Active energy efficiency in the built environment2
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Active energy efficiency in the built environment2

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Active energy description and Technics used.

Active energy description and Technics used.

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Active energy efficiency in the built environment2 Active energy efficiency in the built environment2 Presentation Transcript

  • Active Energy Efficiency in the Built Environment ”A new blend to the energy efficiency concept”
  • What is active energy efficiency?  Active Energy Efficiency is defined as effecting permanent change through measurement, monitoring, and control of energy usage.  Passive Energy Efficiency is regarded as the installation of countermeasures against thermal losses, the use of low consumption equipment etc.  It is vital, but insufficient, to make use of energy-saving equipment and devices such as low-energy lighting.  Without proper control, these measures often merely militate against energy losses rather than make a real reduction in energy consumed and in the way it is used.
  • What should we do? Everything that consumes power – from direct electricity consumption through lighting, heating, and most significantly electric motors, but also in HVAC control, boiler control, and so forth – must be addressed actively if sustained gains are to be made. This includes changing the culture and mindsets of groups of individuals, resulting in behavioural shifts at work and at home. But clearly ‘this need is reduced by greater use of technical controls.
  • Introduction  Nowadays, energy efficiency is high on the agenda of most people. However, understanding of what energy efficiency really involves and how energy saving initiatives can be implemented remains fragmented.  Energy measures revolve around the consideration of thermal issues in the building fabric with remedies such as insulation, glazing, and heat loss countermeasures. For others, it is lighting, albeit often constrained to merely installing low consumption systems. Those with significant heating requirements may call for efficient boiler systems as the answer.  These are really only passive countermeasures that largely mitigate energy loss rather than the energy deployed. Active Energy Efficiency can be achieved when energy-saving devices are not only installed, but controlled to use only the energy required. It is this aspect of control that is critical to achieving the maximum efficiency. For example, consider an energy-efficient lamp that is left turned on in an empty room. All that is achieved is that less energy is wasted than would have been using an ordinary lamp!
  • Reasons to consider Active energy efficiency It is the management of energy use through measurement, monitoring, and control that effects permanent change. Moreover, compared with the costs (and technical skills necessary to avoid risks) of installing thermal solutions, energy control can be implemented at a relatively modest price and with a very rapid payback. This is especially true when measured against escalating energy prices – most energy control solutions can give returns within a few years. Another very important factor that should drive Active Energy Efficiency from this point forward is the need to meet ambitious carbon reduction targets set by those governments in alliance with the Kyoto Protocol. In the built environment, for example, it is a fact that unless existing buildings (as well as all new build) are made energy efficient, it will simply be impossible to reach the targets set for 2020.
  • Kyoto Protocol  Reducing greenhouse gas emissions was a global target set at the Kyoto Earth Summit in 1997 that was finally ratified by 169 countries in December 2006.  Under the Kyoto Protocol, industrialized countries have agreed to reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by 5,2% by 2012 compared to the year 1990. Compared to the emissions levels expected by 2012 prior to the Protocol, this limitation represents a 29% cut. As architects we should resort approaches to Active Energy Efficiency that can be applied within new and existing buildings – in commerce, industry, private, public, and residential – as well as in manufacturing, industry, and the transportation infrastructure. In coming years, India is going to introduce this trend among architects, So BEWARE!!!!
  • Current Scenario on active energy efficiency  Economies are readily possible in electricity generation and distribution, in its use and in the way electricity can be used wisely to make efficiencies in the use of other energy.  The technology is there to control buildings’ energy use in lighting, HVAC, building controls, and distribution. Lighting alone can account for 40% of a typical commercial enterprise’s electricity consumption.  In industry there are proven systems to reduce the power consumed by electric motor systems and to better control the application of electrical power throughout a plant. Two thirds of electrical energy used by industry is used powering motors. In most countries less than 10% of those motors have any kind of control and therefore cannot be slowed down or switched off automatically  In the home, new products enable lighting and heating controls that enhance living standards while saving electricity. In most countries, every single domestic dwelling (including individual apartments) contributes about 6,5 tonnes of CO2 each year — or, to put it another way, enough gas to fill six hot-air balloons! Yet, just switching off lights in unoccupied rooms could save 2,2 tonnes per household. Computers, multiple televisions sets, modern electrical appliances, air conditioning, and even outside lighting and powered equipment have seen an exponential growth in consumption. Indeed, in many western economies, domestic electricity consumption outstrips even industrial use.  In short, there is no reason not to be able to actively save electricity and other energy, provided there is the understanding of what is at stake, and a desire to do something about it.
