL eP/ hgwgsf] Iflt x'G5 . ljZjdf cfunfuL eP/ dflg; d/]sf / 7"nf] dfqfdf ef}lts ;DklQsf] gf]S;fg ePsf ;dfrf/ ;w}h;f] F cfO/xG5g . ctM ufpF3/ / ;x/ahf/df x'g] cfunfuL / dfgj;+/lIft jgdf nfUg] 89]nf] clUgpTkGg k|sf]ksf pbfx/0f x'g . vfBpTkGg k|sf]k b"lift vfgf vfgfn] emf8fkvfnf nfUb5 . vfgfsf] cefjdf clgsfn nfUbf ljz]ifu/L afnaflnsf, ue{jtL tyf ;'Ts]/L dlxnf / a"9fa"9Ldf s'kf]if0fsf] k|efj l56f] b]vf kb{5 . o;/L b"lift vfgf / vfBcNktfsf sf/0f pTkGg x'g] gsf/fTds k|efjnfO{ vfBpTkGg k|sf]k elgG5 . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷11
  12. 12. hnjfo'hGo k|sf]k jfo'd08ndf ljleGg k|sf/sf lqmof–k|ltlqmof rln/xFbf To;sf] ;f]emf] k|efj k[YjLdf kl//x]sf] x'G5 . ;"oaf6 k[YjLtkm{ cfpg] { pmhf{, ljls/0f / k[YjLaf6 pT;h{g x'g] tfk tyf u'?Tjfsif{0f zlQm, u|xx¿sf] ultzLntf, hnjfik tyf hnLo kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLsf aLr x'g] cGtlqm{ofsf sf/0f ljleGg k|sf/sf hnjfo'hGo 36gf eO/xG5g . x'/Latf;, ;d'bL| cfFwL, r6Øfª, zLtnx/, tftf] xfjf -n"_ cflb hnjfo'hGo k|sf]k x'g . pBf]u Pj+ k|ljlwhGo k|sf]k jt{dfg ljZj cf}Bf]lus ljsf;sf] pRr ljGb'df k'lu;s]sf] 5 . ljnfl;tfsf ;fwg dfq xf]Og, b}lgs hLjglgjf{xsf j:t';d]t cTofw'lgs k|ljlwo'Qm pBf]uaf6 pTkfbg x'G5g . cfly{s ljsf;nfO{ cem ult lbg] qmddf ljZjJofkL xf]8afhLs} ¿kdf To:tf pBf]usf] :yfkgf eO/x]sf] 5 . o:tf pBf]udf h8fg ePsf oGqsf] v/ faLaf6 jf ljB'tLo u8a8L eP/ jf /;fog r'lxP/ k|sf]kk"0f{ 36gf x'g] u/]sf 5g . To:t} xjfOhxfh, kfgLhxfh, /]n, a;, 6«s cflbsf] b'36gfaf6 klg hgwgsf] { Iflt w]/} x'g] u/]sf] 5 . pBf]u jf oftfoftsf If]qdf x'g] b'36gf, cf0fljs /;fog { / ljls/0fsf] r'xfj6 tyf ljikmf]6 cf}Bf]lus tyf k|ljlwhGo k|sf]ksf pbfx/0f x'g . dfgjs[t k|sf]k dflg;s} k|ToIf sf/0faf6 pTkGg x'g] k|sf]khGo 36gfnfO{ dfgjs[t k|sf]ksf ¿kdf lng ;lsG5 . ;fdflhs åGå, o'4, x'nbªuf tyf efubf}8 cflb dfgjs[t k|sf]ksf pbfx/0f x'g . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷12
  13. 13. h}ljs k|sf]k hg;ªVofsf] cTolws j[l4sf sf/0f jgdfly dflg;sf] rfk tyf cltqmd0f a9]sf] x'bf jGohGt'sf] af;:yfg lbgx'F F ;ª s 6fkGg aGb} uPsf] 5 . kl/0ffd:j¿k af3, efn', lrt'jfh:tf jGohGt' ufpFdf k;]/ dflg; / 3/kfn'jf hgfj/dfly cfqmd0f ug]{ qmd a9]sf] 5 . To:t} /f]usf sL6f0f', hLjf0f' / sL/f a9]/ dflg;sf] :jf:Yo / vfBfGgafnL klg gi6 ub{5g . ;nx, 9';L, lrKn]sL/f cflbn] v]tLkftL gi6 ug]{ / s'g} df+;fxf/L hgfj/n] dflg; jf 3/kfn'jf hgfj/dfly cfqmd0f u/]/ hgwgsf] Iflt ug]{ ePdf To:tf] cj:yfnfO{ h}ljs k|sf]k elgG5 . ef}ule{s k|sf]k k[YjLsf] e"ue{ ;txh:t} crn 5}g, of] rnfodfg 5 . ;txaf6 ;of}F lsnf]ld6/leq tfksf sf/0f klUnPsf] jf t/n cj:yfdf /x]sf] kbfy{;u} F g/d ag]sf r§fgL Kn]6 lg/Gt/ rnfodfg x'G5g . r§fgL Kn]6 rNg] qmddf c;xh cj:yf l;h{gf x'bf F ;l~rt pmhf{ e"ue{af6 ;txtkm{ aflxl/g] qmddf e";txdf 7"nf] xnrn k}bf x'G5 . To:t} k[YjLsf] ue{df /x]sf] klUnPsf] kbfy{ aflx/ lg:sFbf tftf] nfef / DofUdfn] a[xt If]qnfO{ 9fSb5 . o;/L pTkGg x'g] k|sf]knfO{ ef}ule{s k|sf]k elgG5 . e'Orfnf] / Hjfnfd'vL F ef}ule{s k|sf]ksf pbfx/0f x'g . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷13
  14. 14. k|sf]ksf sf/0f ;d'b;txaf6 dfq ^) ld6/ cUnf] d}bfgb]lv *,*$* ld6/ cUnf] ljZjs} ;jf]Rr | { lzv/ ;u/dfyf, pRr lxdfn, a];L, pkTosfh:tf w/ftnLo ljljwtf ePsf] ;fgf] F ef}uf]lns If]qleq klg y'k}| c;dfgtfx¿ kfOG5g . oxL ljifd ef}uf]lns cj:yfsf k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷14
  15. 15. sf/0f k|sf]khGo 36gf k|z:t x'G5g . g]kfndf x'g] ljleGg k|sf]ksf sf/0f lgDgcg';f/ dflgPsf] 5 M k|fs[lts sf/0f g]kfnsf] s'n If]qkmnsf] emG8} *# k|ltzt efunfO{ kxf8 / lxdfnn] 9fs]sf] 5 . of] lxdfno–z[ªvnf nueu % s/f]8 jif{klxn] dfq pTkGg ePsf] x'bf ;+;f/s} F sfG5f] kj{t z[ªvnf dflgG5 . To;}n] oxfFsf] e";tx Hofb} sdnf] / cl:y/ 5 . g]kfnsf] ef}uf]lns :j¿k / w/ftnLo cj:yf ljifd Pj+ sdhf]/ ePsfn] oxfFsf] 9'ªufdf6f]sf] ;+of]hgdf ;fdfGo lqmofsnfkn] klg ljrng k}bf ub{5 . To;}n] g]kfndf af9L tyf klx/f]h:tf k|sf]kx¿ k|z:t x'G5g . g]kfndf x'g] k|sf]ksf k|fs[lts sf/0fnfO{ lgDgcg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M ef}uf]lns sf/0f g]kfnsf] kxf8L If]q ljZjs} ;a}eGbf sfG5f] kj{tz[ªvnf ePsfn] oxfFsf] w/ftn k"0f{ ¿kdf l:y/ eO;s]sf] 5}g . To;}n] g]kfndf ;fdfGo jiff{åf/f klg e";tx vl:sg] x'bf e"Ifo, klx/f] / af9Lsf] cTolws hf]lvd /x]sf] 5 . F ef}ule{s sf/0f g]kfn lxGb'sz lxdfnosf] sl/a @,$)) lsnf]ld6/ nfdf] rGb|fsf/ kj{tLo If]qsf] ' s]Gb|df /x]sf] 5 . oxfFsf] e"ue{df pQ/L If]qdf /x]sf] lta]ltog Kn]6 / blIf0fL If]qdf /x]sf ef/tLo 6]S6f]lgs Kn]6 cfk;df 3':b} hfg] e"ue{ljbx¿sf] egfO 5 . ] oxL sf/0f e"sDkLo b[li6n] o; If]qsf] ef}ule{s cj:yf ;+jbgzLn /x]sf] dflgG5 . ] e'Orfnf]sf] P]ltxfl;s cWoogaf6 g]kfndf &) b]lv !)) jif{sf] cGt/fndf F ljgfzsf/L e'Orfnf] hfg] u/]sf] b]lvG5 . F dg;'gL sf/0f blIf0ftkm{ /x]sf] aªufnsf] vf8Laf6 p7g] dg;'gL jfo'af6 l;lh{t jiff{sf] k|efj klg o; If]qdf a9L kb{5 . ToxfFaf6 p7]/ axg] dg;'gL jfo' pRr lxdz[ªvnfdf 7f]lSsFbf To;eGbf tNnf] If]qdf cTolws jiff{ x'bf e";tx IfoLs[t eP/ klx/f] tyf F af9Lsf] ;Defjgf k|an /xG5 . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷15
  16. 16. jfo'd08nLo sf/0f jfo'd08ndf x'g] ljleGg k|ltlqmofsf sf/0f cl;gf, r6Øfª, x'/Latf;, cfFwLa]x/L, lxdkft, zLtnx/, cltj[li6, v08j[li6, v8]/Lh:tf k|sf]khGo 36gf pTkGg x'G5g . dfgjLo sf/0f s'g} klg k|fs[lts 36gf cfkm}df k|sf]k x'bg . To:tf 36gfåf/f dflg;dfly k|ToIf F F} jf ck|ToIf ¿kdf k|lts"n k|efj k/] jf Iflt ePdf dfq To:tf] 36gfnfO{ k|sf]k elgG5 . o; tYocg';f/ dfgjLo lqmofsnfk g} k|sf]ksf] d'Vo sf/s b]lvG5 . k|fs[lts 36gfnfO{ k|sf]kdf ¿kfGt/0f ug{ dflg;sf ljsf;] sfo{ g} a9L lhDd]jf/ /x]sf 5g, h;nfO{ lgDgcg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M clzIff k|sf]ksf] k|efjsf] lj:tf/ ug]{ hNbf]aNbf] sf/0fsf] ¿kdf clzIff tyf k|sf]kk|ltsf] e|fds wf/0ff tyf cGwljZjf;nfO{ lng ;lsG5 . lzlIft JolQmdf ;d]t k|sf]k;DaGwL r]tgfsf] cefj /x]sf] tyf o;nfO{ O{Zj/ jf efUosf] v]n dfGg] e|daf6 ;dfh aflxl/g g;s]sfn] k|sf]k–Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{ k|efjsf/L x'g ;s]sf 5}gg . To;}n] clzIff jf r]tgfsf] sdL /x]sf] cj:yfnfO{ k|sf]ksf] sf/s dfGg ;lsG5 . ul/aL ul/a JolQm, kl/jf/ tyf ;d'bfodf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug{;Sg] ;Defjgf Hofb} Go"g /xG5 . To;}u/L, ul/a ju{ g} k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd /x]sf] :yfgdf a;]/ hLjg wfGg afWo x'G5 . k|sf]k Go"gLs/0ffsf sfo{ / k|ljlwdf klg pgLx¿sf] kx'r :yflkt x'g F ;Sb}g . To;}n] ul/aLnfO{ klg k|sf]ksf] sf/0f dfGg ;lsG5 . cj}1flgs e"–pkof]u g]kfnsf] kj{tLo e"–;tx Hofb} sdhf]/ 5 . To;dfly, cj}1flgs v]tLk|0ffnLn] e"IfonfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbO/x]sf] 5 . le/fnf] e"lddf ul/g] cj}1flgs / c:jfefljs v]tLsf sf/0f e"–Ifo, klx/f], d?e"dLs/0fh:tf ;d:of ylkFb} uPsf 5g . jgljgfz tyf vf]l/of v]tL a9bf] hg;ªVofsf nflu clgolGqt ¿kdf jgkmF8fgL u/]/ k|fs[lts k|0ffnLdfly k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷16
