Alma de Agua paper International Astronautical Federation Rio de Janeiro October 2000


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Alma de Agua: A Space Awareness Initiative IAF International Astronautical Federation Rio de Janeiro Brasil 2000 Dinis Afonso Ribeiro Richard Clar Environment GMES ESA European Union Art Music Antropolgy Sounding Rocket Launch Portugal AEPOR Língua Portuguesa CPLP Instituto Camões Português

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Alma de Agua paper International Astronautical Federation Rio de Janeiro October 2000

  1. 1. IAA-00-IAA.8.2.02ALMA da AGUA: A Space Awareness InitiativeDinis S A RibeiroCompanhia Espacial Portuguesa, Lda.Queluz, ClarArt Technologies,Paris, FRANCErclar@arttechnologies.comABSTRACTThe launch of a commemorative sounding rocketcarrying a space art payload will herald thecreation of the Portuguese Space Agency. Whileaddressing the technical aspects we will articulatethe “ALMA da AGUA” payload with ongoingprojects from Companhia Espacial PortuguesaLda, namely its instrumentation department andthe AEPOR project. Water management issues intheir variety illustrate well the complexity ofeffectively using space technology as a tool fordevelopment. The diplomatic coordination effortsneeded in order to have eight countries in verydifferent stages of development, to link togetherand have a simultaneous international event, willprovide opportunities to train the staff of thePortuguese Space Agency.IntroductionThis space awareness initiative is not limited to thelaunch of the payload on a sounding rocket. Waterresources management is an issue of greatimportance to the various Portuguese-speaking1Countries. These are Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde,Guiné-Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal, São Tomé ePríncipe, and East Timor. There are many differentorganizations that are important for watermanagement, such as the International WaterResources Association (IWRA), and internationalprojects such as the World MeteorologicalOrganization Hydrological Cycle ObservingSystem (WMO-HYCOS). This field implies abroad interdisciplinary approach to a particularlywide variety of issues. These problems are key tothe economic development and well-being of largepopulations, and must be addressed through acollaborative effort using various tools includingspace technology. ALMA da AGUA or “Soul ofthe Water” in English, is an interdisciplinary spaceart project that seeks to involve various institutionswithin the PSC (Portuguese-Speaking Countries).The project addresses metaphorically thepossibility of greater technical unification anddeeper collaboration of Portuguese speakingcountries and celebrates their common bond oflanguage, thus helping to create a greaterawareness to facilitate the launch of futurecollaborative efforts.ALMA da AGUA begins with thegathering of natural source water samples from allof the eight Portuguese-speaking countries. Theindividual water samples are to be carried intospace aboard a Brazilian sounding rocket (SondaIII) where the samples will be exposed to low-gravity in order to mix the waters in a “new way”and in a “different environment”. During spaceflight, in a highly symbolic gesture, the waters willbe combined by the action of several apparatuses.A video camera and downlink antenna integratedinto the payload will provide live coverage of thewaters floating in zero-g and mixing in space.After an ocean splashdown, the mixed-waterspayload of ALMA da AGUA will be recovered byhelicopter to be divided in eight equal samples andreturned to each departure point at culturalceremonies in each of the participating countries.These ceremonies will contribute to a greaterCopyright © 2000 Companhia Espacial Portuguesa Limitada.Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics andAstronautics, Inc. with permission. Released toIAF/IAA/AIAA to publish in all forms.1Dinis AfonsoRibeiroAssinado de formadigital por Dinis AfonsoRibeiroDN: cn=Dinis AfonsoRibeiro, o=CompanhiaEspacial Portuguesa,Lda., ou=ConsultingDepartment, c=PTDados: 2003.03.1806:27:50 ZAssinaturanão verificada