  • Active energy efficiency solutions for different building types
  • Residential While comfort and safety are probably the most important selection criteria in homes, energy efficiency and the ability to reduce the "environmental footprint" of the house are becoming increasingly relevant. Average breakdown of home energy consumption : Heating & Cooling: 60%  Lighting: 14% Electrical appliances: 14%  Hot water sanitary: 12% Energy savings can be achieved through automating different functions of everyday life: Lighting control : turning off unnecessary lights, sensing when nobody is in a room through presence detector, dimming light intensity according to outdoor lighting conditions, scheduling outdoor lighting according to predefined patterns, ...  Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning control: setting optimal temperatures for the different rooms of the house, Predefining heating/AC patterns in advance according to regular needs, remotely controlling heating/AC, ... Etc.
  • Other features can also improve energy efficiency: Alarm handling Preventive protection Remote control Multimedia control Etc. Solutions or architectures used in the application Home automation solutions are focused on the specific automation requirements of private homes and on the comfort and security of its residents. Usually, there are three main system architectures classified according to where the intelligence of the system resides: 1.Centralised Architecture : a centralised controller receives information from multiple sensors and, once processed, generates the opportune orders for the actuators. 2.Distributed Architecture : all the intelligence of the system is distributed by all the modules that are sensors or actuators. Usually it is typical of bus wiring systems. 3.Mixed Architecture : systems with decentralised architecture in that they have several small devices able to acquire and to process the information from multiple sensors and to transmit this information to the rest of the devices distributed by the house.
  • Residential buildings are rarely, if ever, appropriate for precise metering and measurement. However, there are still steps that can be taken towards adopting Active Energy Efficiency practices. The instinct to turn off equipment that is on stand-by (the LEDs in equipment such as TVs, DVD players, hi-fi, home PCs, etc., consume huge amounts of electricity collectively) will take time to instil. In the meantime, there are technological aids that can effect big savings. One possibility is to install inexpensive lighting controls. These range from the most sophisticated home automation to simple room occupancy sensors. Families with teenage children know that it’s not uncommon to have almost every light in the home switched on even when just a single room is occupied! In multiple occupancy dwellings such as apartment buildings, there is scope for Active Energy Efficiency to be applied in communal areas with occupancy controls for lighting, heating, and ventilation. With a growth in mixed-occupancy building where apartments, for example, are constructed above commercial premises, the benefits of metering can also be applied. Again, judicious lighting and heating controls also contribute.
  • Commercial
  • Industrial
  • Various Equipment used for Active Energy Purposes
  • Room control for lighting and heating Main drivers  Cost efficiency and flexibility are particular important for private and commercial buildings. Operational and maintenance costs can be significantly reduced thanks to the optimum combination of different control functions: presence, brightness, time- dependency for lighting, and temperature settings for heating and air-conditioning. Automatic interaction of sensors and actuators avoids relying on uncertain human action and secures savings while providing increased comfort and safety. This enables substantial energy savings of up to 40% for lighting energy by automatically extinguishing unnecessary loads. Flexibility is really improved compared to traditional installations, as adaptations of the building functions layout can easily be effected after reorganisations or moves. Different trades like lighting, heating, blinds, air-conditioning, state and consumption monitoring are connected and form an intelligent system. The inhabitant is enabled to configure user-relevant setpoints at multi-functional pushbuttons or graphical user-interfaces to the desired comfort and saving potential. For example, functions can be recalled in one scenario, which previously were controlled separately: blinds are lowered, lighting is adjusted and the room is heated to just the right temperature.  
  • Solution in brief The displayed solution architecture provides the following exemplary technical functions: Lighting control - starts/stops el. lighting dependent on people presence and current brightness. Heating control - adjusts the requested temperature and sets the heating into standby mode whenever the room is unoccupied or a window is opened. Main Energy Efficiency characteristics ● Installation effort/costs are reduced compared to conventional installations with same functionality.  ● Consumption of energy is reduced.  ● Safety of persons and material assets is increased.  ● Decentral and central switching and indicating is possible.  ● Information-interchange between different crafts reduces the installation and fire load. ● Automated alarms or emergency calls are communicated.  ● Remote monitoring or control can be effected.  ● Technical extensions or changes are realised easily.
