L-4/5 Types of leadership, Leadership theories and styles
Appointment or election?
Appointmentship rather than leadership.
Significant difference between the two. Appointmentship concerns the granting of power (through an external authority) over other people, whereas leadership is concerned with inner processes, where people recognize and are ready and willing to be influenced by another person.
Theories of Leadership
Trait models (Great man theories)
contingency theories (Situational)
transformational leadership model (Relationship Theories)
Invitational leadership (Participatory theories)
transactional model (Management theories)
Great man theories, Trait models, Behavioural perspective, Contingency theories, Situational theories, Relationship theories, Participatory theories, Management theories
Great man theories
assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent – that great leaders are born, not made. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term "Great Man" was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership. Learn more about the
Is there a set of characteristics that determine a good leader?
Dominance and personal presence?
Ability to formulate a clear vision?
Similar in some ways to "Great Man" theories, theses theories assume that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. If particular traits are key features of leadership, then how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership.
Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation.
Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers and aspects of the situation.
May depend on:
Type of staff
History of the institution
Culture of the institution
Quality of the relationships
Nature of the changes needed
Accepted norms within the institution
Widespread changes to an institutions or organisation
Long term strategic planning
Leading by example – walk the talk
Efficiency of systems and processes
Relationship theories (also known as "Transformational theories") focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. Transformational leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. These leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. Leaders with this style often have high ethical and moral standards.
Transformational leadership is a form of leadership that occurs when leaders “broaden and elevate the interests of their employees, when they generate awareness and acceptance of the purposes and the mission of the group and when they stir their employees to look beyond their own self-interest for the good of the group” (Bernard Bass, 1990).
Improving the atmosphere and message sent out by the organisation
Focus on reducing negative messages sent out through the everyday actions of the institutions both externally and, crucially, internally
Review internal processes to reduce these
Build relationships and sense of belonging and identity with the organisation – that gets communicated to stakeholders
Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others.
Management theories (also known as "Transactional theories") focus on the role of supervision, organization and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of rewards and punishments. Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished.
Focus on the management of the organisation
Focus on procedures and efficiency
Focus on working to rules and contracts
Managing current issues and problems
Read the following fables and share me your understanding:
• A groom spent days in combing and rubbing down his horse. But stole oats and sold them for his own profit. “Alas!” said the Horse, “If you really wish me to be in good condition, You should groom me less, And feed me more.”
• Aesop's Fables
Basic leadership styles
Autocratic Leadership Style
The classical approach
Manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible
Does not consult staff, nor allowed to give any input
Staff expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations
Structured set of rewards and punishments
Greatly criticized during the past 30 years
• Gen staff highly resistant
• Autocratic leaders:
• Rely on threats and punishment to influence staff
Do not trust staff
Do not allow for employee input
When can this style be effective?
Not everything bad
Sometimes the most effective style to use
New, untrained staff do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow
Effective supervision provided only through detailed orders and instructions
Staff do not respond to any other leadership style
Limited time in which to make a decision
A manager’s power challenged by staff
Work needs to be coordinated with another department or organization
When this style should not be used-
Should not be used
Staff become tense, fearful, or resentful
Staff expect their opinions heard
Staff depend on their manager to make all their decisions
Low staff morale, high turnover and absenteeism and work stoppage
Bureaucratic Leadership Style
• Manages “by the book¨
• Everything done according to procedure or policy
• If not covered by the book, referred to the next level above
• A police officer not a leader
Enforces the rules
When you think it is most effective?
Staff performing routine tasks over and over
Staff need to understand certain standards or procedures.
Safety or security training conducted
Staff performing tasks that require handling cash
When is it ineffective?
Work habits form that are hard to break, especially if they are no longer useful
Staff lose their interest in their jobs and in their co-workers
Staff do only what is expected of them and no more
Democratic leadership style
Also known as participative style
Encourages staff to be a part of the decision-making
Keeps staff informed about everything that affects their work and
shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities
A coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff before making a decision
Produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time
Staff like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale
The democratic leader
Develops plans to help staff evaluate their own performance
Allows staff to establish goals
Encourages staff to grow on the job and be promoted
Recognizes and encourages achievement
Not always appropriate
• Most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced staff or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems
Wants to keep staff informed about matters that affect them.
Wants staff to share in decision-making and problem-solving duties.
Wants to provide opportunities for staff to develop a high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction.
A large or complex problem that requires lots of input to solve
Changes must be made or problems solved that affect staff
Want to encourage team building and participation
Should not be used
Not enough time to get everyone’s input
Easier and more cost-effective for the manager to make the decision
Can’t afford mistakes
Manager feels threatened by this type of leadership
Staff safety is a critical concern
Laissez-Faire Leadership Style
Also known as the “hands-off¨ style
The manager provides little or no direction and gives staff as much freedom as possible
All authority or power given to the staff and they determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own
An effective style
Staff highly skilled, experienced, and educated
Staff have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own
Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants used
Staff trustworthy and experienced
Should not be used
Staff feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager
The manager cannot provide regular feedback to staff on how well they are doing
Managers unable to thank staff for their good work
The manager doesn’t understand his or her responsibilities and hoping the staff cover for him or her
Factors affecting styles
Leadership style may depend on
Risk – decision making and change initiatives based on degree of risk involved
Type of business – creative business or supply driven?
How important change is –
Change for change’s sake?
Organizational culture – may be long embedded and difficult to change
Nature of task – needing co-operation? Direction? Structure?