Human Growth and development

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Human Growth and development

  1. 1. Ms. Dini Elizabeth Daniel 1st year M.Sc Nursing
  2. 2. Growth is a whole process which includes growthof the body as well as growth of various aspects ofchilds personality, e.g., the physical, emotional,social and cognitive development.Development is a progressive change the childundergoes which increases the physical, social,mental and emotional capacities of the child.
  3. 3. 1.INFANCY
  4. 4. mont 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5thhs1.Physical Weight: gains about 680 Posterior Grasping Weight ator gm. fontanel reflex absent Drooling of least twice closed at saliva the birthbiological Length: increases about 6 to 8 Landau weight 105cm a month during weeks of reflex Reflexes: the first 6 month. age. appears: an tonic neck, Physical Head circumferences: infant moro, growth increases about 1.5cm a suspended in sucking and slowing month during first 6 a horizontal rooting down month. prone reflexes Pulse: 130+/- 20. position with absent Can breaths Respirations: 35 +/- 10. the head through BP: 80/50 +/- 20/10 flexed mouth when Reflexes : has well against the nose is developed sucking, chest reflexly obstructed rooting, swallowing and draws the extrusion reflexes, moro legs up reflex, dance and doll’s against the eye reflexes fading abdomen. Physiologic immaturity Breathes through nose.
  5. 5. months 1st 2nd2. Motor Lies in flexed position. Less fixed proneskills -When prone, pelvis is elevated position.a) Gross but knees are not beneath -No head droop inmotor abdomen prone position. -Head lags when baby is held in -Less head lag sitting position. when pulled from a -Head sags forward when baby supine to a sitting pulled from a supine to a sitting position. position -Lifts head almost -Turns head to a side when prone. 45 degrees above a -Makes crawling movements flat surface when in when prone on flat surface prone -Pushes with the feet against a -Holds head erect hard surface to move forward. in mid position. -Turns from side to
  6. 6. 3rd 4th 5th-Symmetric -Sits with adequate -Sits with slight supportposture of head support. Enjoys being -Balances head welland body propped up when sitting-Very slight -Holds head erect and -Holds back straighthead lag when steady when placed in when pulled to a sittingpulled from sitting position positionsupine to sitting -Lifts head and -Pushes whole chest offposition. shoulders at a 900 angle a flat surface when-Raises chest, when on abdomen proneusually -Attempts to roll -Rolls from back tosupported on Sustains small portion of frontforearms own weight when held -Sustains more of own-Holds head in standing position weight when held inerect and -Activates arms at sight standing positionsteady. of proffered toy -Pulls feet upto mouth when supine
  7. 7. months 1st 2ndb) Fine -Holds hands in tight Hands may bemotor fists open -Can grasp an object -Holds a rattle placed in the hand but briefly when drops it immediately. placed in the hand
  8. 8. 3rd 4th 5th-Hands open or -Holds hand -Uses thumb inclosed loosely predominately open partial apposition to-Holds hands in -Brings hands together fingers more skilfullyfront of face and in midline. Plays with -Tries to obtainstares at them fingers objects beyond reach-Holds object put -Grasps object held near -Grasps objects within hand with active hand. Cannot pick it up whole handgrasp when dropped -Holds one object-Carries hand or -Grasps object with while looking atobject to mouth at both hands anotherwill -Attempts to reach-Reaches for bright objects with hands butobjects but misses overshoots them -Objects are carried to mouth.
  9. 9. months 1st 2nd -Startled by sounds. -Turns head to3. -Attentive to speech of side when aSensory others. sound occurs at ear level -Fixates on objects brought -Beginning to in front of eyes. binocular -Protective blinking in fixation response to bright light. -Eyes follow the moving person nearby.