  2. 2. Portugal has lagged behind many othercountries in developing space activities, and thereare still some disperse and un-coordinated efforts.Activities have tended to be very “centrifugal”with highly specialized individuals excelling hereand there, but without a clear national goal. Theoceans3have slowly emerged as a commonground, and as a possible unifying theme for allPortuguese space projects. Yet, all the oceans, intheir vastness, are also part of something bigger:the hydrological cycle.awareness in all Portuguese-speaking countries ofthe role that space technology can have in watermanagement, from flood control (using earlywarning systems) to environmental control ofwater resources (using a network of low costsensors). The creation of a permanent group ofwater technicians using a dedicated computernetwork connecting the eight countries is a keyoutcome of this initiative.The ALMA da AGUA sounding rocketpayload was being planned for launch in October2000 during the 51st IAF Congress in Rio deJaneiro. It was hoped that the live coverage of theflight could be presented during the Congress inaddition to a world-wide Internet web cast. Thisevent is now currently scheduled for 2002. Thisspace awareness initiative is the fruit of acollaboration initiated by Richard Clar of ArtTechnologies (AT) and Dinis Ribeiro ofCompanhia Espacial Portuguesa, Lda. (CEP).There is some interest in developing smallpayloads of interdisciplinary nature that wouldpromote the idea of the possibility of fusion, or atleast of a greater unification of efforts.The Birth of the ConceptIn 1999, during the IAF conference in Amsterdamthe authors of this paper met when CEP wasdisplaying pictures from the ALMA prototypeapparatus developed by InstrumentationTechnology Associates Inc. On this system, theA.L.M.A. device (Acceleration-induced LiquidMixing Apparatus) uses external forces, the launchg-load, to be able to mix two liquids inside a vial.Goals of the ProjectThere is a dual purpose for the payload, first: thecommemoration of Portugal joining the EuropeanSpace Agency and second: the launch ofsystematic technical cooperation among allPortuguese speaking countries so that before theend of 2005, a space cooperation agreementfocused on using space technology tools forhumanitarian purposes, can be in effect.Portuguese Space ActivitiesAs the most recent member of ESA, Portugal hasthe possibility to benefit from all the accumulatedexperiences of the other 14 member states. But italso has the responsibility to include in itsactivities some of the potential conceptualadvances2on “how to run a space program” thatdecades of pioneering efforts from many countrieshave yielded.Fig. 1 A.L.M.A. device, showing two liquidsSince the year 2000 marked the passing of 500years since the discovery of Brazil by Portugaltook place, initially the idea was simply to mixPortuguese and Brazilian water samples fromnatural sources or main rivers. However, uponreflection, it was considered that several othercountries also speak the Portuguese language andthese other countries actually have quite seriousdifficulties related to many different watermanagement issues.Initially, ALMA da AGUA began as aspace art project. However, due to the internationalscope of its activities, and the potentialhumanitarian implications, it became graduallyinterwoven with the ongoing creation of thePortuguese Space Agency (AEPOR). Now, thisawareness initiative aims strongly at creatingspecific follow-ups: The A.L.M.A. organizationand its associated computer network.2
  3. 3. The EARTHSTAR project4was thenpresented whereby ceramic artifacts would becreated using soil samples gathered from specificcountries engaged, or recently engaged, in armedconflict. These soil samples combined are to beincorporated into the thermal protection system ofa recoverable spacecraft and fused together inspace by the heat generated during re-entry. OnEarth, a pentagonal star is described with a radiusof 3, 207 km from the center-point in Crete. Oneach of the five vertices, a marker is placed locatedby using GPS. The rays emanating from the center-point in Crete to the vertices extend throughregions of armed conflict. The ceramic artifactcreated in space will be installed in Crete during aceremony celebrating the culture of the countriesengaged in armed conflict.In the midst of discussion, a hybrid ideagradually emerged. There was an analogy betweenthe concept of having the molten ceramics mixingtogether under the reentry heat, and the idea ofwater samples mixing in reduced gravity. Both arenew materials in a new environment. There werehumanitarian concerns with both ideas as well.EARTHSTAR sought support from UNESCOthrough the “Culture of Peace Programme”where the objective is to ensure that the conflictsinherent in human relationships be resolved non-violently, based on the traditional values of peace.In some ways the Alma da Agua initiative is likean EARTHSTAR II project, with a different wayof implementing the basic idea being envisaged.Instead of “unifying” countries in abeautiful, yet purely mathematical and neutral wayalong the geometric lines of EARTHSTAR, whynot select countries that have some old historicallinks and common problems? .Paula Costa from