Cibx 2 is mentioned on sts-107 space shuttle columbia in 2003 that exploded during reentry


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Cibx 2 is mentioned on sts-107 space shuttle columbia in 2003 that exploded during reentry

  1. 1. The commercial development of the spacefrontier is one of the greatest opportunitiesfor economic growth. NASA isencouraging businesses to seize thisopportunity through its Space ProductDevelopment Office, to ensure thecontinued economic growth of the UnitedStates and to bring the opportunities forn e w a d v a n c e s , t e c h n o l o g i c a lunderstanding, products and jobs to thepublic. The STS-107 crew will be workingwith several such experiments during theirmission.The Astroculture Glove Box and GrowthChamber are two facilities that are beingused to improve old products and createnew ones. Astronauts will use thesefacilities to grow soybean plants thatscientists can study to determine theimpact of microgravity on the genetictraits of soybeans. This data can be usedto improve future agriculture products bygiving plants greater resistance to diseaseand drought. Other Astrocultureexperiments will look at the impacts ofmicrogravity on plant oil developmentand the development of new cosmeticsand food flavors.Another commercial payload will performcancer research in microgravity. Itsobjectives include the production and growthof protein crystals that can be used to developdrug therapy to prevent the spread of breast,lung, colon and brain cancers; developinga drug therapy to alleviate the pain associatedwith bone cancer; and the production andgrowth of microcapsules that will deliverdrugs directly to tumors.SPACE RESEARCHAND YOUDuring their 16 days in space, the sevenastronauts aboard the Space ShuttleColumbia will focus much of their attentionon what happens to the human body whenit is deprived of gravity. Microgravity, or“zero-g” (for zero gravity), is what makesspace so special for scientists. They canuse microgravity to grow large, very pureprotein crystals to help them understandthe role proteins play in maintaining healthand causing disease. Human cells grownin space produce cultures that scientistscan use to help them understand the growthof tumors and how they might control thatgrowth.For space travelers though, spending timein microgravity can cause them to lose boneand muscle mass, as well as experienceother effects that are not felt until their returnto Earth, such as dizziness. Scientists areworking to find ways to minimize thoselosses and long-term effects and the STS-107 mission will play an important part inthat research.As part of the European Space Agency(ESA) Advanced Respiratory MonitoringSystem, the crew will perform seven separateexperiments aboard Columbia to look forany changes that may occur in their lungs,hearts or metabolism while in space.Additional ESA biological investigationswill examine how bones form and maintainthemselves without gravity; the function ofthe immune system; connective tissuegrowth and repair; and bacterial and yeastcell responses to the stresses of spaceflight.Understanding How the HumanBody Adapts to SpaceDeveloping New Productsfor Use on EarthCONTINUED ON PAGE 4CONTINUED ON PAGE 4That is NASA’s vision. As part of our vision toimprove life here on Earth, seven astronauts,including the first astronaut from Israel, willspend 16 days in space this winter aboard theSpace Shuttle Columbia. The crew will work 24hours a day, in two alternating shifts, to completemore than 80 experiments. These experimentsinclude studies of astronaut health and safety;advanced technology development; and Earthand space sciences.“We’re doing a huge amount of science, ” saidMission Specialist Laurel Clark. “Understandingus as humans, our physiology and why we losebone mass, why we lose muscle mass…tryingto help people like my grandmother, who’slosing bone mass every day…trying tounderstand these processes and prevent painand suffering in the world.”“This mission will help us to understand and protectour home planet, in particular with the studies thatwe’re doing that look at the Earth’s atmosphereand the ozone layer,” said Rick Husband, thecommander of STS-107.“I think one of the legacies of NASA is that youalways push forward,” said 107 PayloadCommander and Mission Specialist MichaelAnderson. “That’s why it was founded – to pushhuman knowledge and experience forward. STS-107 is doing that on the science side – pushinghuman science knowledge forward.”To understand and protect our home planetTo explore the Universe and search for lifeTo inspire the next generation of explorers…as only NASA can.That is NASA’s mission.To Improve Life Here,To Extend Life to There,To Find Life Beyond.OVERVIEWSTS-1071Related Web Sites:
  2. 2. MISSION OVERVIEW& Research ProgramSTS-107:Providing24/7SpaceScienceResearchSTS-107Space shuttle mission STS-107 is the 28thflight of the Space Shuttle Columbia and the113th shuttle mission to date. This missionwill give more than 70 international scientistsaccess to the microgravity environment ofspace, and a set of seven human researchers,for 16 uninterrupted days.Astronaut Rick Husband (Colonel, USAF)will command STS-107 and will be joinedon Columbia’s flight deck by pilot William“Willie” McCool (Commander, USN).Columbia will be crewed by Flight Engineer(Mission Specialist 2) Kalpana Chawla(Ph.D.), Payload Commander (MissionSpecialist 3) Michael Anderson (LieutenantColonel, USAF), Mission Specialist 1 DavidBrown (Captain, USN), Mission Specialist 4Laurel Clark (Commander, USN) and PayloadSpecialist 1 Ilan Ramon (Colonel, Israeli AirForce), the first Israeli astronaut.When Columbia is launched from KennedySpace Center it will carry a SPACEHABResearch Double Module (RDM) in itspayload bay. The RDM is a pressurizedenvironment that is accessible to the crew(while in orbit) via a tunnel from the shuttle’smiddeck. Together, the RDM and the shuttle’smiddeck will contain the majority of themission’s experiments.In the area of physical sciences, the crew willperform three studies that are isolated insidea large, rugged chamber. These experimentswill examine the physics of combustion, sootproduction and fire quenching processes inmicrogravity. Another experiment willcompress granular materials in the absenceof gravity to further our understanding ofconstruction techniques – this informationcan help engineers provide strongerfoundations for structures in areas whereearthquakes, floods and landslides arecommon.A commercially-sponsored facility will beused to grow two kinds of protein crystals tostudy possible therapies against the factorsthat cause cancers to spread and bone cancerto cause intense pain to its sufferers. Twoother experiments will grow different typesof cell cultures – one used to combat prostatecancer, the other to improve crop yield.Another facility for forming protein crystalsmore purely and with fewer flaws than onEarth may lead to a drug designed for specificdiseases with fewer side effects.The Canadian Space Agency is alsosponsoring three bone-growth experimentson STS-107, and is collaborating with theEuropean Space Agency on two others. TheGerman Space Agency will measure thedevelopment of the gravity-sensing organsof fish in the absence of gravity. Studentsfrom six schools in Australia, China, Israel,Japan, Liechtenstein and the United Stateswill probe the effects of spaceflight on spiders,silkworms, inorganic crystals, fish, bees andants, respectively.There are also six experiments on a pallet inColumbia’s payload bay – the Fast ReactionExperiments Enabling Science, Technology,Applications and Research (FREESTAR),which is mounted on a bridge-like structurespanning the width of the payload bay. Thesesix investigations will look outward to theSun, downward at Earth’s atmosphere andinward into the physics of fluid phenomena,as well as test technology for spacecommunications. One FREESTAR experimentis made up of 11 separate student experimentsfrom schools across the U.S.ExperimentsAfter a 17 month stay in California for modifications andrefurbishment, Space Shuttle Columbia returns to KennedySpace Center aboard the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. AfterSTS-109, Columbia’s payload bay was outfitted with the newSPACEHAB Research Double Module preparing the orbiterfor 16 days of research on mission STS-107.Space Shuttle Columbia2Biology1. Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC):Development of Gravity Sensitive Plant Cells inMicrogravity2. Biotechnology Demonstration System (BDS-05)3. European Space Agency BIOPACK: BacterialPhysiology and Virulence on Earth and in Microgravity4. Fundamental Rodent Experiments Supporting Health(FRESH-02): Anatomical Studies of Central VestibularAdaptation5. Fundamental Rodent Experiments Supporting Health(FRESH-02): Arterial Remodeling and FunctionalAdaptations Induced by Microgravity6. Fundamental Rodent Experiments Supporting Health(FRESH-02): Choroidal Regulation Involved in theCerebral Fluid Response to Altered Gravity7. Magnetic FieldApparatus (MFA/BIOTUBE):Applicationof Physical and Biological Techniques to Study theGravisensing and Response System of PlantsBiomedical Research & Countermeasures1. Calcium Kinetics During Spaceflight2. Flight Induced Changes in Immune Defenses3. Incidence of Latent Virus Shedding During Spaceflight4. Microbial Physiology Flight Experiments: Effects ofMicrogravity on Microbial Physiology and SpaceflightEffects on Fungal Growth, Metabolism and Sensitivityto Anti-fungal Drugs5. Protein Turnover During Spaceflight6. Renal Stone Risk During Spaceflight7. Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure DuringSpaceflightEarth & Space Sciences1. Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment (MEIDEX)2. Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed LocalizedExhaust (SIMPLEX)3. Shuttle Ozone Limb Sounding Experiment-2(SOLSE-2)4. Solar Constant Experiment (SOLCON-3)Physical Sciences1. Combustion Module –2 (CM-2)2. Critical Viscosity of Xenon-2 (CVX-2)3. Laminar Soot Processes-2 (LSP-2)4. Mechanics of Granular Materials-3 (MGM-3)5. Space Acceleration Measurement System Free Flyer(SAMS-FF) and Orbiter Acceleration ResearchExperiment (OARE)6. Structures of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-number(SOFBALL)Space Product Development1. ASTROCULTURE2. Commercial Instrumentation Technology AssociatesInc. Biomedical Experiments Payload (CIBX-2)3. Commercial Protein Crystal Growth – ProteinCrystallization Facility (CPCG-H)4. Water Mist Fire Suppression Experiment (MIST)5. Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG)Technology Development1. Low Power Transceiver (LPT)2. Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)3. Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment(VCD FE)
  3. 3. CREWMEMBERSRed Team & Blue TeamMeet the CrewSTS-107Red TeamBlue TeamPictured from left to right is the STS-107 crew:Mission Specialist 1: David BrownBorn April 16, 1956 in Arlington, Virginia. Received a bachelor of science in biology from the Collegeof William and Mary in 1978 and a doctorate in medicine from Eastern Virginia Medical School in1982.Mission Commander: Rick HusbandGraduated from Amarillo High School, Amarillo, Texas, in 1975. Received a bachelor of science inmechanical engineering from Texas Tech University in 1980, and a master of science in mechanicalengineering from California State University, Fresno, in 1990.Mission Specialist 4: Laurel ClarkBorn March 10, 1961 in Ames, Iowa. Received a bachelor of science in zoology from the Universityof Wisconsin-Madison in 1983 and a doctorate in medicine from the same school in 1987.Mission Specialist 2: Kalpana ChawlaBorn in Karnal, India. Received a bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from PunjabEngineering College, India, in 1982, a master of science in aerospace engineering from the Universityof Texas in 1984 and a doctorate of philosophy in aerospace engineering from the University ofColorado in 1988.Mission Specialist 3: Michael AndersonGraduated from Cheney High School in Cheney, Washington, in 1977. Received a bachelor of sciencein physics/astronomy from the University of Washington in 1981 and a master of science in physicsfrom Creighton University in 1990.Pilot: William McCoolGraduated from Coronado High School, Lubbock, Texas, in 1979. Received a bachelor of science inapplied science from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1983, a master of science in computer science fromthe University of Maryland in 1985 and a master of science in aeronautical engineering from the U.S.Naval Postgraduate School in 1992.Payload Specialist: Ilan RamonBorn June 20,1954 in Tel Aviv, Israel. In 1974, Ramon graduated as a fighter pilot from the Israel AirForce (IAF) Flight School. Received a bachelor of science in electronics and computer engineeringfrom the University of Tel Aviv, Israel, in 1987.Open All NiteRick HusbandCommanderKalpana ChawlaFlight Engineer,Mission Specialist 2Laurel ClarkMission Specialist 4Ilan RamonPayload SpecialistWilliam McCoolPilotDavid BrownMission Specialist 1Michael AndersonPayload Commander,Mission Specialist 33