  17. 17. bafa lbg] sfo{ tLj| ¿kdf rln/x]sf] 5 . le/fnf] kfvfdf vf]l/of kmfF8/ ul/g] ] vf]l/of v]tLk|0ffnLn] klg k|fs[lts k|0ffnL ckslif{t eO/x]sf] 5 . o:tf sf/0fn] k|fs[lts jftfj/0f / h}ljs ljljwtfdfly dfq k|efj kf/]sf] 5}g, e"Ifo / klx/f]af6 pTkGg x'g] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd klg a9fO/x]sf] 5 . clgof]lht lgdf{0f ljsf;lgdf{0f dfgjLo cfjZostf xf] . t/ k|sf]ksf] ;Defjgftkm{{ Wofg} glbO{ lgdf{0f ul/Psf ;8s, k'n, ljB't–cfof]hgf, l;FrfO gx/, ejg cflbn] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd lgs} a9fPsf 5g . k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]]{ Ifdtfo'Qm ;+/rgf lgdf{0f gx'bf F ;fdfGo 36gfaf6 klg w]/} Iflt x'g] u/]sf] 5 . cf}Bf]lus ljsf; k|sf]ksf] lj:tf/df ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] csf]{ dfgjLo sf/0f cf}Bf]lus ljsf; klg xf] . cTofjZos pkef]Uo j:t'sf] pTkfbg ug]bl] v /f;folgs j:t' / pmhf{ pTkfbg ug]{ { pBf]udf x'g] b'36gf tyf tL pBf]uaf6 pT;h{g x'g] ljiffQm j:t'sf sf/0f k|bi" f0f { a9]/ x'g] 36gfaf6 ljZjJofkL ¿kdf hgwgsf] 7"nf] Iflt x'g] u/]sf] 5 . s[lqd af“wlgdf{0f hnljB't jf l;FrfOsf nflu agfOg] 7"nf afFwsf sf/0f k|fs[lts k|0ffnL ljrlnt eP/ k|sf]ksf 36gf x'g yfn]sf 5g . k|fljlws q'l6sf sf/0f afFweGbf dflyNnf] If]q 8'afg x'bf jf afFw k'm6]/ kfgLsf] axfjdf crfgs j[l4 x'bf ck"/0fLo Iflt F F x'G5 . t/fO{sf] ;LdfjtL{ If]qdf ef/tn] lgdf{0f u/]sf afFwsf sf/0f g]kfnsf clwsf+z lhNnf x/]s jif{ 8'afgdf kb}{ cfPsf 5g . ;fdflhs åGå / o'4 jt{dfg ;dodf a9]sf] ;fdflhs åGån] ljZJofkL ¿kd} k|sf]ksf] eofjx cj:yf l;h{gf u/]sf] 5 . jt{dfg ;dodf ;fdflhs åGå tyf o'4 ljZjJofkL ¿kd} hgwgsf Ifltsf] sf/s ag]sf] 5 . ;/;kmfOsf] cefj a9bf] hg;ªVof, ;x/Ls/0f, :jf:Yo lzIffsf] cefj, b"lift vfgf tyf kfgL, s'kf]if0f, ck|fs[lts of}ghGo lqmofsnfk, ;/;kmfOsf] cefjh:tf sf/0fn] gofF k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷17
  18. 18. /f]ux¿sf] hGd x'g yfn]sf] 5 . P8;, x}hf, emf8fkvfnf, efO/n OGˆn'PGhf, a8{ˆn' / ;f;{h:tf dxfdf/Ln] klg jif]gL xhf/f}F dflg;sf] Hofg lnO/x]sf] 5 . { jftfj/0f k|bif0f " hg;ªVof j[l4, ;|ftdflysf] cltqmd0f, cf}Bf]lus ljsf;sf sf/0f jftfj/0fLo ] k|bi" f0f a9]sf] 5 . sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8, sfa{g df]gf]cS;fO8, ldy]g, gfO6«fhgsf ] cS;fO8, Snf]l/gh:tf Uof;sf] cTolws pT;h{gn] jfo'kbi" f0f a9]sf] 5 . To:t} | /f;folgs kbfy{, h}ljs xltof/, sL6gfzs cf}iflw, Knfl:6sh:tf k|bi" fssf] pTkfbg / k|of]un] klg jftfj/0fLo ;ªs6 a9fPsf] 5 . o;/L jftfj/0f–k|bi" f0f a9]/ k|sf]khGo 36gfdf j[l4 eO/x]sf] 5 . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷18
  19. 19. k|sf]ksf] k|efj k|sf]ksf] ljgfzsf/L cj:yf To;n] kfg]{ k|efjsf cfwf/df lgwf{l/t x'G5 . k|sf]ksf] :t/cg';f/ dfgj ;dfhdf ljleGg lsl;dsf k|efj kb{5g . k|sf]kaf6 JolQm, kl/jf/ / ;d'bfodf tTsfnLg kL8f t x'G5 g} To;sf] k|efj bL3{sfn;Dd klg /xg ;Sb5 . k|sf]ksf k|efjx¿nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M tTsfnLg k|efj k|sf]kn] dflg;sf] Hofg lng], 3fOt] agfpg] / wg;DklQ gi6 ug]{ x'bf tTsfnsf] F hghLjg si6s/ x'G5 . cfkm" / cfˆgf kl/jf/sf ;b:onfO{ g} arfpg sl7g x'g] cj:yfdf wg;DklQ hf]ufpg] ;Defjgf Hofb} sd x'G5 . k|sf]kk|efljt ;d'bfodf vfgf, cfjf;, n'ufkmf6f], cf}iflwpkrf/, ;'/Iffh:tf cfwf/e"t ;]jfsf] cefj x'G5 . o;k|sf/ k|sf]kaf6 kg]{ tTsfnLg k|efjnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ juL{s/0f ug{ ;lsG5 M dfgjLo Iflt k|sf]kdf k/]/ dflg; db{5g, 3fOt] x'G5g / x/fpF5g . o; cj:yfdf d[tssf] bfx;+:sf/, 3fOt]sf] pkrf/ / j]kQf ePsfsf] vf]hL ug'{ k|dv st{Jo x'G5 . ' k|sf]kaf6 pTkGg eofjx l:yltdf afFrsfdWo]s} klg sltko dflg;n] kL8f ;xg ] ug{ g;s]/ k|f0f Tofu ug{ ;Sb5g . cfly{s Iflt k|sf]kaf6 3/af/, wgdfn, v]tLkftL, kz'wg cflb gi6 x'G5g . pBf]u, snsf/vfgf, hUufhldg, vfBj:t', ;8s, k'n, ljB't pTkfbgs]Gb| tyf ljt/0fk|0ffnL, vfg]kfgLsf ;+/rgf, ;fj{hlgs ejg, ljBfno, c:ktfn cflb gi6 eP/ cfly{s Iflt x'G5 . k|sf]ksf] ;dodf cf>o:yn, cf}iflw, vfBfGgh:tf cfjZos j:t'sf] cefj x'g] x'bf F To;af6 czQm, la/fdL, s]6fs]6L, a"9fa"9L, ue{jtL / ;'Ts]/L dlxnf a9L k|efljt x'G5g . k|sf]kaf6 x'g] cfly{s IfltnfO{ lgDgcg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M ;l~rt wgsf] Iflt M vfBfGg, n'ufkmf6f], u/uxgf cflb . ef}lts ;+/rgfsf] Iflt M 3/, uf]7, vfg]kfgL / pmhf{;oGq cflb . + k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷19
  20. 20. e"ldsf] Iflt M v] t , af/L, df5fkf]v/L cflb . g]kfnsf ljgfzsf/L k|sf]k afnL–gfnLsf]] Iflt M cGgafnL, !(() ;fnsf] e'Orfnf]af6 *,%(( F t/sf/L, afuau}rf cflb . F hgfsf] d[To' / !* xhf/ 3/ kz'wgsf] Iflt M ufO{, e};L, uf]?, F gi6, afv|f, s'v/f cflb . ' @)$% ;fnsf] e'OFrfnf]af6 &@! ;fj{hlgs ;DklQsf] Iflt M hgfsf] d[To' / @!,&*^ 3/ ;fj{hlgs ljBfno, k':tsfno, k"0f{ ¿kdf Ifltu|:t, ;/sf/L sfof{no, ;8s, k'n, !**^ ;fndf tfg;]gdf, @)@% vfg] k fgL, ljB' t p Tkfbg jf ;fndf lj/f6gu/df, @)#) ljt/0f–k|0ffnL . ;fndf l;+xb/af/df / @)^) k|sf]kl;lh{t k|sf]k ;fndf tfKn]h'ªdf ePsf 7"nf Pp6f k|sf]ksf] k|efjaf6 tTsfn} csf]{ cfunfuLaf6 w]/} Iflt, k|sf]k klg pTkGg x'g ;S5 . @)@) ;fndf lakm/af6 ! xhf/ af9Lk|efljt If]qdf :jR5 vfg]kfgLsf] dflg;sf] d[To', cefjdf dxfdf/L km}lnG5 . e'Orfnf]n] F @)#) / @)#& ;fndf nfdf] eTsfPsf 3/–uf]7df k'l/Psf dflg; v8]/L, / kz'sf] vf]hL, p4f/ / ;/;kmfO ;dod} ug{ g;Sbf dxfdf/L km}lng] @)$$ ;fn kmfu'g @( ut] ;Defjgf /xG5 . vfBfGg, cfjf; / bz/y /ª u zfnfdf ePsf] ;'/Iff–Joj:yf sdhf]/ x'bf ;fdflhs F efubf}8df &! hgfsf] d[To', åGå, rf]/L8s}tL, ef]sd/L cflb k|sf]k @)$$ ;fnd} kfls:tfg klg ylkG5g . Po/nfOG; / yfO Po/nfOG;sf ljdfg b'36gf, ;of}F ofq'sf] lgwg, { bL3{sfnLg k|efj k|sf]kn] ;dfhdf tTsfnLg k|efj;Fu} @))@, @)@%, @)@&, @)@*, bL3{sfnLg c;/ klg 5f]8b5 . sltko @)#!, @)#@, @)#%, @)#*, cj:yfdf t k|sf]ksf] k|efj ljZjJofkL @)$), @)%), @)^! / @)^# g} x'g ;S5 . ;g @))$ sf] l8;]Da/ ;fndf af9Lklx/f]sf sf/0f d'nssf @^ df OG8f]gl] ;ofsf] ;'dfqfdf uPsf] ljleGg efudf 7"nf] Iflt . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷20