CEP reflected upon thepossible point of view of all the other countriesinvolved, and suggested that the exact nature of thecultural events ought to be left to the initiative ofeach of the other seven participating countries aslong as they comply with the general theme offostering cooperation. Later, she coined the nameAgrupamento Lusófono Multidisciplinar da Águain order to help the creation of a bridge betweenthe artistic ALMA and the technical ALMA.Why the idea of “soul” of the water? Spacetechnology is still felt as a soulless endeavor. Itsinnermost nature is perceived all too often as beingat the antipodes of artistic thought. However, thisis quite untrue, since many engineers express theirstrong esthetic sensibility through mathematics orgeometry or even CAD layouts, and while usingmany other computer-generated images.ARTISTIC ASPECTSThe Portuguese Ministry of Science andTechnology has launched a special program named“Ciência Viva” or “Living Science”, aimed atraising the awareness of the population about thefact that scientific culture is as necessary andimportant as the classical culture5. It encouragespeople to try and use the experimental method,instead of relying solely on established authoritiesas sources of knowledge.The legitimacy of Space ArtThe importance of space art has not yet been fullyrealized by some of the people involved in spaceactivities. It is usually seen as a secondary issue tobe handled by the Public Relations departments ofspace agencies in such a way that the technicalrelevance of the payload is not jeopardized byoverexposure of its “debatable” artistic value.The desire to have space art as arecognized basic component of space programs is anatural consequence of greater social involvementin these activities. Our effort seeks to excel on boththe technical aspects as well as the artistic ones.One possible indicator of the degree of innovationpresent on space efforts might be the role that isreserved to space artists. The more classicalapproach had given them a very limited role, incharge of propaganda, logos, and press releases notventuring outside the public relations departmentof large governmental organizations. A moremodern approach would tend to treat them as keyintermediaries that help bridge the gap betweenhighly specialized and brilliant technicians and the“general public”. The entertainment industryalready allows much of this to take place, howeverspace artists are seldom at the center of spaceprojects, and they still remain seen almost as asecondary “strap-on booster”, that can be discardedwith little impact on “real” space projects. Thetrend towards a greater role of the private sectormay induce a gradual “change of paradigm” and bythe end of the century that is about to begin, spaceartists may have a very different role.Artistic components of Alma da Agua3
  4. 4. To allow free expression of the particular points ofview from each of the eight countries, they areinvited to propose to CEP, the specific artisticevents with which they may want to participate inthis awareness initiative. In each country a localcommittee of three individuals will be established,to run the local selection process and assist thepreparation of the events. Each country will selecttwo songs and two live performances that mustinclude at least one dance event to accompany thetwo international artistic events to be presented.Simultaneous artistic eventsLaunch day Returning of SamplesSong A Song BLive Performance A Live Performance BTable 1 All the eight countries will contributeThe first series of eight simultaneous events willoccur during the launch, and the second seriesduring the ceremonies that will mark the return ofthe water sample resulting from mixing of theeight individual samples that flew together on therocket. Since we want to help all the writers thatwrite in the Portuguese language to become awareof the possibilities opened by entering the “spaceage”, a parallel competition is suggested, so thatessays and other publications can be enabled. Newsupport media for the written materials should beencouraged, not just multimedia, but also e-books,or any other new experimental way of conveyingthe written word.Elements of the various live performances:Music Video Dance PoetryTable 2 Suggested structure for the eventsArt Technologies will play a critical role, since itwill be in charge of the webcast, that in turn willact as a synchronizing element designed toenhance the impact on the public.As an example for these events, therealready is one song selected by Portugal: It iscalled “O Paraíso” (the paradise) and it seeks toillustrate the need to face the difficulties to do newthings so that one can reach