In general terms, psychology is about understanding all the things that we do.
Although psychology began in Europe, many research labs began to appear in North American colleges and universities. Wilhelm Wundt is considered the father of modern psychology. Many of the early American psychologists were his graduate students.
Wundt is known as a voluntarist because he was interested in volitional behavior He founded what is considered to be the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879 He used the technique known as introspection to probe the perceptual processes of his experimental subjects
Mary Whiton Calkins founded an early psychology laboratory at Wellesley College and was the first woman president of the APA Margaret Floy Washburn was the first woman to earned a Ph. D in psychology and authored an influential book, The Animal Mind Leta Stetter Hollingworth did pioneering work on adolescent development and the fallacy of women’s inferiority
G. Stanley Hall was the first president of APA; his most significant contribution may have been to expose scholars in the US to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. Freud is world-famous for his theory. His work helped to shape the field of clinical psychology. Carl Jung was an adherent of Freud who eventually broke with him; he is most widely remembered for his theory of the collective unconscious
B.F. Skinner is arguably the most influential psychologist to date His work on operant conditioning revolutionized the behavioral movement. He extended his theoretical work to humans and most notably argued against the notion that we have free will.
Psychology does not provide us with a unitary understanding of the mind. There are numerous viewpoints that compete and complement one another. These perspectives have all grown from the work of early psychologists. Behaviorists believed that only observable events can be studied scientifically, and studied the effects of environment on the overt behavior of humans and animals.
Psychoanalysts study the unconscious determinants of behavior - they believe that unconscious motives and experiences in early childhood govern personality and mental disorders.
Humanists believe that humans are free, rational beings with the potential for personal growth - fundamentally different from animals. Humanists study the unique aspects of human experience.
The cognitive perspective involves the study of thoughts and mental processes. Cognitive theorists believe that human behavior cannot be fully understood without examining how people acquire, process, and store information.
Advocates of the biological perspective believe that an organism’s functioning can be explained in terms of the bodily structures and biochemical process that underlie behavior. They study the physiological bases of behavior in humans and animals.
Evolutionary theorists study the evolutionary bases of behavior in humans and animals. They believe that behavior patterns have evolved to solve adaptive problems, and that natural selection favors behaviors that enhance reproductive success.
Psychoanalysis developed before behaviorism and behaviorism developed before cognitive psychology This evidence provided on this graph suggests that behaviorism gave way in terms of quantity of published research several decades ago. The graph may not be so helpful when determining psychoanalysis’ impact on the field because psychoanalysts are less likely to be scientists.
Many individuals have made contributions to the history of psychology. Psychology grew out of a number of related disciplines like philosophy, medicine, physics, physiology, etc The work of the individuals on this overview helped to consolidate psychology into its own field. Many of these names are very familiar to those who work in this field.
APA membership has grown substantially since the end of World War II, a testament to its popularity.
The most common setting for psychologists is in private practice. These are obviously clinical or counseling psychologists. Hospitals and clinics are also a common setting for these psychologists. The academic setting is also a common locale for psychologists.
Psychology has many subdisciplines. Research is performed in each of them. This chart lists the major areas for research in modern psychology. Clinical psychologists are concerned with the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals with psychological disorders, as well as treatment of less server behavioral and emotional problems. Counseling psychology overlaps with clinical psychology in that specialists in both areas engage in similar activities - however, counseling psychologists usually work with a somewhat different clientele, providing assistance to people struggling with everyday problems of moderate severity. Educational psychologists work to improve curriculum design, achievement testing, teacher training, and other aspects of the educational process. Industrial and organizational psychologists perform a wide variety of tasks in the world of business and industry.
This graphic, much like 11 shows how many clinical psychologists are employed in the industrialized world. This mirrors the strong demand that is seen for slots in graduate programs in clinical psychology Clinical psychology programs, excepting veterinary school, is the most difficult graduate program to gain admittance to.
These are the themes that relate to psychology as a field of study. Empiricism is the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation. 2. A theory is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations. The conclusions in psychology are based on direct observation. 3. Trends, issues, and values in society influence psychology’s evolution - putting psychology in both a social and historical context.
