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Perforce Guide

Perforce Guide

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  • 1. Perforce 2009.2P4 User’s GuideDecember 2009
  • 2. This manual copyright 2005-2009 Perforce Software.All rights reserved.Perforce software and documentation is available from http://www.perforce.com. You can download anduse Perforce programs, but you can not sell or redistribute them. You can download, print, copy, edit, andredistribute the documentation, but you can not sell it, or sell any documentation derived from it. You can not modifyor attempt to reverse engineer the programs.Perforce programs and documents are available from our Web site as is. No warranty or support is provided.Warranties and support, along with higher capacity servers, are sold by Perforce Software.Perforce Software assumes no responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies that might appear in this book.By downloading and using our programs and documents you agree to these terms.Perforce and Inter-File Branching are trademarks of Perforce Software. Perforce software includes softwaredeveloped by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.All other brands or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies ororganizations.
  • 3. Table of Contents List of Examples ............................................................ 9Preface About This Manual ..................................................... 13 Command line versus GUIs............................................................................13 Getting started with Perforce..........................................................................13 Perforce documentation...................................................................................14 Please give us feedback ...................................................................................14Chapter 1 Installing P4 ................................................................. 15 Installing P4 on UNIX and OS X ....................................................................15 Installing P4 on Windows ...............................................................................15 Verifying the installation .................................................................................16Chapter 2 Configuring P4 ............................................................ 17 Configuration overview ..................................................................................17 What is a client workspace?........................................................................17 How Perforce manages the workspace .....................................................18 Configuring Perforce settings .........................................................................19 Using the command line .............................................................................19 Using config files ..........................................................................................19 Using environment variables .....................................................................21 Using the Windows registry .......................................................................21 Defining client workspaces .............................................................................22 Verifying connections.......................................................................................23 Refining client views ........................................................................................24 Specifying mappings ...................................................................................24 Using wildcards in client views .................................................................25 Mapping part of the depot..........................................................................26 Mapping files to different locations in the workspace............................26 Mapping files to different filenames .........................................................26 Rearranging parts of filenames ..................................................................27Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 3
  • 4. Table of Contents Excluding files and directories .................................................................. 27 Avoiding mapping conflicts....................................................................... 27 Mapping different depot locations to the same workspace location ... 28 Dealing with spaces in filenames and directories .................................. 28 Mapping Windows workspaces across multiple drives ........................ 29 Using the same workspace from different machines ............................. 29 Changing the location of your workspace ................................................... 30 Configuring workspace options .................................................................... 30 Configuring submit options ........................................................................... 32 Configuring line-ending settings................................................................... 33 Deleting client workspace specifications ..................................................... 33 Security.............................................................................................................. 34 Passwords ..................................................................................................... 34 Connection time limits................................................................................ 35 Working with Unicode servers ...................................................................... 36Chapter 3 Issuing P4 Commands................................................ 39 Command-line syntax..................................................................................... 39 Specifying filenames on the command line............................................. 40 Perforce wildcards....................................................................................... 41 Restrictions on filenames and identifiers................................................. 42 Specifying file revisions.............................................................................. 44 Reporting commands.................................................................................. 47 Using Perforce forms....................................................................................... 47Chapter 4 Managing Files and Changelists ............................... 49 Managing files .................................................................................................. 49 Syncing (retrieving) files............................................................................. 50 Adding files .................................................................................................. 51 Changing files .............................................................................................. 52 Discarding changes (reverting) ................................................................. 53 Deleting files................................................................................................. 53 Managing changelists...................................................................................... 54 Creating numbered changelists................................................................. 55 Submitting changelists................................................................................ 56 Deleting changelists .................................................................................... 56 Renaming and moving files ....................................................................... 574 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 5. Table of Contents Shelving work in progress ..........................................................................57 Displaying information about changelists ...............................................59 Diffing files ........................................................................................................60 Working offline .................................................................................................61 Finding changed files...................................................................................61 Submitting your changes ............................................................................62Chapter 5 Resolving Conflicts ..................................................... 63 How conflicts occur..........................................................................................63 How to resolve conflicts ..................................................................................64 Your, theirs, base and merge files...............................................................64 Options for resolving conflicts ...................................................................65 Accepting yours, theirs, or merge..............................................................66 Editing the merge file ..................................................................................67 Merging to resolve conflicts........................................................................67 Full list of resolve options ...........................................................................67 Resolve command-line flags.......................................................................70 Resolve reporting commands.....................................................................71 Locking files ......................................................................................................71 Preventing multiple resolves by locking files ..........................................71 Preventing multiple checkouts...................................................................72Chapter 6 Codelines and Branching........................................... 73 Basic terminology .............................................................................................73 Organizing the depot .......................................................................................74 Branching ...........................................................................................................75 When to branch ............................................................................................75 Creating branches.........................................................................................76 Integrating changes ..........................................................................................77 Integrating using branch specifications ....................................................78 Integrating between unrelated files...........................................................79 Integrating specific file revisions ...............................................................79 Reintegrating and reresolving files............................................................80 Integration reporting ...................................................................................80 Using labels .......................................................................................................80 Tagging files with a label.............................................................................81 Untagging files..............................................................................................81Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 5
  • 6. Table of Contents Previewing tagging results......................................................................... 82 Listing files tagged by a label .................................................................... 82 Listing labels that have been applied to files .......................................... 82 Using a label to specify file revisions ....................................................... 82 Deleting labels.............................................................................................. 83 Creating a label for future use ................................................................... 83 Restricting files that can be tagged ........................................................... 84 Using static labels to archive workspace configurations....................... 84 Using automatic labels as aliases for changelists or other revisions.... 85 Preventing inadvertent tagging and untagging of files......................... 86Chapter 7 Defect Tracking ............................................................ 87 Managing jobs .................................................................................................. 87 Searching jobs ................................................................................................... 88 Searching job text......................................................................................... 88 Searching specific fields.............................................................................. 89 Using comparison operators...................................................................... 90 Searching date fields ................................................................................... 91 Fixing jobs ......................................................................................................... 91 Linking automatically................................................................................. 91 Linking manually ........................................................................................ 92 Linking jobs to changelists ......................................................................... 92Chapter 8 Scripting and Reporting ............................................. 93 Common flags used in scripting and reporting .......................................... 93 Scripting with Perforce forms ........................................................................ 93 File reporting .................................................................................................... 94 Displaying file status................................................................................... 95 Displaying file revision history ................................................................. 96 Listing open files.......................................................................................... 96 Displaying file locations ............................................................................. 96 Displaying file contents .............................................................................. 97 Displaying annotations (details about changes to file contents) .......... 97 Monitoring changes to files........................................................................ 98 Changelist reporting........................................................................................ 99 Listing changelists ....................................................................................... 99 Listing files and jobs affected by changelists......................................... 1006 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 7. Table of Contents Label reporting................................................................................................100 Branch and integration reporting.................................................................101 Job reporting....................................................................................................101 Listing jobs ..................................................................................................101 Listing jobs fixed by changelists ..............................................................102 System configuration reporting....................................................................102 Displaying users .........................................................................................102 Displaying workspaces .............................................................................103 Listing depots .............................................................................................103 Sample script ...................................................................................................104Appendix A Glossary ...................................................................... 105Appendix B Perforce File Types .................................................... 115 Perforce file types ...........................................................................................115 File type modifiers..........................................................................................116 Specifying how files are stored in the server..............................................118 Assigning File Types for Unicode Files .......................................................118 Choosing the file type................................................................................119 Perforce file type detection and Unicode................................................120 Overriding file types ......................................................................................120 Preserving timestamps...................................................................................121 Expanding RCS keywords.............................................................................121 Index ........................................................................... 123Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 7
  • 8. Table of Contents8 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 9. List of ExamplesPreface About This Manual ..................................................... 13Chapter 1 Installing P4 ................................................................. 15Chapter 2 Configuring P4 ............................................................ 17 Using config files to handle switching between two workspaces.............20 Setting the client view......................................................................................23 Mapping part of the depot to the client workspace ....................................26 Multiple mappings in a single client view....................................................26 Files with different names in the depot and client workspace ..................26 Using positional specifiers to rearrange filenames and directories ..........27 Using views to exclude files from a client workspace ................................27 Erroneous mappings that conflict ..................................................................27 Overlaying multiple directories in the same workspace ............................28 Dealing with spaces in filenames and directories........................................28Chapter 3 Issuing P4 Commands................................................ 39 Using different syntaxes to refer to the same file.........................................41 Retrieving files using revision specifiers.......................................................45 Removing all files from the client workspace ..............................................46 Listing changes using revision ranges...........................................................46Chapter 4 Managing Files and Changelists............................... 49 Copying files from the depot to a client workspace....................................50 Adding files to a changelist.............................................................................51 Submitting a changelist to the depot .............................................................52 Opening a file for edit ......................................................................................52 Reverting a file ..................................................................................................53 Deleting a file from the depot .........................................................................53 Working with multiple changelists ................................................................55 Automatic renumbering of changelists .........................................................55Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 9
  • 10. List of Examples Shelving a changelist ....................................................................................... 57 Unshelving a changelist for code review ..................................................... 58 Handing off files to other users ..................................................................... 58 Discarding shelved files before submitting a change. ................................ 59Chapter 5 Resolving Conflicts ..................................................... 63 Resolving file conflicts .................................................................................... 69 Automatically accepting particular revisions of conflicting files ............. 70Chapter 6 Codelines and Branching ........................................... 73 Creating a branch using a file specification ................................................. 77 Propagating changes between branched files ............................................. 78 Integrating changes to a single file in a branch ........................................... 79 Integrating specific file revisions................................................................... 79 Retrieving files tagged by a label into a client workspace......................... 82 Using a label view to control which files can be tagged ............................ 84 Using an automatic label as an alias for a changelist number .................. 85 Referring specifically to the set of files submitted in a single changelist. 85 Referring to the first revision of every file over multiple changelists...... 86Chapter 7 Defect Tracking ............................................................ 87 Creating a job.................................................................................................... 87 Searching jobs for specific words .................................................................. 89 Finding jobs that contain any of a set of words in any field...................... 89 Finding jobs that contain words in specific fields....................................... 89 Excluding jobs that contain specified values in a field .............................. 89 Using dates within expressions ..................................................................... 91 Automatically linking jobs to changelists .................................................... 91 Manually linking jobs to changelists ............................................................ 92Chapter 8 Scripting and Reporting ............................................. 93 Using p4 annotate to display changes to a file ............................................ 97 Sample shell script showing parsing of p4 fstat command output ........ 10410 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 11. List of ExamplesAppendix A Glossary ...................................................................... 105Appendix B Perforce File Types .................................................... 115 Index ........................................................................... 123Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 11
