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  • 1. Group 6
    • Anya Pritafania (0902401)
    • Dini Yahdini Nurhasanah (0902376)
    • Mayang Setrawulan ( 0 906 259 )
    • Putri Dwi Annisa (0902 381 )
    • Rima Putriani (0902 417 )
    • English Language and Literature B 2009
  • 2. Pragmatics and Indirectness
  • 3. Intentional indirectness
    • In pragmatics intentional indirectness is examined. Nevertheless, sometimes it cannot be decided if an implicature is intentional or unintentional.
    • Causes :
    • Linguistic inadequacy
    • Performance error.
  • 4. Indirectness is costly and risky
    • Indirectness is costly and risky . It is costly in the sense that an indirect utterance takes longer for the speaker to produce and longer for the hearer to process/understand/interpret. It is risky in the sense that the hearer may not understand what the speaker is getting at.
    • Ex ample:
    • An American woman was visiting Israel. One evening a woman went to the flat of some friends and her host asked her what she would like to drink. She replied, ' Well, I've been on whisky all day .'
  • 5.
    • Assumption of rationality
    • Indirectness is used in certain occasions
    • We are more likely to conclude that people obtain some advantage or avoid some negative consequence by employing indirectness
    • The use of indirectness is perfectly rational
    • Example:
    • BBM display name.
  • 6.
    • The Principle of Expressibility
    • Anything that can be meant can be said
    • No one was able to define the concept without resorting to various forms of indirectness: poetry or figure of speech (metaphor and similes)
  • 7.
    • Indirectness – An Illustration
    • Not explicitly stated
    • An indirect approach succeeded where a direct order would certainly have failed
    • Example:
    • Open page 123
  • 8. How do we know how indirect to be?
    • The main factors of indirectness :
    • The relative power of the speaker over the hearer
    • The social distance between the speaker and the hearer
    • The degree to which X is rated an imposition in culture Y
    • Relative rights and obligations between the speaker and the hearer
  • 9. Power
    • The general point is that we tend to use a greater degree of indirectness with people who have some power or authority over us than to those who do not.
  • 10.
    • Spencer – Oatey discusses the different types and component of power at some length.
    • Legitimate power : One person has the right to prescribe or request certain things by virtue of role, age, or status.
    • Referent power : One person has power over another because the other admires and wants to be like him/her in some respect
    • Expert power : One person has some special knowledge or expertise which the other person needs.
  • 11. Social Distance
    • Social distance is a composite of psychologically real factors (status, age, sex, degree of intimacy) which together determine the overall degree of respectfulness within a given speech situation. (Leech, 1938)
    • In an unequal power relationship [e.g. between students and their teacher in the case of p.129 Aeginitou (1995)], there remains a quite close relationship to one another
  • 12. Size of Imposition
    • Goffman’s Notion of Free and non-Free goods (1967)
    • Anyone can use without seeking permission in a given situation in free goods: ‘ask for extra sauce when purchasing catfish pecel’
    • Requesting free goods requires a minimal degree of indirectness
    • Lakoff (1974)
    • The concept of free and non-free goods can be extended to information, not necessarily material
  • 13. Rights and Obligations What is important is whether or not the speaker has the RIGHT to make a particular demand and whether the hearer has the OBLIGATION to comply.
  • 14. The Negotiation of Pragmatic Parameters
    • Negotiate the size of imposition :
    • A : Hey, you still have a sandwich, don’t you?
    • B : Yup.
    • A : It looks delicious.
    • B : I know.
    • A : Are going to eat the sandwich?
    • B : No, I’m full.
    • A : Can I have it then?
  • 15. Continue…
    • Change the social distance :
    • Example:
    • A: Dr. Galasinski?
    • B : Darek.
    • A : Darek.