These themes relate to psychology’s subject matter. 4. Psychology shows that there are multiple causes of behaviors. 5. Culture - widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, and other products of a community - is also a determinant of human behavior. 6. Heredity and environment - or nature and nurture - are both important and have complex connections to human behavior. 7. Motives and expectations color our experience, which can make perception a subjective experience
Time management is crucial to success in college. Many students today work while they attend college. This can be detrimental since many study hours are lost to jobs which pay very little.
This graphic shows the strong positive correlation between classroom attendance and grade performance. Though most instructors do not take attendance, this detail is crucial to a student’s success. This student must manage this on their own quite often.
This is an interesting graphic display because the results depicted here are counterintuitive. Most instructors, and to a lesser extent students, believe that switching an answer on an exam is most often going to lead to a mistake. This study cited however showed that just the opposite is true. Most times when students switch an answer on an exam it leads to a correct answer.
1. How Psychology DevelopedPsychology TodaySeven Unifying ThemesPersonal Application
2. Cornell University 1891 University of Toronto 1890 Clark University 1889 University of Harvard University 1892 Wisconsin 1888 Wellesley College 1891 Stanford University of University 1893 Iowa 1890 Brown University 1892 University of University of Yale University 1892 Michigan 1890 Nebraska 1889 Columbia University 1890 Indiana University of University 1887 Princeton University 1893 Illinois 1892 University of Trenton State College 1892 Kansas 1889 University of Chicago 1893 University of Pennsylvania 1887 Johns HopkinsFounded by students of Williams James University 1883Founded by students of G. Stanley Hall Catholic University 1891Founded by students of Wilhelm Wundt Randolf MaconFounded by Others Women’s College 1893 How Psychology Psychology Seven Unifying Personal Developed Today Themes Application
3. How Psychology Psychology Seven Unifying PersonalDeveloped Today Themes Application
4. Mary Whiton Margaret Floy Leta Stetter Calkins Washburn HollingworthHow Psychology Psychology Seven Unifying PersonalDeveloped Today Themes Application
5. Sigmund Freud G. Stanley Hall Carl JungHow Psychology Psychology Seven Unifying PersonalDeveloped Today Themes Application
10. Cognitive Perspective (1950s - Present) Noam Chomsky Herbert Simon Jean PiagetHow Psychology Psychology Seven Unifying PersonalDeveloped Today Themes Application
11. Biological Perspective (1950s - Present) James Olds Roger Sperry David Hubel Torsten WeiselHow Psychology Psychology Seven Unifying PersonalDeveloped Today Themes Application
12. Evolutionary Perspective (1980s - Present) David Buss Martin Daly Margo Wilson Leda Cosmides John ToobyHow Psychology Psychology Seven Unifying PersonalDeveloped Today Themes Application
13. 20Flagship Articles with Keywords (%) 18 16 Cognitive School 14 12 10 8 6 Behavioral School 4 2 Psychoanalytic School 0 1950 1956 1962 1968 1974 1980 1986 1992 1996 YearHow Psychology Psychology Seven Unifying PersonalDeveloped Today Themes Application
14. 1870 18801980s 1971 -1990s Early 1933 2000 1941 1913 1951 19451920s 1890 1961-19641875 1881 1904 Increased RogersNobeldemonstration B.Carl global interdependence Evolutionary psychology EricWilhelm Wundthelps Prize writes Kandel wins insplit-brain Roger growthcreates launchinfluence Rapid Sperry’s B. Watson clinical Gestalt pychologyPavlovits researchlaboratories William James publishes shows how Ivan nears his F. Skinner First Freud’s John establishes Sigmund andfurorjournalasDavid1947 independently peak1892 diversity behaviorism Torsten (in1981 1953beginsset newand he physiologyradical in Hubel cultural bydevotedWestern emerges andare to up a major 1963 movement seminalwork1974 medicine) as are work, 2002 and1883continuesinresponses psychologyThe Principles humanistic 1914 to build influence.1905 first over classic 1990s conditioned of behaviorismpsychology.1908 for societies sparkhowby hisNew IntroductoryHarvard) forPsychology. surge William James (at his research perspective. Wiesel onpublishes interest respond