  10. 10. 3rd 4th 5th-Turns head and looks in same -Follows moving objects well -Localises soundsdirection to locate sound with eyes made below the ear-When on back, turns eyes to a -Fairly good binocular vision -Looks after a droppeddangling object or a moving -Looks briefly for toy that objectlight to marginal field of vision disappears -Inspects objects-Loses interest in objects that -Accommodation begins to visually for aare suddenly removed from the develop lengthening period ofperceptual field -Can focus on small objects time-Blinks at objects that threaten -Beginning hand-eye -Can fixate on objectsthe eyes. coordination more than 3 feet away-Beginning ability to -Comforts self by sucking Visual acuity 20/200coordinate various sensory thumb or pacifierstimuli
  11. 11. months 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th4. Responds to -Alert Looks in -Language human expressio the - Respondand voices. n when direction Respon s whenspeech listening. of the ds own Soothed speaker. differen name isa)Receptive by tly to spokenlanguage caregiver’ pleasant s, or angry mother’s voice voice. does not cry when scolded.
  12. 12. months 1st 2nd Opens and close mouth as Cry patternsb)Expressi adult speaks develop.ve -Utters small throaty sounds -Crying become -Utters sounds of comfort differentiated,language when feeding. varying with -Cry patterns developing reason -Cries when hungry or -Responds vocal uncomfortable, begins to coo. to caregivers . voice: ah, eh,uh, Coos.
  13. 13. 3rd 4th 5th-- cries less. --laughs aloud. -Squeals when- shows pleasure in -Vocalizes socially. happy ormaking many - Very talkative to excitedsounds. self, people or toys. -Vocalizes- Vocalise in - Talking and crying displeasureresponse to others: follow each other when a desiredcoos and chuckles. quickly object is taken- may laugh aloud away -Begins to mimic sound.
  14. 14. months 1st 2nd -Hold, touch and rock infant gently -Same as at 15.Play -Talk and sing softly to infant at close monthstimulatio range Offer rattlen -Encourage mutual eye contact -Hold or dangle -Provide pacifier for sucking pleasure. toy in front of -Place large bright pictures on crib or infant to wall. encourage eye -Repeat noises made by the infant movements -Coo to infant -Place in vertical -Respond to crying signals infant seat so tha -Provide soft, cuddly toys and clutch environment can toys too large to swallow be viewed.
  15. 15. 3rd 4thEncourage infant to Smile when talking and singing to infantraise head when in Encourage mutual eye contactprone position Laugh when infant laughsPull baby to sitting Echo sounds that infant makesposition, head control. Light tickling stimulates laughterHold bright toys in Shake rattle placed in infant’s handfront of infant to Offer toys for graspingencourage reaching Move rattle around the infant so that it can be followed visuallyProvide greater variety and grasped. This helps to develop hand-eye coordinationof toys as baby shows Provide floating toys for bathinterest in playthings. Encourage splashing in bath water Help infant sit up with support and roll over Help infant learn balance when sitting by tilting the body from an erect position to one side Hold infant in standing position Use infant seat, swing and stroller Place infant when awake where household activities are in progress.
  16. 16. 5th 6thSame as 4 month -Same as 4 and 5 monthsProvide sufficient -Encourage infant to look in a mirror: repeatdifferent objects names of parts of facefor play -Make funny faces for infant to imitateMake various -Point out people, food, objects and repeat theirsounds near ear namesHold infant in -Talk to infant about own and surroundingstanding position activitiesand bounce to -Repeat infant’s nameexercise legs and -Encourage response to simple commandsto develop -Use the word no only when necessarybalance -Provide more complex soft cuddly toys -Provide fabrics or food with different textures for infant to feel -Provide sound making toys -Encourage infant to search for lost objects and obtain those out of reach
  17. 17. months 6th 7th 8th 9th1.Physical Teething : 2 Reflexes: sucking Beginning Reflexes:or lower and rooting reflexes of a pattern Plantar central disappear,Parachute in bowel graspbiological incisors reflexes begins to and absent. erupt, begins appear at 7 to 9 bladder Teething: to bite and months; elimination Upper chew Teething: upper lateral central incisors incisors erupt, lower lateral erupt. incisors erupt, ultimate colour of iris is established.