  21. 21. e'Orfnf]sf sf/0f pTkGg ;'gfdLn] ljZjcy{tGqnfO{ lgs} k5fl8 ws]nsf] ljZn]if0f F ] cy{zf:qLx¿n] u/]sf 5g . k|sf]kaf6 ljleGg If]qdf kg]{ bL3{sfnLg k|efjnfO{ lgDgcg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M dfgl;s k|efj k|sf]kdf k/]/ cfkmGt, 3/af/ / wg;DklQ u'dfPsf JolQmdf bL3{sfn;Dd dgf]j1flgs c;/ kb{5 . s'g} JolQm zf/Ll/s jf dfgl;s ¿kdf czQm eP/ } hLjg g} lgliqmo x'bf p;df xLgtfaf]w F k|sf]kaf6 a9L k|efljt k}bf x'g ;S5 . x'g] ;d'bfo cfly{s k|efj 3/v]t gePsf / ul/aLsf k|sf]ksf sf/0f wg;DklQ cflb gi6 x'bf F sf/0f gbLlsgf/, ;d'bfo cfly{s kL8fdf kb{5 . k|sf]kaf6 eL/kfvfh:tf vt/fo' Q m kg]{ bL3{sfnLg cfly{s k|efjnfO{ tLg :yfgdf a;f]af; ug{ afWo k|sf/n] x]g{ ;lsG5 M kl/jf/ jf ;d'bfo . JolQmut k|efj cfocfh{gsf j}slNks pkfo wg;DklQ gi6 eP/ jf cfocfh{gsf] gePsf ul/a ;d'bfo . cGo ljsNk gx'bf dflg; ul/aLsf] rk]6fdf F ljsf;sf] d"nk|jfxdf kb{5 . p;sf] JolQmut ljsf;sf clwsf+z g;d] l 6Psf clwsf/af6 k"jf{wf/ ;dfKt x'G5g . dfgl;s ¿kdf jl~rt pTkLl8t, blnt, sdhf]/ JolQm cfly{s, k|fljlws tyf hghflt . ;fdflhs ljsf;af6 ljd'v aGb5g . lzIffsf] kx'“r gePsf jf ;fdflhs k|efj lzIff cfh{ g ug{ c;dy{ k|sf]ksf] k|efj JolQm;lxt ;dfhdfly ;d'bfo . klg kb{5 . k|sf]kk|efljt ;d'bfodf g}/fZo afnaflnsf, a"9fa"9L, czQm, / hLjgk|lt ljt[i0ff a9g] jf ;fdflhs ue{jtL jf ;'Ts]/L dlxnf . ;befjdf cf3ft kg]{ x'g ;S5 . cfly{s, ;fdflhs / k|sf]kk|efljt If]qdf cfly{s ;d:of a9]/ ;f+:s[lts sf/0fn] c;'/lIft hghLjg si6s/ x'G5 . vfBfGgsf] cefjdf :yfgdf a;f]af; ug{ afWo jf s'kf]if0f / :jR5 kfgL tyf ;/;kmfOsf] ;'/lIft 3/ agfpg c;dy{ cefj x'bf dxfdf/L km}lnG5 . F ;d'bfo . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷21
  22. 22. /fli6«o k|efj k|sf]kn] dfgjLo pkof]usf ef}lts ;+/rgf gi6 ubf{ ;/sf/dfly k'glg{df{0f / Ifltk"lt{sf] ef/ ylkG5 . lj:yflkt ePsf kl/jf/sf nflu a;f]af; / cfocfh{gsf j}slNks ;|ftsf] Joj:yf ubf{ ;fj{hlgs ljsf;–lgdf{0f cj?4 x'G5 . ] dfgj;+;fwgdf k|efj ;fdflhs lqmofsnfkdf cu|;/ /xg] :yfgLo ljsf; sfo{stf{ g} k|sf]kkLl8t ePdf ;dfhdf dfgj;+;fwg kl/rfng x'g;Sg] ;Defjgf Go"g eP/ ;fdflhs ljsf;sf] ult cj?4 x'G5 . To:t} k|sf]ksf sf/0f 8fS6/, OlGhlgo/h:tf k|fljlws Pj+ ljlzi6 ljåfgnfO{ u'dfpg'kbf{ ;dfhdf dfgj;+;fwgsf] cefj x'g hfG5 . ul/aL / k|sf]k k|sf]ksf] k|efj clwsf+z ul/a ;d'bfodf k/]sf] x'G5 . wgL kl/jf/sf] jf;:yfg cGo ;'/lIft :yfgdf ;d]t x'g] jf cfocfh{gsf ;|ft pknAw x'g] ePsfn] ul/a kl/jf/df ] k/]h:t} 7"nf] k|efj pgLx¿df k/]sf] x'bg . ul/a ;d'bfo k|sf]ksf sf/0f lj:yflkt F} ePkl5 k'gM k|sf]k x'g;Sg] hf]lvdk"0f{ :yfgd} a:g afWo x'G5g . o:tf] cj:yf lg/Gt/ bf]xf]l/O/xg] ePsfn] /fHosf] ul/aLlgjf/0f;DaGwL nIo ;ªs6fkGg aGb5 . ljsf;df k|sf]ksf] k|efj dflg;sf] pTklQsfnb]lv lg/Gt/ rNb} cfPsf] ;sf/fTds kl/jt{g g} ljsf; xf] . dfgj;Eotfsf ljleGg r/0fdf gjLg k|ljlwsf] cfljisf/ / ljsf; ub}{ dflg; cgj/t ¿kdf cufl8 al9/x]sf] 5 . oBlk dflg;n] hlt gofF k|ljlwsf] ljsf; ub}{ cfPsf] 5, jftfj/0f cksif{0f / k|sf]khGo 36gfdf Tolt g} lj:tf/ eO/x]sf] 5 . hg;ªVof–j[l4;Fu} a9]sf] jgkmF8fgL tyf k|fs[lts ;|ftdflysf] bafj, clgolGqt / ] cJojl:yt ¿kdf eO/x]sf] e"pkof]u, ;8s, /]n;]jf, ljB'tpTkfbg kl/of]hgfh:tf ef}lts ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0fh:tf sfo{n] ef}uf]lns :j¿kdf ;d]t ljv08g / kl/jt{g NofpF5g . o;/L lgld{t ;+/rgfdf k|sf]ksf] k|lt/Iff ug{;Sg] Ifdtf gePdf Iflt klg a9b} hfG5 . jf:tjdf dfgjLo lqmofsnfkn] ljsf; / ljgfznfO{ Pp6f l;Ssfsf b'O{ kf6fsf] ¿kdf ljsl;t ul/lbPsf] 5 . k|sl[ tsf cfˆg} lqmofsnfk / dflg;åf/f ul/g] ljsf;lgdf{0faLr ;Gt'ng sfod gx'gfn] h'g :t/df dfgj;Eotf cufl8 a9b} uPsf] 5, ToxL :t/df k|sf]ksf] lj:tf/ klg eO/x]sf] 5 . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷22
  23. 23. k|sf]kn] ljsf;nfO{ kl5 ws]N5 k|sf]khGo 36gfn] 3/, ;8s, k'n, ljB'tu[x, ljBfno ejg cflb dfgjåf/f lgld{t ;+/rgfnfO{ If0fe/d} eTsfpF5 / dflg;sf] Hofg klg lnG5 . o;af6 a]/f]huf/L, ef]sd/L / ;fdflhs czflGt a9b5 . o;sf ;fy} k|sf]kaf6 lj:yflkt ;d'bfonfO{ a;f]af; u/fpFbf / eTs]sf jf Ifltu|:t ;+/rgfsf] k'glg{df{0f ubf{ d'n'sn] ljsf;sf gofF If]qdf ug'{kg]{ nufgL cj?4 eP/ /fli6«o ljsf;df afwf k'Ub5 . g]kfndf lgoldt ¿kdf x'g] af9L, klx/f], x'/Latf;, cfunfuLh:tf k|sf]kaf6 ;x/L If]qsf] t'ngfdf u|fdL0f If]qdf a9L Iflt k'usf] kfOG5 . clzIff, ul/aL, alnof ] ;+/rgfsf] cefjh:tf sf/0fn] u|fdL0f If]qd} a9L Iflt ePsf] kfOG5 . /fli6«o lgsfoaf6 lgdf{0f ePsf ;+/rgf;d]t k|sf]ksf] ;fdfGo ef/ jxg ug{ g;s]/ Ifltu|:t x'g] ub{5g . k|sf]kaf6 ljsf;lgdf{0fdf nufgL ePsf] k'hL, >d / ;do dfq v]/ hfFbg, F } k'glg{df{0f–sfo{df lgs} 7"nf] nufgLsf] cfjZostf;d]t kb{5 . o;n] cGo If]qdf kl/rfng x'g] ah]6 Go"g u/fP/ ljsf;sf] ult k5fl8 ws]lnlbG5 . vf;u/L, k|sf]kn] ljsf;nfO{ o;/L k5fl8 ws]Nb5 M hgwgsf] Iflt u/]/, cGo ljsf; sfo{sf nflu 5'6ØfOPsf] ;|ft / ;fwg p4f/, /fxt tyf ] cfktsfnLg sfo{df nufgL ug'kg]{ cj:yf l;h{gf u/]/, { JolQm / ;d'bfosf] wg;DklQ gi6 u/]/, k|sf]kl;lh{t k|sf]k pTkGg u/]/, a]/f]huf/L ;d:of a9fP/, Jofj;flos nufgLstf{df lg/fzf k}bf u/]/, k|fs[lts ;|ft, pj{/ e"ld / cfocfh{gsf cGo cj;/ gi6 u/]/ . ] k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷23
