Would the real Mary Poppins please stand up? Approaches and Methods in Gameful Design

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Talk at the University of Leicester on January 27, 2017.

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Would the real Mary Poppins please stand up? Approaches and Methods in Gameful Design

  1. 1. would the real mary poppins please stand up?approaches and method in gamification Sebastian Deterding / @dingstweets Digital Creativity Labs, University of York January 27, 2017 c b
  2. 2. <1> introduction
  3. 3. we are all game designers
  4. 4. old idea: learn enjoyment design from games Malone 1981, Carroll & Thomas 1983, Blythe et al. 2004
  5. 5. recent surge of interest gamification serious games persuasive tech
  6. 6. gaMification The use of game design elements in non-game contexts Deterding et al. 2011
  7. 7. health & wellbeing
  8. 8. sustainability
  9. 9. education
  10. 10. the pursuit of happiness
  11. 11. the unwitting figureheard
  12. 12. two conflicting theories of fun
  13. 13. <2> what is fun? (baby don’t hurt me)
  14. 14. (a)
  15. 15. “just a spoonful of sugar helps the medicine go down” aka fun as additive substance
  16. 16. some things are inherently fun
  17. 17. and some things are not
  18. 18. so: add funstuff™ to nonfunstuff™ for more fun
  19. 19. aka 1990’s edutainment
  20. 20. a resounding failure … Squire 2006, Egenfeldt-Nielsen 2007
  21. 21. Bruckman 1999
  22. 22. gaMification The use of game design elements in non-game contexts Deterding et al. 2011 … which doesn’t bode well for this
  23. 23. (b)
  24. 24. “in every job that must be done, there is an element of fun” aka fun as emergent systemic quality
  25. 25. Every activity can become fun, interesting
  26. 26. experience is a dynamic, emergent quality Hassenzahl 2010
  27. 27. aestheticsmechanics dynamics Hunicke, LeBlanc & Zubek 2004
  28. 28. Hunicke, LeBlanc & Zubek 2004 aesthetics Frustrating end game mechanics dynamics Slow poverty gap +$ !+ -$ !-
  29. 29. so how do you design that?* Deterding et al. 2013 * obligatory visualisation of ephemeral design work with people pointing at post-its
  30. 30. <3> gameful design methods
  31. 31. lots of industry work, little research Deterding et al. 2013
  32. 32. if you want to know more • Conceptual development of requirements from literature • Review of existing methods against requirements • Iterative design-based development and evaluation of method through 19 projects & workshops with teams of 2-6 (n=335)
  33. 33. guiding questions 1. What are the enjoyable, motivating experiences characteristic for gameplay? 2. What game structures and processes afford these experiences? 3. How does game design create these structures and processes? 4. How can we integrate this into design methods for non-game systems?
  34. 34. raph koster »Fun is just another word for learning.« a theory of fun for game design (2004) #1
  35. 35. raph koster »Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out of comprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makes games fun.« a theory of fun for game design (2004)
  36. 36. edward deci, richard ryan »An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.« the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  37. 37. chief source of game enjoyment: overcoming challenges Malone 1981, Csikszentmihalyi 1990, Koster 2005, Przybylski, Rigby, & Ryan, 2010, Klimmt & Blake 2012
  38. 38. Not fun Fun http://www.flickr.com/photos/sulamith/1342528771/sizes/o/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/photonquantique/3364593945/sizes/l/ #2
  39. 39. raph koster »Fun is just another word for learning.« a theory of fun for game design (2004) through interesting challenges
  40. 40. goals …
  41. 41. + rules …
  42. 42. constraining actions …
  43. 43. = interesting challenges
  44. 44. + feedback …
  45. 45. = experiences of competence
  46. 46. formal structure of games: skill atoms/loops Cook 2007, cf. Dormans 2012
  47. 47. aestheticsmechanics dynamics Hunicke, LeBlanc & Zubek 2004 #4 how the user experiences it
  48. 48. aestheticsmechanics dynamics Hunicke, LeBlanc & Zubek 2004 how the designer creates it
  49. 49. Rainer Knizia »The life blood of game design is testing. ... Why are we playing games? Because it‘s fun. You cannot calculate this. You cannot test this out in an abstract manner. You have to play it.« shift run stop, episode 40 (2010)
  50. 50. iterative experiential prototyping & testing
  51. 51. central goal conflict of applied game design Goal conflict game design Enjoyable inefficiency interaction design Usable efficiency #4
  52. 52. how do we make one support the other? Goal congruence game design Enjoyment interaction design Efficiency
  53. 53. intrinsic integration: core challenge = to be learned skill Habgood & Ainsworth 2011, Echeverría et al. 2012
  54. 54. what about real-world output, not learning?
  55. 55. john M. Carroll & John C. Thomas »Tacking on ad hoc complications will not evoke fun.« fun (1988: 21)
  56. 56. intrinsic integration: restructure inherent learnable challenge For ticket, drag red dot through labyrinth Ticket
  57. 57. Level 2 For ticket, drag red dot through labyrinth Ticket
  58. 58. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi »Mowing the lawn or waiting in a dentist’s office can become enjoyable provided one restructures the activity by providing goals, rules, and the other elements of enjoyment to be reviewed below.« flow (1990: 51)
  59. 59. create find and restructure already-inherent challenge
  60. 60. needs formative research to elicit challenges Khaled & Ingram 2012
  61. 61. <4> summary
  62. 62. gaMification The use of game design elements in non-game contexts Deterding et al. 2011 TO DESIGN FOR GAMEFUL EXPERIENCES …
  63. 63. Bruckman 1999 don’t sugarcoat nonfunstuff™
  64. 64. FIND AN INTERESTING CHALLENGE
  65. 65. STRUCTURE IT WELL
  66. 66. AND playtest and iterate ’TIL YOU GET IT RIGHT
  67. 67. sebastian@codingconduct.cc @dingstweets codingconduct.cc thank you

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