  18. 18. months 6th 7th2.Motor -Sits alone briefly if placed in a -Sits alone on hard favourable leaning position on surface, leaninga)Gross hard surface forward on handsmotor -Back is straight when sitting -Lifts head as if trying in high chair to sit up when supine. -Pulls to a sitting position -Control of trunk is -Springs up and down when more advanced sitting -Rolls more easily -Lifts chest and upper from back to abdomen when prone, putting abdomen the weight on the arms and -Sustains all of weight hands on feet when held in -Turns completely over, with standing position rest periods during the turn -Sustains most all of own weight when held in standing
  19. 19. 8th 9th-Sits alone steadily -Raises to a sitting position alone with good coordination.-Pulls self into standingposition with help -Sits steadily for longer period of time.-Hand –eye coordination isperfected so that random -Recovers balance when leaningreaching and grasping no forward, but not sideways.longer occur -Crawls instead of hitching. -Creeping. -Beginning to pull self to standing position alone while holding on to furniture.
  20. 20. months 6th 7thb) Fine -Grasps with simultaneously -Holds 2 toys at oncemotor flexion of fingers -Approaches a toy and -Drops one object when Grasps it with one another is offered hand -Begins to bang objects that -Transfer a toy from are held one hand to another -Holds own bottle but may -Imitates simple acts prefer for it to be held of other -Bang objects that are held -Holds cup
  21. 21. 8th 9th-Holds 2 objects while looking -Bangs 2 objects together.toy at a third. -Pokes objectives with fingers.-Persistently reaches for objects -Uses thumb and index finger inbeyond range of grasp early pincer grasp.-Releases objects from hands -Has preference for the use of onevoluntarily. dominant hand.-Complete thumb apposition -Holds own bottle with good-Pincer grasp beginning to hand-mouth coordination.develop, using the fingers -Puts nipple in and withdraws itagainst the lower portion of the from mouth at will.thumb. -Drinks from cup with someEats finger foods that can be spilling.held in one hand -Attempts to use a spoon but spillsDrinks from cup with one hand content..
  22. 22. months 6th 7th3.Sensory -Localises sounds made above -Localises sounds by the ear turning head in a curving -Retrieves a dropped object that arch can be seen and reached -Depth perception -Enjoys more complex visual beginning to develop stimuli -Fixates on very small -Moves in order to see an object objects and details -Starts to distinguish between simple geometric forms -Has preference in taste for foods
  23. 23. 8th 9th-Recognizes familiar words -Head turns directly to sourceand sounds of sound. -Increased depth perception. -Recognises by looking or moving toward familiar objects when named. -Able to follow objects through transition from one place to another.
  24. 24. months 6th 7th 8th 9th4.Languag Responds -recognizes Stops -Stopse when own name activity activelydevelopme own -Responds when own innt name is with gestures name is response spoken to words spoken. to ‘no’. a)Receptive such as come - -language - Beginning Beginnin to g to understan respond d to meaning simple of “no” comman ds given
  25. 25. months 6th 7th 8th 9thb)Express - squeals -vocalizes Shouts for -Criesive when happy eagerness attention whenlanguage or excited -vocalizes m- -Imitates scolded. - vocalizes m-m when sound - displeasure crying sequences Echolali when a -imitates - a. desired simple Continues - object is noises and syllables- Associati taken away speech da da, ma- on of - begins to sounds ma words mimic -vocalizes da with sound ma ba persons or
  26. 26. months 7th 8th --Same as 4,5 and 6 months Hold, touch and5.Play -Place toy under blanket and rock infant gentlystimula encourage infant to find it. -Talk and sing totion -Repeat simple sounds like infant. dada mama -Place infant in a -Provide objects or food that sitting position can be bitten chewed safely against a wall and -Continue to encourage encourage leaning playing in water away from the wall -Encourage banging of toys to improve balance and clapping hands on -Gently push infan objects from a sitting -Continue to help infant position to improve learn balance balance.