  • 12. List of Examples12 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 13. Preface About This Manual This guide tells you how to use the Perforce Command-Line Client (p4). If you’re new to SCM (software configuration management), you don’t know basic Perforce concepts, or you’ve never used Perforce before, read Introducing Perforce before reading this guide. This guide assumes a good basic understanding of SCM.Command line versus GUIs Perforce provides many client applications that enable you to manage your files, including the Perforce Command-Line Client, GUIs such as P4V, and plug-ins. The Perforce Command-Line Client enables you to script and to perform administrative tasks that are not supported by Perforce GUIs.Getting started with Perforce If this is your first time working with Perforce, here’s how to get started: 1. Read Introducing Perforce to learn the basics. At a minimum, learn the following concepts: changelist, depot, client workspace, sync, and submit. For short definitions, refer to the glossary at the back of this guide. 2. Ask your Perforce administrator for the host and port of your Perforce server. If you intend to experiment with Perforce and don’t want to risk damaging your production depot, ask the Perforce administrator to start another server for test purposes. For details about installing the Perforce server, refer to the Perforce System Administrator’s Guide. 3. Use this guide to help you install the Perforce Command-Line Client and configure your client workspace, unless your system administrator has already configured your machine. See Chapter 2, Configuring P4, for details. 4. Learn to perform the following tasks: • sync (transfer selected files from the repository to your computer) • submit (transfer changed files from your workspace to the repository) • revert (discard changes) See Chapter 4, Managing Files and Changelists, for details. 5. Learn to refine your client view. See “Refining client views” on page 24 for details.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 13
  • 14. Preface: About This Manual These basic skills enable you to do much of your daily work. Other tasks involving code base maintenance (branching and labeling) and workflow (jobs) tend to be less frequently done. This guide includes details about performing these tasks using p4 commands.Perforce documentation This guide, the Perforce Command Reference, and the p4 help command are the primary documentation for the Perforce Command-Line Client. This guide describes the current release. For documentation for older releases, refer to the Perforce web site. For documentation on other Perforce client programs, see our documentation web page, available from our web site at http://www.perforce.com. For specific information about... See this documentation The basics of Perforce Introducing Perforce Installing and administering the Perforce server, Perforce System Administrator’s Guide the proxy server, and security settings p4 command line flags and options (reference) Perforce Command Reference, p4 help P4V, the cross-platform Perforce Visual Client Getting Started with P4V, P4V online help P4Web, the browser-based Perforce client How to use P4Web, application P4Web online help Perforce plug-ins IDEs: Using IDE Plug-ins Others: online help from the Perforce menu Developing Perforce client applications using C/C++ API Users Guide the Perforce C/C++ APIPlease give us feedback We are interested in receiving opinions on this guide from our users. In particular, we’d like to hear from users who have never used Perforce before. Does this guide teach the topic well? Please let us know what you think; we can be reached at manual@perforce.com.14 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 15. Chapter 1 Installing P4 This chapter tells you how to install the Perforce Command-Line Client (p4) on a client machine. For details about installing the Perforce Server, refer to the Perforce System Administrator’s Guide.Installing P4 on UNIX and OS X To install the Perforce Command-Line Client (p4) on a UNIX or Macintosh OS X machine, perform the following steps: 1. Download the p4 executable file from the Perforce web site: http://www.perforce.com/perforce/downloads/index.html The Perforce client programs are typically downloaded to /usr/local/bin. 2. Make the p4 file executable (chmod +x p4) 3. Configure the server port setting, client workspace name, and user name. You can specify these settings by configuring the P4PORT, P4CLIENT, and P4USER environment variables. (For details, see Chapter 2, Configuring P4.)Installing P4 on Windows To install the Perforce Command-Line Client (p4.exe) on Windows, download and run the Perforce Windows installer (perforce.exe) from the Downloads page of the Perforce web site: http://www.perforce.com/perforce/downloads/index.html The Perforce installer enables you to install and uninstall the Perforce Command-Line Client and other Perforce Windows components.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 15
  • 16. Chapter 1: Installing P4Verifying the installation To verify that you have successfully installed the Perforce Command-line Client, type p4 info at the command line and press ENTER. If you have a server running on the specified host and port, the following message is displayed: User name: ona Client name: ona-agave Client host: agave Client root: /home/ona/p4-ona Current directory: /home/ona/p4-ona Client address: 10.0.0.196:2345 Server address: ida:1818 Server root: /usr/depot/p4d Server date: 2008/06/28 12:11:47 -0700 PDT Server uptime: 752:41:33 Server version: P4D/FREEBSD/2008.1/156375 (2008/05/25) Server license: P4Admin <p4adm> 20 users (expires 2009/01/01) Server license-ip: 10.0.0.2 If your configuration settings are incorrect, the following message is displayed:: Perforce client error: Connect to server failed; check $P4PORT. TCP connect to <hostname> failed. <hostname>: host unknown.16 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 17. Chapter 2 Configuring P4 This chapter tells you how to configure connection settings.Configuration overview Perforce uses a client/server architecture: you sync files from the server repository, called the depot, and edit them on your client machine in your client workspace. This chapter assumes that your system administrator has a Perforce server running. For details about installing the Perforce Server, refer to the Perforce System Administrator’s Guide. To set up your client workspace so you can work with the server, perform the following steps: 1. Configure settings for your server host and port (to specify where the Perforce Server is running). See “Configuring Perforce settings” on page 19. 2. Define your client workspace (at a minimum, assign a name and specify a workspace root where you want local copies of depot files stored). See “Defining client workspaces” on page 22. 3. Verify the connection. See “Verifying connections” on page 23. After you configure your workspace, you can populate it by syncing files that are stored in the depot. For details, see “Syncing (retrieving) files” on page 50 and the description of the p4 sync command in the Perforce Command Reference. Before you start to configure your client machine, ask your Perforce administrator for the server host and port setting. Also ask whether a workspace has already been configured for your client machine.What is a client workspace? A Perforce client workspace is a set of directories on the client machine where you work on file revisions that are managed by Perforce. Each workspace is given a name that identifies the client workspace to the Perforce Server. If no workspace name is specified (by setting the P4CLIENT environment variable) the default workspace name is the name of the client machine. To specify the effective workspace name, set the P4CLIENT environment variable. A client machine can contain multiple workspaces. All files within a Perforce client workspace share a root directory, called the client root. The client root is the highest-level directory of the workspace under which the managed source files reside.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 17
  • 18. Chapter 2: Configuring P4 If you configure multiple workspaces on the same machine, keep workspace locations separate to avoid inadvertently overwriting files. Ensure that client roots are located in different folders and that their client views do not map depot files to overlapping locations on the client machine. After you configure your workspace, you can sync files from the depot and submit changes. For details about these tasks, refer to Chapter 4, Managing Files and Changelists.How Perforce manages the workspace Perforce manages the files in a client workspace as follows: • Files in the workspace are created, updated, and deleted as determined by your changes. • Write permission is enabled when you edit a file, and disabled when you submit your changes. The state of your client workspace is tracked and managed by the Perforce server. To avoid conflicts with the file management that is performed by the server, do not manually change read-only permission settings on files. You can verify that the state of the client workspace corresponds to the server’s record of that state. For details, refer to Technote 2 on the Perforce web site: http://www.perforce.com/perforce/technotes/note002.html Files in the workspace that you have not put under Perforce control are ignored by Perforce. For example, compiled objects, libraries, executables, and developers’ temporary files that are created while developing software but not added to the depot are not affected by Perforce commands. After defining your client workspace, you can fine-tune the workspace definition. Probably most important, you can restrict the portion of the depot that is visible to you, to prevent you from inadvertently syncing the entire depot. For details, refer to “Refining client views” on page 24.18 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 19. Chapter 2: Configuring P4Configuring Perforce settings This guide refers to Perforce settings using environment variables (for example, “set P4CLIENT”), but you can specify Perforce settings such as server port, user, and workspace names using the following methods, listed in order of precedence: 1. On the command line, using flags 2. In a config file, if P4CONFIG is set 3. User environment variables (on UNIX or Windows) 4. System environment variables (on Windows, system-wide environment variables are not necessarily the same thing as user environment variables) 5. On Windows, in the Perforce user registry (set by issuing the p4 set command) 6. On Windows, in the Perforce system registry (set by issuing the p4 set -s command) To configure your client machine to connect to a Perforce server, you specify the name of the host where the server is running, and the port on which the server is listening. The default server host is perforce and default server port is 1666. If the server is running on your client machine, specify localhost as the host name. If the server is running on port 1666, you can omit the port specification. You can specify these settings as described in the following sections. For details about working offline (without a connection to a Perforce server), see “Working offline” on page 61.Using the command line To specify server settings on the command line, use the -p flag. For example: p4 -p localhost:1776 sync //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase Server settings specified on the command line override any settings specified in config files, environment variables, or the Windows registry. For more details about command- line flags, refer to the discussion of global options in the Perforce Command Reference.Using config files Config files are text files containing Perforce settings that are in effect for files in and below the directory where the config file resides. Config files are useful if you have multiple client workspaces on the same machine. By specifying the settings in config files, you avoid the inconvenience of changing system settings every time you want to work with a different workspace.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 19
  • 20. Chapter 2: Configuring P4 To use config files, you define the P4CONFIG environment variable, specifying a file name (for example, .p4config). When you issue a command, Perforce searches the current working directory and its parent directories for the specified file and uses the settings it contains (unless the settings are overridden by command-line flags). Each setting in the file must be specified on its own line, using the following format: setting=value The following settings can be specified in a config file. Setting Description P4CHARSET Character set used for translation of Unicode files. P4COMMANDCHARSET Non-UTF-16 or UTF-32 character set used by Command-Line Client when P4CHARSET is set to a UTF-16 or UTF-32 character set. P4CLIENT Name of the current client workspace. P4DIFF The name and location of the diff program used by p4 resolve and p4 diff. P4EDITOR The editor invoked by those Perforce commands that use forms. P4HOST Hostname of the client workstation. Only useful if the Host: field of the current client workspace has been set in the p4 client form. P4LANGUAGE This environment variable is reserved for system integrators. P4MERGE The name and location of the third-party merge program to be used by p4 resolves merge option. P4PASSWD Supplies the current Perforce users password for any Perforce client command. P4PORT The host and port number of the Perforce server or proxy with which to communicate. P4USER Current Perforce user name. For details about these settings, refer to the Perforce Command Reference. Example: Using config files to handle switching between two workspaces Ona switches between two workspaces on the same machine. The first workspace is ona-ash. It has a client root of /tmp/user/ona and connects to the Perforce server at ida:1818. The second workspace is called ona-agave. Its client root is /home/ona/p4-ona, and it uses the Perforce server at warhol:1666.20 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 21. Chapter 2: Configuring P4 Ona sets the P4CONFIG environment variable to .p4settings. She creates a file called .p4settings in /tmp/user/ona containing the following text: P4PORT=ida:1818 P4CLIENT=ona-ash She creates a second .p4settings file in/home/ona/p4-ona. It contains the following text: P4PORT=warhol:1666 P4CLIENT=ona-agave Any work she does on files under /tmp/user/ona is managed by the Perforce server at ida:1818 and work she does on files under /home/ona/p4-ona is managed by the Perforce server at warhol:1666.Using environment variables To configure server connection settings using environment variables, set P4PORT to host:port, as in the following examples. If the server is running on and is listening to port set P4PORT to your computer 1666 localhost:1666 perforce 1666 1666 houston 3435 houston:3435 deneb.com 1818 deneb.com:1818 If your network environment and Perforce Server have been configured to support Zeroconf services, you can set P4PORT to the value of the service name.Using the Windows registry On Windows machines, you can store connection settings in the registry by issuing the p4 set command. For example: p4 set P4PORT=tea:1667 There are two ways you can configure Perforce settings in the registry: • p4 set setting=value: for the current Windows login. • p4 set -s setting=value: for all users on the local machine. Overrides any registry settings made for the local user. Requires Perforce admin privilege. To see which settings are in effect, type the p4 set command. For details about the p4 set command, see the Perforce Command Reference.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 21
  • 22. Chapter 2: Configuring P4Defining client workspaces To define a client workspace: 1. Specify the workspace name by setting P4CLIENT; for example, on a UNIX system: $ P4CLIENT=bruno_ws ; export P4CLIENT 2. Issue the p4 client command. Perforce displays the client specification form in your text editor. (For details about Perforce forms, refer to “Using Perforce forms” on page 47.) 3. Specify (at least the minimum) settings and save the specification. No files are synced when you create a client specification. To find out how to sync files from the depot to your workspace, refer to “Syncing (retrieving) files” on page 50. For details about relocating files on your machine, see “Changing the location of your workspace” on page 30. The minimum settings you must specify to configure a client workspace are: • Workspace name The workspace name defaults to the client machine’s hostname, but a client machine can contain multiple workspaces. To specify the effective workspace, set P4CLIENT. • Client root The client root is the top directory of your client workspace, where Perforce stores your working copies of depot files. Be sure to set the client root, or you might inadvertently sync files to your client machine’s root directory. If the client root directory does not exist on your workstation, you must create it before your Perforce client can make use of it. Your client view determines which files in the depot are mapped to a client workspace and enables the server to construct a one-to-one mapping between individual depot and workspace files. You can map files to have different names and locations in your workspace than they have in the depot, but you cannot map files to multiple locations in the workspace or the depot. By default, the entire depot is mapped to your workspace. You can define a client view to map only files and directories of interest, so that you do not inadvertently sync the entire depot into your workspace. For details, see “Refining client views” on page 24.22 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 23. Chapter 2: Configuring P4 Example: Setting the client view Bruno issues the p4 client command and sees a form containing this default client view definition: Client: bruno_ws Update: 2004/11/29 09:46:53 Access: 2005/03/02 10:28:40 Owner: bruno Root: c:bruno_ws Options: noallwrite noclobber nocompress unlocked nomodtime normdir SubmitOptions: submitunchanged LineEnd: local View: //depot/... //bruno_ws/... He modifies the view to map only the development portion of the depot. View: //depot/dev/... //bruno_ws/dev/... He further modifies the view to map files from multiple depots into his workspace. View: //depot/dev/... //bruno_ws/depot/dev/... //testing/... //bruno_ws/testing/... //archive/... //bruno_ws/archive/...Verifying connections To verify a connection, issue the p4 info command. If P4PORT is set correctly, information like the following is displayed: User name: bruno Client name: bruno_ws Client host: workstation_12 Client root: c:bruno_ws Current directory: c:bruno_ws Client address: 127.0.0.1:28 Server address: localhost:1667 Server root: /usr/depot/p4d Server date: 2008/06/28 15:03:05 -0700 PDT Server uptime: 752:41:23 Server version: P4D/FREEBSD4/2008.1/156375 (2008/05/25) Proxy version: P4P/SOLARIS26/2008.1/156884 (2008/05/25) Server license: P4 Admin <p4adm> 20 users (expires 2009/01/01) Server license-ip: 10.0.0.2Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 23
  • 24. Chapter 2: Configuring P4 The Server address: field shows the Perforce server to which p4 connected and also displays the host and port number on which the Perforce server is listening. If P4PORT is set incorrectly, you receive a message like the following: Perforce client error: Connect to server failed; check $P4PORT. TCP connect to perforce:1666 failed. perforce: host unknown. If the value you see in the third line of the error message is perforce:1666 (as above), P4PORT has not been set. If the value is anything else, P4PORT is set incorrectly.Refining client views By default, when you create a client workspace, the entire depot is mapped to your workspace. You can refine this mapping to view only a portion of the depot and to change the correspondence between depot and workspace locations. To display or modify a client view, issue the p4 client command. Perforce displays the client specification form, which lists mappings in the View: field: Client: bruno_ws Owner: bruno Description: Created by bruno. Root: C:bruno_ws Options: noallwrite noclobber nocompress unlocked nomodtime normdir SubmitOptions: submitunchanged View: //depot/... //bruno_ws/... The following sections provide details about specifying the client view. For more information, see the p4 client command description and the description of views in the Perforce Command Reference.Specifying mappings Views consist of multiple mappings. Each mapping has two parts. • The left-hand side specifies one or more files in the depot and has the form: //depotname/file_specification • The right-hand side specifies one or more files in the client workspace and has the form: //clientname/file_specification The left-hand side of a client view mapping is called the depot side, and the right-hand side is the client side.24 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 25. Chapter 2: Configuring P4 To determine the location of any client file on the host machine, substitute the client root for the client name on the client side of the mapping. For example, if the client root is C:bruno_ws, the file //depot/dev/main/jam/Jamfile resides in the workspace as C:bruno_wsdevmainjamJamfile. Later mappings override earlier ones. In the following example, the second line overrides the first line, mapping the files in //depot/dev/main/docs/manuals/ up two levels. When files in //depot/dev/main/docs/manuals/ are synced, they reside in c:bruno_wsdocs. View: //depot/dev/... //bruno_ws/dev/... //depot/dev/main/docs/... //bruno_ws/docs/...Using wildcards in client views To map groups of files in client views, you use Perforce wildcards. Any wildcard used on the depot side of a mapping must be matched with an identical wildcard in the mapping’s client side. You can use the following wildcards to specify client view mappings. Wildcard Description * Matches anything except slashes. Matches only within a single directory. Case sensitivity depends on your server platform ... Matches anything including slashes. Matches recursively (everything in and below the specified directory). %%1 - %%9 Positional specifiers for substring rearrangement in filenames. In this simple client view: //depot/dev/... //bruno_ws/dev/... all files in the depot’s dev branch are mapped to the corresponding locations in the workspace. For example, the file //depot/dev/main/jam/Makefile is mapped to the client workspace file C:bruno_wsdevmainjamMakefile. Note To avoid mapping unwanted files, always precede the “...” wildcard with a forward slash. The mappings in client workspace views always refer to the locations of files and directories in the depot; you cannot refer to specific revisions of a file in a client view.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 25
