Reframing Web 2.0
as a public service for the right to
communicate

Sebastian Deterding
Hans Bredow Institute for Media Re...
A part of fundamental human rights?
                http://www.lemonde.fr/technologies/article/2009/06/10/hadopi-le-consei...
A new public service?
                        http://www.zdnet.com/blog/micro-markets/is-google-a-public-service-is-a-goog...
A new public sphere?
                       http://opennet.net/policing-content-quasi-public-sphere
»73%
(of UK consumers) described broadband as essential
          a utility as water or electricity.«




        BBC News...
IP as the central communication service
• Increasing convergence of content,
  communication, computers*
• Internet as the...
How might we
think about the Internet as
a public service in a more
systematic, technology-
neutral manner?
Critique &
Introduction                      Conceptual Model                   Outlook
     1                            ...
Critique &
Introduction             Conceptual Model                   Outlook
     1                          3          ...
»The term ‚services of general interest‘
… covers market and non-market
services which the public authorities
class as bei...
»The market usually ensures optimum allocation of
resources for the benefit of society at large. However,
some services of...
Scope of public services
                                      Security

                       Education
                ...
Legitimations of public services



           Universal/      National
         transnational   constitutions




Today‘s...
Legitimations of public services
• Natural law: UDHR, Art. 19*
• State theory: Provision of existence§
• Democracy theory:...
The current discourse
• (Ultra-)Broadband connectivity*
• Public Service Broadcasting online§
• Freedom of Information, Op...
Critique &
                            Conceptual Model
Introduction                       3                      Outlook
...
2 Layers of Public Service Internet?
content




                 Public Service Media
           Freedom of Information, ...
»(The) freedom to create and communicate requires
use of diverse things and relationships... These are
the physical, logic...
3 Layers of Public Service Internet?
content




                 Public Service Media
           Freedom of Information, ...
R/O culture -> R/W culture




    Lawrence Lessig
    remix (2008)
»Everyone has the right to freedom of
opinion and expression; this right
includes freedom to hold opinions
without interfe...
»r2r + r2w = r2c«



Rainer Kuhlen
informationsethik (2004: 231)
6 Modules of Public Service Internet?
                    right to read                    right to write
content




    ...
»Everyone should have the necessary
skills to benefit fully from the
Information Society. Therefore,
capacity building and...
8 Modules of Public Service Internet
                            right to read                     right to write
content ...
Critique &
Introduction                    Conceptual Model           Outlook
     1                                 3    ...
Civil Society fills relevant gaps
                            right to read              right to write
content capacity

...
»It is curiously the moment
when technology becomes
boring that the social effects
become interesting.«


     Clay Shirky...
Web 2.0 closes the capacity gap
                      right to read                           right to write
content capac...
Web 2.0 covers the whole stack
                            right to read                     right to write
content capaci...
Outlook
                                   Critique &
Introduction                    Conceptual Model                    ...
Potential problems
• Natural law: Safeguarding freedom of
  speech
• State theory: Critical infrastructure security,
  saf...
Next steps and open questions
• Extend beyond media &
  communication
• Systemize potential problems and
  regulatory appr...
Thanks.
@dingstweets

sebastian@codingconduct.cc

codingconduct.cc
                             License: Creative Commons ...
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Reframing Web 2.0 as a Public Service for the Right to Communicate

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Reframing Web 2.0 as a Public Service for the Right to Communicate