  27. 27. 9th 10th- Same 8 months same as 8 and 9 months-Encourage exploration of toys with eyes -Obtain infant’s attentionand fingers. when requests are made-Show infant large pictures in books. and use gestures to-Encourage to bang 2 toys together. indicate meaning.-Continue to vocalise with infant. -Show picture books-Play infant games such as “so big” and -provide opportunities for“bye-bye” with appropriate motions. holding and releasing-Begin to play “peek-a-boo” objects-Encourage crawling by moving a toy -Encourage to bounce in aaway from the prone infant. standing position by_encourage walking by holding on the holding the hands forinfant’s hand and walking. support-Help infant to stand. -Place the infant in a-Provide a larger environment in which jumper seat to encouragethe infant can move safely: crawling, standing and jumping.creeping, cruising
  28. 28. months 10th 11th 12th1.Physical -Macula is -Weight tripled the birth weight.or well -Length increases almost the 50% ofbiologic developed. birth So fine -Head and chest equal in visual circumference. discriminati -Anterior fontanel closes by 12-18 ons can be mnth made. -Reflexes:landau and babinski disappear -Teething: 6-8 deciduous teeth. -Lumbar curve and the compensating dorsal curve develop as walking continues
  29. 29. months 10th 11th Moves from prone to sitting Stands erect wit2.Motor position. minimal suppordevelop -May sit by falling down from and lifts one fooment standing position to take a step.a)Gross -Sits steadily for indefinite -Cruises: walksmotor period of time. Does not want holding on to to lie down unless sleepy furniture. -Creeps well -Pulls to standing position well, holding to the crib rail or other support -Makes stepping movements forward when 2 hands are held.
  30. 30. months 12th -Stands alone for variable length of time.2.Motor -Sits down from standing position alone.develop -Walks in few steps with help or alonement -Improves competence in motor skills througha)Gross practice.motor
  31. 31. months 10th 11th -Picks small objects up -Explores toys and otherb) Fine with index finger and objects more carefully.motor thumb -Removes covers from -Releases an object boxes after holding it -Takes toy out of box or -Brings the hands cup. together. -Puts toy inside box or cu but may not let go -Beginning to hold a crayon and make a mark on paper.
  32. 32. months 12th -Good pincer grasp.b) Fine -Picks up small bits of food and transfer them tomotor mouth. -Enjoys eating with fingers. -Attempts to put a small pellet into a narrow-necked bottle but doesn’t succeed. -Releases one or more objects inside another objects or container -Attempts to put one block on top of another but doesn’t succeed. -turns pages in a book -Holds crayon adaptively to make a stroke or a mark on a paper.
  33. 33. months 10th 11th 12th3.Sensory -Marked -Tilts head -Listens for recurring sounds. interest in backward -Established full binocular vision. very small to see -Follows fast-moving objects with objects upward eyes. -Searches -Discriminates simple geometric for a lost toy forms: squares, circles with greater -Visual acuity; 20/100 to 20/50 persistence.
  34. 34. months 10th 11th 12th4.Langu - -Responds -Responds withage Understand to simple gestures or actions todevelop s simple questions more complex verbal commands request, such asment -Gives a toy “please give it to me” on request.
  35. 35. months 10th 11thb)Expressive -May speaks one -Imitates specificlanguage word speech sounds of -Understands the others meaning of bye-bye and waves -Imitates adults inflection -Imitates sounds of animals
  36. 36. months 12thb)Expressive -May speak 2 or more words.language -Understands the meaning of many more words than can be spoken. -Knows names of many objects. -Imitates animal sound -Intonation becoming more like adult speech. -Beginning voluntary control over responses to sound.