  • 26. Chapter 2: Configuring P4Mapping part of the depot If you are interested only in a subset of the depot files, map that portion. Reducing the scope of the client view also ensures that your commands do not inadvertently affect the entire depot. To restrict the client view, change the left-hand side of the View: field to specify the relevant portion of the depot. Example: Mapping part of the depot to the client workspace Dai is working on the Jam project and maintaining the web site, so she sets the View: field as follows: View: //depot/dev/main/jam/... //dai-beos-locust/jam/... //depot/www/live/... //dai-beos-locust/www/live/...Mapping files to different locations in the workspace Views can consist of multiple mappings, which are used to map portions of the depot file tree to different parts of the workspace file tree. If there is a conflict in the mappings, later mappings have precedence over the earlier ones. Example: Multiple mappings in a single client view The following view ensures that Microsoft Word files in the manuals folder reside in the workspace in a top-level folder called wordfiles. View: //depot/... //bruno_ws/... //depot/dev/main/docs/manuals/*.doc //bruno_ws/wordfiles/*.docMapping files to different filenames Mappings can be used to make the filenames in the client workspace differ from those in the depot. Example: Files with different names in the depot and client workspace The following view maps the depot file RELNOTES to the workspace file rnotes.txt: View: //depot/... //bruno_ws/... //depot/dev/main/jam/RELNOTES //bruno_ws/dev/main/jam/rnotes.txt26 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 27. Chapter 2: Configuring P4Rearranging parts of filenames Positional specifiers %%0 through %%9 can be used to rearrange portions of filenames and directories. Example: Using positional specifiers to rearrange filenames and directories The following view maps the depot file //depot/allfiles/readme.txt to the workspace file filesbytype/txt/readme: View: //depot/allfiles/%%1.%%2 //bruno_ws/filesbytype/%%2/%%1Excluding files and directories Exclusionary mappings enable you to explicitly exclude files and directories from a client workspace. To exclude a file or directory, precede the mapping with a minus sign ( - ). White space is not allowed between the minus sign and the mapping. Example: Using views to exclude files from a client workspace Earl, who is working on the Jam project, does not want any HTML files synced to his workspace. His client view looks like this: View: //depot/dev/main/jam/... //earl-dev-beech/jam/... -//depot/dev/main/jam/....html //earl-dev-beech/jam/....htmlAvoiding mapping conflicts When you use multiple mappings in a single view, a single file can inadvertently be mapped to two different places in the depot or workspace. When two mappings conflict in this way, the later mapping overrides the earlier mapping. Example: Erroneous mappings that conflict Joe has constructed a view as follows: View: //depot/proj1/... //joe/project/... //depot/proj2/... //joe/project/... The second mapping //depot/proj2/... maps to //joe/project and conflicts with the first mapping. Because these mappings conflict, the first mapping is ignored; no files in //depot/proj1 are mapped into the workspace: //depot/proj1/file.c is not mapped, even if //depot/proj2/file.c does not exist.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 27
  • 28. Chapter 2: Configuring P4Mapping different depot locations to the same workspace location Overlay mappings enable you to map files from more than one depot directory to the same place in a client workspace. To overlay the contents of a second directory in your client workspace, use a plus sign (+) in front of the mapping. Example: Overlaying multiple directories in the same workspace Joe wants to combine the files from his projects when they are synced to his workspace, so he has constructed a view as follows: View: //depot/proj1/... //joe/project/... +//depot/proj2/... //joe/project/... The overlay mapping +//depot/proj2/... maps to //joe/project, and overlays the first mapping. Overlay mappings do not conflict. Files (even deleted files) in //depot/proj2 take precedence over files in //depot/proj1. If //depot/proj2/file.c is missing (as opposed to being present, but deleted), then //depot/proj1/file.c is mapped into the workspace instead. Overlay mappings are useful for applying sparse patches in build environments.Dealing with spaces in filenames and directories Use quotation marks to enclose files or directories that contain spaces. Example: Dealing with spaces in filenames and directories Joe wants to map files in the depot into a local workspace, but some of the paths contain spaces: View: "//depot/Release 2.0/..." //joe/current/... "//depot/Release 1.1/..." "//joe/Patch Release/..." //depot/webstats/2006/... "//joe/2006 Web Stats/..." By placing quotation marks around the path components on the server side, client side, or both sides of the mappings, Joe can specify file names and/or directory components that contain spaces. For more information, see “Spaces in filenames, pathnames, and identifiers” on page 42.28 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 29. Chapter 2: Configuring P4Mapping Windows workspaces across multiple drives To specify a Perforce client workspace that spans multiple Windows drives, use a Root: of null and specify the drive letters (in lowercase) in the client view. For example: Client: bruno_ws Update: 2004/11/29 09:46:53 Access: 2005/03/02 10:28:40 Owner: bruno Root: null Options: noallwrite noclobber nocompress unlocked nomodtime normdir SubmitOptions: submitunchanged LineEnd: local View: //depot/dev/... "//bruno_ws/c:/Current Release/..." //depot/release/... "//bruno_ws/d:/Prior Releases/..." //depot/www/... //bruno_ws/d:/website/...Using the same workspace from different machines By default, you can only use a workspace on the machine that is specified by the Host: field. If you want to use the same client workspace on multiple machines with different platforms, delete the Host: entry and set the AltRoots: field in the client specification. You can specify a maximum of two alternate client workspace roots. The locations must be visible from all machines that will be using them, for example through NFS or Samba mounts. Perforce compares the current working directory against the main Root: first, and then against the two AltRoots: if specified. The first root to match the current working directory is used. If no roots match, the main root is used. Note If you are using a Windows directory in any of your client roots, specify the Windows directory as your main client Root: and specify your other workspace root directories in the AltRoots: field. In the following example, if user bruno’s current working directory is located under /usr/bruno, Perforce uses the UNIX path as his client workspace root, rather than c:bruno_ws. This approach allows bruno to use the same client workspace specification for both UNIX and Windows development. Client: bruno_ws Owner: bruno Description: Created by bruno. Root: c:bruno_ws AltRoots: /usr/bruno/Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 29
  • 30. Chapter 2: Configuring P4 To find out which workspace root is in effect, issue the p4 info command and check the Client root: field. If you edit text files in the same workspace from different platforms, ensure that the editors and settings you use preserve the line endings. For details about line-endings in cross-platform settings, refer to the Perforce System Administrator’s Guide.Changing the location of your workspace To change the location of files in your workspace, issue the p4 client command and change either or both of the Root: and View: fields. Before changing these settings, ensure that you have no files checked out (by submitting or reverting open files). If you intend to modify both fields, perform the following steps to ensure that your workspace files are located correctly: 1. To remove the files from their old location in the workspace, issue the p4 sync ...#none command. 2. Change the Root: field. (The new client workspace root directory must exist on your workstation before you can retrieve files into it.) 3. To copy the files to their new locations in the workspace, perform a p4 sync. (If you forget to perform the p4 sync ...#none before you change the client view, you can always remove the files from their client workspace locations manually). 4. Change the View: field. 5. Again, perform a p4 sync. The files in the client workspace are synced to their new locations.Configuring workspace options The following table describes workspace Options: in detail. Option Description Default [no]allwrite Specifies whether unopened files are always noallwrite writable. By default, the Perforce server makes unopened files read-only. To avoid inadvertently overwriting changes or causing syncs to fail, specify noallwrite. [no]clobber Specifies whether p4 sync overwrites writable but noclobber unopened workspace files. (By default, Perforce does not overwrite unopened files if they are writable.)30 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 31. Chapter 2: Configuring P4 Option Description Default [no]compress Specifies whether data is compressed when it is nocompress sent between the client and the server. [un]locked Specifies whether other users can use, edit, or unlocked delete the client workspace specification. A Perforce administrator can override the lock with the -f (force) flag. If you lock your client workspace specification, be sure to set a password for the workspace’s owner using the p4 passwd command. [no]modtime For files without the +m (modtime) file type nomodtime modifier: (date and time of sync). • If modtime is set, the modification date (on the local filesystem) of a newly synced file is the dat- Ignored for files estamp on the file when the file was submitted to with the +m file the depot. type modifier. • If nomodtime is set, the modification date is the date and time of sync, regardless of Perforce cli- ent version. For files with the +m (modtime) file type, the modification date (on the local filesystem) of a newly synced file is the datestamp on the file when the file was submitted to the depot, regardless of the setting of modtime or nomodtime on the client. [no]rmdir Specifies whether p4 sync deletes empty normdir directories in a workspace if all files in the directory have been removed.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 31
  • 32. Chapter 2: Configuring P4Configuring submit options To control what happens to files in a changelist when you submit the changelist to the depot, set the SubmitOptions: field. Valid settings are as follows. Option Description submitunchanged All open files (with or without changes) are submitted to the depot. This is the default behavior of Perforce. submitunchanged+reopen All open files (with or without changes) are submitted to the depot, and all files are automatically reopened in the default changelist. revertunchanged Only those files with content or type changes are submitted to the depot. Unchanged files are reverted. revertunchanged+reopen Only those files with content or type changes are submitted to the depot and reopened in the default changelist. Unchanged files are reverted and not reopened in the default changelist. leaveunchanged Only those files with content or type changes are submitted to the depot. Any unchanged files are moved to the default changelist. leaveunchanged+reopen Only those files with content or type changes are submitted to the depot. Unchanged files are moved to the default changelist, and changed files are reopened in the default changelist. This option is similar to submitunchanged+reopen, except that no unchanged files are submitted to the depot.32 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 33. Chapter 2: Configuring P4Configuring line-ending settings To specify how line endings are handled when you sync text files, set the LineEnd: field. Valid settings are as follows. Option Description local Use mode native to the client (default) unix UNIX-style (and Mac OS X) line endings: LF mac Macintosh pre-OS X: CR only win Windows- style: CR, LF share The share option normalizes mixed line-endings into UNIX line-end format. The share option does not affect files that are synced into a client workspace; however, when files are submitted back to the Perforce Server, the share option converts all Windows-style CR/LF line-endings and all Mac-style CR line-endings to the UNIX-style LF, leaving lone LFs untouched. When you sync your client workspace, line endings are set to LF. If you edit the file on a Windows machine, and your editor inserts CRs before each LF, the extra CRs do not appear in the archive file. The most common use of the share option is for users of Windows workstations who mount their UNIX home directories as network drives; if you sync files from UNIX, but edit the files on a Windows machine. For detailed information about how Perforce uses the line-ending settings, see Tech Note 63 on the Perforce web site: http://www.perforce.com/perforce/technotes/note063.htmlDeleting client workspace specifications To delete a client workspace specification, issue the p4 client -d clientname command. Deleting a client specification removes the Perforce server’s record of the workspace but does not remove files from the workspace or the depot. When you delete a workspace specification: 1. Revert (or submit) any pending changelists that have been opened from the workspace. 2. Delete existing files from a client workspace (p4 sync ...#none). (optional) 3. Delete the workspace specification.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 33
  • 34. Chapter 2: Configuring P4 If you delete the workspace specification before you delete files in the workspace, you can delete workspace files using your operating system’s file deletion command.Security For security purposes, your Perforce administrator can configure the Perforce server to require passwords and to limit the length of time for which your login ticket is valid. The following sections provide details.Passwords Depending on the security level at which your Perforce server is running, you might need to log in to Perforce before you can run Perforce commands. Without passwords, any user can assume the identity of any other Perforce user by setting P4USER to a different user name or specifying the -u flag when you issue a p4 command. To improve security, use passwords. Setting passwords To create a password for your Perforce user, issue the p4 passwd command. Your system administrator can configure your Perforce server to require “strong” passwords. A password is considered strong if it is at least eight characters long and contains at least two of the following: • Uppercase letters • Lowercase letters • Non-alphabetic characters For example, a1b2c3d4, A1B2C3D4, aBcDeFgH are strong passwords. To reset or remove a password (without knowing the password), Perforce superuser privilege is required. If you need to have your password reset, contact your Perforce administrator. See the Perforce System Administrator’s Guide for details. Using your password If your Perforce user has a password set, you must use it when you issue p4 commands. To use the password, you can: • Log into the server by issuing the p4 login command, before issuing other commands • Set P4PASSWD to your password, either in the environment or in a config file • Specify the -P password flag when you issue p4 commands (for instance, p4 -P mypassword submit)34 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 35. Chapter 2: Configuring P4 • Windows: store your password in the registry using the p4 set -s command. Not advised for sites where security is high. Perforce administrators can disable this feature.Connection time limits Your Perforce administrator can configure the Perforce server to enforce time limits for users. Perforce uses ticket-based authentication to enforce time limits. Because ticket- based authentication does not rely on environment variables or command-line flags, it is more secure than password-based authentication. Tickets are stored in a file in your home directory. After you have logged in, your ticket is valid for a limited period of time (by default, 12 hours). Logging in and logging out If time limits are in effect for your server, you must issue the p4 login command to obtain a ticket. Enter your password when prompted. If you log in successfully, a ticket is created for you in the ticket file in your home directory, and you are not prompted to log in again until either your ticket expires or you log out by issuing the p4 logout command. To see how much time remains before your login expires, issue the following command: p4 login -s If your ticket is valid, the length of time remaining is displayed. To log out of Perforce, issue the following command: p4 logout Working on multiple machines By default, your ticket is valid only for the IP address of the machine from which you logged in. If you use Perforce from multiple machines that share a home directory (typical in many UNIX environments), log in with: p4 login -a Using p4 login -a creates a ticket in your home directory that is valid from all IP addresses, enabling you to remain logged into Perforce from more than one machine. To log out from all machines simultaneously, issue the following command: p4 logout -a For more information about the p4 login and p4 logout commands, see the Perforce Command Reference.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 35
  • 36. Chapter 2: Configuring P4Working with Unicode servers The Perforce server can be run in Unicode mode to activate support for file names or directory names that contain Unicode characters, and Perforce identifiers (for example, user names) and specifications (for example, changelist descriptions or jobs) that contain Unicode characters. In Unicode mode, the Perforce server also translates unicode files and metadata to the character set configured for the client machine, and verifies that the unicode files and metadata contain valid UTF-8 characters. Note If you only need to manage textual files that contain Unicode characters, but do not need the features listed above, you do not need to run your server in Unicode mode. Your system administrator will tell you if your server is using Unicode mode or not. For such installations, assign the Perforce utf16 file type to textual files that contain Unicode characters. You do not have to set the P4CHARSET or P4COMMANDCHARSET environment variables. See “Assigning File Types for Unicode Files” on page 118 for details. To correctly interoperate with Unicode-mode servers, and to ensure that such files are translated correctly by the Perforce server when the files are synced or submitted, you must set P4CHARSET to the character set that corresponds to the format used on your client machine by the applications that access them, such as text editors or IDEs. These formats are typically listed when you save the file using the Save As... menu option. Values of P4CHARSET that begin with utf16 or utf32 further require that you also set P4COMMANDCHARSET to a non utf16 or utf32 character set in which you want server output displayed. “Server output” includes informational and error messages, diff output, and information returned by reporting commands. For further information, see the System Administrator’s Guide. Setting P4CHARSET on Windows To set P4CHARSET for all users on a workstation, you need Perforce administrator privileges. Issue the following command: p4 set -s P4CHARSET=character_set To set P4CHARSET for the user currently logged in: p4 set P4CHARSET=character_set Your client machine must have a compatible True Type or Open Type font installed.36 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 37. Chapter 2: Configuring P4 Setting P4CHARSET on UNIX You can set P4CHARSET from a command shell or in a startup script such as .kshrc, .cshrc, or .profile. To determine the proper value for P4CHARSET, examine the setting of the LANG or LOCALE environment variable. Common settings are as follows: If LANG is... Set P4CHARSET to en_US.ISO_8859-1 iso8859-1 ja_JP.EUC eucjp ja_JP.PCK shiftjis In general, for a Japanese installation, set P4CHARSET to eucjp, and for a European installation, set P4CHARSET to iso8859-1.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 37
  • 38. Chapter 2: Configuring P438 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 39. Chapter 3 Issuing P4 Commands This chapter provides basic information about p4 commands, including command-line syntax, arguments, and flags. For full details about command syntax, refer to the Perforce Command Reference. Certain commands require administrator or superuser permission. For details, consult the Perforce System Administrator’s GuideCommand-line syntax The basic syntax for commands is as follows: p4 [global options] command [command-specific flags] [command arguments] The following flags can be used with all p4 commands. Global options Description and Example -c clientname Specifies the client workspace associated with the command. Overrides P4CLIENT. p4 -c bruno_ws edit //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase -d directory Specifies the current directory, overriding the environment variable PWD. p4 -d ~c:bruno_wsdevmainjamJambase Jamfile -G Format all output as marshaled Python dictionary objects (for scripting with Python). p4 -G info -H host Specifies the hostname of the client workstation, overriding P4HOST. p4 -H deneb print //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase -p server Specifies the Perforce server’s host and port number, overriding P4PORT. p4 -p deneb:1818 clients -P password Supplies a Perforce password, overriding P4PASSWD. Usually used in combination with the -u username flag. p4 -u earl -P secretpassword job -s Prepend a tag to each line of output (for scripting purposes). p4 -s infoPerforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 39