  24. 24. k|sf]k Joj:yfkg kl/ro k|sf]khGo 36gf x'g;Sg] cj:yfdf ;d'bfonfO{ ;'/lIft :yfgdf :yfgfGt/0f ug{, k|sf]ksf] k|efjnfO{ oyf;Dej lgolGqt u/L hgwgsf] Iflt 36fpg, cfkTsfnLg /fxt, p4f/ / k|sf]kkl5 ul/g] k'glg{df{0f tyf k'gM:yfkgh:tf sfo{x¿sf] Jojl:yt :j¿knfO{ k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg elgG5 . k|sf]kaf6 ljutdf ePsf IfltnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ ;Defljt k|sf]ksf] cj:yf cfsng ug{ ;s]df Iflt–Go"gLs/0fsf nflu k"jtof/Lsf] pko'Qm ljlw ckgfpg ;lsG5 . k|sf]ksf] ;dodf ;s];Dd hgwgsf] { Iflt x'g glbg jf gu0o dfq x'g] cj:yf agfpg ul/g] Joj:yfksLo sfo{nfO{ k|sf]k Joj:yfkg elgG5 . ;dfhsf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, k|fljlws tyf z}lIfs cj:yfcg'¿k Joj:yfkg–of]hgf agfpg'kb{5 . k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgsf s]xL sfo{ lgtfGt k|fljlws x'G5g eg] sltko :yfgLo :t/df ;lhn} a'em g / ug{ ;lsg] x'G5g . k|sf]ksf] ljutsf] cj:yfnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ cWoog tyf ljZn]if0f u/L k|sf]kk"j,{ k|sf]ksf] ;do / k|sf]kkl5 ug]{ sfo{nfO{ ;fd"lxs Pstf / ;xeflutf k|efjsf/L agfpg] k|of; ug'kb{5 . { k|sf]kaf6 aRg / hgwgsf] Iflt 36fpg ;Defljt k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ k"jtof/Lsf { sfo{nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg'kb{5 . k|sf]khGo 36gf ePsf cj:yfdf kLl8tsf] p4f/ k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf] nIo tyf /fxtsf of]hgf klg k"jtof/Lleq} { kb{5g . o;sf cltl/Qm cNksfnLg k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd tyf ;Defljt tyf bL3{sfnLg k'gM:yfkg, k'glg{df{0f Iflt Go"gLs/0f ug',{ cfly{s, ;fdflhs k'gM:yfkg klg k|sf]k– kLl8tsf nflu tTsfnLg p4f/, Joj:yfkgleq g} kb{5g . k|sf]k– /fxt, tyf ;xof]u ;'lglZrt Joj:yfkgcGtu{t ul/g] o:tf sfo{n] ug{,' hgwgsf] Iflt 36fpg / k|sf]ksf] :t/ k'gM:yfkg / k'glg{df{0fsf] sfo{nfO{ ;d]t lgolGqt ug{ ;3fp k'¥ofpF5 . To;}n] k|sf]knfO{ b}jsf] nLnf eg]/ tLj|, k|efjsf/L / lbuf] agfpg' . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷24
  25. 25. O{Zj/nfO{ bf]if lbg'eGbf ;dod} Go"gLs/0f jf ;Defljt Iflt 36fpg] k|of; ug'{ g} k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgsf] d"n s8L x'g cfpF5 . hf]lvd ljZn]if0f vt/f / ;ªs6fled'vtfsf] ;+oQm cj:yf g} k|sf]khGo hf]lvd xf] . hf]lvd a9fpg] ' vt/f tyf ;ªs6fled'vtfdWo] s'g} PsnfO{ x6fpg ;s] k|sf]khGo hf]lvd 36b5 / k|sf]ksf] c;/ klg sd x'G5 . o; ljZn]if0fcg';f/ k|sf]ksf] cj:yf pTkGg x'g] ;dLs/0fnfO{ o;/L k|:t't ug{ ;lsG5 M vt/f X ;ªs6fled'vtf = hf]lvd hf]lvd = k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f k"jtof/L÷Ifdtf clej[l4 { vt/f / ;ªs6fled'vtfsf] ;+of]hgaf6 pTkGg x'g] k|sf]k / To;af6 aRg ug'kg]{ sfo{nfO{ tnsf] lrqn] klg :ki6 kfb{5 . { lrq g+= ! lrq g+= @ dfly lrq g+= ! df kxf8af6 v:t} u/]sf 9'ªuf vt/f x'g . 3/, dflg; tyf afnaflnsf ;ªs6fled'v 5g . ;ªs6fled'v /x]sf 3/ / dflg;nfO{ 9'ªufn] lyr]df hgwgsf] Iflt x'G5, h;nfO{ k|sf]k elgG5 . Tof] cj:yf g} hf]lvd xf] . t/, 9'ªuf -vt/f_ x6fPdf hf]lvd 365 / ;ªs6fled'v x'g] l:ylt ;dfKt eP/ k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd klg sd x'G5 . lrq g+= @ df 9'ªuf x6fP/ j[Iff/f]k0f u/L vt/f x6fpg] ;fd"lxs k|of; u/]sf] b]Vg ;lsG5 . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷25
  26. 26. vt/f / ;ªs6fled'v cj:yfsf] klxrfg u/]/ k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd 36fpg cfjZos k"jtof/L u/]df w]/} xb;Dd k|sf]k–Go"gLs/0f x'G5 . e'Orfnf]sf b[li6n] sdhf]/ 3/ { F vt/fo'Qm / To;df a:g] dflg; ;ªs6fled'v x'G5g . sdhf]/ 3/sf] dd{t;Def/ ul/P 3/ eTs]/ Iflt x'g] ;Defjgf sd x'G5 . gbLs6fgsf] lgoGq0fsf nflu t6aGw lgdf{0f ubf{ jf gbLlsgf/df a:g] ;d'bfosf nflu jiff{oddf ;'/lIft :yfgdf a;f]af;sf] Joj:yf ldnfpFbf af9Laf6 x'g] dfgjLo Iflt sd x'G5 . k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgsf] k|lqmofnfO{ r/0fa4 of]hgfsf ¿kdf vfsf tof/ kf/]/ ;fd'bflos ;xeflutfdf sfof{Gjog ug'{ a9L e/kbf]{ x'G5 . k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg of]hgfdf hf]lvd ljZn]if0f, Go"gLs/0f, k"jtof/L, k"j;rgf, p4f/ tyf /fxt, { { " k'gM:yfkg, k'glg{df{0f / lbuf] ljsf;sf lqmofsnfknfO{ cfa4 ul/g'kb{5 . k|sf]k Joj:yfkg rqm ;'ema'emo'Qm k"jtof/L, e/kbf]{ ;"rgfk|0ffnL / :yfgLo k|ljlwsf] pkof]uaf6 hf]lvd { sd u/L ljkbdf ;'/lIft /xg] k|of; ug'{ Iflt–Go"gLs/0fsf k|efjsf/L pkfo x'g . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷26
  27. 27. k|sf]kaf/] ;dod} ;r]t eP/ To;sf] ;fdgf ug{;Sg] Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ul/Pdf hgwgsf] Iflt sd x'G5 . To;}n] k|sf]ka9L x'g] If]qsf ;d'bfodf k|sf]k– Joj:yfkgsf d"ne"t kIfsf] hfgsf/L /xg'kb{5 . To:t} ;/sf/ / k|sf]ksf If]qdf sfo{/t u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf, ;xhstf{ / ljsf;–sfo{stf{n] k|sf]ksf] Joj:yfkgsf kIfdf ljz]if Wofg lbg'kb{5 . ef}uf]lns If]q tyf k|sf]ksf] ;Defjgfsf cfwf/df k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg sfo{sf] lgwf{/0f ug'kb{5 . o:tf sfo{ lgDgcg';f/ 5g M { k"j{tof/L tyf k|sf]kklxn]sf] sfo{ k|sf]khGo hf]lvd 36fP/ hgwgsf] Iflt sd x'g] Joj:yf ldnfpFb} k|sf]k ePdf ;'/lIft /xg / tTsfnLg p4f/ / /fxtsf nflu cfjZos sfo{ ug{ k|sf]ksf 36gf x'gklxn] ' ul/g] ;Dk"0f{ tof/LnfO{ k|sf]k k"jtof/L { elgG5 . k|sf]k k"jtof/Lsf nIo { k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd 36fpg ;fd'bflos ;ªu7g lgdf{0f / Ifdtf clej[l4 ug],{ k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnL, ;+/rgfsf] ;'wf/ / hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf pkfo { ] ckgfpg], p4f/, /fxt tyf cGo cfjZos ;xof]usf cfwf/ / If]q ;'lglZrt ug],{ afnaflnsf, j[4, czQm / dlxnfsf] ;'/Iffsf nflu ljz]if Joj:yf ug]{ . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷27
  28. 28. hgr]tgf clej[l4 tyf tflnd k|sf]k–k"jtof/Lsf] sfo{ yfNg'klxn] ;d'bfosf ;b:onfO{ { k|sf]k;DaGwL ;}4flGts 1fg lbg'kb{5 . ljutsf cg'ejsf cfwf/df k|sf]ksf] ;Defjgf, :yfgLo 1fg, ;Lk / ;|ftsf] ] pkof]u;DaGwdf ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutfdf 5nkmn u/L k"jtof/Lsf] cfwf/lznf tof/ ug'kb{5 . k"jtof/Lsf sfo{sf] { { { ;"rL agfP/ ;b:oaLr sfd / ;dosf] afF8kmfF6 u/]/ k"jtof/Lsf] sfo{ k|f/De ug'kb{5 . { { vt/f, hf]lvd / ;ªs6fled'vtf ljZn]if0f dfgjLo a;f]af;sf] j:t'l:ylt, ef}uf]lns cj:yf / ;Defljt k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd ljZn]if0f k|sf]kklxn] ug'kg]{ dxŒjk"0f{ sfd x'g . hf]lvd ljZn]if0f ubf{ vt/f / { ;ªs6fled'v cj:yfsf] klxrfg ug'kb{5 . vt/fn] ;ªs6fled'v cj:yf a9fpg] { x'bf oL b'O{ tŒjsf] ld>0faf6 k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd a9b5 . ef}uf]lns cj:yf, k|sf]k F / Ifltsf] ;Defjgfh:tf ljifodf cWoog u/L k[i7 g+= @% df pNn]v ul/Pcg';f/ hf]lvd ljZn]if0f ug'kb{5 . { Go"gLs/0f tyf /f]syfd hf]lvdsf] ljZn]if0f ul/;s]kl5 hf]lvdsf] sf/0f, :t/ jf cj:yf / To;af6 x'g;Sg] Ifltsf] cg'dfg nufpg / hf]lvd 36fpg ug'kg]{ sfo{sf] klxrfg ug{ { ;lsG5 . hf]lvd a9fpg] Ps tŒjnfO{ dfq x6fpg ;s] klg k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgsf] dxŒjk"0f{ p2]Zo k"/f x'g] ;Defjgf /xG5 . cyf{t, vt/fnfO{ 6fg{ ;lsPdf ;ªs6fled'vtfsf] cGTo eP/ jf ;ªs6fled'v cj:yfdf /x]sf] kIfnfO{ x6fpFbf vt/f 6/]/ k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd sd x'G5 -pbfx/0f k[i7 @% df x]g_ . {] k|bif0f–lgoGq0f, ;/;kmfO / ;'/lIft cfjf; " dxfdf/LhGo k|sf]klgoGq0fsf nflu k|bi" f0flgoGq0f / ;/;kmfOsf nflu ;d'bfosf ;a} ;b:o ldn]/ sfd ug'kb{5 . zf}rfno, { kz'zfnf, 3/cfFug / ufpF3/ ;kmf /fVg'k5{ . 3/fo;L kmf]xf]/, 9n, wf/fsf] kfgL cflb ;'/lIft tl/sfn] vfN8f]df xfNg] jf km}ng glbg] k|aGw ug'kb{5 . k|sf]k eOxfn]df { k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷28
