Gameful Design for Online Learning

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Presentation at the 2013 Symposium "Game On: Exploring Innovative Pedagogies" at Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia, September 2, 2013.

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Gameful Design for Online Learning

  1. 1. gameful designfor online education Sebastian Deterding MAGIC Lab, Rochester Institute of Technology Game On: Exploring Innovative Pedagogies Symposium, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia, September 2, 2013 c b
  2. 2. <1> introduction
  3. 3. aboutme learninG
  4. 4. bbc: A game of me
  5. 5. RIT: Just press play
  6. 6. game design + online learning? 4 Forms
  7. 7. points Tracking, Feedback badges Goals, surprise leaderboards Competition incentives Rewards »Gamy« feedback layer1
  8. 8. gamefully structuring learning2
  9. 9. full-fledged games3
  10. 10. Learning through game design4
  11. 11. in the public mind
  12. 12. moocs!
  13. 13. with badges!
  14. 14. = khan academy!
  15. 15. problem solved!
  16. 16. http://www.flickr.com/photos/auntiep/4310267/sizes/o/ delicious scalability & analytics!
  17. 17. very,very old wine ... flickr.com/photos/the-consortium/5304929409
  18. 18. Gold Stars The single worst way of motivating learning + frontal teaching (Almost) the single worst educational material
  19. 19. Peter F.Drucker »There is surely nothing quite so useless as doing with great efficiency what should not be done at all.« what executives should remember (2006)
  20. 20. <2> how not?
  21. 21. Margaret Robertson »Gamification is an inadvertent con. It tricks people into believing that there’s a simple way to imbue their thing ... with the psychological, emotional and social power of a great game.« can’t play, won’t play (2009)
  22. 22. Confusion #1
  23. 23. Theodore Sturgeon »Ninety percent of everything is crud.« sturgeon‘s revelation (1958)
  24. 24. what achievements? How designed?
  25. 25. Games are not fun because they are games, but when they are well-designed. Con(fusion) #1
  26. 26. Confusion #2
  27. 27. Earn 1,000,000,000,000 points Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!)
  28. 28. »Fun is just another word for learning.« Raph Koster a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  29. 29. Raph Koster »Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out of comprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makes games fun. With games, learning is the drug.« a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  30. 30. http://www.flickr.com/photos/diego_rivera/4261964210 Extrinsic motivation
  31. 31. Intrinsic motivation http://www.flickr.com/photos/areyoumyrik/308908967
  32. 32. Edward Deci,Richard Ryan »An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.« the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  33. 33. The fun in playing games chiefly arises from intrinsic enjoyment, not extrinsic incentives. Con(fusion) #2
  34. 34. Not fun Fun http://www.flickr.com/photos/sulamith/1342528771/sizes/o/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/photonquantique/3364593945/sizes/l/
  35. 35. Raph Koster »Fun is just another word for learning.« through interesting challenges a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  36. 36. Goals ...
  37. 37. + Rules ...
  38. 38. = Interesting challenges
  39. 39. + Feedback ... http://www.flickr.com/photos/bodgerbrooks/1315419080
  40. 40. = Experiences of competence
  41. 41. Game atoms model/skill rule system goal success! / failure! actions feedback immediate/progress challenge
  42. 42. Confusion #3 http://www.flickr.com/photos/apartmentlife/6559123353/
  43. 43. Earn 1,000,000,000,000 points Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!) feedback without challenge
  44. 44. feedback without challenge
  45. 45. gamy looks without challenge
  46. 46. disconnected challenge
  47. 47. game challenge = learning goal
  48. 48. Learning goal = Game atom the atomic intrinsic integration approach (2011) Alejandro Echevaria et al.
  49. 49. »Gaminess« is not a feature you can just add – it is restructuring learning goals into game atoms. Con(fusion) #3
  50. 50. Confusion #4
  51. 51. Johan Huizinga »First and foremost, all play is a voluntary activity.« homo ludens (1950: 7)
  52. 52. Edward Deci,Richard Ryan »An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.« the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  53. 53. Fun Voluntary Voluntary Fun
  54. 54. the undermining effect
  55. 55. feedback perceived as controlling thwarts autonomy motivation perceived as informing supports competence + – Deci & Ryan 2012
  56. 56. We don’t play games voluntarily because they’re fun – playing games is fun because it’s voluntary. Con(fusion) #4
  57. 57. <3> how?
  58. 58. gameful design Restructuring learning to support competence, autonomy, and relatedness, using game atoms as a lens
  59. 59. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mike52ad/4675696269
  60. 60. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mike52ad/4675696269 Goals: Intransparent; lack of small steps Rules: Often intransparent Challenge: Not adjusted to individual skill Feedback: Slow, demotivating decay instead of building and perceiving progress Game atomscompetence?
  61. 61. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mike52ad/4675696269 Goals: Little choice in what to do when and how, little connection to personal needs Challenge: Demonstrating proficiency, not inviting exploratory trial and error Feedback: Often controlling, highly serious consequences Game atomsautonomy?
  62. 62. learning goal = game atom
  63. 63. Structured flow of goals
  64. 64. scaffolded challenge,dynamically adjusted
  65. 65. progress feedback
  66. 66. forgiving feedback
  67. 67. http://www.flickr.com/photos/amrufm/2593920251/sizes/z/in/photostream/ Meaningful choice
  68. 68. …vs.Quality andVarietyunlimited redoing
  69. 69. challenge-based learning O’Mahony, et al (2012). A Comparison of Lecture-Based and Challenge-Based Learning in a Workplace Setting: Course Designs, Patterns of Interactivity, and Learning Outcomes. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 21(1), 182–206.
  70. 70. <4> in summary
  71. 71. Peter F.Drucker »There is surely nothing quite so useless as doing with great efficiency what should not be done at all.« what executives should remember (2006) – e.g. gamified MOOCs
  72. 72. gameful design Restructuring learning to support competence, autonomy, and relatedness, using game atoms as a lens See bit.ly/194vAni for a recent overview of further design patterns.
  73. 73. sebastian@codingconduct.cc @dingstweets codingconduct.cc Thank you.

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