  • 40. Chapter 3: Issuing P4 Commands Global options Description and Example -u username Specifies a Perforce user, overriding P4USER. p4 -u bill user -x filename Read arguments, one per line, from the specified file. To read arguments from standard input, specify “-x -”. p4 -x myargs.txt -V Displays the version of the p4 executable. To display the flags for a specific command, issue the p4 help command. For example: p4 help add add -- Open a new file to add it to the depot p4 add [ -c changelist# ] [ -t filetype ] file ... Open a new file for adding to the depot. If the file exists on the client it is read to determine if it is text or binary. If it does not exist it is assumed to be text. The file must either not exist in the depot, or it must be deleted at the current head revision. Files may be deleted and re-added. [...] For the full list of global options, commands, and command-specific flags, see the Perforce Command Reference.Specifying filenames on the command line Much of your everyday use of Perforce consists of managing files. You can specify filenames in p4 commands as follows: • Local syntax: the file’s name as specified in your local shell or operating system. Filenames can be specified using an absolute path (for example, c:bruno_wsdevmainjamfileos2.c) or a path that is relative to the current directory (for example, .jamfileos2.c). Relative components (. or ..) cannot be specified following fixed components. For example, mysub/mydir/./here/file.c is invalid, because the dot (.) follows the fixed mysub/mydir components. • Depot syntax: use the following format: //depotname/file_path, specifying the pathname of the file relative to the depot root directory. Separate the components of the path using forward slashes. For example: //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase. • Client syntax: use the following format: //workspacename/file_path, specifying the pathname of the file relative to the client root directory. Separate the components of the path using forward slashes. For example: //ona-agave/dev/main/jam/Jambase.40 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 41. Chapter 3: Issuing P4 Commands Example: Using different syntaxes to refer to the same file Local syntax: p4 delete c:bruno_wsdevmainjamJambase Depot syntax: p4 delete //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase Client syntax: p4 delete //bruno_ws/dev/main/jam/JambasePerforce wildcards For commands that operate on sets of files, Perforce supports two wildcards. Wildcard Description * Matches anything except slashes. Matches only within a single directory. Case sensitivity depends on your server platform ... Matches anything including slashes. Matches recursively (everything in and below the specified directory). Perforce wildcards can be used with local or Perforce syntax, as in the following examples. Expression Matches J* Files in the current directory starting with J */help All files called help in current subdirectories ./... All files under the current directory and its subdirectories ./....c All files under the current directory and its subdirectories, that end in .c /usr/bruno/... All files under /usr/bruno //bruno_ws/... All files in the workspace or depot that is named bruno_ws //depot/... All files in the depot //... All files in all depots The * wildcard is expanded locally by the operating system before the command is sent to the server. To prevent the local operating system from expanding the * wildcard, enclose it in quotes or precede it with a backslash. Note The “...” wildcard cannot be used with the p4 add command. The “...” wildcard is expanded by the Perforce server, and, because the server cannot determine which files are being added, it can’t expand the wildcard. The * wildcard can be used with p4 add, because it is expanded by the operating system shell and not by the Perforce Server.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 41
  • 42. Chapter 3: Issuing P4 CommandsRestrictions on filenames and identifiers Spaces in filenames, pathnames, and identifiers Use quotation marks to enclose files or directories that contain spaces. For example: "//depot/dev/main/docs/manuals/recommended configuration.doc" If you specify spaces in names for other Perforce objects, such as branch names, client names, label names, and so on, the spaces are automatically converted to underscores by the Perforce server. Length limitations Names assigned to Perforce objects such as branches, client workspaces, and so on, cannot exceed 1024 characters. Reserved characters By default, the following reserved characters are not allowed in Perforce identifiers or names of files managed by Perforce. Reserved Character Reason @ File revision specifier for date, label name, or changelist number # File revision numbers * Wildcard ... Wildcard (recursive) %%1 - %%9 Wildcard (positional) / Separator for pathname components These characters have conflicting and secondary uses. Conflicts include the following: • UNIX separates path components with /, but many DOS commands interpret / as a command-line switch. • Most UNIX shells interpret # as the beginning of a comment. • Both DOS and UNIX shells automatically expand * to match multiple files, and the DOS command line uses % to refer to variables.42 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 43. Chapter 3: Issuing P4 Commands To specify these characters in filenames or paths, use the ASCII expression of the character’s hexadecimal value, as shown in the following table. Character ASCII @ %40 # %23 * %2A % %25 Specify the filename literally when you add it; then use the ASCII expansion to refer to it thereafter. For example, to add a file called recommended@configuration.doc, issue the following command: p4 add -f //depot/dev/main/docs/manuals/recommended@configuration.doc When you submit the changelist, the characters are automatically expanded and appear in the change submission form as follows: //depot/dev/main/docs/manuals/recommended%40configuration.doc After you submit the changelist with the file’s addition, you must use the ASCII expansion to sync the file to your workspace or to edit it within your workspace. For example: p4 sync //depot/dev/main/docs/manuals/recommended%40configuration.doc Filenames containing extended (non-ASCII) characters Non-ASCII characters are allowed in filenames and Perforce identifiers, but entering them from the command line might require platform-specific solutions. If you are using Perforce in unicode mode, all users must have P4CHARSET set properly. For details about setting P4CHARSET, see the Perforce Command Reference and the Internationalization Notes. In international environments, use a common code page or locale setting to ensure that all filenames are displayed consistently across all machines in your organization. To set the code page or locale: • Windows: use the Regional Settings applet in the Control Panel • UNIX: set the LOCALE environment variablePerforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 43
  • 44. Chapter 3: Issuing P4 CommandsSpecifying file revisions Each time you submit a file to the depot, its revision number is incremented. To specify revisions prior to the most recent, use the # revision specifier to specify a revision number, or @ to specify a date, changelist, client workspace, or label corresponding to the version of the file you are working on. Revision specifications can be used to limit the effect of a command to specified file revisions. Warning! Some operating system shells treat the Perforce revision character # as a comment character if it starts a word. If your shell is one of these, escape the # when you use it in p4 commands. The following table describes the various ways you can specify file revisions. Revision needed Syntax and example Revision number file#n Example: p4 sync //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase#3 Refers to revision 3 of file Jambase The revision submitted file@changelist_number as of a specified Examples: changelist p4 sync //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase@126 Refers to the version of Jambase when changelist 126 was submitted, even if it was not part of the change. p4 sync //depot/...@126 Refers to the state of the entire depot at changelist 126 (numbered changelists are explained in “Managing changelists” on page 54). The revision in a file@labelname specified label Example: p4 sync //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase@beta The revision of Jambase in the label called beta. For details about labels, refer to “Using labels” on page 80. The revision last synced file@clientname to a specified client Example: workspace p4 sync //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase@bruno_ws The revision of Jambase last synced to client workspace bruno_ws44 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 45. Chapter 3: Issuing P4 Commands Revision needed Syntax and example Remove the file file#none Example: p4 sync //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase#none Removes Jambase from the client workspace. The most recent version file#head of the file Example: p4 sync //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase#head Same as p4 sync //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase (If you omit the revision specifier, the head revision is synced.) The revision last synced file#have to your workspace Example: p4 files //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase#have The head revision of the file@date file in the depot on the Example: specified date p4 sync //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase@2005/05/18 The head revision of Jambase as of midnight May 18, 2005. The head revision of the file@"date[:time]" file in the depot on the Example: specified date at the p4 sync //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase@”2005/05/18” specified time Specify dates in the format YYYY/MM/DD. Specify time in the format HH:MM:SS using the 24-hour clock. Time defaults to 00:00:00 Separate the date and the time by a single space or a colon. (If you use a space to separate the date and time, you must also enclose the entire date-time specification in double quotes.) Example: Retrieving files using revision specifiers Bruno wants to retrieve all revisions that existed at changelist number 30. He types p4 sync //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase@30 Another user can sync their workspace so that it contains the same file revisions Bruno has synced by specifying Bruno’s workspace, as follows: p4 sync @bruno_wsPerforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 45
  • 46. Chapter 3: Issuing P4 Commands Example: Removing all files from the client workspace p4 sync ...#none The files are removed from the workspace but not from the depot. Date and time specifications Date and time specifications are obtained from the time zone of the Perforce server. To display the date, time, offset from GMT, and time zone in effect at your Perforce server, issue the p4 info command. The Perforce server stores times as the number of seconds since 00:00:00 GMT Jan. 1, 1970), so if you move your server across time zones, the times stored on the server are correctly reported in the new time zone. Revision ranges Some commands can operate on a range of file revisions. To specify a revision range, specify the start and end revisions separated by a comma, for example, #3,4. The commands that accept revision range specifications are: • p4 changes • p4 files • p4 integrate • p4 jobs • p4 print • p4 sync For the preceding commands: • If you specify a single revision, the command operates on revision #1 through the revision you specify (except for p4 sync, p4 print, and p4 files, which operate on the highest revision in the range). • If you omit the revision range entirely, the command affects all file revisions. Example: Listing changes using revision ranges A release manager needs to see a quick list of all changes made to the jam project in July 2000. He types: p4 changes //depot/dev/main/jam/...@2000/7/1,2000/8/1 The resulting list of changes looks like this: Change 673 on 2000/07/31 by bruno@bruno_ws ’Final build for QA’ Change 633 on 2000/07/1 by bruno@bruno_ws ’First build w/bug fix’ Change 632 on 2000/07/1 by bruno@bruno_ws ’Started work’46 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 47. Chapter 3: Issuing P4 CommandsReporting commands The following table lists some useful reporting commands. To display Use this command A list of p4 commands with a brief description p4 help commands Detailed help about a specific command p4 help command Command line flags common to all Perforce commands p4 help usage Details about Perforce view syntax p4 help views All the arguments that can be specified for the p4 help p4 help command The Perforce settings configured for your client machine p4 info The file revisions in the client workspace p4 have Preview the results of a p4 sync (to see which files would p4 sync -n be transferred) Preview the results of a p4 delete (to see which files p4 delete -n files would be marked for deletion)Using Perforce forms Some Perforce commands, for example p4 client and p4 submit, use a text editor to display a form into which you enter the information that is required to complete the command (for example, a description of the changes you are submitting). After you change the form, save it, and exit the editor, Perforce parses the form and uses it to complete the command. (To configure the text editor that is used to display and edit Perforce forms, set P4EDITOR.) When you enter information into a Perforce form, observe the following rules: • Field names (for example, View:) must be flush left (not indented) and must end with a colon. • Values (your entries) must be on the same line as the field name, or indented with tabs on the lines beneath the field name. Some field names, such as the Client: field in the p4 client form, require a single value; other fields, such as Description:, take a block of text; and others, like View:, take a list of lines. Certain values, like Client: in the client workspace form, cannot be changed. Other fields, like Description: in p4 submit, must be changed. If you don’t change a field that needs to be changed, or vice versa, Perforce displays an error. For details about which fields can be modified, see the Perforce Command Reference or use p4 help command.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 47
  • 48. Chapter 3: Issuing P4 Commands48 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 49. Chapter 4 Managing Files and Changelists This chapter tells you how to manage files and work in a team development environment, where multiple users who are working on the same files might need to reconcile their changes.Managing files To change files in the depot (file repository), you open the files in changelists and submit the changelists with a description of your changes. Perforce assigns numbers to changelists and maintains the revision history of your files. This approach enables you to group related changes and find out who changed a file and why and when it was changed. Here are the basic steps for working with files. Task Description Syncing Issue the p4 sync command, specifying the files and directories you (retrieving want to retrieve from the depot. You can only sync files that are mapped files from the in your client view. depot) Adding files 1. Create the file in the workspace. to the depot 2. Open the file for add in a changelist (p4 add). 3. Submit the changelist (p4 submit). Editing files 1. If necessary, sync the desired file revision to your workspace (p4 and checking sync). in changes 2. Open the file for edit in a changelist (p4 edit). 3. Make your changes. 4. Submit the changelist (p4 submit). To discard changes, issue the p4 revert command. Deleting files 1. Open the file for delete in a changelist (p4 delete). The file is from the deleted from your workspace. depot 2. Submit the changelist (p4 submit). The file is deleted from the depot.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 49
  • 50. Chapter 4: Managing Files and Changelists Task Description Discarding Revert the files or the changelist in which the files are open. Reverting changes has the following effects on open files: Add: no effect—the file remains in your workspace. Edit: the revision you opened is resynced from the depot, overwriting any changes you made to the file in your workspace. Delete: the file is resynced to your workspace. Files are added to, deleted from, or updated in the depot only when you successfully submit the pending changelist in which the files are open. A changelist can contain a mixture of files open for add, edit and delete. For details about the syntax that you use to specify files on the command line, refer to “Specifying filenames on the command line” on page 40. The following sections provide more details about working with files.Syncing (retrieving) files To retrieve files from the depot into your client workspace, issue the p4 sync command. You cannot sync files that are not in your client view. For details about specifying client views, see “Refining client views” on page 24. Example: Copying files from the depot to a client workspace The following command retrieves the most recent revisions of all files in the client view from the depot into the workspace. As files are synced, they are listed in the command output. C:bruno_ws>p4 sync //depot/dev/main/bin/bin.linux24x86/readme.txt#1 - added as c:bruno_wsdevmainbinbin.linux24x86readme.txt //depot/dev/main/bin/bin.ntx86/glut32.dll#1 - added as c:bruno_wsdevmainbinbin.ntx86glut32.dll //depot/dev/main/bin/bin.ntx86/jamgraph.exe#2 - added as c:bruno_wsdevmainbinbin.ntx86jamgraph.exe [...] The p4 sync command adds, updates, or deletes files in the client workspace to bring the workspace contents into agreement with the depot. If a file exists within a particular subdirectory in the depot, but that directory does not exist in the client workspace, the directory is created in the client workspace when you sync the file. If a file has been deleted from the depot, p4 sync deletes it from the client workspace.50 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 51. Chapter 4: Managing Files and Changelists To sync revisions of files prior to the latest revision in the depot, use revision specifiers. For example, to sync the first revision of Jamfile, which has multiple revisions, issue the following command: p4 sync//depot/dev/main/jam/Jamfile#1 For more details, refer to “Specifying file revisions” on page 44. To sync groups of files or entire directories, use wildcards. For example, to sync everything in and below the “jam” folder, issue the following command: p4 sync //depot/dev/main/jam/... For more details, see “Perforce wildcards” on page 41. The Perforce server tracks the revisions that you sync (in a database located on the server machine). For maximum efficiency, Perforce does not resync an already-synced file revision. To resync files you (perhaps inadvertently) deleted manually, specify the -f flag when you issue the p4 sync command.Adding files To add files to the depot, create the files in your workspace, then issue the p4 add command. The p4 add command opens the files for add in the default pending changelist. The files are added when you successfully submit the default pending changelist. You can open multiple files for add using a single p4 add command by using wildcards. You cannot use the Perforce ...wildcard to add files recursively. For platform-specific details about adding files recursively (meaning files in subdirectories), see Tech Note 12 on the Perforce web site: http://www.perforce.com/perforce/technotes/note012.html Example: Adding files to a changelist Bruno has created a couple of text files that he needs to add to the depot. To add all the text files at once, he uses the “*” wildcard when he issues the p4 add command. C:bruno_wsdevmaindocsmanuals>p4 add *.txt //depot/dev/main/docs/manuals/installnotes.txt#1 - opened for add //depot/dev/main/docs/manuals/requirements.txt#1 - opened for add Now the files he wants to add to the depot are open in his default changelist. The files are stored in the depot when the changelist is submitted.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 51
  • 52. Chapter 4: Managing Files and Changelists Example: Submitting a changelist to the depot Bruno is ready to add his files to the depot. He types p4 submit and sees the following form in a standard text editor: Change: new Client: bruno_ws User: bruno Status: new Description: <enter description here> Files: //depot/dev/main/docs/manuals/installnotes.txt # add //depot/dev/main/docs/manuals/requirements.txt # add Bruno changes the contents of the Description: field to describe his file updates. When he’s done, he saves the form and exits the editor, and the new files are added to the depot. You must enter a description in the Description: field. You can delete lines from the Files: field. Any files deleted from this list are moved to the next default changelist, and are listed the next time you submit the default changelist. If you are adding a file to a directory that does not exist in the depot, the depot directory is created when you successfully submit the changelist.Changing files To open a file for edit, issue the p4 edit command. When you open a file for edit, Perforce enables write permission for the file in your workspace and adds the file to a changelist. If the file is in the depot but not in your workspace, you must sync it before you open it for edit. You must open a file for edit before you attempt to edit the file. Example: Opening a file for edit Bruno wants to make changes to command.c, so he syncs it and opens the file for edit. p4 sync //depot/dev/command.c //depot/dev/command.c#8 - added as c:bruno_wsdevcommand.c p4 edit //depot/dev/command.c //depot/dev/command.c#8 - opened for edit He then edits the file with any text editor. When he’s finished, he submits the file to the depot with p4 submit, as described above.52 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 53. Chapter 4: Managing Files and ChangelistsDiscarding changes (reverting) To remove an open file from a changelist and discard any changes you made, issue the p4 revert command. When you revert a file, the Perforce server restores the last version you synced to your workspace. If you revert a file that is open for add, the file is removed from the changelist but is not deleted from your workspace. Example: Reverting a file Bruno decides not to add his text files after all. C:bruno_wsdevmaindocsmanuals>p4 revert *.txt //depot/dev/main/docs/manuals/installnotes.txt#none - was add, abandoned //depot/dev/main/docs/manuals/requirements.txt#none - was add, abandoned To preview the results of a revert operation without actually reverting files, specify the -n flag when you issue the p4 revert command.Deleting files To delete files from the depot, you open them for delete by issuing the p4 delete command, then submit the changelist in which they are open. When you delete a file from the depot, previous revisions remain, and a new head revision is added, marked as “deleted.” You can still sync previous revisions of the file. When you issue the p4 delete command, the files are deleted from your workspace but not from the depot. If you revert files that are open for delete, they are restored to your workspace. When you successfully submit the changelist in which they are open, the files are deleted from the depot. Example: Deleting a file from the depot Bruno deletes vendor.doc from the depot as follows: p4 delete //depot/dev/main/docs/manuals/vendor.doc //depot/dev/main/docs/manuals/vendor.doc#1 - opened for delete The file is deleted from the client workspace immediately, but it is not deleted from the depot until he issues the p4 submit command.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 53