  29. 29. ;'/lIft :yfgdf hfg] aGbf]j:t u/L a;f]af;sf nflu 3/, af6f] tyf v'nf 7fpF 5f]8g] aGbf]j:t ug{;s] /fd|f] x'G5 . vfBfGg tyf cf}iflwsf] ;~ro k|sf]k cfsl:ds 36gfaf6 pTkGg x'g] ljkb ePsfn] To:tf] ;dosf nflu kfl/jfl/s tyf ;fd'bflos ¿kdf vfBfGg tyf cf}iflwsf] ;~ro ug'kb{5 . lrp/f, rfprfp, { la:s'6h:tf xn'sf vfBfGg / k|fylds pkrf/sf nflu rflxg] Aof08]h, l;6fdf]n, hLjghn, l86f]n tyf 3fpdf nufpg] dndh:tf cf}iflw ;~ro ul//fVg' kb{5 . o:tf j:t'sf] ;~ro / ;'/Iff ;fd'bflos ¿kdf ug{ ;lsP cem pko'Qm x'G5 . p4f/ tyf /fxt;fdu|Lsf] Joj:yf k|sf]ksf ;dodf kl/jf/ / ;d'bfosf ;b:osf] p4f/ ug{ rflxg] ;fdu|Lsf] Joj:yf u/L ;'/lIft / ;lhn} e]l6g] 7fpFdf /fVg'kb{5 . ef}uf]lns If]q / ;Defljt k|sf]ksf] cj:yfcg';f/ pkof]u x'g] nfOkm Hofs]6, 6r{nfO6, l;of], wfuf], a]Nrf, s'6f]–sf]bfnf], v's'/L, 8'ªuf, 6oj, 6fo/, 8f]/L / cGo ' cfjZos cf}hf/x¿ emf]nfdf xfn]/ ;lhn} e]l6g] 7fpFdf /fVg'kb{5 . p4f/ tyf /fxtsf nflu cEof; k|sf]ksf] ;dodf kLl8tsf] p4f/ ug{ ;d'bfosf ;b:on] ;fd"lxs cEof; ug{;s] Ifdtf clej[l4 x'G5 . ;s];Dd :yfgLo ;fwgsf] k|of]uaf6 a"9fa"9L, s]6fs]6L, czQm / dlxnfnfO{ klg ;xefuL u/fP/ dgf]/~hggfTds tl/sfaf6 k"j{cEof; ug'{kb{5 . o;/L cEof; ubf{ afnaflnsf, a"9fa"9L, czQm / dlxnfnfO{ klxnf] k|yfldstf lbP/ p4f/ ug]{ lzIff klg :jo+;jsnfO{ lbg' /fd|f] x'G5 . o:tf] ] cEof; ubf{ dfgjLo dof{bf / e]befj/lxt ¿kdf p4f/ ug]{ 1fg lbg' /fd|f] x'G5 . cf>o:ynsf] Joj:yf / cfkTsfnLg of]hgf k|sf]ksf ;dodf cfkTsfnLg cfjf;sf] Joj:yf ug{ ;d'bfos} kxndf ;'/lIft :yfgsf] klxrfg u/L cfkTsfnLg cfjf;3/ agfpg' kb{5 . k|sf]ksf] 7"nf] 36gf k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷29
  30. 30. ePdf k|efljt dflg;nfO{ /fVg ;fd'bflos 3/sf ;fy} ;fj{hlgs tyf ljBfno ejg klg k|of]u ug'kg]{ { cj:yf cfpg ;S5 . To;}n] To:tf ejgsf] ;d]t dd{t ;Def/ ug'kb{5 . { cfkTsfnLg of]hgf k|sf]ksf ;dodf ;d'bfosf s'g ;b:on] s'g sfo{ ug]{ eGg] 5nkmn u/L sfdsf] ljefhg ug'kb{5 . ;b:osf] { zf/Ll/s tyf dfgl;s cj:yfsf] ;d]t ljZn]if0f u/]/ sfo{of]hgf tof/ u/L sfo{ljefhg ug'kb{5 . { k"j;rgf tyf ;'/lIft :yfgfGt/0f { " k|sf]k x'g] ;Defjgf a9]kl5 k"j;rgf jf r]tfjgL lng]–lbg] / tTsfn} ;'/lIft { " :yfgdf ;g]{ sfo{ ug'kb{5 . k|sf]khGo { 36gf x' g ] ;Defjgf glhlsPdf k"j{tof/Lsf cfwf/df kl/jf/ / 5/l5d]snfO{ 36gf x'gnfu]sf] hfgsf/L u/fpg] sfo{nfO{ k"j;rgf jf r]tfjgL { " elgG5 . k"j;rgf k|0ffnL cfw'lgs { " k|ljlwo'Qm klg x'g;Sb5 . t/, :yfgLo ;fwg / k/Dk/fut tl/sfaf6 Joj:yf ul/g] k|0ffnL cfly{s tyf k|fljlws b[li6sf]0fn] e/kbf]{ x'g] ePsfn] To;tkm{ ;r]t /xg'kb{5 . k"jrtfjgL k|fKt x'bf { ] F gx'b} k|sf]k x'g;Sg] ePsfn] ;a}n] l56f]eGbf l56f] cfˆgf] / 5/l5d]ssf] arfpsf F nflu lgwf{l/t sfo{ ug'kb{5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf czQm, s]6fs]6L, a"9fa"9L, la/fdL / { dlxnfnfO{ k|fyldstf lbP/ ;'/lIft :yfgdf k'¥ofpg] k|oTg ug'kb{5 . { k|sf]ksf] ;dodf ug'{kg]{ sfo{ k|sf]kklxn] k"jtof/Lsf sfo{ ul/P klg k|sf]kaf6 k|efljt x'g;Sg] ;Defjgf eg] { /lx/x]sf] x'G5 . k|sf]k eOxfn]sf cj:yfdf cfkTsfnLg ¿kdf ljleGg sfd ug'kg]{ { x'G5 . k|sf]k eO/x]sf] ;dodf / To;sf] nuQ}kl5 ug'kg]{ sltko sfdnfO{ { k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgsf nflu ug'kg]{ sfo{sf] k|fyldstfdf /flvG5 . { k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷30
  31. 31. p4f/ tyf /fxt k|sf]k eO/x]sf ;dodf kLl8tnfO{ p4f/ ug{ ;a}eGbf klxn] ;d'bfosf ;b:on] g} h'6gkg]{ x'G5 . k|sf]k ePsf] :yfgdf ;/sf/L jf u}/;/sf/L If]qaf6 kl/rflnt ' p4f/6f]nL ;dod} k'Ug] ;Defjgf sd x'G5 . o; cj:yfdf ;d'bfos} ;b:on] p4f/ / /fxtdf h'6g ;s] hgwgsf] Iflt sd x'G5 . k|sf]kdf dfl/Psf jf x/fPsfsf] vf]hL ug],{ 3fOt] ePsfsf] p4f/ / cfkTsfnLg pkrf/ ug],{ 3/af/ u'dsfnfO{] a:g]–vfg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] sfddf ;d'bfosf] ;+nUgtf k|efjsf/L / e/kbf]{ x'G5 . k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg of]hgfdf ;d'bfosf s'g ;b:on] s'g sfd ug]{ eg]/ sfo{ljefhg klg ul/Psf] x'gkb{5 . o;/L sfo{ljefhg ubf{ To:tf] sfdsf] lhDdf lng;Sg] ' j}slNks ;b:o;d]t tf]lsg'kb{5 . k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg of]hgfcGtu{t ;d'bfosf] k|sf]k k|ltsf/ Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu k|fKt tlnd tyf 1fgn] cfkTsfnLg sfo{df dxŒjk"0f{ of]ubfg ldNb5 . p4f/ tyf /fxtsf sfo{cGtu{t k|sf]ksf] cj:yfcg';f/ cfkmGt, 5/l5d]s, p4f/sdL{ / ;xof]uL ;+:yfsf k|ltlglwnfO{ ;"rgf lbg] tyf ;xof]usf nflu cg'/f]w ug]{ sfo{ klg kb{5g . k|sf]ksf ;dodf ug'kg]{ sfo{sf] ¿k/]vf / sfdsf] afF8fkmfF6 klxn] { g} ubf{ k|sf]kdo cj:yfdf sfd ug{ ;lhnf] x'G5 . o;sf cltl/Qm ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L :jo+;js tyf gful/s ;dfhsf k|ltlglwn] Pp6f k|sf]ksf sf/0f ] pTkGg x'g;Sg] csf]{ k|sf]kaf6 ;'/lIft /xg ;/;kmfO ug{ / ;fdflhs cdgr}g sfod /fVg rgfvf] /xg'kb{5 . Iflt cfsng k|sf]kaf6 ePsf] hgwgsf Ifltsf] tTsfn} cfsng ug'kb{5 . k|sf]kkl5sf Joj:yfkg– { sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg / tTsfn cfjZos kg]{ /fxtsf] yk Joj:yf ug{sf nflu slt dflg;sf] Hofg uof] < slt x/fO/x]sf 5g < slt 3fOt] ePsf 5g < sltsf] cj:yf lrGtfhgs 5 < sltsf] 3/af/ gi6 eof] < sltnfO{ c:yfoL a;f]af; / vfgkLgsf] Joj:yf ldnfpg'kb{5 < nufotsf hfgsf/L ;ªsng u/]/ ;f]xLcg';f/ tTsfnLg / bL3{sfnLg sfo{qmd agfpg'kb{5 . ;xof]usf] lg/Gt/tf k|sf]kaf6 k|efljt ;d'bfonfO{ pgLx¿sf] cfˆg} Ifdtfn] cfh{g u/]/ hLjglgjf{x ug{;Sg] cj:yf geP;Dd lg/Gt/ ;xof]u ug'kb{5 . 3/af/ / v]tLkftL gi6 eP/ { lj:yflkt ePsf ;d'bfonfO{ hLljsf]kfh{gsf] j}slNks Joj:yf ldnfOlbg] / bL3{sfnLg k'gM:yfkgsf nflu ;3fpg] sfo{ klg k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgsf] dxŒjk"0f{ kIf xf] . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷31