  • Automate lighting, temperature and shutter control in office building Main drivers The facility managers want to realise substantial energy savings by controlling all the parameters of lighting, heating and shutters. This enables substantial energy savings of up to 35% for lighting energy by automatically extinguishing unnecessary loads They want also to be able to extend easily the system at any time without laying new cables. Solution in brief Cost efficiency and flexibility are particular important for private and commercial buildings.   All devices will be connected via a single bus line. When you activate a sensor (a push button for example), an actuator will carry out all the switching commands required. Operational and maintenance costs can be significantly reduced thanks to the optimum combination of different control functions: movement detection, time-dependency for lighting, and temperature settings for heating. Automatic interaction of sensors and actuators avoids relying on uncertain human action and secures savings while providing increased comfort and safety. Value proposition The displayed solution architecture provides the following exemplary technical functions: Automatic lighting control: movement detectors can be used to control lights and roller blinds according to movement detection in corridors, staircases.  Heating control: heat is supplied automatically at the exact time required and individually via controllable room temperature control units. No need to turn the radiators up and down manually. Don't worry: if you forget to do it, the KNX system will remember to do it for you.
  • Optimize working conditions in an office openspace Main drivers Increase savings by reducing energy consumption Increase employees comfort Solution in brief Install a centralized BMS in order to control lighting, heating, and cooling The BMS will take in account people presence and absences, natural light level, opening and closing times for the building It will allow some derogations for temperature and lighting Value proposition Management of the space by defined zones Greater flexibility for future office reconfigurations Possibility to use DALI ballasts Main Energy Efficiency characteristics Installation effort/costs are reduces compared to conventional installations with same functionality Consumption of energy will be reduces Safety of persons and material assests will be increased Decentral and central switching + indicating in possible Information-interchange between different crafts reduces the installation and fire load Remote monitoring or control can be effected Technical extensions or changes can be realised easily
  • Variable speed drive up to 630 kW for Pump and Fan applications in Industry and Infrastructures Value proposition   72 % of consumed electricity is used to turn on motors. 63 % of this energy is used for fluid applications like pumps and fans. AC drives allow you to reduce energy consumption by 50% on fans compared to conventional solutions (flow variation with mechanical devices) and 20% to 30% on pumps according to their characteristics. Fan example: at 80% of nominal flow, the energy consumption is 95% of nominal power with conventional installations instead of 50% with AC drives. Even thought flow variation is not needed, most of the applications are oversized (pessimistic estimation of hydraulic loses). Optimising the pressure, AC drives save 20% of energy compared to conventional solutions. Using ECO8 software, you can easily estimate the energy saving according to your pump or fan applications and duty cycle. Main Energy Efficiency characteristics   Open to the main networks. Industry: Ethernet, FIPIO, Modus Plus, Device Net, Interbus-S, Unitelway. Building: LonWorks, BACnet, METASYS N2 and Apogee FLN. High performance variable torque applications: Fan: safety with forced start (fault inhibition, selection of the running direction and reference speed). Multipump: with the programmable multipump card, Altivar 61 brings you flexibility, useability and adaptability in management of multiple pumps. Pumps: essential functions to protect your installation under load, including detection of overload and fluid absence. IP54 version and "Simply Start" menu
  • Programmable time switch -  IHP IHP programmable time switches are used to program automatic operation of heating, lighting, ventilation... in an accurate manner. They control opening and closing of independent circuits according to a program set by the user by memorization of On and Off switching operations With 4 keys, a large screen and text-guided intuitive programming, they are easy to program and to use With the external input, they can be controlled with a switch or push-button away from the electrical distribution panel board With the memory key, saving and duplication of programs can be done easily With the programming kit, more complex programs can be created with a PC and then downloaded to the products With the electrical distribution comb-busbar mechanical compatibility and the screw- less connection, the installation becomes simple, faster and more reliable Benefits Reduction of electrical energy consumption (the installation only operates when necessary, operation during the post favourable rate periods) Increased user comfort (customisation of operating periods, triggering accuracy) Enhanced user safety by using the random operating mode proposed by the '+' versions to simulate presence Applications They are adapted to all application types (bell, lighting, heating, ventilation, access control...) irrespective of the sector of activity (residential, tertiary, public building, agriculture, industry, etc.)