  • 54. Chapter 4: Managing Files and ChangelistsManaging changelists To change files in the depot, you open them in a changelist, make any changes to the files, and then submit the changelist. A changelist contains a list of files, their revision numbers, and the operations to be performed on the files. Unsubmitted changelists are referred to as pending changelists. Submission of changelists is an all-or-nothing operation; that is, either all of the files in the changelist are updated in the depot, or, if an error occurs, none of them are. This approach guarantees that code alterations that affect multiple files occur simultaneously. Perforce assigns numbers to changelists and also maintains a default changelist, which is numbered when you submit it. You can create multiple changelists to organize your work. For example, one changelist might contain files that are changed to implement a new feature, and another changelist might contain a bug fix. When you open a file, it is placed in the default changelist unless you specify an existing changelist number on the command line using the -c flag. For example, to edit a file and submit it in changelist number 4, use p4 edit -c 4 filename. To open a file in the default changelist, omit the -c flag You can also shelve changelists in order to temporarily preserve work in progress for your own use, or for review by others. Shelving enables you to temporarily cache files on the central server without submitting it to the depot. The Perforce server might renumber a changelist when you submit it, depending on other users’ activities; if your changelist is renumbered, its original number is never reassigned to another changelist. The commands that add or remove files from changelists are: • p4 add • p4 delete • p4 edit • p4 integrate • p4 reopen • p4 revert • p4 shelve • p4 unshelve To submit a numbered changelist, specify the -c flag when you issue the p4 submit command. To submit the default changelist, omit the -c flag. For details, refer to the p4 submit command description in the Perforce Command Reference.54 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 55. Chapter 4: Managing Files and Changelists To move files from one changelist to another, issue the p4 reopen -c changenum filenames command, where changenum specifies the number of the target changelist. If you are moving files to the default changelist, use p4 reopen -c default filenames.Creating numbered changelists To create a numbered changelist, issue the p4 change command. This command displays the changelist form. Enter a description and make any desired changes; then save the form and exit the editor. All files open in the default changelist are moved to the new changelist. When you exit the text editor, the changelist is assigned a number. If you delete files from this changelist, the files are moved back to the default changelist. Example: Working with multiple changelists Bruno is fixing two different bugs, and needs to submit each fix in a separate changelist. He syncs the head revisions of the files for the first fix and opens the for edit in the default changelist C:bruno_ws>p4 sync //depot/dev/main/jam/*.c [list of files synced...] C:bruno_ws>p4 edit //depot/dev/main/jam/*.c [list of files opened for edit...] Now he issues the p4 change command and enters a description in the changelist form. After he saves the file and exits the editor, Perforce creates a numbered changelist containing the files. C:bruno_wsdevmaindocsmanuals>p4 change [Enter description and save form] Change 777 created with 33 open file(s). For the second bug fix, he performs the same steps, p4 sync, p4 edit, and p4 change. Now he has two numbered changelists, one for each fix. The numbers assigned to submitted changelists reflect the order in which the changelists were submitted. When a changelist is submitted, the Perforce server might renumber it, as shown in the following example. Example: Automatic renumbering of changelists Bruno has finished fixing the bug that he’s been using changelist 777 for. After he created that changelist, he submitted another changelist, and two other users also submitted changelists. Bruno submits changelist 777 with p4 submit -c 777, and sees the following message: Change 777 renamed change 783 and submitted.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 55
  • 56. Chapter 4: Managing Files and ChangelistsSubmitting changelists To submit a pending changelist, issue the p4 submit command. When you issue the p4 submit command, a form is displayed, listing the files in the changelist. You can remove files from this list. The files you remove remain open in the default pending changelist until you submit them or revert them. To submit specific files that are open in the default changelist, issue the p4 submit filename command. To specify groups of files, use wildcards. For example, to submit all text files open in the default changelist, type p4 submit "*".txt. (Use quotation marks as an escape code around the * wildcard to prevent it from being interpreted by the local command shell). After you save the changelist form and exit the text editor, the changelist is submitted to the Perforce server, and the server updates the files in the depot. After a changelist has been successfully submitted, only a Perforce administrator can change it, and the only fields that can be changed are the description and user name. If an error occurs when you submit the default changelist, Perforce creates a numbered changelist containing the files you attempted to submit. You must then fix the problems and submit the numbered changelist using the -c flag. Perforce enables write permission for files that you open for edit and disables write permission when you successfully submit the changelist containing the files. To prevent conflicts with the Perforce server’s management of your workspace, do not change file write permissions manually.Deleting changelists To delete a pending changelist, you must first remove all files and jobs associated with it and then issue the p4 change -d changenum command. Related operations include the following: • To move files to another changelist, issue the p4 reopen -c changenum command. • To remove files from the changelist and discard any changes, issue the p4 revert -c changenum command. Changelists that have already been submitted can be deleted only by a Perforce administrator. See the Perforce System Administrator’s Guide for more information.56 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 57. Chapter 4: Managing Files and ChangelistsRenaming and moving files To rename or move files, you must first open them for add or edit, and then use the p4 move command: p4 move source_file target_file To move groups of files, use matching wildcards in the source_file and target_file specifiers. To move files, you must have Perforce write permission for the specified files. (For details about Perforce permissions, see the Perforce System Administrator’s Guide.) When you rename or move a file using p4 move, the Perforce server creates an integration record that links it to its deleted predecessor, preserving the file’s history. (Integration is also used to create branches and to propagate changes. For details, see “Integrating changes” on page 77.Shelving work in progress The Perforce shelving feature enables you to temporarily store copies of your files on the Perforce server without checking the changelist into the depot. Shelving is useful for individual developers who are switching between tasks or performing cross-platform testing before checking in their changes. Shelving also enables teams to easily hand off changes and to perform code reviews. Example: Shelving a changelist Earl has made changes to command.c on a UNIX platform, and now wants others to be able to view and test his changes. $ p4 edit //depot/dev/command.c //depot/dev/command.c#9 - opened for edit ... $ p4 shelve Change 123 created with 1 open file(s). Shelving files for change 123. edit //depot/dev/command.c#9 Change 123 files shelved. A pending changelist is created, and the shelved version of command.c is stored on the server. The file command.c remains editable in Earl’s workspace, and Earl can continue to work on the file, or can revert his changes and work on something else.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 57
  • 58. Chapter 4: Managing Files and Changelists Shelved files remain open in the changelist from which they were shelved. You can continue to work on the files in your workspace without affecting the shelved files. Shelved files can be synced to other workspaces, including workspaces owned by other users. For example: Example: Unshelving a changelist for code review Earl has asked for code review and a cross-platform compatibility check on the version of command.c that he shelved in changelist 123. Bruno, who is using a Windows machine, types: C:bruno_wsdev> p4 unshelve -s 123 //depot/dev/command.c //depot/dev/command.c#9 - unshelved, opened for edit and conducts the test in the Windows environment while Earl continues on with other work. When you shelve a file, the version on the shelf is unaffected by commands that you perform in your own workspace, even if you revert the file to work on something else. Example: Handing off files to other users Earl’s version of command.c works on UNIX, but Bruno’s cross-platform check of command.c has revealed a bug. Bruno can take over the work from here, so Earl reverts his workspace and works on something else: $ p4 revert //depot/dev/command.c //depot/dev/command.c#9 - was edit, reverted The shelved version of command.c is still available from Earl’s pending changelist 123, and Bruno opens it in a new changelist, changelist 124. $ p4 edit -s 123 -c 124 //depot/dev/command.c //depot/dev/command.c#9 - unshelved, opened for edit When Bruno is finished with the work, he can either re-shelve the file (in his own changelist 124, not Earl’s changelist 123) for further review, or discard the shelved file and submit the version in his workspace by using p4 submit. Because shelved files are still open, you cannot submit a changelist that refers to shelved files. Before you submit a changelist, you must either discard the shelved files, or move the shelved files into a new pending changelist.58 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 59. Chapter 4: Managing Files and Changelists Example: Discarding shelved files before submitting a change. The Windows cross-platform changes are complete, and changelist 124 is ready to be submitted. Bruno uses p4 shelve -d to discard the shelved files. C:bruno_wsdev> p4 shelve -d -c 124 Shelve 124 deleted. All files in the shelved changelist are deleted. Bruno can now submit the changelist. C:bruno_wsdev> p4 submit -c 124 Change 124 submitted. Bruno could have shelved the file in changelist 124, and let Earl unshelve it back into his original changelist 123 to complete the check-in.Displaying information about changelists To display brief information about changelists, use the p4 changes command. To display full information, use the p4 describe command. The following table describes some useful reporting commands and options. Command Description p4 changes Displays a list of all pending and submitted changelists, one line per changelist, and an abbreviated description. p4 changes -m count Limits the number of changelists reported on to the last specified number of changelists. p4 changes -s status Limits the list to those changelists with a particular status; for example, p4 changes -s submitted lists only already submitted changelists. p4 changes -u user Limits the list to those changelists submitted by a particular user. p4 changes -c workspace Limits the list to those changelists submitted from a particular client workspace. p4 describe changenum Displays full information about a single changelist. If the changelist has already been submitted, the report includes a list of affected files and the diffs of these files. (You can use the -s flag to exclude the file diffs.) For more information, see “Changelist reporting” on page 99.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 59
  • 60. Chapter 4: Managing Files and ChangelistsDiffing files Perforce provides a program that enables you to diff (compare) revisions of text files. By diffing files, you can display: • Changes that you made after opening the file for edit • Differences between any two revisions • Differences between file revisions in different branches To diff a file that is synced to your workspace with a depot revision, issue the p4 diff filename#rev command. If you omit the revision specifier, the file in your workspace is compared with the revision you last synced, to display changes you made after syncing it. To diff two revisions that reside in the depot but not in your workspace, use the p4 diff2 command. To diff a set of files, specify wildcards in the filename argument when you issue the p4 diff2 command. The p4 diff command performs the diff on your client machine, but the p4 diff2 command performs the diff on the server and sends the results to your client machine. The following table lists some common uses for diff commands. To diff Against Use this command The workspace The head p4 diff file file revision or p4 diff file#head The workspace Revision 3 p4 diff file#3 file The head Revision 134 p4 diff2 file file#134 revision File revision at File revision at p4 diff2 file@32 file@177 changelist 32 changelist 177 The workspace A file shelved in p4 diff2 file file@=123 file pending changelist 123 All files in All files in p4 diff2 //depot/rel1/... //depot/rel2/... release 1 release 2 By default, the p4 diff command launches the Perforce client’s internal diff program. To use a different diff program, set the P4DIFF environment variable to specify the path and executable of the desired program. To specify arguments for the external diff program, use the -d flag. For details, refer to the Perforce Command Reference.60 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 61. Chapter 4: Managing Files and ChangelistsWorking offline If you need to work offline (without access to your Perforce server) on files under Perforce control, you must reconcile your work with the Perforce server when you regain access to the server. The following method for working detached assumes that you work on files in your client workspace or update the workspace with your additions, changes, and deletions before you update the depot. For platform-specific details about working detached, see Tech Note 2 on the Perforce web site: http://www.perforce.com/perforce/technotes/note002.html To work offline: 1. Work on files without issuing p4 commands. Instead, use operating system commands to change the permissions on files. 2. After the network connection is reestablished, use p4 diff to find all files in your workspace that have changed. (You need to track new files manually.) 3. Update the depot by opening files for add, edit, or delete as required and submitting the resulting changelists. The following sections provide more details.Finding changed files To detect changed files, issue the p4 diff command. The following flags enable you to locate files that you changed or deleted manually, without opening them for edit or delete in Perforce. Flag Description p4 diff -se Lists workspace files that are not open for edit but have been changed since being synced. To update the depot with these files, open them for edit and submit them. p4 diff -sd Lists files that have been manually deleted from the workspace. To update the depot with these file deletions, open them for delete and submit them.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 61
  • 62. Chapter 4: Managing Files and ChangelistsSubmitting your changes To update the depot with the changes that you made to the client workspace while working detached, use the p4 diff flags described above with the -x flag, as shown in the following examples. The -x flag directs the p4 edit command to accept arguments from the pipe (or a file). To open changed files for edit after working detached, issue the following command: p4 diff -se | p4 -x - edit To delete files from the depot that were removed from the client workspace, issue the following command: p4 diff -sd | p4 -x - delete Open any new files for add; then submit the changelist containing your additions, changes, and deletions.62 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 63. Chapter 5 Resolving Conflicts This chapter tells you how to work in a team development environment, where multiple users who are working on the same files might need to reconcile their changes. In settings where multiple users are working on the same set of files, conflicts can occur. Perforce enables your team to work on the same files simultaneously and resolve any conflicts that arise. For example, conflicts occur if two users change the same file (the primary concern in team settings) or you edit a previous revision of a file rather than the head revision. When you attempt to submit a file that conflicts with the head revision in the depot, Perforce requires you to resolve the conflict. Merging changes from a development branch to a release branch is another typical task that requires you to resolve files. To prevent conflicts, Perforce enables you to lock files when they are edited. However, locking can restrict team development. Your team needs to choose the strategy that maximizes file availability while minimizing conflicts. For details, refer to “Locking files” on page 71. You might prefer to resolve files using graphical tools like P4V, the Perforce Visual Client, and its associated visual merge tool P4Merge.How conflicts occur File conflicts can occur when two users edit and submit two versions of the same file. Conflicts can occur in a number of ways, for example: 1. Bruno opens //depot/dev/main/jam/command.c#8 for edit. 2. Gale subsequently opens the same file for edit in her own client workspace. 3. Bruno and Gale both edit //depot/dev/main/jam/command.c#8. 4. Bruno submits a changelist containing //depot/dev/main/jam/command.c, and the submit succeeds. 5. Gale submits a changelist with her version of //depot/dev/main/jam/command.c. Her submit fails. If Perforce accepts Gale’s version into the depot, her changes will overwrite Bruno’s changes. To prevent Bruno’s changes from being lost, the Perforce server rejects the changelist and schedules the conflicting file to be resolved. If you know of file conflicts in advance and want to schedule a file for resolution, sync it. Perforce detects the conflicts and schedules the file for resolution.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 63
  • 64. Chapter 5: Resolving ConflictsHow to resolve conflicts To resolve a file conflict, you determine the contents of the files you intend to submit by issuing the p4 resolve command and choosing the desired method of resolution for each file. After you resolve conflicts, you submit the changelist containing the files. Note If you open a file for edit, then sync a subsequently submitted revision from the depot, Perforce requires you to resolve to prevent your own changes from being overwritten by the depot file. By default, Perforce uses its diff program to detect conflicts. You can configure a third- party diff program. For details, see “Diffing files” on page 60. To resolve conflicts and submit your changes, perform the following steps: 1. Sync the files (for example p4 sync //depot/dev/main/jam/...). Perforce detects any conflicts and schedules the conflicting files for resolve. 2. Issue the p4 resolve command and resolve any conflicts. See “Options for resolving conflicts” on page 65 for details about resolve options. 3. Test the resulting files (for example, compile code and verify that it runs). 4. Submit the changelist containing the files. Note If any of the three file revisions participating in the merge are binary instead of text, a three-way merge is not possible. Instead, p4 resolve performs a two-way merge: the two conflicting file versions are presented, and you can choose between them or edit the one in your workspace before submitting the changelist.Your, theirs, base and merge files The p4 resolve command uses the following terms during the merge process. File revision Description yours The revision of the file in your client workspace, containing changes you made. theirs The revision in the depot, edited by another user, that yours conflicts with. (Usually the head revision, but you can schedule a resolve with another revision using p4 sync.) base The file revision in the depot that yours and theirs were edited from (the closest common ancestor file).64 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 65. Chapter 5: Resolving Conflicts File revision Description merge The file generated by Perforce from theirs, yours, and base. result The final file resulting from the resolve process.Options for resolving conflicts To specify how a conflict is to be resolved, you issue the p4 resolve command, which displays a dialog for each file scheduled for resolve. The dialog describes the differences between the file you changed and the conflicting revision. For example:p4 resolve //depot/dev/main/jam/command.cc:bruno_wsdevmainjamcommand.c - merging //depot/dev/main/jam/command.c#9Diff chunks: 4 yours + 2 theirs + 1 both + 1 conflictingAccept(a) Edit(e) Diff(d) Merge (m) Skip(s) Help(?) e: The differences between each pair of files are summarized by p4 resolve. Groups of lines (chunks) in the yours, theirs, and base files can differ in various ways. Chunks can be: • Diffs: different between two of the three files: yours, theirs, or base • Conflicts: different in all three files In the preceding example: • Four chunks are identical in theirs and base but are different in yours. • Two chunks are identical in yours and base but are different in theirs. • One chunk was changed identically in yours and theirs. • One chunk is different in yours, theirs, and base. Perforce’s recommended choice is displayed at the end of the command line. Pressing ENTER or choosing Accept performs the recommended choice. You can resolve conflicts in three basic ways: • Accept a file without changing it (see “Accepting yours, theirs, or merge” on page 66) • Edit the merge file with a text editor (see “Editing the merge file” on page 67) • Merge changes selectively using a merge program (see “Merging to resolve conflicts” on page 67) The preceding options are interactive. You can also specify resolve options on the p4 resolve command line, if you know which file you want to accept. For details, see “Resolve command-line flags” on page 70. To reresolve a resolved but unsubmitted file, specify the -f flag when you issue the p4 resolve command. You cannot reresolve a file after you submit it.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 65