  37. 37. months 11th 12th5. Play - Same as 8, 9 and 10 -Same as 8, 9, 10 and 11 months months -Provide large crayons for -Provide opportunities drawing. for placing small objects -Provide stacking disc or blocks into larger objects and -Provide objects to place inside for taking them out larger containers again. -Place infant in walker to -Encourage play with encourage walking movements other persons. -encourage infant to push a chair -Encourage infant to or stroller around. stand alone by gradually -Provide push and pull toys to decreasing support. encourage walking -place infant in a walker -Provide rough house activity and encourage letting go -Provide increasing visual by offering a toy to grasp auditory, tactile and kinetic
  38. 38. Researchstudies
  39. 39.  1.The effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supply during infancy on later cognitive development of healthy term infants were evaluated in a randomized clinical trial of infant formula milk supplemented with 0.35% DHA or with 0.36% DHA and 0.72% arachidonic acid (AA), or control formula which provided no DHA or AA. Fifty-six 11-month-old children (26 male, 30 female) who were enrolled in the trial within the first 5 days of life and fed the assigned diet to 17 weeks of age were tested using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) (Bayley 1993) at the Retina Foundation of the Southwest, Dallas, TX. Supplementation of infant formula with DHA+AA was associated with a mean increase of 7 points on the Mental Development Index (MDI) of the BSID-II. Both the cognitive and motor subscales of the MDI showed a significant developmental age advantage for DHA- and DHA+AA- supplemented groups over the control group.
  40. 40.  2.A prospective case-control study was to assess the effect of prenatal depression on newborn and 1-year-old infant characteristics as related to gender, controlling for confounding variables. As such 205 pregnant women were screened for major depression. Inclusion in the prenatal depression group (n = 34) was based on meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive episode. Newborn and 1-year-old infant character ristics were evaluated with the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) and the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, respectively. Male newborns of mothers with prenatal depression had lower scores than controls on the motor skills and regulation of states NBAS clusters. At 1 year, infants of prenatally depressed mothers presented higher scores on generalized anxiety, particularly in male’s activity/impulsivity and sleep problems than controls
  41. 41.  The period from 1 year to 3 years of age. The individual emerges from the total dependency of the infancy into beginning independency or autonomy. The toddler who learns to trust the parents during infancy now can use this trust in exploration and investigation of a world beyond parent’s arms.
  42. 42. 1)Physical growth Rate of biologic growth slows downcompared to that of infancyWeight and height : . The average weight at 2yrs of age is 12 kg at 2 ½ yr child weighs 4 times that at birth.This slowing of weight gain leads to a reduced metabolic rate which results in a decreased appetite. The gain in height is greater than that of weight in toddler period. Height increases 10 to 12.5cm /yr due to growth in length of legs. The height at 2 yrs is about 85cm. Boys tend to be slightly taller than that of girls.
  43. 43.  Body proportions The young toddler has a relatively large compared to the size of rest of the body. The head circumference during the second year increases by 2.5cm. By 2 years of age the chest circumference exceeds that of head. The rate of increase in head circumference then decreases so that by 5 yrs of age the increase in circumference is less than 1.25cm each year. The trunk is long in relation to the length of the legs. As the circumference of the chest increases the transverse diameter also increases and becomes greater than the anteroposterior diameter. The abdomen protrudes making the child appear pot-bellied because of the immature abdominal musculature. The legs may appear slightly bowed during the second year because of the weight of the rest of the body.
  44. 44.  Dentition : At 2yrs toddler will have 16 teeth. At 2 ½ yrs the full set of 20 temporary teeth has erupted. Physiologic development: The physiologic function of body is mature except endocrine and reproductive system.
  45. 45. 2)Motor Development Muscle grows faster than bone during the toddler period. The size of the muscle as well as their specificity of movement increases as a result of use. As a toddler, walks, runs and climbs the muscle used in these activities increase rapidly in strength.
  46. 46. 3)Sensory Development Although the binocular vision is fully developed by the end of infancy depth perception does not appear completely until childhood. Visual acuity is 20/40 at two years of age and 20/30 at 2 ½ years of age. Increase visual acuity permits the learning of depth perception and colour discriminations The other senses hearing, taste, smell and touch continue to develop during the toddler period. The sensation of pain and touch are more fully developed than in the infant
  47. 47. 4)Language & speech The development of receptive, expressive, and language skills proceeds rapidly during the toddler years. The vocabulary increases to about 200 words by age 2 years. By age 2 the child is typically able to use pronouns, state his or her own name, and ask simple what, where, or why questions.