  • Active Front End (AFE)  The Active Front End is an option for frequency inverters to return energy to the line supply. It provides 4- quadrant operation and thus is ideal for all applications with a generator operating mode. State-of-the-art components, a new control concept, as well as a top-quality filter module all serve to reduce the total current distortion factor THD(i) to a value of less than 4%. Line disturbance/conditions THD(i) of less than 4% Power factor of cos Phi 1 independent of the load and the energy direction No converter transformer required Line voltage drops of up to 40% without disturbing operation Integrated radio frequency interference filter Wide frequency range Adjustable regenerating power e.g. for operation with diesel generators Line short-circuit power up to 100kA Simple planning and installation  Line contactor already integrated No external control voltage supply necessary Integrated charging circuit providing a maximum fourfold power at the DC bus Operation independent of the phase sequence Optimised management of spare parts due to common components in the active infeed converter and the inverter Energy-saving operation Energy regeneration to the line supply Improved efficiency thanks to an innovative control system No need for damping resistors (which cause heavy losses), thus making it is especially robust in heavily distorted supply voltages Reduction of transformer losses, wiring and switching devices The Active Front End is connected upstream of the standard frequency inverter and consists of three components : Active infeed converter Line filter module (EMC filter, line contactor and charging circuit) Line filter choke (3 parts) Applications Crane applications (hoists, long travel motion) Downhill conveyors, winches, escalators Complex drive systems Test benches and high dynamic drives Pump/turbine combinations
  • Commercial lighting control   With Conventional electrical installations, you have to determine in advance how and where your buildings switching system will be installed, before construction even commences. But with KNX from Merten, you can keep options open. That’s because everything in the system can be changed or extended at any time without the usual mess and without laying new cables. In addition, all building technology devices and installations are connected via a single bus line. The bus line is laid in parallel to the 230 vac power supply. When you activate a sensor for eg a push button, an actuator will carry out all the switching commands required. KNX is the only worldwide approved INTERNATIONAL STANDARD for home- and building control. Its recent approval as an international standard (ISO/IEC 14543- 3) now confirms the global importance of the KNX standard. In Building Automation System, there are many factors to be taken into account like Flexibility, Comfort, Cost efficiency, safety and security. In terms of comfort, take the following example: getting cosy in the evening no longer means going from one switch or thermostat to the next. Instead, simply press a single button to activate all the desired functions in one go., blinds are lowered, atmosphere lighting is switched on and the room is heated to just the right temperature. Scenes such as these can be created exactly as you want them and you can do so via remote control, PDA, Touchscreen or PC.
  • Benefits Automatic Lighiting control: Time dependent,automatic switching off of light sources during work breaks or on weekends Daylight dependent adaption of the lighting for optimum working conditions through light control. With intelligent heating/cooling controls,energy costs can be reduced by up to 30%. Automatiic lighting of corridors, staircase bu using motion sensors. Individual heating/cooling control. Presence dependent room heating/cooling. Immediate closure of heating/cooling valve when window is opened. cooling is supplied automatically at the exact time required and individually via controllable room temperature control units. Intelligent Blind Control: Automatic control of the sun awnings via light sensors in accordance with the current sunlight intensity. Automatic blind retraction via wind sensors during strong wind. Automatic adjustment of the blind slats in accordance with the current sunlight intensity. Flexible building management: Flexible adaption of the building functions when rooms are used for different purposes eg after reorganistion or a move. Worldwide access to the entire building technology system via PDA, PC or Touch screen. Monitoring of windows and doors or underground car parks by sensors that signal irregularities. Display of loads, performance curves and temperatures, immediate notification in the case of critical temperature overshoots and automatic shutdown of devices at risk. Display of fault signals and automatic forwarding of these signals to the responsible electrician or the building manager. Costly peak load avoided since loads can be switched on and off in a systematic fashion.
  • Conclusion  Begin with measurement (you don’t change what you don’t know, you don’t know what you don’t measure)  “Use the ‘only necessary’ energy and only when ‘necessary’ thanks to automation & control”-Motto of active energy efficiency.  We can make permanent improvements to processes, maintaining consistent performance through monitoring and maintenance services.  Many measures are easy to install, with a low implementation cost and a quick payback — specifically when retrofitting existing building or installation  Active Energy Efficiency can be implemented in all sectors (residential building, commercial building, industry, infrastructure).  Active Energy Efficiency is vital in addition to Passive Energy Efficiency measures in order to reach the CO2 emissions reduction targets.  Robust Automation, Control, and Monitoring of Energy Usage can deliver up to 30% Energy Savings