  • 66. Chapter 5: Resolving Conflicts The following sections describe the resolve options in more detail.Accepting yours, theirs, or merge To accept a file without changing it, specify one of the following options. Option Description Remarks a Accept • If theirs is identical to base, accept yours. recommended • If yours is identical to base, accept theirs. file • If yours and theirs are different from base, and there are no conflicts between yours and theirs; accept merge. • Otherwise, there are conflicts between yours and theirs, so skip this file. ae Accept edit If you edited the merge file (by selecting e from the p4 resolve dialog), accept the edited version into the client workspace. The version in the client workspace is overwritten. am Accept merge Accept merge into the client workspace as the resolved revision. The version in the client workspace is overwritten. at Accept theirs Accept theirs into the client workspace as the resolved revision. The version in the client workspace is overwritten. ay Accept yours Accept yours into the client workspace as the resolved revision, ignoring changes that might have been made in theirs. Accepting yours, theirs, edit, or merge overwrites changes, and the generated merge file might not be precisely what you want to submit to the depot. The most precise way to ensure that you submit only the desired changes is to use a merge program or edit the merge file.66 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 67. Chapter 5: Resolving ConflictsEditing the merge file To resolve files by editing the merge file, choose the e option. Perforce launches your default text editor, displaying the merge file. In the merge file, diffs and conflicts appear in the following format: >>>> ORIGINAL file#n (text from the original version) ==== THEIR file#m (text from their file) ==== YOURS file (text from your file) <<<< To locate conflicts and differences, look for the difference marker “>>>>” and edit that portion of the text. Examine the changes made to theirs to make sure that they are compatible with your changes. Make sure you remove all conflict markers before saving. After you make the desired changes, save the file. At the p4 resolve prompt, choose ay. By default, only the conflicts between the yours and theirs files are marked. To generate difference markers for all differences, specify the -v flag when you issue the p4 resolve command.Merging to resolve conflicts A merge program displays the differences between yours, theirs, and the base file, and enables you to select and edit changes to produce the desired result file. To configure a merge program, set P4MERGE to the desired program. To use the merge program during a resolve, choose the m option. For details about using a specific merge program, consult its online help. After you merge, save your results and exit the merge program. At the p4 resolve prompt, choose am.Full list of resolve options The p4 resolve command offers the following options. Option Action Remarks ? Help Display help for p4 resolve.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 67
  • 68. Chapter 5: Resolving Conflicts Option Action Remarks a Accept Accept the autoselected file: automatically • If theirs is identical to base, accept yours. • If yours is identical to base, accept theirs. • If yours and theirs are different from base, and there are no conflicts between yours and theirs; accept merge. • Otherwise, there are conflicts between yours and theirs, so skip this file. ae Accept edit If you edited the merge file (by selecting e from the p4 resolve dialog), accept the edited version into the client workspace. The version in the client workspace is overwritten. am Accept merge Accept merge into the client workspace as the resolved revision. The version in the client workspace is overwritten. at Accept theirs Accept theirs into the client workspace as the resolved revision. The version in the client workspace is overwritten. ay Accept yours Accept yours into the client workspace as the resolved revision, ignoring changes that might have been made in theirs. d Diff Show diffs between merge and yours. dm Diff merge Show diffs between merge and base. dt Diff theirs Show diffs between theirs and base. dy Diff yours Show diffs between yours and base. e Edit merged Edit the preliminary merge file generated by Perforce. et Edit theirs Edit the revision in the depot that the client revision conflicts with (usually the head revision). This edit is read-only. ey Edit yours Edit the revision of the file currently in the workspace. m Merge Invoke the command P4MERGE base theirs yours merge. To use this option, you must set P4MERGE to the name of a third-party program that merges the first three files and writes the fourth as a result. s Skip Skip this file and leave it scheduled for resolve.68 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 69. Chapter 5: Resolving Conflicts Note The merge file is generated by the Perforce server, but the differences displayed by dy, dt, dm, and d are generated by the client machine’s diff program. To configure another diff program to be launched when you choose a d option during a resolve, set P4DIFF. For more details, see “Diffing files” on page 60. Example: Resolving file conflicts To resolve conflicts between his work on a Jam readme file and Earl’s work on the same file, Bruno types p4 resolve //depot/dev/main/jam/README and sees the following: Diff chunks: 0 yours + 0 theirs + 0 both + 1 conflicting Accept(a) Edit(e) Diff(d) Merge (m) Skip(s) Help(?) e: e Bruno sees that that he and Earl have made a conflicting change to the file. He types e to edit the merge file and searches for the difference marker “>>>>”. The following text is displayed: Jam/MR (formerly "jam - make(1) redux") /+ >>>> ORIGINAL README#26 + Copyright 1993, 1997 Christopher Seiwald. ==== THEIRS README#27 + Copyright 1993, 1997, 2004 Christopher Seiwald. ==== YOURS README + Copyright 1993, 1997, 2005 Christopher Seiwald. <<<< +/ Bruno and Earl have updated the copyright date differently. Bruno edits the merge file so that the header is correct, exits from the editor and types am. The edited merge file is written to the client workspace, and he proceeds to resolve the next file. When a version of the file is accepted during a resolve, the file in the workspace is overwritten, and the new client file must still be submitted to the depot. New conflicts can occur if new versions of a file are submitted after you resolve but before you submit the resolved files. This problem can be prevented by locking the file before you perform the resolve. For details, see “Locking files” on page 71.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 69
  • 70. Chapter 5: Resolving ConflictsResolve command-line flags The following p4 resolve flags enable you to resolve directly instead of interactively. When you specify one of these flags in the p4 resolve command, files are resolved as described in the following table. Flag Description -a Accept the autoselected file. -ay Accept yours. -at Accept theirs. Use this option with caution, because the file revision in your client workspace is overwritten with the head revision from the depot, and you cannot recover your changes. -am Accept the recommended file revision according to the following logic: • If theirs is identical to base, accept yours. • If yours is identical to base, accept theirs. • If yours and theirs are different from base, and there are no con- flicts between yours and theirs, accept merge. • Otherwise, there are conflicts between yours and theirs, so skip this file, leaving it unresolved. -af Accept the recommended file revision, even if conflicts remain. If this option is used, edit the resulting file in the workspace to remove any difference markers. -as Accept the recommended file revision according to the following logic: • If theirs is identical to base, accept yours. • If yours is identical to base, accept theirs. • Otherwise skip this file. Example: Automatically accepting particular revisions of conflicting files Bruno has been editing the documentation files in /doc and knows that some of them require resolving. He types p4 sync doc/*.guide, and all of these files that conflict with files in the depot are scheduled for resolve. He then types p4 resolve -am and the merge files for all scheduled resolves are generated, and those merge files that contain no line set conflicts are written to his client workspace. He’ll still need to manually resolve any conflicting files, but the amount of work he needs to do is substantially reduced.70 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 71. Chapter 5: Resolving ConflictsResolve reporting commands The following reporting commands are helpful when you are resolving file conflicts. Command Meaning p4 diff [filenames] Diffs the file revision in the workspace with the last revision you synced, to display changes you have made. p4 diff2 file1 file2 Diffs two depot files. The specified files can be any two file revisions and different files. When you diff depot files, the Perforce server uses its own diff program, not the diff program configured by setting P4DIFF. p4 sync -n [filenames] Previews the specified sync, listing which files have conflicts and need to be resolved. p4 resolved Reports files that have been resolved but not yet submitted.Locking files After you open a file, you can lock it to prevent other users from submitting it before you do. The benefit of locking a file is that conflicts are prevented, but when you lock a file, you might prevent other team members from proceeding with their work on that file.Preventing multiple resolves by locking files Without file locking, there is no guarantee that the resolve process ever ends. The following scenario demonstrates the problem: 1. Bruno opens file for edit. 2. Gale opens the same file in her client for edit. 3. Bruno and Gale both edit their client workspace versions of the file. 4. Bruno submits a changelist containing that file, and his submit succeeds. 5. Gale submits a changelist with her version of the file; her submit fails because of file conflicts with the new depot’s file. 6. Gale starts a resolve. 7. Bruno edits and submits a new version of the same file. 8. Gale finishes the resolve and attempts to submit; the submit fails and must now be merged with Bruno’s latest file. ...and so on.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 71
  • 72. Chapter 5: Resolving Conflicts To prevent such problems, you can lock files, as follows. 1. Before scheduling a resolve, lock the file. 2. Sync the file (to schedule a resolve). 3. Resolve the file. 4. Submit the file. 5. Perforce automatically unlocks the file after successful changelist submission. To list open locked files on UNIX, issue the following command: p4 opened | grep "*locked*"Preventing multiple checkouts To ensure that only one user at a time can work on the file, use the +l (exclusive-open) file type modifier. For example: p4 reopen -t binary+l file Although exclusive locking prevents concurrent development, for some file types (binary files), merging and resolving are not meaningful, so you can prevent conflicts by preventing multiple users from working on the file simultaneously. Your Perforce administrator can use the p4 typemap command to ensure that all files of a specified type (for instance, //depot/.../*.gif for all .gif files) can only be opened by one user at a time. See the Perforce Command Reference for details. The difference between p4 lock and +l is that p4 lock allows anyone to open a file for edit, but only the person who locked the file can submit it. By contrast, a file of type +l prevents more than one user from opening the file.72 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 73. Chapter 6 Codelines and Branching This chapter describes the tasks required to maintain groups of files in your depot. The following specific issues are addressed: • Depot directory structure and how to best organize your repository • Moving files and file changes among codeline and project directories • Identifying specific sets of files using either labels or changelists This chapter focuses on maintaining a software code base, but many of the tasks are relevant to managing other groups of files, such as a web site. For advice about best practices, see the white papers on the Perforce web site.Basic terminology To enable you to understand the following sections, here are definitions of some relevant terms as they are used in Perforce. Term Definition branch (noun) A set of related files created by copying files, as opposed to adding files. A group of related files is often referred to as a codeline. (verb) To create a branch. integrate To create new files from existing files, preserving their ancestry (branching), or to propagate changes from one set of files to another (merging). merge The process of combining the contents of two conflicting file revisions into a single file, typically using a merge tool like P4Merge. resolve The process you use to reconcile the differences between two revisions of a file. You can choose to resolve conflicts by selecting a file to be submitted or by merging the contents of conflicting files.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 73
  • 74. Chapter 6: Codelines and BranchingOrganizing the depot You can think of a depot as a top-level directory. Consider the following factors as you decide how to organize your depot: • Type of content: create depots or mainline directories according to the nature of your projects and their relationships (for example, applications with multiple components developed on separate schedules). • Release requirements: within a project, create branches for each release and integrate changes between branches to control the introduction of features and bug fixes. • Build management: use labels and changelists to control the file revisions that are built; use client specifications and views to ensure clean build areas. A basic and logical way to organize the depot is to create one subdirectory (codeline) for each project. For example, if your company is working on Jam, you might devote one codeline to the release presently in development, another to already-released software, and perhaps one to your corporate web site. Your developers can modify their client views to map the files in their project, excluding other projects that are not of interest. For example, if Earl maintains the web site, his client view might look like this: //depot/www/dev/... //earl-web-catalpa/www/development/... //depot/www/review/... //earl-web-catalpa/www/review/... //depot/www/live/... //earl-web-catalpa/www/live/... And Gale, who’s working on Jam, sets up her client view as: //depot/dev/main/jam/... //gale-jam-oak/jam/... You can organize according to projects or according to the purpose of a codeline. For example, to organize the depot according to projects, you can use a structure like the following: //depot/project1/main/ //depot/project1/release 1.0/ //depot/project1/release 1.1/ Or, to organize the depot according to the purpose of each codeline, you can use a structure like the following: //depot/main/project1/ //depot/main/project2/ //depot/release1.0/project1/ //depot/release1.0/project2/ //depot/release2.0/project1/ //depot/release2.0/project2/74 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 75. Chapter 6: Codelines and Branching Another approach is to create one depot for each project. Choose a structure that makes branching and integrating as simple as possible, so that the history of your activities makes sense to you.Branching Branching is a method of maintaining the relationship between sets of related files. Branches can evolve separately from their ancestors and descendants, and you can propagate (integrate) changes from one branch to another as desired. Perforce’s Inter-File Branching™ mechanism preserves the relationship between files and their ancestors while consuming minimal server resources. To create a branch, use the p4 integrate command. The p4 integrate command is also used to propagate changes between existing sets of files. For details about integrating changes, refer to “Integrating changes” on page 77.When to branch Create a branch when two sets of files have different submission policies or need to evolve separately. For example: • Problem: the development group wants to submit code to the depot whenever their code changes, regardless of whether it compiles, but the release engineers don’t want code to be submitted until it’s been debugged, verified, and approved. Solution: create a release branch by branching the development codeline. When the development codeline is ready, it is integrated into the release codeline. Patches and bug fixes are made in the release code and integrated back into the development code. • Problem: a company is writing a driver for a new multiplatform printer. The UNIX device driver is done and they are beginning work on a Macintosh driver, using the UNIX code as their starting point. Solution: create a Macintosh branch from the existing UNIX code. These two codelines can evolve separately. If bugs are found in one codeline, fixes can be integrated to the other. One basic strategy is to develop code in //depot/main/ and create branches for releases (for example, //depot/rel1.1/). Make release-specific bug fixes in the release branches and, if required, integrate them back into the //depot/main/ codeline.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 75
  • 76. Chapter 6: Codelines and BranchingCreating branches To create a branch, use the p4 integrate command. When you create a branch, the Perforce server records the relationships between the branched files and their ancestors. You can create branches using file specifications or branch specifications. For simple branches, use file specifications. For branches that are based on complex sets of files or to ensure that you have a record of the way you defined the branch, use branch specifications. Branch specifications can also be used in subsequent integrations. Branch specifications also can serve as a record of codeline policy. Using branch specifications To map a set of files from source to target, you can create a branch mapping and use it as an argument when you issue the p4 integrate command. To create a branch mapping, issue the p4 branch branchname command and specify the desired mapping in the View: field, with source files on the left and target files on the right. Make sure that the target files and directories are in your client view. Creating or altering a branch mapping has no effect on any files in the depot or client workspace. The branch mapping merely maps source files to target files. To use the branch mapping to create a branch, issue the p4 integrate -b branchname command; then use p4 submit to submit the target files to the depot. Branch specifications can contain multiple mappings and exclusionary mappings, just as client views can. For example, the following branch mapping branches the Jam 1.0 source code, excluding test scripts, from the main codeline. Branch: jamgraph-1.0-dev2release View: //depot/dev/main/jamgraph/... //depot/release/jamgraph/1.0/... -//depot/dev/main/jamgraph/test/... //depot/release/jamgraph/1.0/test/... //depot/dev/main/bin/glut32.dll //depot/release/jamgraph/1.0/bin/glut32.dll To create a branch using the preceding branch mapping, issue the following command: p4 integrate -b jamgraph-1.0-dev2release To delete a branch mapping, issue the p4 branch -d branchname command. Deleting a branch mapping has no effect on existing files or branches. As with workspace views, if a filename or path in a branch view contains spaces, make sure to quote the path: //depot/dev/main/jamgraph/... "//depot/release/Jamgraph 1.0/..."76 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 77. Chapter 6: Codelines and Branching Using file specifications To branch using file specifications, issue the p4 integrate command, specifying the source files and target files. The target files must be in the client view. If the source files are not in your client view, specify them using depot syntax. To create a branch using file specifications, perform the following steps: 1. Determine where you want the branch to reside in the depot and the client workspace. Add the corresponding mapping specification to your client view. 2. Issue the p4 integrate source_files target_files command. 3. Submit the changelist containing the branched files. The branch containing the target files is created in the depot. Example: Creating a branch using a file specification Version 2.2 of Jam has just been released, and work on version 3.0 is starting. Version 2.2 must be branched to //depot/release/jam/2.2/... for maintenance. Bruno uses p4 client to add the following mapping to his client view: //depot/release/jam/2.2/... //bruno_ws/release/jam/2.2/... He issues the following command to create the branch: p4 integrate //depot/dev/main/jam/... //bruno_ws/release/jam/2.2/... Finally, he issues the p4 submit command, which adds the newly branched files to the depot.Integrating changes After you create branches, you might need to propagate changes between them. For example, if you fix a bug in a release branch, you probably want to incorporate the fix back into your main codeline. To propagate selected changes between branched files, you use the p4 integrate command, as follows: 1. Issue the p4 integrate command to schedule the files for resolve. 2. Issue the p4 resolve command to propagate changes from the source files to the target files. To propagate individual changes, edit the merge file or use a merge program. The changes are made to the target files in the client workspace. 3. Submit the changelist containing the resolved files.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 77