  48. 48. 5. Play
  49. 49. 5) Play Symbolic, imaginative play. In functional play the use of objects is constrained by the appearance or function. As cognitive and social skills increase the use of play materials becomes much less dependent on the actual characteristics of the play materials so that the cup can be used to stand for boats, bathtubs, and so forth. Play activities also serve as an important opportunity to develop peer relationships. The children play alone but together. By age 3 the child is typically interested in more cooperative play that involves mutual negotiation of rules, shared use of materials, and so forth.
  50. 50. 6) Needs of the toddler Love and security Discipline leading to self control Progression to independence Achievement of control of bodily function
  51. 51. Research study
  52. 52.  Cross-sectional research indicates a positive but inconsistent association between language and self-regulation skills throughout toddlerhood. They used growth modelling of longitudinal data for 120 toddlers collected when children were 14, 24, and 36 months to test the impact of two expressive language skills - spoken vocabulary and talkativeness - on the growth of toddlers self-regulation, and to determine whether associations between these domains exist when controlling for cognitive development. Results reveal that vocabulary is a better predictor of self-regulation than talkativeness, and both concurrent and prior vocabulary positively predicted childrens levels of self-regulation. When cognitive development was controlled, 24-month vocabulary still predicted the trajectory of self-regulation. Results reveal that, even in early development, words are tools that can be applied to the task of self-regulation, and may be a more necessary tool for boys than for girls at this age.
  53. 53.  Preschoolers are children who are 2 to 5 years of age. This time period is a stage of continuing growth and development for young child. During these years, children change from clumsy toddlers into lively explorers of their world. He will go through many changes in his physical, mental, emotional and social development. School-age children range from 6 to 12 years of age. This time period is a stage of continuing growth and development for young child. During this period a child will experience a wide variety of physical and developmental changes, but not every child experiences development at the same rate. He will go through many changes in his physical, mental, and social development.
  54. 54. 1.Physical or biologicPRESCHOLER SCHOOLAGE  The growth of particular body parts may reachIn these years, a maturity during this time child becomes  height may be about 43 and one-half inches. stronger and Weight may be about 43 pounds. Later, as puberty starts to look starts, your childs height and weight will increase longer and quickly. On the average, a childs height may reach 59 inches at age 12. Girls are likely to weigh more leaner. On the than boys average,  Temporary teeth fall out and permanent ones preschoolers replace them, the mouth has not reached its full may gain an size and the adult teeth may begin to crowd average of 4.5 to  Secondary sex characteristics begin to appear as 6.5 pounds every children enter puberty. the age at which these changes occur can vary from child to child year.  Girls may begin to develop breasts and pubic hair, while boys will experience development of the testicles and penis, as well as the growth of chest, underarm and pubic hair.
  55. 55. 2.Motor and self care PRESCHOLER SCHOOLAGE Motor (movement) skills improve  Fine motor skills may also vary along with his balance and widely. can affect a childs ability to coordination write neatly, dress appropriately, and perform certain chores, such as Body control or movement: able making beds or doing dishes. to stand on one foot even for a short  Good hand finger coordination period of time,walk up and down  Feeding skills: Self feeding with the stairs alternating each foot to occasional spilling, distinguish skip and throw a ball, child learns between finger and spoon feed, to dress and feed himself, and use chews with mouth closed the toilet on his own.  Dressing skills: Puts arm through Hand and finger control: can hold large armhole, unbuttons large front a book or pen more firmly,learns to buttons turn paper pages. Later, he is able  Toileting and grooming skills: to turn paper pages one page at a Night time bladder control begins, time, and write his name. may go to toilet by self.
  56. 56. 3.Language and Speechdevelopment Receptive language: Language becomes socialized  *identifies 5 body parts when and communicative named. Language is used by the  * identifies one or more parts of preschoolers to communicate body when named their feelings and ideas. Expressive language  *gives full name if asked  *uses appropriate pronoun when referring to self-I  * uses plurals and past tense of verbs  *talks constantly  *ask why?