some kind of bettercondition.To take space art seriously may be difficultfor some people, yet it may be part of the way tothe “paradise” of real public support. ThePortuguese composer Pedro Ayres Magalhães fromthe group Madredeus composed this sad andnostalgic song. Partial excerpt from the words ofthe song in Portuguese and in English:Subi a escada de papelão...Não leva a nadaNão leva nãoÉ só uma escada de papelão...Há outra entrada no ParaísoMais apertadaMais, sim senhor...Eu só conheçoEsse caminhoDo ParaísoI climbed the cardboard ladder…It leads nowhereNowhere at allIt is just a cardboard ladder…Yet, there is another path into ParadiseMore difficult and narrowYes sir, quite narrower...As it happens, I only knowThat pathTo ParadiseTo enable the preparation and later support for thetransmission of this international event we hope tobe able to use an initial version of the computernetwork that will later become part of the follow-up to the awareness initiative.The Portuguese “critical mass” paradigmWe were delighted to accept the layout of eightcylindrical components (water bladders) on thispayload, proposed by Fokker Space, in order toevoke a “stylized fusion experiment” where youhave several lasers firing simultaneously onto acentral sample so that the needed temperature andpressure conditions are reached. The new entitythat will be created on the day of the launch, seeksto bring together simultaneously several entities,somehow reaching a “symbolic critical mass”. The“critical mass paradigm” is used oftentimes inpublic relations when dealing with high technology4
  5. 5. matters. In Portugal there was an endless debateabout when it would be the right time to start aspace program, because we did not yet haveenough human resources (critical mass) to start a“chain reaction”. This analogy is frequently usedin a incomplete way, since it is not enough tothrow together all the necessary human resources.A way of clearly focusing different efforts isnecessary. Public opinion must be motivated by a“special event” so that what is created is somehowgreater than the simple sum of all the components.TECHNICAL ASPECTS Fig. 2 Initial computer modelWe conceived this particular project and payloadso that it can become a precursor of a future familyof payloads, used in education, research anddevelopment, and commercial activities. All of thesystems discussed in this section have estheticvalue and therefore will be available for variousartistic events.Fig. 3 Elements of sounding rocket payloadIn the future, on new sounding rocket payloadsusing this same basic configuration, by replacingthe eight water reservoirs with totally differentinstruments, this basic configuration can be used tofocus electromagnetic6or acoustic energy insamples on the central chamber. Several fluidphysics experiments can be designed. Studyingsloshing is a possibility. Companhia EspacialPortuguesa, has its fledgling InstrumentationDepartment in charge of assisting Portuguesepartners in the development of the payload.The ALMA da AGUA payloadUnder the current initial design it will weighapproximately 10 Kg and is expected to have adiameter of 30 cm, in order to be compatible withthe Sonda III sounding rocket. It will have a lowersection with eight water bladders all pointing tothe water mixing chamber located in the center ofthis lower section. Each one of the bladders willhave its water sample from each of the eightparticipating countries. Valves will inject the waterinto the mixing chamber where they will coalesceproducing images similar to the ones obtained inIt is hoped that some components will be built inPortugal and Brazil. Additional components fromother companies could be added to this basicconfiguration. There are several technical issuesthat can provide the training opportunities neededto create a Portuguese team that will work withsounding rocket payloads in the future.drop tower experiments with liquid bridges. Amirror placed on top at 45 degrees from thesupport plate where the batteries and camera aremounted will allow a live video recording of thewater images that will be down linked in real time.• Launch preparation: (filling of the waterbladders will take place in Portugal.)An illumination box installed in the bottom of thepayload will provide the light.• Mechanical aspects: (exact diameter, type ofjoints, etc.)• Center of gravity requirements• Static-g and vibration load• Antennas available, choice of matchingground station• Recovery module tests (Parachute, float, buoywith transponder, etc.)• Tracking and telemetry / video reception(frequency; link budgets)5