theoretical with of with publication of cells in to oncortical the that the responsemanifesto, arguing way in huge demand 1879 researchcreated, pavingconducts Mamie Clark Roger SperryLetaTherapy. and Carol Kenneth B.factorsMilgram the memories StanleywinsBinet develops publishes F.The HallNobel prize his Skinner publishes wins Client-Centered 1956 DanielMaccoby study Kahneman biochemistry1988 repressed Wundt (at Eleanor Wilhelm and howtoG.clinicalofAlfredfounds biological the cultural psychology behavior. G. Stanley mold Psychoanalysis. Stanley Hall Hollingworth serviceson establishes forlight help memory. shouldpsychology. created controversialrejuvenate Margaret Washburn Lectures 1916 of 1950 bookresponse and publish work on prejudice that StimulusScience and Human 1954 Prize their controversialresearch on the Jacklinand study Wilhelm influentialsuccessful intelligence Beyond Freedom publish (in Leipzig). Wundt establishes by physiology observableof economics) Nobel perspectivecontroversy 1978landmark (in World onlypioneeringstimulates War and medicine) firstfirst American Psychological behavior. America’s University work II in psychology. 1909 review ofThe 1918radical influential-research revolutionlaboratory research at research is cognitive for aftermath. psychologypublishes publishes Mind, split-brain studies.citedTerman formAnimal Researchresearch onby The Association.1914Lewisofinfirstgender 1954 for his France. landmark isauthority, obedienceadvocatingwomen. Erikson writes testin to psychologists Behavior,inpsychologyon Erik its laboratory and Dignity. behaviorismLatewhich Motivation an Nobel 1990s Abrahamsimilar to Watson’s. decisionMaslow’s watershed at launched at serves as JohnsAmericanStanford-Binetotherswinsimpetus in differences,making.Court decision increasing HopkinsSupreme inandfuelFreud’s which may bePsychological Intelligence Society Elizabeththe Herbert Simon and most Loftus Childhood which galvanizes University. psychology PersonalitySigmund Herbert for and single studyintelligence forhelps famousWidespreadinfluence receives formal researchmalleability where Germany. Freud’s Society conferencesegregation. behaviorism. on the outlawingLeipzig, he extends in and in thisprize (in becomes Martinwhich economics) Scale,area. which Seligman humanisticis begun movement. Miller, (APS) toSimon,as anby militaryand Noam testinghistory. memory. George psychology’sthehumanthe positiveDevelopment across fallibilityserveresearch on cognition.Hall of world’s theory as recognition of advocate launches foremost G. S. during World War I. life span. Chomsky psychology. major for the science of report three intelligence the psychology test. movement. invites Freud to give lectures advances in just one day. at Clark University. How Psychology Psychology Seven Unifying Personal Developed Today Themes Application
16. 4.2% Elementary and Secondary Schools 6.3% Business and Government 8.5% Other 19.4% Hospitals and Clinics 28.0% Colleges and Universities 33.6% Private PracticeHow Psychology Psychology Seven Unifying PersonalDeveloped Today Themes Application
17. 9.5% 10.3%Physiological Other3.8% 10.6%Psychometrics Health6.7% 13.7%Cognitive Educational8.2% 16.1%Experimental Social3.0% 19.3%Personality Developmental How Psychology Psychology Seven Unifying Personal Developed Today Themes Application
19. 1 Psychology is Empirical2 Psychology is Theoretically Diverse3 Psychology Evolves in a Sociohistorical ContextHow Psychology Psychology Seven Unifying PersonalDeveloped Today Themes Application
20. 4 Behavior is Determined by Multiple Causes5 Behavior is Shaped by Cultural Heritage6 Heredity and Environment Jointly Influence Behavior7 People’s Experience of the World is Highly SubjectiveHow Psychology Psychology Seven Unifying PersonalDeveloped Today Themes Application
21. How Psychology Psychology Seven Unifying PersonalDeveloped Today Themes Application
22. 100 90Performance of Students 80 70 Successful 60 Students 50 40 Unsuccessful 30 Students 20 10 0 Always or Sometimes Often Almost Always Absent Absent in Class How Psychology Psychology Seven Unifying Personal Developed Today Themes Application
23. 55.2% 57.8% 15.5% Hurts Test Wrong Improves Score to Right Test Score 19.0% 22.0% Don’t Know Wrong10.3% 20.2% to WrongNo RightChange to Wrong How Psychology Psychology Seven Unifying Personal Developed Today Themes Application