  32. 32. k|sf]kkl5 ug'{kg]{ sfo{ k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgdf k|sf]kkl5 nfdf] cjlw;Dd ug'kg]{ sfo{x¿ klg kb{5g . { k|sf]kaf6 ePsf] Ifltsf] k'gM:yfkg, k'glg{df{0f, cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs cj:yfdf ;'wf/ / eljiodf pTkGg x'g;Sg] k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug{;Sg] ;+/rgfsf] ljsf; ug'kg]{ x'G5 . k|sf]kkl5 ul/g] sfo{n] cf;Gg k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"g ug{ / { ;d'bfosf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs, z}lIfs / ;f+:s[lts kIfdf ;sf/fTds kl/jt{g Nofpg ;xof]u ub{5 . k|sf]kkl5 ul/g] sfo{nfO{ lgDgcg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M k"gM:yfkg tyf ;+/rgfdf ;'wf/ k|sf]kkl5 ;'dbfosf] cj:yfnfO{ k"jf{j:yfdf Nofpg ul/g] sfo{nfO{ k'gM:yfkg elgG5 . o; cGtu{t ;fdfGo Iflt ePsf 3/sf] dd{t;Def/, /f]huf/L jf cfocfh{gsf ;|ftsf] ljsf;, ef}lts ;+/rgfsf] dd{t;Def/ u/]/ k|of]uof]Uo agfpg] ] sfo{ kb{5g . ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L lgsfo jf gful/s ;dfhn] o:tf sfo{ ubf{ k|sf]kkLl8t ;d'bfon] ;'/lIft ¿kdf k'gM:yflkt x'g kfpg] cfwf/e"t dfgjclwsf/k|lt ;+jbgzLn x'gkb{5 . ;'/lIft :yfgdf a:g kfpg' tyf cf}iflwpkrf/ / cGo cfwf/e"t ] ' cfjZostf k"lt{sf nflu ;xof]u kfpg' k|sf]kkLl8tsf] dfgj clwsf/ g} xf] . k'glg{df{0f k|sf]kaf6 k"0f{ ¿kdf gi6 ePsf ef}lts ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ sfo{nfO{ k'glg{df{0f k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷32
  33. 33. elgG5 . o:tf ;+/rgf ;fj{hlgs jf lghL b'j} k|sf/sf x'g ;Sb5g . ;fj{hlgs ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0fsf nflu ;/sf/ jf u}/;sf/L ;+:yfn] nufgL ub{5g eg] ;/sf/sf] ;xof]u jf ;'ne a}ªs–C0fsf] Joj:yfåf/f k|efljt ;d'bfonfO{ lghL ;+/rgf–lgdf{0fsf nflu ;xof]u ug]{ k|rng 5 . cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs k'gM:yfkg k|sf]ksf sf/0f ;dfhdf ljleGGg k|sf/sf ;d:of pTkGg x'G5g . a;f];af;sf] ;d:of, cfocfh{gsf] cefj tyf cGo ljleGg sf/0fn] ;dfhdf rf]/L–8s}tL, n'6kf6h:tf c;fdflhs / cfk/flws ultljlwn] k|>o kfpg] ;Defjgf /xG5 . k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgdf sfd ug]{ ;a}n] ;dfhdf b]lvg ;Sg] To:tf ultljlw lgoGq0f ug{ w}otfk"js sfo{ ug'kb{5 . ljrlnt ;fdflhs l:yltnfO{ ;fdfGo agfpg] sfo{ { { { lgs} sl7g x'g] ePsfn] ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts ;+/rgfsf cfwf/df ;fd'bflos ;xeflutfk"0f{ sfo{qmd ;~rfng u/]/ cfk;L ;xof]u / ;befjnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] k|of; ul/g'kb{5 . o;sf nflu cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts ljsf;sf sfo{qmd tof/ u/L sfof{Gjog ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 . lbuf] ljsf; ljsf;sf lqmofsnfkdf k|of]u ul/g] lbuf] k|ljlwn] g} k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgnfO{ pTs[i6 ;xof]u ub{5 . k|sf]kkl5sf] Joj:yfkg;DaGwL sfo{sf] d"n nIo ljsf;;Fu cfj4 jf cGtM;DalGwt /x]sf] x'G5 . To;}n] hLljsf]kfh{gsf j}slNks ;|ftsf] klxrfg, ] k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] lbuf] Joj:yfkg / a'l4dQfk"0f{ pkof]u, k|sf]k k|ltsf/ ug{ ;Sg] ] cfjf;, vfg]kfgL, ;8s, k'nk'n;fsf] lgdf{0f / ltgsf] lgoldt dd{t;Def/ tyf ] /]vb]v lbuf] ljsf;sf ;Gbe{df cfpg] ;fdfGo pbfx/0f x'g . k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf] nIo–k|flKt tyf ;d'bfosf] k|sf]k ;fdgf Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu k|sf]khGo vt/f jf ;ªs6fled'vtfnfO{ x6fP/ hf]lvd 36fpg pkof]u ug{ ;lsg] :yfgLo k|ljlw, 1fg / ;Lksf] cTolws pkof]u ug'kb{5 . j}1flgs k|ljlwsf] { pkof]u :yfgLo ;dfhsf] cfly{s, k|fljlws 1fgcg'¿k lbuf] x'g;Sg] b]lvPdf dfq ug'kb{5 . ;d'bfosf] cfly{s / k|fljlws Ifdtfdf j[l4 gu/fO{ ljsf;df pkof]u { ul/Psf cfw'lgs k|ljlwn] lbuf] ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ g} cf3ft kfb{5g / eljiodf k|sf]khGo hf]lvd cem a9b5 eGg] tYonfO{ lj;{g x'bg . To;}n] lbuf] F} ljsf;nfO{ k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgsf] dxŒjk"0f{ s8Lsf ¿kdf :jLsf/ ug'kb{5 . :yfgLo { 1fg / ;Lksf cfwf/df tof/ ul/Psf ljsf;sf cfwf/e"t dfGotfnfO{ g} lbuf] k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷33
  34. 34. ljsf;sf] ;+1f lbg ;lsG5 . o:tf sfo{n] g} ;d'bfosf] k|sf]k ;fdgf Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug{ cfwf/e"t e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{ ;S5 . :ki6 a'emgkg]{ s] 5 eg] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd a9fpg tyf Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{nfO{ k|efjxLg ' agfpg ljsf;sf ;+/rgf dfq afws x'bgg, To;df c1fg, clzIff / ;|ftsf] F} ] pkof]udf :yfgLo k|ljlwsf lj:yfkgsf] klg plQs} e"ldsf /x]sf] x'G5 . To;}n] k|sf]ksf] k|ltsf/sf nflu ef}uf]lns :yfg, ;fd'bflos Ifdtf / cfjZostfsf] ljZn]if0f u/]/ dfq afXo k|ljlwsf] pkof]u ug'kb{5 / :yfgLo ;|ftsf] k|of]udf { ] a9L hf]8 lbg'kb{5 . k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgsf nfe k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg eg]sf] k|sf]ksf] lj:tf/ x'g glbg / To;af6 x'g] Iflt sd ug{ ckgfOg] Jojl:yt sfo{ljlw xf] . o;df k|sf]kklxn], k|sf]k ePsf] ;dodf / k|sf]kkl5 ul/g] ;a} sfo{nfO{ r/0fa4 ¿kdf sfof{Gjog ug]{ lbzflgb]z ul/Psf] { x'G5 . k|sf]khGo 36gf cfsl:ds ¿kdf eO/xg] x'bf To:tf 36gfnfO{ lgoGq0f F u/]/ lgld6ØfGg kfg{ ;lsFbg . t/ ;fd'bflos ;xeflutf a9fP/ Joj:yfkg– } k|lqmofdf pNn]v ePsf sfo{ ug{ ;lsPdf k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd / Iflt 36fpg ;lsG5 . lbuf] ljsf; ;lxtsf] k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg sfo{of]hgfnfO{ k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ug{ ;lsPdf o;af6 k|sf]kkLl8t tyf eljiodf x'g;Sg] k|sf]ksf] k|efjaf6 ;d'bfonfO{ arfpg] k|of;df w]/} xb;Dd ;kmntf k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 . k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgaf6 k|fKt x'g;Sg] s]xL nfenfO{ lgDg cg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M vt/f tyf ;ªs6fled'v cj:yfsf] cGTo eP/ hf]lvd 36b5 . p4f/ tyf /fxtsfo{nfO{ Jojl:yt ug{ ;lsG5 . p4f/ tyf /fxtsf nflu cfjZos j:t'sf] ;~ro x'G5 . ljsf;sf] ult lbuf] ¿kdf cufl8 a9b5 . ul/aLlgjf/0fdf ;xof]u k'Ub5 / cfGtl/s z/0ffyL{ ;d:of 36b5 . lj:yflktx¿n] ;'/lIft :yfgdf a;f]jf; ug]{ cj;/ kfpF5g . ;dfhsf ;a} ju{n] k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] Joj:yfkg / a'l4dQfk"0f{ pkof]usf] ] cj;/ ;dfg'kflts ¿kdf k|fKt ub{5g . ;dfhdf pTkGg x'g;Sg] cjflG5t ultljlwdf lgoGq0f x'G5 . ;dfhdf Pstf, ;xof]u / ;befjsf] efjgf a9]/ ljsf;df ;a}sf] ;xeflutf a9b5 . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷34