  6. 6. • Payload recovery procedures (helicopter fromthe Brazilian navy)• Recovery procedures (Sagres school shipfrom the Portuguese navy to observe thereentry)Parabolic flights of the payload are beingconsidered, in order to fine-tune the creation of anice looking floating sphere of mixed waterresulting from the coalescence of the eightsamples.Fig. 5 Companhia Espacial Portuguesa (CEP)offices are located at the Cascais airfield inPortugal to provide a wide scope of logisticsupport for payload checkout. We have a wide areaavailable for development and rehearsals ofcomplex new theatrical and musical events.Smaller space art payloads can be added as piggybacks on this flight. An example would be a lowpower consumption microphone to record anddownlink live all the sounds, from the launch tothe sloshing sounds of the water mixing, until the“thump” of landing in the ocean. A payloadcamera installed outside facing down wouldprovide images of the launch site being left behind.The AEPOR ProjectFig. 4 Possible layout for parabolic flight testingIn order to open up an equitable access to spaceprojects for all interested parties in Portugal, aproject to develop four basic infrastructures iscurrently underway. A new entity – AEPOR, S.A.,is being created. Its structure is somewhat atypicaland quite similar to a Public Private Partnership(PPP) promoting a modern business approach. InAEPOR, the “AE” stands for Agência Espacial /Space Agency. The “POR” stands for Portugal.In order to maximize the technological returnsfrom the flight, a customized set of accelerometerscould be installed. An improved GPS on boardwould allow this sub-orbital flight to yield datathat can be useful for future improvements onrecovery procedures from the Atlantic ocean.Miniaturized cosmic ray detectors could be tested.Infrastructures already availableAEPOR Ground-based InfrastructuresHaving enabled the first 100% private payload,7from Portugal, the “Portuguese MicrogravityEmulsion Experiment” on STS-95 in October1998, CEP has identified several simple upgradesthat can be developed with Portuguese partners.After joining ESA in 1999, there is an emergingneed8for various general-purpose support servicesin Portugal that can be made available to anyinterested party with great flexibility and low cost.AEPOR Computer NetworkAEPOR Mission Control BusAEPOR Airborne Laboratory6
  7. 7. Table 3 Main components of AEPOR projectThis new entity will provide support services andincentives to any Portuguese institution orindividual wishing to interact with all the nationalspace agencies and space-related internationalorganizations, such as IAF, COSPAR, UNESCO,UNCOPUOS, ITU, WMO, EURISY, and othersimilar organizations.The ALMA da AGUA payload will belong toCompanhia Espacial Portuguesa up until thelaunch day. During the apogee of the sub-orbitaltrajectory of the sounding rocket it will thenbecome property of the AEPOR organization.A new kind of “Technical Space Museum”The value and nature of space artifacts tends toevolve in time. Depending on the owner, first theyare “state of the art” technological jewels, and thenbecome operational items. Later they tend to beconsidered obsolete, while some reachconsiderable historical value.These relatively “old payloads” that are no longerflying but that can be operated as part of groundbased experiments could provide a “humble” lowcost approach for many countries to have access totechnologies that are no longer on the “leadingedge” but that can still get part of the job doneenabling training programs as well.The International Space Museum was initiallysuggested by CEP as a way to use old microgravitypayloads as a teaching tool associated to thecreation of an permanent archive where oldsoftware would be made available to softwareengineers9as was suggested during the DASIA -Data Systems in Aerospace conference held inLisbon in May of 1999.The International Space Museum is to be designedand managed by AEPOR, under its infrastructuresprogram, together with ESA and as manyinternational partners as possible.One part of the Museum will be open to normalvisitors; the rest will include various researchfacilities, including a refurbishing lab, where oldpayloads will get upgraded if possible. All of theavailable components and systems will be used forvarious space art events, and then returned to therefurbishing lab. The International Space Museumis expected to be ready before the end of 2005, atthe latest.Creating Space Business OpportunitiesBrazilian and Portuguese companies and institutescould join the ALMA da AGUA initiative, byproviding additional instrumentation such as thelow power consumption microphone to record thesloshing sounds of the mixing water, the GPSpayload, customized accelerometers, miniaturizedcosmic ray