• Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads


Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. Group 6
    • Anya Pritafania (0902401)
    • Dini Yahdini Nurhasanah (0902376)
    • Mayang Setrawulan ( 0 906 259 )
    • Putri Dwi Annisa (0902 381 )
    • Rima Putriani (0902 417 )
    • English Language and Literature B 2009
  • 2. Pragmatics and Indirectness
  • 3. Intentional indirectness
    • In pragmatics intentional indirectness is examined. Nevertheless, sometimes it cannot be decided if an implicature is intentional or unintentional.
    • Causes :
    • Linguistic inadequacy
    • Performance error.
  • 4. Indirectness is costly and risky
    • Indirectness is costly and risky . It is costly in the sense that an indirect utterance takes longer for the speaker to produce and longer for the hearer to process/understand/interpret. It is risky in the sense that the hearer may not understand what the speaker is getting at.
    • Ex ample:
    • An American woman was visiting Israel. One evening a woman went to the flat of some friends and her host asked her what she would like to drink. She replied, ' Well, I've been on whisky all day .'
  • 5.
    • Assumption of rationality
    • Indirectness is used in certain occasions
    • We are more likely to conclude that people obtain some advantage or avoid some negative consequence by employing indirectness
    • The use of indirectness is perfectly rational
    • Example:
    • BBM display name.
  • 6.
    • The Principle of Expressibility
    • Anything that can be meant can be said
    • No one was able to define the concept without resorting to various forms of indirectness: poetry or figure of speech (metaphor and similes)
  • 7.
    • Indirectness – An Illustration
    • Not explicitly stated
    • An indirect approach succeeded where a direct order would certainly have failed
    • Example:
    • Open page 123
  • 8. How do we know how indirect to be?
    • The main factors of indirectness :
    • The relative power of the speaker over the hearer
    • The social distance between the speaker and the hearer
    • The degree to which X is rated an imposition in culture Y
    • Relative rights and obligations between the speaker and the hearer
  • 9. Power
    • The general point is that we tend to use a greater degree of indirectness with people who have some power or authority over us than to those who do not.
  • 10.
    • Spencer – Oatey discusses the different types and component of power at some length.
    • Legitimate power : One person has the right to prescribe or request certain things by virtue of role, age, or status.
    • Referent power : One person has power over another because the other admires and wants to be like him/her in some respect
    • Expert power : One person has some special knowledge or expertise which the other person needs.
  • 11. Social Distance
    • Social distance is a composite of psychologically real factors (status, age, sex, degree of intimacy) which together determine the overall degree of respectfulness within a given speech situation. (Leech, 1938)
    • In an unequal power relationship [e.g. between students and their teacher in the case of p.129 Aeginitou (1995)], there remains a quite close relationship to one another
  • 12. Size of Imposition
    • Goffman’s Notion of Free and non-Free goods (1967)
    • Anyone can use without seeking permission in a given situation in free goods: ‘ask for extra sauce when purchasing catfish pecel’
    • Requesting free goods requires a minimal degree of indirectness
    • Lakoff (1974)
    • The concept of free and non-free goods can be extended to information, not necessarily material
  • 13. Rights and Obligations What is important is whether or not the speaker has the RIGHT to make a particular demand and whether the hearer has the OBLIGATION to comply.
  • 14. The Negotiation of Pragmatic Parameters
    • Negotiate the size of imposition :
    • A : Hey, you still have a sandwich, don’t you?
    • B : Yup.
    • A : It looks delicious.
    • B : I know.
    • A : Are going to eat the sandwich?
    • B : No, I’m full.
    • A : Can I have it then?
  • 15. Continue…
    • Change the social distance :
    • Example:
    • A: Dr. Galasinski?
    • B : Darek.
    • A : Darek.