Expressionism The Scream (1892) Edvard MunchA skull-like figure howlingon a bridge, is the imageof contemporary neurosis
Expressionism The style, however, is directly related to 2groups:The earlier, of a strong Germanic character andfounded in Dresden in 1905, was the “Bridge”(Die Brucke), and the second of a moreinternational character, founded in Munich in1911, was the “Blue Rider” (Blaue Reiter).
Expressionism• In expressionism, nature and everyday objects, such as flowers, become highly expressive of a mood or an emotional state.• Expressionist artists used bright, screaming colors, disregarding the natural colors of the object, in order to express emotion powerfully
ExpressionismA. “Bridge” Their harsh style, with a strong linearemphasis, lent itself well to the graphicarts, especially woodcut. They became the artistof a sick society caught between two wars.
ExpressionismB. “Blue Rider” This grouped developed into abstraction.Franz Marc is known for his powerful paintingsof blue horses in an indeterminatesetting, which partake of a primitive symbolicquality.
ExpressionismVassily Kandinsky Franz Marc Kandinsky
Dadaism Tristan TzaraIn 1916, during the periodof World War I, a group ofyoung intellects inZurich, Switzerland, headed by TristanTzara, founded themovement which came tobe known as Dadaism.
Dadaism• From the French Dada, meaning “hobby horse,” or from the German meaning “childish gabble”• Iconoclastic and contemptuous of convention, the dadaists ridiculed the bourgeois concept of art as commodity.
Surrealism Surrealism centered around the theorythat man’s conscious activity was but a smalland limited area compared to the vast realm ofthe unconscious of which dreams are only thesymbols
Surrealism2 ways of realizing the objectives: A. Autistic Surrealism that took the form of the uncontrolled meanderings of the automatic writing which would reveal clues to the contents of the unconscious.
SurrealismJoan Miro Paul Klee “taking a line for a walk”
Surrealism2 ways of realizing the objectives: B. Veristic Surrealism, with its realistic technique allied with the starting juxtaposition of objects in painting , thus becoming a kind of visual equivalent of the free association method.
SurrealismComte de Lautreamont Expressed that the work of art could be “beautiful as the chance meeting upon a dissecting table of a sewing machine with an umbrella”
SurrealismSalvador Dali The Persistence of Memory
Surrealism The Persistence of Memoryshows melting clocks on adesolate and barren shore
SurrealismGiorgio de Chirico Melancholy and Mystery of a Street
Surrealism Melancholy and Mystery of a Streetshows brooding shadowsand dark corners thatmenace a young girlplaying with a hoop
SurrealismYves Tanguy curious, bonelike structures, fossils of a submerged continent
Surrealism Rene Magritteworks with literaljuxtapositions, as whenclouds from a saxophoneand a Chari, or his trompel’oeil landscapes thatconfuse illusion withreality
Surrealism The contribution of Surrealism lies inrevealing hitherto unexplored artistic resourcesand in affirming as valid subjects of art thosewhich were formerly regarded suspicious orwithout value.
Social RealismA. IN MEXICO Mexican art, because of its relevance to its times and because of its encompassing view of the social nature of man, was particularly suited to the large format of the mural.
Social RealismJose Clemente Orozco Gods of the Modern World
Social Realism Gods of the Modern Worldit was done in a boldexpressionistic styledramatizing the socialconflicts of his time.
Social RealismDavid Alfaro Siquieros Echo of Scream
Social Realism Echo of Screamit shows a small boywhose cry reverberates ina desert of bones andwreckage
Social RealismDiego Rivera Night of the Rich, Night of the Poor
Social Realism In order to communicate their socialmessage on a wider scale, the Mexican artistsalso turned to the graphic arts and producedprints of great visual power.
Social RealismB. IN THE UNITED STATES Realism allied with social consciousness also characterized a considerable portion of the art of the United States from the 1930’s to the 1950’s.
Social RealismB. IN THE UNITED STATES Literature and other arts dealt with the following:
Social Realism• Problems of Nighthawks urbanism, alienation, an d lack of social integrationEdward Hopper
Social Realism• Bureaucracy and the The Subway (1950) dehumanization of the personGeorge Tooker
Social Realism• The conflict between Cristina’s World (1948) the interior and exterior worldAndrew Wyeth
Social Realism• Material greed and Into the World There corruption, or Come a Soul Called Ida pervading decadence and decayIvan Albright
Social Realism This paintings in which form and content unite tomake a moving human message are works of artists ashighly sensitive people feeling and living with theirsociety and finding in art a vehicle for communicatingsignificant human experience and for shaping thehuman values essential to a truly humane society.