detectors, and needle-like nozzles ortubes to reduce the distance the water jets wouldneed to travel before mixing.While developing this new instrumentation, smallmock-ups or demonstration models will be built.When not in use by the scientists and engineersthey shall be used in regular multimedia artisticdisplays, with live music, providing a way toinvolve the various publics with the developmentprocess, in an esthetic and technical waysimultaneously.In terms of merchandizing space art, there is asmall series of eight jewels already underdevelopment to be made available on the day ofthe launch. On the commercial Portuguese spaceshop that will be opening in November it will be possible to becomea sponsor of the ALMA da Agua project, ensuringan opportunity for any interested private or publicentity to support our goals choosing from a widescope of sponsorships.THE SEQUENCE OF EVENTSThis project is launched by the space awarenessinitiative and will last over a five-year period inorder to be able to reach its goals.1stStepNovember 2000Gathering of eight natural source watersamples is initiated2ndStep7
  8. 8. Fall 2001Preparation of artistic competition3rdStep September 2002? Launch of sounding rocketand full activation of AEPOR4thStepUntil the end of 2002Creation of the ALMA organization.Returning the Samples – End of artistic events5thStepSpring 2003Presentation of enabled follow-ups6thStep Fall 2003Start of monthly web casts on water resources7thStep Spring 2004Network linking all the Portuguese speakingcountries fully established and staffed8thStep 2005 : Space cooperation agreement or treatyamong all the Portuguese speaking countriesTable 4 Major milestones of the projectWe hope to have a simultaneous TV coverage, and“webcast”. It should be available to all thecommunities of Portuguese speaking people allover the world. The live sound of the launch is tobe picked up and transmitted. The TV coverage weseek will be open to any experimental innovationin multimedia that possible sponsors may want totest.Press Coverage StrategyIn order to assist the members of the press from allthe participating countries, special workshops willbe held regularly in Portugal in the laboratorywhere the samples will be loaded into the payload.International TV coverage of the launch is beingprepared so that this event can have the appropriateimpact needed to launch the collaboration amongall Portuguese-speaking countries.There will be a web cast of the soundingrocket launch. The official site of the CompanhiaEspacial Portuguesa Lda ( and theofficial site of the initiative ( keep regular updates of the initiative. Thesesites will be available in late November 2002.Displaying the water samplesThere will be a cylindrical central room with theflown samples and eight additional rooms, one foreach participating country. These will displaysatellite pictures of water resources and culturalartifacts from the countries. They will also havethe water samples that were initially collected withinformation about their chemical composition andenvironmental characterization of the naturalsource. Portuguese specialists on stand design andconstruction for museums and fairs (EUROSTAND)are already developing a detailed layout.Portuguese Speaking CountriesThe “Comunidade dos Países de LinguaPortuguesa” (CPLP) and the “Países Africanos deLingua Oficial Portuguesa” (PALOP) are naturalpartners for this initiative. However it is still arelatively young organization, and the markedlytechnical nature of the Alma da Agua initiative isperhaps better suited to be handled in its initialstages by the public relations departments ofexisting space agencies.The Foreign Affairs Ministries of all the eightcountries will have an important role in theseefforts. At a later stage, several additional groupsand organizations may get involved.EXPECTED RESULTSThe short term results that are sought have to dowith having enough common people in all thecountries that use the Portuguese language tobecome aware of the various capabilities thatBrazil has developed, and of the fact that byjoining ESA Portugal might now be enabled toassist better the European space industry inbecoming relatively more involved withhumanitarian issues, in a global perspective.A contribution to the European Space StrategyOne could use an oversimplified “formula” such asESA + European Union = ESS (European SpaceStrategy) to provide a cognitive frameworkclarifying the rationale of this effort. The Europeanspace efforts in the past have not been particularly8