  • 78. Chapter 6: Codelines and Branching Example: Propagating changes between branched files Bruno has fixed a bug in the release 2.2 branch of the Jam project and needs to integrate it back to the main codeline. From his home directory, Bruno types p4 integrate //depot/release/jam/2.2/src/Jambase //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase and sees the following message: //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase#134 - integrate from //depot/release/jam/2.2/src/Jambase#9 The file has been scheduled for resolve. He types p4 resolve, and the standard merge dialog appears on his screen. //depot/dev/main/jam/Jambase - merging //depot/release/jam/2.2/src/Jambase#9 Diff chunks: 0 yours + 1 theirs + 0 both + 0 conflicting Accept(a) Edit(e) Diff(d) Merge (m) Skip(s) Help(?) [at]: He resolves the conflict. When he’s done, the result file overwrites the file in his workspace. The changelist containing the file must be submitted to the depot. To run the p4 integrate command, you must have Perforce write permission on the target files, and read access on the source files. (See the Perforce System Administrator’s Guide for information on Perforce permissions.) By default, a file that has been newly created in a client workspace by p4 integrate cannot be edited before being submitted. To edit a newly integrated file before submission, resolve it, then issue the p4 edit command. If the range of revisions being integrated includes deleted revisions (for example, a file was deleted from the depot, then re-added), you can specify how deleted revisions are integrated using the -d or -D flags. For details, refer to the Perforce Command Reference.Integrating using branch specifications To integrate changes from one set of files and directories to another, you can use a branch mapping when you issue the p4 integrate command. The basic syntax of the integrate command when using a branch mapping is: p4 integrate -b branchname [tofiles] Target files must be mapped in both the branch view and the client view. The source files need not be in the client view. If you omit the tofiles argument, all the files in the branch are affected. To reverse the direction of integration using a branch mapping, specify the -r flag. This flag enables you to integrate in either direction between two branches without requiring you to create a branch mapping for each direction.78 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 79. Chapter 6: Codelines and Branching Example: Integrating changes to a single file in a branch A feature has been added in the main Jam codeline and Bruno wants to propagate the feature to release 1.0 He types: p4 integrate -b jamgraph-1.0-dev2release *.c and sees: //depot/release/jam/1.0/src/command.c#10 - integrate from //depot/dev/main/jam/command.c#97 The file has been scheduled for resolve. He types p4 resolve, and the standard merge dialog appears on his screen. //depot/release/jam/1.0/src/command.c - merging //depot/dev/main/jam/command.c#97 Diff chunks: 0 yours + 1 theirs + 0 both + 0 conflicting Accept(a) Edit(e) Diff(d) Merge (m) Skip(s) Help(?) [at]: He resolves the conflict. When he’s done, the result file overwrites the file in his branched client workspace; the file must then be submitted to the depot.Integrating between unrelated files If the target file was not branched from the source, there is no base (common ancestor) revision. To integrate between unrelated files, specify the -i flag. Perforce uses the first (most recently added) revision of the source file as its base revision. This operation is referred to as a baseless merge.Integrating specific file revisions By default, the integrate command integrates all the revisions following the last- integrated source revision into the target. To avoid having to manually delete unwanted revisions from the merge file while editing, you can specify a range of revisions to be integrated. The base file is the common ancestor. Example: Integrating specific file revisions Bruno has made two bug fixes to //depot/dev/main/jam/scan.c in the main codeline, and Earl wants to integrate the change into the release 1.0 branch. Although scan.c has gone through 20 revisions since the fixes were submitted, Earl knows that the bug fixes he wants were made to file revisions submitted in changelist 30. He types p4 integrate -b jamgraph-1.0-dev2release //depot/release/jam/ 1.0/scan.c@30,@30 The target file (//depot/release/jam/1.0/scan.c) is given as an argument, but the file revisions are applied to the source. When Earl runs p4 resolve, only the revision of Bruno’s file that was submitted in changelist 30 is scheduled for resolve. That is, Earl sees only thePerforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 79
  • 80. Chapter 6: Codelines and Branching changes that Bruno made to scan.c in changelist 30. The file revision that was present in the depot at changelist 29 is used as the base file.Reintegrating and reresolving files After a revision of a source file has been integrated into a target, that revision is usually skipped in subsequent integrations with the same target. To force the integration of already-integrated files, specify the -f flag when you issue the p4 integrate command. A target that has been resolved but not submitted can be resolved again by specifying the -f flag to p4 resolve. When you reresolve a file, yours is the new client file, the result of the original resolve.Integration reporting The following reporting commands provide useful information about the status of files being branched and integrated. Note the use of the preview flag (-n) for reporting purposes. To display this information Use this command Preview of the results of an integration p4 integrate -n [filepatterns] Files that are scheduled for resolve p4 resolve -n [filepatterns] Files that have been resolved but not yet p4 resolved submitted. List of branch specifications p4 branches The integration history of the specified files. p4 integrated filepatterns The revision histories of the specified files, p4 filelog -i [filepatterns] including the integration histories of files from which the specified files were branched.Using labels A Perforce label is a set of tagged file revisions. For example, you might want to tag the file revisions that compose a particular release with the label release2.0.1. In general, you can use labels to: • Keep track of all the file revisions contained in a particular release of software. • Distribute a particular set of file revisions to other users (for example, a standard configuration). • Populate a clean build workspace. • Specify a set of file revisions to be branched for development purposes.80 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 81. Chapter 6: Codelines and Branching • Sync the revisions as a group to a client workspace. Labels and changelist numbers both refer to particular sets of file revisions but differ as follows: • A label can refer to any set of file revisions. A changelist number refers to the contents of all the files in the depot at the time the changelist was submitted. If you need to refer to a group of file revisions from different points in time, use a label. If there is a point in time at which the files are consistent for your purposes, use a changelist number. • You can change the contents of a label. You cannot change the contents of a submitted changelist. • You can assign your own names to labels. Changelist numbers are assigned by the Perforce server. Changelists are suitable for many applications that traditionally use labels. Unlike labels, changelists represent the state of a set of files at a specific time. Before you assume that a label is required, consider whether simply referring to a changelist number might fulfill your requirements.Tagging files with a label To tag a set of file revisions (in addition to any revisions that have already been tagged), use p4 tag, specifying a label name and the desired file revisions. For example, to tag the head revisions of files that reside under //depot/release/jam/2.1/src/ with the label jam-2.1.0, issue the following command: p4 tag -l jam-2.1.0 //depot/release/jam/2.1/src/... To tag revisions other than the head revision, specify a changelist number in the file pattern: p4 tag -l jam-2.1.0 //depot/release/jam/2.1/src/...@1234 Only one revision of a given file can be tagged with a given label, but the same file revision can be tagged by multiple labels.Untagging files You can untag revisions with: p4 tag -d -l labelname filepattern This command removes the association between the specified label and the file revisions tagged by it. For example, if you have tagged all revisions under //depot/release/jam/2.1/src/... with jam-2.1.0, you can untag only the header files with: p4 tag -d -l jam-2.1.0 //depot/release/jam/2.1/src/*.hPerforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 81
  • 82. Chapter 6: Codelines and BranchingPreviewing tagging results You can preview the results of p4 tag with p4 tag -n. This command lists the revisions that would be tagged, untagged, or retagged by the tag command without actually performing the operation.Listing files tagged by a label To list the revisions tagged with labelname, use p4 files, specifying the label name as follows: p4 files @labelname All revisions tagged with labelname are listed, with their file type, change action, and changelist number. (This command is equivalent to p4 files //...@labelname).Listing labels that have been applied to files To list all labels that have been applied to files, use the command: p4 labels filepatternUsing a label to specify file revisions You can use a label name anywhere you can refer to files by revision (#1, #head), changelist number (@7381), or date (@2003/07/01). If you omit file arguments when you issue the p4 sync @labelname command, all files in the client workspace view that are tagged by the label are synced to the revision specified in the label. All files in the workspace that do not have revisions tagged by the label are deleted from the workspace. Open files or files not under Perforce control are unaffected. This command is equivalent to p4 sync //...@labelname. If you specify file arguments when you issue the p4 sync command (p4 sync files@labelname), files that are in your workspace and tagged by the label are synced to the tagged revision. Example: Retrieving files tagged by a label into a client workspace To retrieve the files tagged by Earl’s jam-2.1.0 label into his client workspace, Bruno issues the following command: p4 sync @jam-2.1.082 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 83. Chapter 6: Codelines and Branching and sees: //depot/dev/main/jam/Build.com#5 - updating c:bruno_wsdevmainjamBuild.com //depot/dev/main/jam/command.c#5 - updating c:bruno_wsdevmainjamcommand.c //depot/dev/main/jam/command.h#3 - added as c:bruno_wsdevmainjamcommand.h //depot/dev/main/jam/compile.c#12 - updating c:bruno_wsdevmainjamcompile.c //depot/dev/main/jam/compile.h#2 - updating c:bruno_wsdevmainjamcompile.h <etc>Deleting labels To delete a label, use the following command: p4 label -d labelname Deleting a label has no effect on the tagged file revisions (though, of course, the revisions are no longer tagged).Creating a label for future use To create a label without tagging any file revisions, issue the p4 label labelname command. This command displays a form in which you describe and specify the label. After you have created a label, you can use p4 tag or p4 labelsync to apply the label to file revisions. Label names cannot be the same as client workspace, branch, or depot names. For example, to create jam-2.1.0, issue the following command: p4 label jam-2.1.0 The following form is displayed: Label: jam-2.1.0 Update: 2005/03/07 13:07:39 Access: 2005/03/07 13:13:35 Owner: earl Description: Created by earl. Options: unlocked View: //depot/... Enter a description for the label and save the form. (You do not need to change the View: field.) After you create the label, you are able to use the p4 tag and p4 labelsync commands to apply the label to file revisions.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 83
  • 84. Chapter 6: Codelines and BranchingRestricting files that can be tagged The View: field in the p4 label form limits the files that can be tagged with a label. The default label view includes the entire depot (//depot/...). To prevent yourself from inadvertently tagging every file in your depot, set the label’s View: field to the files and directories to be taggable, using depot syntax. Example: Using a label view to control which files can be tagged Earl wants to tag the revisions of source code in the release 2.1 branch, which he knows can be successfully compiled. He types p4 label jam-2.1.0 and uses the label’s View: field to restrict the scope of the label as follows: Label: jam-2.1.0 Update: 2005/03/07 13:07:39 Access: 2005/03/07 13:13:35 Owner: earl Description: Created by earl. Options: unlocked View: //depot/release/jam/2.1/src/... This label can tag only files in the release 2.1 source code directory.Using static labels to archive workspace configurations You can use static labels to archive the state of your client workspace (meaning the currently synced file revisions) by issuing the p4 labelsync command. The label you specify must have the same view as your client workspace. For example, to record the configuration of your current client workspace using the existing ws_config label, use the following command: p4 labelsync -l ws_config All file revisions that are synced to your current workspace and visible through both the client view and the label view (if any) are tagged with the ws_config label. Files that were previously tagged with ws_config, then subsequently removed from your workspace (p4 sync #none), are untagged. To sync the files tagged by the ws_config label (thereby recreating the workspace configuration), issue the following command: p4 sync @ws_config84 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 85. Chapter 6: Codelines and BranchingUsing automatic labels as aliases for changelists or other revisions You can use automatic labels to specify files at certain revisions without having to issue the p4 labelsync command. To create an automatic label, fill in the Revision: field of the p4 label form with a revision specifier. When you sync a workspace to an automatic label, the contents of the Revision: field are applied to every file in the View: field. Example: Using an automatic label as an alias for a changelist number Earl is running a nightly build process, and has successfully built a product as of changelist 1234. Rather than having to remember the specific changelist for every night’s build, he types p4 label nightly20061201 and uses the label’s Revision: field to automatically tag all files as of changelist 1234 with the nightly20061201 label: Label: nightly20061201 Owner: earl Description: Nightly build process. Options: unlocked View: //depot/... Revision: @1234 The advantage to this approach is that it is highly amenable to scripting, takes up very little space in the label table, and provides a way to easily refer to a nightly build without remembering which changelist number was associated with the night’s build process. Example: Referring specifically to the set of files submitted in a single changelist. A bug was fixed by means of changelist 1238, and requires a patch label that refers to only those files associated with the fix. Earl types p4 label patch20061201 and uses the label’s Revision: field to automatically tag only those files submitted in changelist 1238 with the patch20061201 label: Label: patch20061201 Owner: earl Description: Patch to 2006/12/01 nightly build. Options: unlocked View: //depot/... Revision: @1238,1238 This automatic label refers only to those files submitted in changelist 1238.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 85
  • 86. Chapter 6: Codelines and Branching Example: Referring to the first revision of every file over multiple changelists. You can use revision specifiers other than changelist specifiers; in this example, Earl is referring to the first revision (#1) of every file in a branch. Depending on how the branch was populated, these files could have been created through multiple changelists over a long period of time: Label: first2.2 Owner: earl Description: The first revision in the 2.2 branch Options: unlocked View: //depot/release/jam/2.2/src/... Revision: "#1" Because Perforce forms use the # character as a comment indicator, Earl has placed quotation marks around the # to ensure that it is parsed as a revision specifier.Preventing inadvertent tagging and untagging of files To tag the files that are in your client workspace and label view (if set) and untag all other files, issue the p4 labelsync command with no arguments. To prevent the inadvertent tagging and untagging of files, issue the p4 label labelname command and lock the label by setting the Options: field of the label form to locked. To prevent other users from unlocking the label, set the Owner: field. For details about Perforce privileges, refer to the Perforce System Administrator’s Guide.86 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 87. Chapter 7 Defect Tracking A job is a numbered (or named) work request managed by the Perforce server. Perforce jobs enable you to track the status of bugs and enhancement requests and associate them with changelists that implement fixes and enhancements. You can search for jobs based on the contents of fields, the date the job was entered or last modified, and many other criteria. Your Perforce administrator can customize the job specification for your site’s requirements. For details on modifying the job specification, see the Perforce System Administrator’s Guide. If you want to integrate Perforce with your in-house defect tracking system, or develop an integration with a third-party defect tracking system, see the P4DTI product information page on the Perforce web site.Managing jobs To create a job using Perforce’s default job-naming scheme, issue the p4 job command. To assign a name to a new job (or edit an existing job), issue the p4 job jobname command. Example: Creating a job Gale discovers about a problem with Jam, so she creates a job by issuing the p4 job command and describes it as follows: Job: job000006 Status: open User: gale Date: 2005/11/14 17:12:21 Description: MAXLINE on NT cant account for NT 4.0 expanded cmd buffer size. The following table describes the fields in the default job specification. Field Name Description Default Job The name of the job (white space is not allowed). Last job number + 1 By default, Perforce assigns job names using a numbering scheme (jobnnnnnn).Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 87
  • 88. Chapter 7: Defect Tracking Field Name Description Default Status • open: job has not yet been fixed. open • closed: job has been completed. • suspended: job is not currently being worked on. User The user to whom the job is assigned, usually the Perforce user name person assigned to fix this particular problem. of the job creator. Date The date the job was last modified. Updated by the Perforce server when you save the job. Description Describes the work being requested, for example None. You must a bug description or request for enhancement. enter a description. To edit existing jobs, specify the job name when you issue the p4 job command: p4 job jobname. Enter your changes in the job form, save the form and exit. To delete a job, issue the p4 job -d jobname command.Searching jobs To search Perforce jobs, issue the p4 jobs -e jobview command, where jobview specifies search expressions described in the following sections. For more details, issue the p4 help jobview command.Searching job text You can use the expression word1 word2 ... wordN to find jobs that contain all of word1 through wordN in any field (excluding date fields). Use single quotes on UNIX and double quotes on Windows. When searching jobs, note the following restrictions: • When you specify multiple words separated by whitespace, Perforce searches for jobs that contain all the words specified. To find jobs that contain any of the terms, separate the terms with the pipe ( |) character. • Field names and text comparisons in expressions are not case-sensitive. • Only alphanumeric text and punctuation can appear in an expression. To match the following characters, which are used by Perforce as logical operators, precede them with a backslash: =^&|()<>. • You cannot search for phrases, only individual words.88 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 89. Chapter 7: Defect Tracking Example: Searching jobs for specific words Bruno wants to find all jobs that contain the words filter, file, and mailbox. He types: p4 jobs -e filter file mailbox Example: Finding jobs that contain any of a set of words in any field Bruno wants to find jobs that contain any of the words filter, file or mailbox. He types: p4 jobs -e filter|file|mailbox You can use the * wildcard to match one or more characters. For example, the expression fieldname=string* matches string, strings, stringbuffer, and so on. To search for words that contain wildcards, precede the wildcard with a backslash in the command. For instance, to search for *string (perhaps in reference to char *string), issue the following command: p4 jobs -e *stringSearching specific fields To search based on the values in a specific field, specify field=value. Example: Finding jobs that contain words in specific fields Bruno wants to find all open jobs related to filtering. He types: p4 jobs -e Status=open User=bruno filter.c This command finds all jobs with a Status: of open, a User: of bruno, and the word filter.c in any nondate field. To find fields that do not contain a specified expression, precede it with ^, which is the NOT operator. The NOT operator ^ can be used only directly after an AND expression (space or &). For example, p4 jobs -e ^user=bruno is not valid. To get around this restriction, use the * wildcard to add a search term before the ^ term; for example: p4 jobs -e job=* ^user=bruno returns all jobs not owned by Bruno. Example: Excluding jobs that contain specified values in a field Bruno wants to find all open jobs he does not own that involve filtering. He types: p4 jobs -e status=open ^user=bruno filter This command displays all open jobs that Bruno does not own that contain the word filter.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 89