ImpressionismAs Maurice Denissaid, as early as1890, “Remember that apicture – before being abattle-horse, a nudewoman, or an anecdote– is essentially a planesurface covered withcolors and assembled ina certain order.”
ImpressionismThis statement becamethe rallying point ofthe moderns beginningwith the Frenchimpressionists.
Impressionism Impressionism: SunriseThey derived their namefrom a paint by ClaudeMonet entitledImpressionism:Sunrise, exhibited in1874.
Impressionism Impressionism: SunriseThe word impressionismwas caught up by thesneering critics and ithas stuck to their stylesince then.
Impressionism• Impressionism was a rebel movement against classicism and the French Academy with its ideals of permanence, stability, and the intention of capturing the eternal, absolute qualities of the subject, such as in a portrait, for the benefit of posterity• He sought to capture the fleeting, elusive effects of atmosphere and light on the subject.
Impressionism• Impressionism felt the influence of Bergson’s philosophy that reality is a continual process of development and change, like an unending stream.• The style was also influence by photography and its light and dark effects, its angle of vision, as well as by the “snapshot” or “candid” effect.
Impressionism Claude MonetOne of the foremostimpressionist as the truestto the style was ClaudeMonet.
Impressionism Claude MonetHe is best known for hismany versions of theRouen Cathedral as seenat different times of theday.
ImpressionismRouen Cathedral (1894) Claude Monet
Impressionism Claude MonetHe also painted aseries of water lilies ina pond (Nympheas) asthey changed with thechanging light fromseason to season.
Impressionism NympheasHe also painted aseries of water lilies ina pond (Nympheas) asthey changed with thechanging light fromseason to season.
Impressionism Auguste RenoirAnother outstandingimpressionist isAuguste Renoir, knownespecially for hisdelicate portraits ofwomen and children.
Fauvism• The impressionists’ use of bright colors was the principal aspect of Fauvism• The group of Fauvist painters included striking, bold use of colors, which were no longer confined within definite planes but spilled over freely, which caused a disagreeing critic to call them Fauves, the French word for “wild beasts.”
FauvismGroup of Fauvist S. Bonnardpainters:• S. Bonnard• Andre Derain• Henri Matisse
FauvismPaul Gauguin An artist who is often associated with the Fauves, but who worked in a highly individual style. He escaped from the stifling urbanism of Europe to a primitive idyllic life in the South Pacific, particularly Tahiti.
FauvismPaul Gauguin For his subject matter of bronze-skinned women basking in the sun amid lush vegetation, he is associated, too, with the style known as primitivism. His bright colors are intensified by tropical sunlight.
Pointillism• Another branch of impressionism which is sometimes called divisionism• The obvious characteristic of this style is the application of tiny dots of pure color side by side on the canvas to create a luminous effect
PointillismGeorges Seurat Sunday Afternoon at Grand Jatte
PointillismGeorges Seurat It shows very careful planning and organization
PointillismGeorges Seurat He differed from the impressionists in his concern with structure and solidity of form, for the impressionist painter usually sacrificed much of substance and solidity to the effects of light and atmosphere.
CubismDemoiselles d’ Avignom (1907) This painting has 5 female figures, showing varied treatments of the human figure.
CubismDemoiselles d’ Avignom (1907) While some of them are of classical derivation in stance and physical type, two of them are mask- headed, indicating the initiation of primitive mystery and ritual into Occidental painting.
CubismDemoiselles d’ Avignom (1907) This painting has been described as marking the end of Western chauvinism, for painters then began to turn to Asian and African sources for inspiration and artistic renewal.
CubismIn subsequent paintings, Picasso and Braquefurther expanded the possibilities of cubism. Linear perspective was negated and thecanvas was reaffirmed as 2-dimensional surface.Point of view was continually shifting, shapeswere exaggerated and simplified, while coloremphasized formal structure.
CubismA. Analytic Cubism (1910 - 1912) Analytical cubist paintings have theappearance of great complexity, as the subject isfragmented into its numerous aspects on the two-dimensional surface.
CubismA. Analytic Cubism (1910 - 1912)The subject loses its recognizableappearance, except for a few clues to itsidentity, such as eyes, part of a guitar, or the neck ofa bottle.Color is generally limited to tones of gray andbrown.
CubismB. Synthetic Cubism (1912 - 1916) The picture plane loses its earlier complexityand the monochrome coloring is replaced bybrighter hues.