  57. 57. 4.Play Parallel play: children enjoy being with each  Parallel play continues, helps other, but they do not put things away, pretends in interact very much. They will play side by play side, watch, and listen to each other. They  Motor play like pushes and sometimes may fight over the same toy. steers toys, large cars and Associative Play :Children still are doing trucks, interlocked blocked their own thing. They often do the same trains thing as other children, but they do not do it  Creative play like clay, together. Children sitting side by side in a crayons, finger paints, sing sandbox will repeat what the others are songs, large wooden puzzles doing.  Quiet play with cloth or Cooperative Play:When speaking and cardboard books, toys for listening skills are more developed, children water play can communicate. They plan, and tell each  Dramatic play with baby doll other what to do. They do things in response and doll equipment, toys for to what others do. They pretend to play housekeeping, play house, be a mother and father, and try out telephone. relationships.
  58. 58. Research study
  59. 59.  A study was conducted to compare the growth and nutritional status of Indian preschool children for the periods 1998/99 and 2005/06. Using data on weight and length/height as well as the socio demographic background of preschool children from the National Family Health Surveys. The rates of growth of mean weight and length/ height were far lower in India than the international norms up to the age of 7 years. They concluded that the level of mothers education needs urgent attention with top priority to reduce the prevalence of underweight and stunting of children. This also implies that, for future benefit, girls should be given more facilities for better education. Breastfeeding and weaning practices also need special attention.
  60. 60. The adolescent is a time of both change andstability. Adolescence begins with puberty and extends from 12 to 20 years of age.
  61. 61. •Changes in the adolescents body transform him or her from achild to an adult in appearance•Weight and height: rapid increase or spurt and the childbecomes tall. Gain in weight is proportionately greater thangain in height•Dentition: permanent teeth number increases, 2nd molar andcuspid and bicuspid teeth erupt from 10 to 13 yrs,•The feet, hands, and long bones grow rapidly, accompa-niedby an increase in muscle mass (especially in boys).
  62. 62.  Puberty It is a short period that overlaps the end of childhood and the beginning of adolescence, time of rapid growth and change,The time when the ability to reproduce begins. occurs at different ages for the boys and girls and for individuals within each sex group. Usually begins at 9 to 13 years of age in girls (with menstruation usually beginning between 10 and 14 years of age) and at 11 or 14 years of age in boys with nocturnal emission. The time needed to complete the changes during the puberty is 2-4 years. There are 3 stages of puberty- the prepubescent, the pubescent and the post pubescent.
  63. 63.  The time when pubertal changes take place more rapidly-it is influenced partly by heredity and by environmental factors. 4 major changes in puberty: changes in body size, changes in body proportion, development of primary and secondary sex characteristics. The most rapid growth in body size comes during the year or two before the sex organs begin to function. Changes in body proportion are influenced by the age of sexual maturing. The primary sex characteristics- sex organs grow and develop rapidly during puberty and become functionally mature in approximately in the middle of puberty.
  64. 64.  Sebaceous and auxiliary sweat glands become active.  Full adult size is reached, although some young men might continue to grow in their 20s
  65. 65.  1) A study was conducted to assess the impact of Personality Traits and Educational Identity Formation in Late Adolescents by examining longitudinal associations of Big Five personality traits (i.e., Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) with dimensions of identity formation (i.e., identification with commitment and exploration in depth) in the domain of education of 485 Belgian late adolescents by using four annual waves of longitudinal data covering a 3-year period. Multivariate growth models revealed that changes in Big Five personality traits were related to changes in identification with commitment and exploration in depth. Cross-lagged panel models uncovered that, except for Openness, all Big Five traits predicted educational identity dimensions. Educational identity dimensions only predicted Neuroticism. In addition, adolescents with higher levels on the personality trait of Conscientiousness faced fewer study delays.