  9. 9. directed to global issues and markets. There areongoing efforts to harmonize10space technology.One possible role for the most recent member ofESA, would be to take advantage of a particularglobal network of different regions that havecultural ties with Portugal, and thus assist onceagain Europe in its global endeavors. The AEPORAirborne Lab is being designed11with this goal inmind. Its payloads and cargo will be of scientific,technical, commercial and artistic nature.Broadening Existing ProgramsSo that several existing international programs canbe broadened to all of the Portuguese speakingcountries, this initiative will promote specificartistic events related to, and somehow involving awide number of organizations and programs. Thesewill potentially come to include a wide variety ofprojects. One was selected as an indicativeexample: As part of the WMO, the WorldMeteorological Organization, there is the WorldHydrological Cycle Observing System(WHYCOS) that is composed of several regionalsystems (HYCOSs) implemented by cooperatingnations, that complement national efforts toprovide the information required for waterresource management.Fig. 6 Current global distribution of HydrologicalCycle Observing System (HYCOS) from WMOANGOLA (A)Congo HYCOS orSADC HYCOS ?BRASIL (B) Not in HYCOS?CAPE VERDE (C) AOC HYCOSGUINÉ-BISSAU (G)AOC HYCOSMOÇAMBIQUE (M) SADC HYCOSPORTUGAL (P) MED HYCOSSÃO TOMÉ E PRINCÍPE(S) Congo HYCOSTIMOR (T) Not in HYCOS?Table 5 Global distribution of HYCOS coverageSetting up the A.L.M.A. computer networkCurrently, less than 1% of the total population ofthe African continent has good access to theInternet. The computer network from the AEPORwill have a special layer customized to provideinterfaces with all the Portuguese-speakingcountries. In order to start weaving this network, apilot project is the specific A.L.M.A. initialnetwork. These initials stand for “AgrupamentoLusofono Multidisciplinar da Agua”, which can betranslated to English as “Portuguese LanguageMultidisciplinary Water Group”. Nevertheless,water resources data cannot be fully usedseparately from other data. There is also a lack ofcomprehensive data on the physical environment,terrestrial ecosystem processes, and socio-economic forces that are changing them. We thinkthat this effort cannot be conceived without takingin account the need for a future broader network,since water resources affect deeply food resources,health issues, environmental issues, availability ofjobs, and so on.To work properly, this whole effort should notonly rely on a top-down approach, but also dependon a bottom-up continuous feedback. Artists canprovide an initial way to deal with new issues thatcan later be integrated into the computer network.Therefore, the network will have to be used topromote a sustained public relations campaign,thus needing to be able to send through the internetvarious digital music and video presentations inorder to maintain an interesting and open culturalprogram going on, in a regular basis.9
  10. 10. Fig. 7 Top view of a room with the minimumnumber of computers needed to make up eachinitial node of A.L.M.A. computer networkTraining Staff for AEPOROne of the main goals of the space policy of thePortuguese Ministry of Science and Technology isto focus on training Portuguese scientists andtechnicians. This “Space Awareness Initiative”although relatively simple from the technologicalpoint of view is somewhat more complex if weconsider all the diplomatic coordination effortsneeded in order to have eight countries in verydifferent stages of development linked together.The AEPOR organization is being set up in orderto provide logistical support to very diverse andfar-reaching future international partnerships. Thisinitiative provides a good training opportunity. Topromote student awareness and participation inPortugal, CEP has established a protocol with themagazine “Via Universitária” and a specialwebsite will be available before the end of 2002.Cooperation between Portugal and BrazilVarious Portuguese entities need regular access toouter space and reduced gravity conditions in orderto develop instrumentation and train technicalsupport staff. Working with the “Centro deInvestigação das Ferrugens do Cafeeiro”, which ispart of the “Instituto de Investigação CientificaTropical”, CEP selected some samples of fungithat grow on coffee plants, and throughcollaboration with ITA Inc. had them launched ona sub-orbital flight on the 15thof March 1999,during the Operação São Marcos VS-30 soundingrocket flight. They were the first Portuguesesamples onboard a Brazilian sounding rocket.Reflights of the basic ALMA da AGUA payloadwith a number of upgrades and modifications (forMicrogravity12or Astrophysics) can provide asimple way to establish an initial collaboration thatcan lead to the establishment of more complexfuture