Nancy: Read the story. Ask the question. Where will Sally look for her marble?The Sally Anne scenario designed by Wimmer and Perner, (1983) demonstrated that by the age of 4 typically developing children were able to answer correctly., of course Sally would look in the basket.
Asperger Syndrome Practical Hints & Tips For Success At Home, School & The Community
Presenters Dion Betts, Ed. D. Nancy J. Patrick, Ph.D. Guest Speakers Caitlin Baran Joshua Betts
Session Outcomes Participants will be able to: State the underlying characteristics of AS that cause children and adolescents difficulty in many activities of everyday life. Apply knowledge of characteristics of AS to predict potential problems for children and adolescents with AS. Apply proactive, positive strategies to assist children and adolescents cope and participate more fully in the activities of everyday life.
Asperger Syndrome (AS) is one of several conditions found in a group of neurodevelopmental disabilities known as autism spectrum disorders.Klin, Volkmar and Sparrow, 2000
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) A distinct group of neurobiological conditions characterized by a greater or lesser degree of impairment in language and communication skills, as well as repetitive or restrictive patterns of thought and behavior.
Prevalence Data for Autism Spectrum Disorders The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). December 18, 2009 Press Release Fourteen communities participating in an autism spectrum disorder surveillance project revealed an average finding of 9.0 per 1,000 eight year-olds with ADSs. This translates to approximately 1 out of every 110 children.
In the United States it is predicted that 1 child out of every 400 has AS based on the total number of children with autism spectrum disorders. (MedicineNet, 2010)
In Sweden it is reported that 1 child out of every 277 has AS. (Ehlers & Gillberg, 1993)
In Great Britain it is estimated that 1 child out of every 100 has an autism spectrum disorder and it is predicted that 50% of those children have an IQ in the average to above average range. (Baird, et. al, 2006)
Boys are five times more likely to have AS than girls. AS is present in all racial, ethnic and socio-economic groups.
Hans Asperger (1906-1980) Identified a group of his patients who appeared to be weak or lacking in social relatedness, empathy, and ability to form friendships. His patients, who ranged in age from 5 to 35 years, also engaged in one-sided conversations; demonstrated intense, self-absorbed special interests and preoccupations; and displayed clumsy motor movements.
Dr. Asperger observed that the intense preoccupations provided pleasure, yet interfered with many other functions in life. He was convinced that people diagnosed with AS could use their special interests and talents successfully in adulthood.(Asperger 1991, first published 1944)
No known single cause for AS, but it is generally accepted that it is caused by abnormalities in brain structure or function.
Researchers are searching for irregular segments of genetic code that individuals with AS may have inherited.
Some children are born with a susceptibility to AS, but researchers have not yet identified a single "trigger" that causes AS to develop.
Theory of Mind The ability to recognize and understand the thoughts, beliefs, desires and intentions of other people in order to make sense of their behavior and predict what they are going to do next. Attwood, 2007 20
Language Difficulties that Confuse and Alienate Others.
Peaks and valleys in language skills can cause others to establish unrealistic expectations that are not consistently met leading others to become frustrated.
Social use of language that is not fluent or used intuitively can cause others to become impatient.
Lack of meaningful eye contact or other nonverbal feedback causes others to think that the person with AS is interested in the conversation or in being friends.
Language Difficulties that Confuse and Alienate Others
Frequent change of topics without clear transitions can be confusing to others causing them distress.
Inadvertent directing of a conversation towards ones own special interest appears self-centered.
Interrupting or talking over others appears rude and obnoxious.
Language Difficulties that Confuse and Alienate Others.
Critical information may be missing from a conversation or irrelevant details may be included causing others to struggle to understand the conversation. Sometimes this is just too much work to make the conversation worthwhile.
Sometimes the way that something is said gives the impression that the individual with AS is critical, abrasive, argumentative, impolite and/or just mean.
The inability to use “fix-up” strategies when a conversation goes bad makes others think that the communication mistake was calculated and purposeful and what kind of a person would be so thoughtless or mean.
Difficulties with Executive Functionthat Interfere with Success
Problem Solving Difficulties that Interfere with Success
The tendency to continue using incorrect strategies for solving problems even when they are proven to be ineffective causes others to think that the person is terribly stubborn.
A tendency to use own idiosyncratic approach to problem solving frequently rejecting advice from others can cause the individual with AS to appear “unteachable” or noncompliant.
Getting mentally “stuck” on a specific problem can be frustrating to others who want to help an individual make progress.
Difficulty Coping with Mistakes that Anger and Alienate Others
The tendency to focus on errors, a need to fix it, and a desire to be a perfectionist can be very frustrating.
Quick to point out the mistakes of others is viewed by others as rude, insensitive, and/or hateful.
Trouble owning up to mistakes or knowing how to respond when confronted with a mistake can alienate the individual with AS from others because everyone makes mistakes, this is necessary for learning to occur.
Special Interests that Confuse and Mystify Others Collections and acquisition of knowledge that is self-selected, self-directed and self-taught. Both can be interesting to other people, if they too have a common interest, but can be very annoying to those who do not share the same interest.
To occupy time, facilitate conversation and indicate intellectual ability.
The most common sensitivity is to specific sounds, but there can also be sensitivity to tactile experiences, light intensity, the taste and texture of food and specific aromas.
Under or over reaction to pain and discomfort.
Sensory sensitivities are more conspicuous in early childhood and gradually diminish during adolescent, but can remain for life.
Impact of Sensory Sensitivity
Sensory sensitivities are reported by some adults as having a greater impact on their lives than problems with making friends or finding employment.
Individual who have never experienced sensory sensitivities struggle to believe that this exists causing them to become quite annoyed and impatient with the individual with AS who may have under or over responsive sensory systems.
References American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th edition-Text Revision). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Asperger, H. (1991). ‘Autistic Psychopathy in Childhood.’ In U. Frith (eds and trans.) Autism and Asperger Syndrome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Original work published 1944). Attwood, T. (2007). The complete guide to Asperger’s Syndrome. London: Jessica Kingsley. Baird, G. et al (2006). Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: The special needs and autism project (SNAP). The Lancet, 368 (9531), pp. 210-215. Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Betts, D.E. & Patrick, N.J. (2006). Hints and tips for helping children with autism spectrum disorders: Useful strategies for home, school, and the community. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2006). Prevalence of the autism spectrum disorders in multiple areas of the United States, surveillance years 2006. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data.html.
Ehlers, S. & Gillberg, C. (1993). The epidemiology of Asperger Syndrome: A total population study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34 (8), pp. 1327- 1350.
Klin, A., Volkmar, F.R. & Sparrow, S.S. (2000). Asperger Syndrome. New York: Guilford Press.
Medicine Net (2010). Asperger Syndrome. Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/asperger_syndrome/article.htm
Wimmer, H. & Perner, J. (1983). Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children’s understanding of deception. Cognition. 13, 103-128.
Contact Information Nancy J. Patrick, Ph.D. Dion Betts, Ed.D. Associate Professor of Superintendent Special Education Boyertown Area S.D. Messiah College Boyertown, PA email@example.com@gmail.com 717-766-2511 ext. 7239 717-371-8225 60