  4. 4. Using a NASA-designed Combustion Module, the crew of Columbiaalso will complete three experiments related to fire and controllingfire. One of those experiments will provide a better understandingof soot formation. Controlling the amount of soot produced is criticalto efficient, clean and safe combustion. Though soot is good forextracting heat in power plants, it’s bad in jet engines because itreduces their durability. Soot is also a hazardous air pollutant.Another combustion experiment will examine how a mist of watercan inhibit the spread of flames. This data can be used to designimproved, lighter-weight fire suppression systems on Earth, as wellas spacecraft-based systems that don’t require ozone-damagingchemicals such as Halons. The data can also be used to improveaircraft accident survivability by using a mist of water to containflames, increasing escape times for passengers.The third combustion experiment will improve our understandingof lean combustion, helping engineers design engines with betterfuel efficiency and reduced emissions (less pollution). The data canalso be used to protect spacecraft from fire by determining the limitsof flammability in microgravity. Finally, it can provide a betterunderstanding of pre-mixed gas explosions in confined spaces, suchas those that occur in underground mines.Another commercial experiment will use the microgravityenvironment aboard Columbia to grow larger, more uniformzeolite crystals. This has the potential of significant advances ingasoline refining technology, as well as improving products forthe chemical industry.Other life sciences experiments are included in the ESA Biobox,which is a multi-user facility that hosts a variety of biologicalexperiments, allowing scientists to observe the effects of microgravityon living systems. Two Biobox experiments involve the growth ofbone-forming and bone-removing cells in microgravity in order tocompare them to cells grown in normal gravity. This research couldhave a tremendous effect on our understanding and treatment of boneloss diseases on Earth, such as osteoporosis, while helping to ensurethat long-duration astronauts remain strong and healthy. Anothermulti-user facility is the ESA Biopack, which will be used to conductbiological experiments under varying gravity conditions, includinga study of human DNA.The seven STS-107 crewmembers will also take part inexperiments that involve measurements taken before and aftertheir spaceflight. These experiments include studies of howcalcium and muscle protein metabolism changes over time duringa spaceflight, providing data that will aid in the development ofcountermeasures to prevent their losses during long-durationspace missions. The astronauts will also take part in studiesrelated to kidney stone formation and how being in space affectstheir ability to sleep.Students from six countries also will study everything from spiders tofish in the microgravity environment aboard Columbia, and there are11 additional student experiments in Columbia’s payload bay fromschools across the U.S. Students are given the opportunity to flyexperiments in space in order to promote an interest in scientific careers.To study ways to help human bodies on Earth, another facility willgrow protein and virus crystals that are expected to lead to improveddrug designs. A NASA experiment will assess the effects of genetherapy on the growth of prostate cancer cells using a NASA-engineered rotating bioreactor. The cells that are grown for thisexperiment will be used for research, clinical diagnosis and treatmenton Earth.By taking full advantage of this unique environment for 16 days, thecrew of STS-107 will not only help researchers better protect futurespace travelers, but improve life on Earth as well.Human BodyNew ProductsPhysical Accommodations1. 9,000 lb. total payload capability2. 6 Double Rack locations (1,400 lb. and 45cubic ft. each)3. 4 ISPR capability4. Locker Capacity: Up to 62 hard mountedlocker locations (Up to 60 lb. and 2 cubic ft.each)Increased Data Management Facilties1. High bandwidth Orbiter Ku-Band signalprocessing2. Forward compatible with ISS interfaces3. Backward compatible with Spacelabinterfaces4. LOS on-board data storage and playbackIncreased Power Supply1. 5.5 kW experiment manifest allocation2. AC and DC to experiment locations3. 3.0 kW high power rack accommodations4. Remote commanding StatusEnhanced Environmental Control1. Life science payload accommodations2. Experiment air and water cooling3. Four-person environmental load capability4. Cabin temperature and humidity controlCONTINUED FROM PAGE 1CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1SPACEHAB Research Double Module4