joint efforts. These efforts may beconducted under the framework of the EuropeanCooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS),and the “Rede Brasileira de Informações paraNormalização de Atividades Espaciais (RBNAE)”.Desirable long term outcomesThe motivation behind this awareness initiative isthe desire to create the necessary conditions so thata future cooperation agreement or treaty among allthe Portuguese-speaking countries can beenvisaged. The Portuguese Air and Space LawAssociation (Associação Portuguesa de DireitoAéreo e Espacial - APDAE) during a workshop inMay 2000 began exploring which steps would benecessary to accomplish and what would be thecorrect sequence to allow the creation of the basisfor such a future cooperation effort.There is a strong need to have informationabout the environment available in the locallanguage, so that the utilization of spacetechnology tools is not limited to a tiny elite ofindividuals, and enough people have real access tothe basic data. Simplified interfaces can help manyreach the desired improvement of the quality oflife. The development of enough materials writtenin Portuguese may be one of the possible keys toallow entire populations a more equitable access tothe benefits of the space age.Future Portuguese national space-relatedlegislation13, currently under development14, willtry to promote a modern attitude towards space art,keeping it closely interwoven15with technicalissues, from the very beginning. In Portugal, smallspace art payloads could help provide a bridgebetween the private and public sector, allowing amore balanced partnership.CONCLUSION10
  11. 11. 11The Alma da Agua Space Awareness Initiative is ahybrid effort, with 60% of the scheduled activitiesbeing of technical nature, and 40% of the actionsand events associated having to be labeled as beingof artistic or sociological nature, aimed atproviding a flexible information feedback channelto enable a continuous fine tuning of the effort.The initial artistic interaction with all the space agetechnology will be followed by a more technicalutilization of space tools such as remote sensing,positioning, and water quality data acquisition anddissemination. A viability study on technologytransfer initiatives including Alma da Agua isbeing developed under a consulting contract16fromESA.REFERENCES1. Instituto Camões : www.instituto-camoes.pt2. Dinis Ribeiro, “Expanding the concept of space program”paper LBS-88-180, “Symposium on lunar bases andspace activities in the 21stCentury, NASA / AIAAHouston TX 19883. Dinis Ribeiro, “The Berlenga Underwater SurveyProject” by Companhia Espacial Portuguesa, Lda., editedby ESA SP-312 Space & Sea December 19904. Richard Clar, “EARTHSTAR: A Space Art Eutectic” in48thInternational Astronautical Congress, October 6-10,1997/Turin, Italy.5. C.P. Snow “The Two Cultures and A Second Look”published by Cambridge University Press, 19596. Shinichi Yoda, Susumu Yoshitomi, Yoshinori Fujjimori,Tomihisa Nakamura, and Toshitami Ikeda, “LevitationTechnology Development in NASDA – Development ofElectrostatic Levitation Furnace for the InternationalSpace Station and for TR-1A Rocket Experiment”, in 48thInternational Astronautical Congress, October 6-10,1997/Turin, Italy.7. “The first Portuguese microgravity experiment - A pilotproject to initiate the study of food industry emulsions inmicrogravity on STS-95”, published in CIBX-1Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments press release,October 1998.8. Dinis Ribeiro, “Launch of Gravity-DependentPhenomena Projects in Portugal” in Low G Journal, Vol.9 Nº 1, March 1998.9. “DASIA 99 - Data Systems in Aerospace”, AbstractsESA SP-447, Lisbon, Portugal, May 17-21, 199910. Workshop on European Strategy for Space TechnologySeville, May 2000 CDTI, European Union, Eurospace11. “Impact 2000: Technology Transfer Programme”, ESABR-154, (Spanish Version), published by ESAPublications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, TheNetherlands, February, 2000.12. “Summary Review of Sounding Rocket Experiments InFluid Science and Materials Sciences”, ESA SP-1132,published by ESA Publications Division, ESTEC,Noordwijk, The Netherlands, February 1991.13. “Portuguese Space-Related Legislation” Paper IISL-92-0022 in World Space Congress, Washington D.C. 199214. Frans G. Von Der Dunk, “Private Enterprise and PublicInterest in the European Spacescape – TowardsHarmonized National Space Legislation for Private SpaceActivities in Europe”, International Institute of Air andSpace Law, Leiden, The Netherlands, 1998.15. Dinis Ribeiro “As Industrias da cultura e a adesão dePortugal á ESA” in Revista FUTURO 198916. ESTEC/Contract Nº. 15455/01/NL/PA