  35. 35. k|sf]k–Go"gLs/0fsf pkfo k|sf]ksf] Go"gLs/0fsf nflu o;sf] Joj:yfkgcGtu{t pNn]v ul/Psf sfo{sf cltl/Qm cGo lqmofsnfk klg ug'kb{5 . k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf qmddf ;~rfng { x'g;Sg] o:tf sfo{df ;/sf/sf] e"ldsf a9L /x] klg u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf, ;d'bfo / gful/s ;dfhsf] ;+nUgtf klg cfjZos x'G5 . k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ;Gbe{df ug'kg]{ ;fdfGo sfo{nfO{ lgDgcg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M { clwsf/;DkGg lgsfosf] Joj:yf ;/sf/n] k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgsf nflu clxn];Dd klg zlQm;DkGg lgsfosf] :yfkgf ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . u[xdGqfnocGtu{t /x]sf] nfu"cf}ifw tyf k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg dxfzfvfnfO{ @)^) ;fnb]lv zfvfdf kl/0ft ul/g'n] klg o; ;d:ofk|lt ;/sf/sf] a]jf:tfnfO{ k'li6 ub{5 . k|sf]k ePsf] cj:yfdf ;~rfng ul/g] p4f/ / /fxtdf dfq ;/sf/L Joj:yfkg ;Lldt 5 . To;}n] /fHon] k|sf]k ;fdgfsf nflu k|efjsf/L k"jtof/Lsf sfo{qmdnfO{ sfof{Gjog ug{ / k|sf]kkl5sf] k'gM:yfkgsf { sfo{nfO{ lbuf] / e/kbf]{ agfpg ;zQm lgsfosf] :yfkgf ug'{ cfjZos 5 . hf]lvd gS;fªsg k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgsf nflu d'nssf] ef}uf]lns cj:yf, k|sf]k / To;af6 x'g;Sg] ' Ifltsf] gS;fªsg ug'kb{5 . o:tf] sfo{ k|fljlws / cfly{s sf/0fn] lgs} sl7g eP { klg k|sf]khGo Iflt 36fpg ug}kg]{ x'G5 . { kxf8L If]qsf s'g–s'g efudf, s:tf] klx/f] hfG5 < s'g–s'g lxdtfn lj:kmf]6 x'g;S5 / To;n] s'g–s'g If]qdf Iflt k'¥ofpg] ;Defjgf /xG5 x'/Latf;n] stf a9L gf]S;fg ug{ ;Sb5 < e'Orfnf] sxfF a9L hfG5 / s:tf ;+/rgf agfP Iflt F sd x'G5 < af9Ln] w]/} Iflt k'¥ofpg] If]q s'g xf] < eGg] hfgsf/L ;ªsng u/L k|sf]k hf]lvd gS;fªsg ug'k5{ . { k|sf]k k|efj d"Nofªsg hg;ªVof j[l4, jgljgfz, k|fs[lts ;|ftdfly a9bf] cltqmd0f, ;8s oftfoftsf] ] k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷35
  36. 36. lj:tf/, vfg]kfgL tyf hnljB't cfof]hgf, vlgh j:t'sf] pTvggh:tf sfo{ ubf{ ef}uf]lns tyf ef}ule{s agf]6df cfpg;Sg] kl/jt{g jf lju|xtkm{ Wofg k'¥ofpg'k5{ . o;sf nflu jftfj/0f k|efj d"Nofªsgsf ;fy} k|sf]k k|efj d"Nofªsgsf] afWofTds Joj:yf ul/g' cfjZos eO;s]sf] 5 . ;+:yfut Ifdtf clej[l4 g]kfndf k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg tyf ;d'bfo–kl/rfngsf If]qdf w]/} /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿ sfo{/t 5g . ltgn] d'nssf u|fdL0f If]q;Dd ' cfˆgf] kx'r k'¥ofpg] / ;d'bfosf]] Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{ k|of; ul//x]sf 5g . F k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgdf sfo{/t To:tf ;+:yfx¿aLr ;dGjo u/]/ u|fdL0f ;d'bfo;Dd k'Ug] ltgsf] k|of;df ;/sf/n] yk ;xof]u ub}{ Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu lgDg ljifodf Wofg lbg'kb{5 M bIf k|fljlws hgzlQm pTkfbg ug]{ . tYofªs ;ªsng tyf ljZn]if0faf6 lgSof]n lgsfNg] . { k|sf]k;DaGwL ;"rgfk|0ffnLsf nflu ;~hfnsf] :yfkgf ug]{ . lgoldt ¿kdf tflnd ;~rfng ug]]{ Joj:yf ldnfpg] . :yfgLo 1fg, ;|ft, ;fwgsf] klxrfg / pkof]usf] k|j4{g ug]{ . ] pknAw ;|ftsf] plrt pkof]u u/L k|sf]k–lgoGq0fsf k|of; ug]{ . ] pknAw dfgj;+zfwgsf] kl/rfng r':t ¿kdf ug]{ . kf7oqmd ljsf; / bIf hgzlQm pTkfbg g]kfnsf ljBfno tyf ljZjljBfnox¿df s]xL jif{bl] v hg;ªVof tyf jftfj/0f lzIffsf] kf7oqmd k|f/De ePsf] 5 . t/, k|sf]ksf] ljifonfO{ cflwsfl/s ¿kdf ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5}g . o;af6 afnaflnsf tyf o'jfx¿ jftfj/0f–;+/If0fk|lt ;r]t x'g] eP klg k|sf]ksf ;DaGwdf cgle1 g} /xg] cj:yf 5 . k|sf]khGo hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ;d'bfosf] k|sf]k ;fdgf Ifdtf clej[l4 ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 / To;sf lgldQ bIf hgzlQm rflxG5 . ;/sf/n] ljBfno:t/b]lv g} k|sf]k;DaGwL cWoog–cWofkgsf] Joj:yf ldnfPdf d'nsdf k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg;DaGwL ' bIf hgzlQmsf] ljsf; x'g5 . ] hgr]tgf clej[l4 g]kfnsf sl/a *) k|ltzteGbf a9L dflg; cem;Dd k|sf]ksf ljifodf cgle1 g} k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷36
  37. 37. 5g . k|sf]knfO{ b}jsf] s'bl[ i6 dfGg] k/Dk/fut e|dn]] k|sf]k–Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{ cf]em]nd} k/]sf 5g . To;}n] k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Iflt Go"g ug{;lsg] k|ljlwsf af/]df hfgsf/L lbP/ ;a}nfO{ ;r]t agfpg'kb{5 . k|sf]k–lzIffnfO{ u|fdL0f tx;Dd k'¥ofpg jftfj/0f ;+/If0f tyf k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg, ;fd'bflos jg ;+/If0f, k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] a'l4dQfk"0f{ pkof]uh:tf ljifodf cgf}krfl/s ] lzIff sfo{qmddfkm{t u|fdL0f tx;Dd k'¥ofpg k':ts–k'l:tsf, kf]:6/ / ljleGg ;~rf/dfWodsf] pkof]u ug{ ;lsG5 . ljBfno / ;fd'bflos ;ª3;+:yfdfkm{t k|ltof]lutfTds sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf u/]/ klg k|sf]k;DaGwL hgr]tgf a9fpg ;lsG5 . /fHon] o; If]qdf sfo{ ug]{ lgsfo, ;ª3;+:yfaLr ;dGjo u/]/ o:tf lqmofsnfknfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg]tkm{ Wofg lbg'kb{5 . k"jtof/L / cfkTsfnLg of]hgf { k|sf]k s'g} klg ;dodf s'g} klg ¿kdf cfpg ;S5 . e'Orfnf] slxn] / s;/L F cfpF5 eg]/ clxn];Dd hfgsf/L kfpg] k|ljlwsf] ljsf; ePsf] 5}g . To;}u/L x'/Latf;, af9Lklx/f] cfpg] df};dsf] hfgsf/L eP klg ;dosf] ls6fg ug{ ;lsFbg . To;sf/0f k|sf]khGo 36gf eOxfn]df To;af6 aRg / ;'/lIft /xg } cfkTsfnLg of]hgf agfP/ To;cg'¿k k"jtof/L ug'kb{5 . k"jtof/L tyf cfkTsfnLg { { { of]hgf tof/ ubf{ lgDg ljifodf Wofg lbg'kb{5 M cf}iflw, z'4 vfg]kfgL, vfBfGg cflbsf] Joj:yf ug],{ k|sf]kaf6 aRg ;Defljt ;'/lIft :yfgsf] klxrfg ul//fVg], cfkTsfnLg a;f]af;sf nflu ;fd'bflos 3/sf] Joj:yf ug],{ p4f/ tyf /fxtsf nflu ;+nUg ;/sf/L lgsfo, /]8qm; / u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfsf] ;Dks{ 7]ufgfsf] ;"rL agfP/ /fVg], cfkTsfnLg cj:yfdf cfjZos kg]{ 6r{nfO6, ;nfO tyf cTofjZos cf}hf/ / j:t' 7Ls kf/]/ ;lhn} e]6g] 7fpFdf /fVg] . o:tf ;fdu|Lsf] hf]xf] jf Joj:yf ubf{ s'g 7fpFdf s:tf] k|sf]k a9L x'G5 / slt;Dd Iflt x'g ;Sb5 eGg] cg'dfgsf cwf/df k|sf]ksf ;dodf cfjZos kg{;Sg] ;fdu|Lsf] aGbf]a:t u/]/ cfkTsfnLg of]hgf tyf k"jtof/L ug'kb{5 . { { k|sf]ksf ;dodf cfjZos kg]{ j:t'sf] klxrfg u/]/ ;s];Dd :yfgLo ;fwg / ;|ftsf] pkof]u u/L To:tf j:t'sf] hf]xf] ug'{ /fd|f] x'G5 . ] k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷37