CubismB. Synthetic Cubism (1912 - 1916) A new emphasis is given to texture, especiallywith the cubist technique of collage which consistsof adding and pasting bits of colored paper,newsprint, or other materials on the surface toreinforce its flatness, to create textural effects, andto serve as points of reference.
Futurism• Futurism as a style in painting strove to analyze visually the various stages of an action.• It deals with the process of becoming, not of being, or with the unfolding of an action so that the painting may seem to correspond in photography to a series of multiple exposures of one action on a single film.
FuturismMarcel Duchamp Nude Descending a Staircase
Futurism A number of Italian artists took up thestyle in the period preceding World War I toglorify modern speed, industrialmechanization, and militarism.
Abstract Art• Abstract art is a logical extension of cubism with its fragmentation of the object.• Two artists, Kandinsky and Mondrian, launched abstraction in painting which, proclaiming the independence of the artist from the representation of the object, must have constituted a most daring step.
Abstract Art Vassily KandinskyAs early as 1910,Kandinsky began work onpaintings in which norecognizable objectsappear.
Abstract ArtHe tried to show the Vassily Kandinskyrelationship of the musicalelements of melody andrhythm to painting and inhis treatise, Concerningthe Spiritual in Art, heexpressed his desire totranscend the materialworld and arrive at therealm of the spirit in art
Abstract ArtHis paintings may be largely Vassily Kandinskygrouped into 2 kinds:1. The Strict Geometrical Compositions – shows high intellectual precision2. The Free Improvisations – sought to express, by means of brilliant color and swirling lines, intuitive and emotional states.
Abstract ArtPiet Mondrian —a Dutch artist who was the leader of the De Stijl group. —developed geometric abstraction with his mathematically precise paintings based on right angles, squares and rectangles. —limited himself to the primary colors with the addition of black and white.
Abstract Artso precise and exquisitelybalanced are hispaintings that theslightest modificationwould disturb therelationship of the lines,colors, and shapes.
Abstract Art Kasimir MalevichHe aimed to achieve “purepainting” freed from anyallusions to the externalworld.
Abstract Art• Later, suprematism branched out into constructivism, which with the Russian artists Tatlin, Moholy-Nagy, Pevsner, and Gabo, experimented with the interpenetration and transparency of planes and opted for the integration of art and life, especially in the fields of industry and technology.
Abstract ArtIN UNITED STATES: Abstract Art, deriving from Kandinsky’sfree forms, developed into abstractexpressionism or action painting.
Abstract ArtIN UNITED STATES: The major exponent of the style is JacksonPollock, whose technique, consisting ofsplattering or spraying the canvas with paint,brings the element of chance into play(Convergence).
Abstract ArtMark Rothoko In the work of Mark Rothoko, much depends on the striking combinations of luminous colors in large bands, creating a hypnotic effect.
Abstract ArtMark Rothoko White and Green on Blue
Abstract ArtOther artists, such asMark Tobey, have workedin calligraphic style, partlyas exploration of thepossibilities of the writtencharacter, and as a newversion of automaticwriting or doodling.
Abstract Art1. Op (optical) art based on the fascination with optical illusion created through ingenious and precise combinations of line and color. requires great precision and planning, as well as scrupulous draftmanship
Abstract Art2. Pop (popular) art draws its subject from mass-produced items that flood the consumer market: cola bottles, tin cans, photographs of film stars, and comic strips.
Abstract Art The artist may make a colorful bigger-than-life blow-up of Campbell soup cans as a half-playful, half-ironic comment on contemporaryurban society, or he may multiply an image intorows and rows of the same, such as AndyWarhol has done with a dollar bill or withMarilyn Monroe’s photograph as a visual satireon mass production.
Abstract ArtRoy Lichtenstein hastaken his subjects fromcomic strips which whenblown up acquire astrange, ominous, if notabsurd character.
Abstract ArtClaes Oldenburg hastaken familiar objects,such as the hamburgersandwich, and made itinto a startling piece ofnaturalistic sculpture.
Abstract Art3. Psychedelic art found its vogue in the late 1960’s sought to capture in art the weird, whirling shapes and luminous colors supposedly visualized under the influence of stimulants, especially drugs.
Abstract Art• Some newer developments in contemporary art are the shaped canvases, box constructions, and empaquetage, or wrapping.• In recent times, the artist has turned away from fixed, traditional types, to discover new forms and techniques, thus extending art into modern technology and the domain of the computer.