  1. 1. Reframing Web 2.0 as a public service for the right to communicate Sebastian Deterding Hans Bredow Institute for Media Research / Graduate School Media and Communication, Hamburg University Internet Research 11.0, Gothenborg, 15.10.2010 cbn
  2. 2. A part of fundamental human rights? http://www.lemonde.fr/technologies/article/2009/06/10/hadopi-le-conseil-constitutionnel-censure-la-riposte-graduee_1205290_651865.html
  3. 3. A new public service? http://www.zdnet.com/blog/micro-markets/is-google-a-public-service-is-a-google-serp-rank-a-right/857
  4. 4. A new public sphere? http://opennet.net/policing-content-quasi-public-sphere
  5. 5. »73% (of UK consumers) described broadband as essential a utility as water or electricity.« BBC News free broadband won‘t entice all (2009) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/8091398.stm
  6. 6. IP as the central communication service • Increasing convergence of content, communication, computers* • Internet as the central infrastructural backbone: All-IP Networks/NGNs § • Private and public actors increasingly rely on online services for communicative functions† • Increasing centralisation of Internet services: SaaS/Cloud Computing ‡ *Henten & Tadayoni 2008 § Dowden, Gitlin & Martin 1998, ITU 2001, Trick & Weber 2007 † Brown et al 2009, 2009a ‡ Carr 2008, ITU 2009
  7. 7. How might we think about the Internet as a public service in a more systematic, technology- neutral manner?
  8. 8. Critique & Introduction Conceptual Model Outlook 1 3 5 2 4 Public Services Civil Society & the Internet Today & Web 2.0
  9. 9. Critique & Introduction Conceptual Model Outlook 1 3 5 4 2 Civil Society & Web 2.0 Public Services & the Internet Today
  10. 10. »The term ‚services of general interest‘ … covers market and non-market services which the public authorities class as being of general interest and subject to specific public service obligations.« European Commission services of general interest (2003) http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32002L0022:EN:HTML
  11. 11. »The market usually ensures optimum allocation of resources for the benefit of society at large. However, some services of general interest are not fully satisfied by markets alone ... Therefore, it has always been the core responsibility of public authorities to ensure that such basic collective and qualitative needs are satisfied.« European Commission services of general interest (2003) http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32002L0022:EN:HTML
  12. 12. Scope of public services Security Education Transport Health Energy Fire public services Water Social services Media Waste management Telecom. Administration Today‘s Focus
  13. 13. Legitimations of public services Universal/ National transnational constitutions Today‘s Focus
  14. 14. Legitimations of public services • Natural law: UDHR, Art. 19* • State theory: Provision of existence§ • Democracy theory: Public sphere/media crucial for deliberative democracy† • Economics: Public/common goods (tragedies, externalities, monopolies)‡ * Kuhlen 2004 § Forsthoff 1938, Meinel 2007 † Gimmler 2001, Trappel 2010, Gripsrud & Moe 2010 ‡ Hardin 1968, Rose 1986, Heller 1998
  15. 15. The current discourse • (Ultra-)Broadband connectivity* • Public Service Broadcasting online§ • Freedom of Information, Open Data † * OECD 2007, 2008 § Lowe & Hujanen 2003, Lowe & Bardoel 2008, Lowe 2010 † Hunt & Chapman 2006, O‘Reilly & Battelle 2009
  16. 16. Critique & Conceptual Model Introduction 3 Outlook 1 5 2 4 Public Service Civil Society Internet Today & Web 2.0
  17. 17. 2 Layers of Public Service Internet? content Public Service Media Freedom of Information, Open Data physical Broadband Connectivity
  18. 18. »(The) freedom to create and communicate requires use of diverse things and relationships... These are the physical, logical, and content layers. ... The logical layer represents the algorithms, standards, ways of translating human meaning into something that machines can transmit, store, or compute, and something that machines process into communications meaningful to human beings.« Yochai Benkler the wealth of networks (2006: 391-2)
  19. 19. 3 Layers of Public Service Internet? content Public Service Media Freedom of Information, Open Data logical Protocols, Software, Platforms physical Broadband Connectivity
  20. 20. R/O culture -> R/W culture Lawrence Lessig remix (2008)
  21. 21. »Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.« Universal Declaration of Human Rights article 19
  22. 22. »r2r + r2w = r2c« Rainer Kuhlen informationsethik (2004: 231)
  23. 23. 6 Modules of Public Service Internet? right to read right to write content Public Service Media Remixable public content Freedom of Information, Open Data logical Protocols, Software, Platforms Protocols, Software, Platforms for Reception for Production physical Broadband Connectivity Production Devices
  24. 24. »Everyone should have the necessary skills to benefit fully from the Information Society. Therefore, capacity building and ICT literacy are essential.« WSIS Geneva Plan of Action c4. capacity building, para 11
  25. 25. 8 Modules of Public Service Internet right to read right to write content capacity Receptive New Media Literacies Productive New Media Literacies Public Service Media Remixable public content Freedom of Information, Open Data logical Protocols, Software, Platforms Protocols, Software, Platforms for Reception for Production physical Broadband Connectivity Production Devices
  26. 26. Critique & Introduction Conceptual Model Outlook 1 3 5 2 Public Service 4 Internet Today Civil Society & Web 2.0
  27. 27. Civil Society fills relevant gaps right to read right to write content capacity Public Service Media Freedom of Information, Open Data logical physical Broadband Connectivity
  28. 28. »It is curiously the moment when technology becomes boring that the social effects become interesting.« Clay Shirky here comes everybody (2008)
  29. 29. Web 2.0 closes the capacity gap right to read right to write content capacity Ease of use Ease of use Consumable Content Shareable Content User Data User Data logical APIs, Protocols, Widgets, Editors, Cloud Hosting physical Broadband Connectivity Production Devices
  30. 30. Web 2.0 covers the whole stack right to read right to write content capacity Receptive New Media LIteracies Productive New Media Literacies web 2.0/SaaS public content Public Service Media Freedom of Information, Open Data Remixable logical Protocols, Software, Platforms Protocols, Software, Platforms for Reception for Production physical Broadband Connectivity Production Devices
  31. 31. Outlook Critique & Introduction Conceptual Model 5 1 3 2 4 Public Service Civil Society Internet Today & Web 2.0
  32. 32. Potential problems • Natural law: Safeguarding freedom of speech • State theory: Critical infrastructure security, safeguarding affordable universal access • Democracy theory: Safeguarding independent, unbiased deliberation • Economics: Natural monopolies to the detriment of innovation, competitors and citizens
  33. 33. Next steps and open questions • Extend beyond media & communication • Systemize potential problems and regulatory approaches • Model too abstract to be useful? • Where to place privacy/informational self-determination?
  34. 34. Thanks. @dingstweets sebastian@codingconduct.cc codingconduct.cc License: Creative Commons by-nc/3.0
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