  38. 38. ;fd'bflos d]nldnfk / ;xof]u k|sf]kaf6 aRg 5/l5d]sdf cfk;L ;befj / ;xof]usf] efjgf ljsl;t ug'k5{ . { To;f] ePdf l5d]sdf kg]{ s'g} klg k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ tTk/tf a9b5 . k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug{ ;d'bfo cfkm}F kl/rflnt ePdf ul/aLlgjf/0f, :yfgLo ;|ftsf]] ;+/If0f / pkof]uh:tf If]qdf ;'wf/ cfpF5 . o:tf] ;'wf/af6 ;d'bfon] lgDgfg';f/sf nfe lng ;Sb5 M ;d"xsf cfk;L ;xof]usf] efjgfdf clej[l4 x'G5 . :yfgLo ;|ft;fwgdf ;femf :jfldTjsf] efjgf a9b5 / lbuf] a'l4dQfk"0f{ ] pkof]usf] k/Dk/f a:b5 . ;d'bfodf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ tTk/tf a95 . ;ªs6fled'v If]qsf] a;f]af;nfO{ ;'/lIft :yfgdf ;fg]{ ;xdlt / ;xof]u ldNb5 . k|sf]k ePdf s;n] s] ug]{ eg]/ cfk;df lhDd]jf/Lsf] afF8kmfF6 x'G5 / 5/l5d]sdf clwsf/ tyf bfloTjsf] af]w x'G5 . jgljgfz / jftfj/0f–k|bi" f0fdf lgoGq0f ug{ ;d'bfo ;Ifd x'G5 . :yfgLo :t/df /fxt tyf p4f/ sf]ifsf] :yfkgf x'G5 / ufpF3/df k/Dk/fb]lv rNb} cfPsf] esf/L k4lt tyf u'7Lsf] Joj:yf k'gM k|f/De eP/ ;dfhdf ;xsf/Lsf] efjgf k}bf x'G5 . k|sf]k;DaGwL hfgsf/Lsf] cfbfgk|bfg lgoldt x'G5 . o;n] ;'/Iffsf j}slNks pkfosf] vf]hL ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpF5 . ;d'bfodf g]tTjsf] ljsf; x'G5 . [ e'Orfnf], af9Lklx/f], Hjfnfd'vL, cl;gfkfgL, cfunfuLh:tf 36gfnfO{ ;fdfGo F cj:yfdf k|sf]k dflgb}g . o:tf 36gfn] hgwgsf] Iflt u/]df jf ljsf;sf ;+/rgfnfO{ Ifltu|:t kf/]df tyf dflg;sf cfocfh{gsf ;|ft gi6 ePdf To:tf ] 36gfn] pTkGg u/]sf] ljkbk0f{ cj:yfnfO{ k|sf]k dflgG5 . o; lsl;dsf " 36gfnfO{ xfd|f k|of;n] k"0f{ ¿kdf lgoGq0f ug{ ;Dej 5}g . t/ ljj]sk"0f{ 9ªuaf6 k|sf]k;DaGwL k"jtof/L / Joj:yfkg ug{ ;lsPdf To;af6 x'g] IfltnfO{ { w]/} xb;Dd sd ug{ ;lsG5 . ;/sf/, u}/;sf/L tyf lghL ;ª3;+:yf, gful/s ;dfh / ;d'bfo ;a}n] ;xsfo{ ub}{ cufl8 a9]df k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf pNn]Vo ;kmntf ldNg]5 . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷38
  39. 39. s]xL sl7g zAb / cy{ cksif{0f M s'g} j:t' lau|g' jf v/fj eP/ ;dfKt x'g] cj:yfdf k'Ug'' . cjnDag M s'g} j:t' :jLsf/ ug]{ jf lng] sfd . cltj[li6 M w]/} jiff{ x'g, nfdf] ;do;Dd 7"nf] jiff{ eO/xg' . ' ' cgfj[li6 M Hofb} sd kfgL k/]/ ;'Vvf nfUg' . cfsng M cg'dfg tyf c8sn ug'{ . cf0fljs M c0f'x¿af6 ag]sf] j:t', cf0fljs xltof/ jf ad . cfwf/e"t M af“Rgsf nflu jf cGo s'/fsf nflu geOgx'g] . cfj[lQ M bf]xf]l/O/xg] k|lqmof . k6s–k6s bf]xf]l/g] k|lqmof . cf;Gg M Hofb} glhssf] . lgs6 lejiod} x'g;Sg] jf ;Defljt . pkh M k|ltkmn jf kl/0ffd . sfof{Gjog M of]hfgf jf l;4fGt nfu" ug]{ tyf Jojxf/df ptfg]{ sfd . vt/f M ljkb jf hf]lvd . vfsf M s'g} j:t' agfpg agfOPsf] gd"gf jf cfs[lt . sfd ug]{ of]hgf . vfB;'/Iff M cGg, kmnk"mn, t/sf/Lsf] hf]xf] jf ;~ro . cGg pAhgL sd x'g] If]qdf cGgsf] cfk"lt{sf nflu ul/g] ;~ro jf art . vf]l/of M hªunsf ¿v jf a'6ofg kmf“8/ cfuf] nufP/ v]tL ul/g] hldg . ] Iflt M gf]S;fg, xflg . hnpTkGg M kfgLsf sf/0f jf kfgLsf dfWodaf6 pTkGg x'g] -w]/} kfgL kbf{ af9L cfpg'nfO{ hnpTkGg k|sf]k elgG5_ . hnjfik M kfgL tftf] x'bf aGg] afkm . afkm rL;f] x'bf k]ml/ kfgLdf kl/0ft x'G5 . “ “ h}ljs M hLjaf6 k|fKt x'g] jf k|f0fLsf] cjz]ifaf6 ag]sf] . hf]lvd M vt/fsf] cj:yf, xflg jf Iflt x'g;Sg] cj:yf . hf]xf] M cfjZos j:t'sf] aGbf]j:t jf ;~ro . b|'tt/ M ck]Iffs[t tLj| ultsf], l56f]–l56f] x'g] . gS;fªsg M /]vflrqåf/f gS;f agfpg] sfd -af9L cfPdf To;n] c;/ kfg]{ ;Defljt If]qsf] klxrfg u/L gS;f agfpg] sfo{_ . lgld6ØfGg M l;Wofpg] jf k"0f{ ¿kdf ;dfKt ug]{ k|lqmof . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷39
  40. 40. lgSof]{n M lgZro tyf lgwf{/0f ug]{ sfo{ . lg:t]h M t]h gePsf] . zlQm tyf Ifdtf sd ePsf] . Go"g M yf]/, 36]sf] jf sd ePsf] . } Go"gLs/0f M 36fpg] sfd . ;fdgf Ifdtf M s'g} s'/fsf] ;fdgf ug]{ zlQm . k'g/fj[lQ M k6s–k6s bf]xf]l/g] k|lqmof . k'glg{df{0f M elTsPsf] 3/, ;8s, k'n jf s'g} klg j:t' km]l/ agfpg] sfd k"jtof/L { M s'g} sfd ug{sf nflu klxn] g} ul/g] tof/L . ;Defljt k|sf]kaf6 aRg k|sf]k x'gklxn] ul/g] sfo{ tyf cf}iflw, xn'sf vfg]s/f / ' ' n'ufkmf6f]sf] hf]xf] jf ;'/lIft x'g] pkfo ug]{ sfo{ . dxfdf/L M dflg; / hLjhGt'df PsfPs nfUg] ;?jf /f]u . x}hf, emf8fkvfnf, a8{km n', Kn]u, ;f;{, P8; cflb . /f;folgs M /;fog;DaGwL -wft'nfO{ emf]n / emf]nnfO{ wft' agfpg] tŒj–tŒjaLr k|ltlqmof u/fpg]_ . ljrng M cl:y/tf, s'g} s'/faf6 klG5g] dfgMl:ylt . ljkm/ M Hj/f];u} z/L/df vl6/f cfpg] ;?jf /f]u, dxfdf/L . “ z[ªvnf M qmda4 ¿kdf ul/g] sfo{sf] ¿k/]vf . ;ªs6fled'v M ;fx|} cK7]/f] cj:yfdf jf ljkbdf k/]sf], vt/f jf hf]lvdtkm{ pGd'v ePsf] . ;dGjo M b'O{ jf To;eGbf a9L dflg; jf lgsfoaLr ;DaGw sfod u/fpg] k|lqmof, kf/:kl/s ;DaGw sfod ug]{ k|lqmof . ;r]tg M r]tgf jf 1fg ePsf], ;ts{, hfu¿s jf r]tgfo'Qm . ;dofg's"n M ;docg';f/sf], kl/jlt{t ;docg'¿k ul/g] . ;nx M afnLgfnL, kmnk"mn, af]6la?jf gi6 ug]{ 7"nf] ;d"xdf p8g] km6ofªu|fh:tf] ] Ps k|sf/sf] p8'jf sL/f . ;xhstf{ M ;dfhdf ljeGg ljifodf ;dGjo ug]{ ;fdflhs sfo{stf{ . ;but M d[tssf z/L/sf] bfx;+:sf/, ;+:sf/cg';f/ nfz hnfpg] jf uf8g] sfo{ . :yfgfGt/0f M Ps 7fp“sf] j:t' jf a;f]af; tyf dfgja:tL csf]{ 7fp“df ;fg]{ sfd . k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷40
  41. 41. k|sf]k M kl/ro tyf Joj:yfkg÷41

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