  66. 66. Early adulthood (roughly ages 18 to 45), Mddle adulthood (approximately ages 45to65), and Late adulthood (over 65)
  67. 67. Early adulthood ( 18 to 45)
  68. 68.  Early adulthood is the first stage of adulthood in which the body physically changes. In this stage, a person may continue to add a bit of height and weight to her teenage frame. The body continues to undergo significant hormonal changes. These changes may make beards grow a bit thicker and the voice to become slightly deeper and richer. This is the period in which women usually have children, so it is the time in which women gain a little weight and finish their full breast development. They experience excellent health, vigor, and physical functioning Their strength, coordination, reaction time, sensation (sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch), fine motor skills, and sexual response are at a maximum
  69. 69. The Middle Adult ( 40 to 65 years)
  70. 70.  Women undergo menopause a gradual decrease in ovarian function, with subsequent deple-tion of estrogen and progesterone. This change usually occurs between 40 and 55 years of age. -With the cessation of ovu-lation, menstrual periods stop either gradually or abruptly, and many women experience hot flashes, mood swings, and fatigue. -The loss of estrogen also increases the risk for osteo-porosis and heart disease. -Androgen levels diminish slowly; the man may have some loss of sex-ual potency but is still capable of reproduction. -Fatty tissue is redistributed; men tend to develop abdominal fat, women thicken through the middle. -The skin is drier, wrinkle lines appear on the face, gray hair appears, and men may lose hair on the head. -Cardiac output begins to decrease. -Muscle mass, strength, and agility gradually decrease. -Visual acuity diminishes, especially for near vision (presbyopia). -Hearing acuity diminishes, especially for high-pitched sounds.
  71. 71.  The Middle Adult ( 40 to 65 years) The middle adult years are generally considered to be ages 40 to 65. This is a period of gradual and individualized change in both physical and psychosocial dimensions. As the average life span increases, most people in this age group still consider themselves young compared with the other population. Visible signs of aging and a heightened awareness of the time left.
  72. 72. Health of the Middle Adult Both acute and chronic illnesses are more likely to occur, and recovery takes longer. This is a result of slower and more prolonged responses to stressors, more pronounced reactions to an illness, and the possibility of more than one illness being present at a time. The leading causes of death in the middle adult year: are motor vehicle crashes, occupational accidents, suicide and chronic diseases. The major health problems are cardio-vascular and pulmonary diseases, cancer, rheumatoid arthri-tis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, alcoholism, and depression.
  73. 73. Adjusting to the Changes ofMiddle Adulthood Various changes can take place during the middle years. These changes include changes in employment; relationships with a spouse; relationships with children who are becoming adults; and relationships with aging parents . Midlife transition might occur in both men and women in their 40s. Employment Middle-aged adults might experience changes in employment. They may opt for a career change and return to school to obtain new knowledge and skills
  74. 74.  Increasing numbers of middle-aged adults are self- employed, often working from home. As the 50s approach, questions about retirement and eco-nomic security become more prevalent, with an increased inter-est in the benefits of financial and retirement plans
  75. 75.  Spousal Relationships Relationships with ones spouse may change. A husband or wife may develop neg-ative or critical feelings and attitudes as a result of changes in physical appearance, energy levels, or sexual needs and abilities. Dissatisfaction with not achieving career or family goals con-tributes to the stresses placed on the marriage. Extramarital affairs and divorce may result. Widowhood is more likely to occur in the middle years. The loss of a spouse is a major crisis and a threat to ones self-concept as well as a major role change
  76. 76.  Relationships with Children and Aging Family Members Middle-aged adults may be caught in a "generation sandwich." Their children are often independent and married, with chil-dren of their own. As their involvement with and responsibility for children decrease, they may have an increased need to help care for aging parents and other family members. The physical aging or death of a parent makes ones own aging and inevitable death a reality
  77. 77. Late Adulthood(65 to till death)
  78. 78.  Wrinkles: The skin loses its elasticity and collagen, the protein that forms the basic fibers of body tissue. -Osteoporosis: Bones become brittle and fragile mainly by lack of calcium -The Brain: A reduction of the blood flow to the brain, space between the skull and the brain doubles, number of neurons declines in some parts of the brain. -Digestive System: Produces less digestive juice so less efficient in pushing food through the system resulting in constipation. -The Heart: The arteries harden,blood vessels shrink, reduction in the capacity of the heart to pump blood throughout the circulatory system. -Vision: Cataracts, Glaucoma& Age Related Macular Degeneration. -Hearing: 50% of adults over 75 have hearing loss.

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