  • 90. Chapter 7: Defect TrackingUsing comparison operators The following comparison operators are available: =, >, <, >=, <=, and ^ for Boolean NOT. The behavior of these operators depends upon the type of the field in the expression. The following table describes the field types and how they can be searched. Field Type Description Notes word A single word The equality operator (=) matches the value in the word field exactly. The relational operators perform comparisons in ASCII order. text A block of text entered The equality operator (=) matches the job if the on the lines beneath the value is found anywhere in the specified field. field name The relational operators are of limited use here, because they’ll match the job if any word in the specified field matches the provided value. For example, if a job has a text field ShortDescription: that contains only the phrase gui bug, and the expression is ShortDesc<filter, the job will match the expression, because bug<filter. line A single line of text Same as text entered on the same line as the field name select One of a set of values. The equality operator (=) matches a job if the For example, job status value in the field is the specified word. can be Relational operators perform comparisons in open/suspended/close ASCII order. d date A date and optionally a Dates are matched chronologically. If a time is time. For example, not specified, the operators =, <=, and >= match 2005/07/15:13:21:40 the whole day. bulk Like text, but not These fields are not searchable with p4 jobs -e. indexed for searching. If you’re not sure of a field’s type, issue the p4 jobspec -o command, which displays your job specification. The field called Fields: lists the job fields’ names and data types.90 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 91. Chapter 7: Defect TrackingSearching date fields To search date fields, specify the date using the format yyyy/mm/dd or yyyy/mm/dd:hh:mm:ss. If you omit time, the equality operator (=) matches the entire day. Example: Using dates within expressions Bruno wants to view all jobs modified on July 13, 2005. He enters p4 jobs -e ModifiedDate=2005/07/13Fixing jobs To fix a job, you link it to a changelist and submit the changelist. Perforce automatically changes the value of a job’s status field to closed when the changelist is submitted. Jobs can be linked to changelists in one of three ways: • By setting the JobView: field in the p4 user form to an expression that matches the job. • With the p4 fix command. • By editing the p4 submit form. You can modify job status directly by editing the job, but if you close a job manually, there’s no association with the changelist that fixed the job. If you have altered your site’s job specification by deleting the Status: field, jobs can still be linked to changelists, but status cannot be changed when the changelist is submitted. (In most cases, this is not a desired form of operation.) See the chapter on editing job specifications in the Perforce System Administrator’s Guide for more details. To remove jobs from a changelist, issue the p4 fix -d command.Linking automatically You can modify your Perforce user specification to automatically attach open jobs to any changelists you create. To set up automatic inclusion, issue the p4 user command and set the JobView: field value to a valid expression that locates the jobs you want attached. Example: Automatically linking jobs to changelists Bruno wants to see all open jobs that he owns in all changelists he creates. He types p4 user and adds the JobView: field: User: bruno Update: 2005/06/02 13:11:57 Access: 2005/06/03 20:11:07 JobView: user=bruno&status=openPerforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 91
  • 92. Chapter 7: Defect Tracking All of Bruno’s open jobs now are automatically attached to his default changelist. When he submits changelists, he must be sure to delete jobs that aren’t fixed by the changelist he is submitting.Linking manually To link a job to a changelist manually, issue the p4 fix -c changenum jobname command. If the changelist has already been submitted, the value of the job’s Status: field is changed to closed. Otherwise, the status is not changed. Example: Manually linking jobs to changelists You can use p4 fix to link a changelist to a job owned by another user. Sarah has just submitted a job called options-bug to Bruno, but the bug has already been fixed in Bruno’s previously submitted changelist 18. Bruno links the job to the changelist by typing: p4 fix -c 18 options-bug Because changelist 18 has already been submitted, the job’s status is changed to closed.Linking jobs to changelists To link jobs to changelists when submitting or editing the changelist, enter the job names in the Jobs: field of the changelist specification. When you submit the changelist, the job is (by default) closed. To unlink a job from a pending changelist, edit the changelist and delete its name from the Jobs: field. To unlink a job from a submitted changelist, issue the p4 fix -d -c changenum jobname command.92 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 93. Chapter 8 Scripting and Reporting This chapter provides details about using p4 commands in scripts and for reporting purposes. For a full description of any particular command, consult the Perforce Command Reference, or issue the p4 help command.Common flags used in scripting and reporting The following command-line flags enable you to specify settings on the command line and in scripts. For full details, refer to the description of global options in the Perforce Command Reference. Flag Description -c client_workspace Specifies the client workspace name. -G Causes all output (and batch input for form commands with -i) to be formatted as marshaled Python dictionary objects. -p server:port Specifies the host and port number of the Perforce server. -P password Specifies the user password if any. If you prefer your script to log in before running commands (instead of specifying the password every time a command is issued), use the p4 login command. For example: echo mypassword | p4 login -s Prepends a descriptive field (for example, text:, info:, error:, exit:) to each line of output produced by a Perforce command. -u user Specifies the Perforce user name. -x argfile Reads arguments, one per line, from the specified file. If argfile is a single hyphen (-), then standard input is read.Scripting with Perforce forms If your scripts issue p4 commands that require the user to fill in a form, such as the p4 client and p4 submit commands, use the the -o flag to write the form to standard output and the -i flag to read the edited form from standard input.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 93
  • 94. Chapter 8: Scripting and Reporting For example, to create a job using a script on UNIX: 1. Issue the p4 job -o > temp1 command to write a blank job specification into a text file. 2. Make the necessary changes to the job. For example: sed s/<enter description here>/Crash when exiting./ temp1 > temp2 3. Issue the p4 job -i < temp2 command to save the job. To accomplish the preceding without a temporary file, issue the following command: p4 job -o | sed s/<enter description here>/Crash when exiting./ | p4 job -i The commands that display forms are: • p4 branch • p4 change • p4 client • p4 job • p4 label • p4 submit (use p4 change -o to create changelist, or p4 submit -d "A changelist description" to supply a description to the default changelist during changelist submission.) • p4 userFile reporting The following sections describe commands that provide information about file status and location. The following table lists a few basic and highly-useful reporting commands. To display this information Use this command File status, including file type, latest revision number, and other p4 files information File revisions from most recent to earliest p4 filelog Currently opened files p4 opened Preview of p4 sync results p4 sync -n Currently synced files p4 have The contents of specified files p4 print The mapping of files’ depot locations to the corresponding p4 where workspace locations. A list of files and full details about the files p4 fstat94 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 95. Chapter 8: Scripting and ReportingDisplaying file status To display information about single revisions of files, issue the p4 files command. This command displays the locations of the files in the depot, the actions (add, edit, delete, and so on) performed on those files at the specified revisions, the changelists in which the specified file revisions were submitted, and the files’ types. The following example shows typical output of the p4 files command: //depot/README#5 - edit change 6 (text) The p4 files command requires one or more filespec arguments. Regardless of whether you use local, client, or depot syntax to specify the filespec arguments, the p4 file command displays results using depot syntax. If you omit the revision number, information for the head revision is displayed. The output of p4 files includes deleted revisions. The following table lists some common uses of the p4 files command. To display the status of Use this command All files in the depot, regardless of your client p4 files //depot/... workspace view For depots containing numerous files, you can maximize performance by avoiding commands that refer to the entire depot (//depot/...) when not required. For best performance, specify only the directories and files of interest. The files currently synced to the specified client p4 files @clientname workspace The files mapped by your client workspace view p4 files //clientname/... Specified files in the current working directory p4 files filespec A specified file revision p4 files filespec#rev Specified files at the time a changelist was p4 files filespec@changenum submitted, regardless of whether the files were submitted in the changelist Files tagged with a specified label p4 files filespec@labelnamePerforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 95
  • 96. Chapter 8: Scripting and ReportingDisplaying file revision history To display the revision history of a file, issue the p4 filelog filespec command. The following example shows how p4 filelog displays revision history. p4 filelog //depot/dev/main/jam/jam.c //depot/dev/main/jam/jam.c ... #35 change 627 edit on 2001/11/13 by earl@earl-dev-yew (text) Handle platform variants better ... #34 change 598 edit on 2001/10/24 by raj@raj-althea (text) Reverse previous attempt at fix ... ... branch into //depot/release/jam/2.2/src/jam.c#1 ... #33 change 581 edit on 2001/10/03 by gale@gale-jam-oak (text) Version strings & release notes To display the entire description of each changelist, specify the -l flag.Listing open files To list the files that are currently opened in a client workspace, issue the p4 opened filespec command. The following line is an example of the output displayed by the p4 opened command: //depot/dev/main/jam/fileos2.c- edit default change (text) The following table lists some common uses of the p4 opened command. To list Use this command Opened files in the current workspace p4 opened Opened files in all client workspaces p4 opened -a Files in a numbered pending changelist p4 opened -c changelist Files in the default changelist p4 opened -c default Whether a specific file is opened by you p4 opened filespec Whether a specific file is opened by anyone p4 opened -a filespecDisplaying file locations To display information about the locations of files, use the p4 where, p4 have, and p4 sync -n commands: • To display the location of a file in depot, client, and local syntax, issue the p4 where command. • To list the location and revisions of files that you last synced to your client workspace, issue the p4 have command.96 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 97. Chapter 8: Scripting and Reporting • To see where files will be synced in your workspace, preview the sync by issuing the p4 sync -n command. You can use these commands with or without filespec arguments. The following table lists some useful location reporting commands. To display Use this command The revision number of a file that you synced to p4 have filespec your workspace How a particular file in the depot maps to your p4 where //depot/filespec workspaceDisplaying file contents To display the contents of a file in the depot, issue the p4 print filespec command. This command prints the contents of the file to standard output or to a specified output file, with a one-line banner that describes the file. To suppress the banner, specify the -q flag. By default, the head revision is displayed, but you can specify a file revision. To display the contents of files Use this command At the head revision p4 print filespec Without the banner p4 print -q filespec At a specified changelist number p4 print filespec@changenumDisplaying annotations (details about changes to file contents) To find out which file revisions or changelists affected lines in a text file, issue the p4 annotate command. By default, p4 annotate displays the file line by line, with each line preceded by a revision number indicating the revision that made the change. To display changelist numbers instead of revision numbers, specify the -c flag. Example: Using p4 annotate to display changes to a file A file is added (file.txt#1) to the depot, containing the following lines: This is a text file. The second line has not been changed. The third line has not been changed. The third line is deleted and the second line edited so that file.txt#2 reads: This is a text file. The second line is new.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 97
  • 98. Chapter 8: Scripting and Reporting The output of p4 annotate and p4 annotate -c look like this: $ p4 annotate file.txt //depot/files/file.txt#3 - edit change 153 (text) 1: This is a text file. 2: The second line is new. $ p4 annotate -c file.txt //depot/files/file.txt#3 - edit change 153 (text) 151: This is a text file. 152: The second line is new. The first line of file.txt has been present since revision 1, which was submitted in changelist 151. The second line has been present since revision 2, which was submitted in changelist 152. To show all lines (including deleted lines) in the file, use p4 annotate -a as follows: $ p4 annotate -a file.txt //depot/files/file.txt#3 - edit change 12345 (text) 1-3: This is a text file. 1-1: The second line has not been changed. 1-1: The third line has not been changed. 2-3: The second line is new. The first line of output shows that the first line of the file has been present for revisions 1 through 3. The next two lines of output show lines of file.txt present only in revision 1. The last line of output shows that the line added in revision 2 is still present in revision 3. You can combine the -a and -c options to display all lines in the file and the changelist numbers (rather than the revision numbers) at which the lines existed.Monitoring changes to files To track changes to files as they occur, you can use the Perforce change review daemon, which enables Perforce users to specify files and directories of interest and receive email when a changelist that affects the specified files is submitted. For details about administering the review daemon, refer to the Perforce System Administrator’s Guide and to the description of the p4 review command in the Perforce Command Reference. The following table lists commands that display information about the status of files, changelists, and users. These commands are often used in review daemons. To list Use this command The users who review specified files p4 reviews filespec The users who review files in a specified changelist p4 reviews -c changenum A specified user’s email address p4 users username98 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 99. Chapter 8: Scripting and ReportingChangelist reporting The p4 changes command lists changelists that meet search criteria, and the p4 describe command lists the files and jobs associated with a specified changelist. These commands are described below.Listing changelists To list changelists, issue the p4 changes command. By default, p4 changes displays one line for every changelist known to the system. The following table lists command-line flags that you can use to filter the list. To list changelists Use this command With the first 31 characters of the changelist p4 changes descriptions With full descriptions p4 changes -l The last n changelists p4 changes -m n With a specified status p4 changes -s pending or p4 changes -s submitted From a specified user p4 changes -u user From a specified workspace p4 changes -c workspace That affect specified files p4 changes filespec That affect specified files, including changelists p4 changes -i filespec that affect files that were later integrated with the named files That affect specified files, including only those p4 changes filespec#m,#n changelists between revisions m and n of these files That affect specified files at each revision p4 changes filespec@lab1,@lab2 between the revisions specified in labels lab1 and lab2 Submitted between two dates p4 changes @date1,@date2 Submitted on or after a specified date p4 changes @date1,@nowPerforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 99
  • 100. Chapter 8: Scripting and ReportingListing files and jobs affected by changelists To list files and jobs affected by a specified changelist, along with the diffs of the changes, issue the p4 describe command. To suppress display of the diffs (for shorter output), specify the -s flag. The following table lists some useful changelist reporting commands. To list Use this command Files in a pending changelist p4 opened -c changenum Files submitted and jobs fixed by a particular p4 describe changenum changelist, including diffs Files submitted and jobs fixed by a particular p4 describe -s changenum changelist, suppressing diffs Files and jobs affected by a particular changelist, p4 describe -dc changenum passing the context diff flag to the underlying diff program The state of particular files at a particular p4 files filespec@changenum changelist, regardless of whether these files were affected by the changelist For more commands that report on jobs, see “Job reporting” on page 101.Label reporting To display information about labels, issue the p4 labels command. The following table lists some useful label reporting commands. To list Use this command All labels, with creation date and owner p4 labels All labels containing a specific file revision (or range) p4 labels file#revrange Files tagged with a specified label p4 files @labelname A preview of the results of syncing to a label p4 sync -n @labelname100 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 101. Chapter 8: Scripting and ReportingBranch and integration reporting The following table lists commonly used commands for branch and integration reporting. To list Use this command All branch specifications p4 branches Files in a specified branch p4 files filespec The revisions of a specified file p4 filelog filespec The revisions of a specified file, recursively p4 filelog -i filespec including revisions of the files from which it was branched A preview of the results of a resolve p4 resolve [args] -n [filespec] Files that have been resolved but not yet p4 resolved [filespec] submitted Integrated, submitted files that match the p4 integrated filespec filespec arguments A preview of the results of an integration p4 integrate [args] -n [filespec]Job reportingListing jobs To list jobs, issue the p4 jobs command. The following table lists common job reporting commands. To list Use this command All jobs p4 jobs All jobs, including full descriptions p4 jobs -l Jobs that meet search criteria (see “Searching jobs” on page 88 p4 jobs -e jobview for details) Jobs that were fixed by changelists that contain specific files p4 jobs filespec Jobs that were fixed by changelists that contain specific files, p4 jobs -i filespec including changelists that contain files that were later integrated into the specified filesPerforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 101
  • 102. Chapter 8: Scripting and ReportingListing jobs fixed by changelists Any jobs that have been linked to a changelist with p4 change, p4 submit, or p4 fix are referred to as fixed (regardless of whether their status is closed). To list jobs that were fixed by changelists, issue the p4 fixes command. The following table lists useful commands for reporting fixes. To list Use this command all changelists linked to jobs p4 fixes all changelists linked to a specified job p4 fixes -j jobname all jobs linked to a specified changelist p4 fixes -c changenum all fixes associated with specified files p4 fixes filespec all fixes associated with specified files, including p4 fixes -i filespec changelists that contain files that were later integrated with the specified filesSystem configuration reporting The commands described in this section display Perforce users, client workspaces, and depots.Displaying users The p4 users command displays the user name, an email address, the user’s “real” name, and the date that Perforce was last accessed by that user, in the following format: bruno <bruno@bruno_ws> (bruno) accessed 2005/03/07 dai <dai@dai_ws> (Dai Sato) accessed 2005/03/04 earl <earl@earl_ws> (Earl Ashby) accessed 2005/03/07 gale <gale@gale_ws> (Gale Beal) accessed 2001/06/03 hera <hera@hera_ws> (Hera Otis) accessed 2001/10/03 ines <ines@ines_ws> (Ines Rios) accessed 2005/02/02 jack <jack@submariner> (jack) accessed 2005/03/02 mei <mei@mei_ws> (Mei Chang) accessed 2001/11/14 ona <ona@ona_ws> (Ona Birch) accessed 2001/10/23 quinn <quinn@quinn_ws> (Quinn Cass) accessed 2005/01/27 raj <raj@ran_ws> (Raj Bai) accessed 2001/07/28 vera <vera@vera_ws> (Vera Cullen) accessed 2005/01/15102 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 103. Chapter 8: Scripting and ReportingDisplaying workspaces To display information about client workspaces, issue the p4 clients command, which displays the client workspace name, the date the workspace was last updated, the workspace root, and the description of the workspace, in the following format. Client bruno_ws 2005/03/07 root c:bruno_ws Client dai-beos-locust 2002/10/03 root /boot/home/src Client earl-beos-aspen 2002/04/15 root /boot/src Client earl-dev-beech 2002/10/26 root /home/earl Client earl-dev-guava 2002/09/08 root /usr/earl/development Client earl-dev-yew 2004/11/19 root /tmp Client earl-mac-alder 2002/03/19 root Macintosh HD:earl Client earl-os2-buckeye 2002/03/21 root c:src Client earl-qnx-elm 2001/01/17 root /src Client earl-tupelo 2001/01/05 root /usr/earl Listing depots To list depots, issue the p4 depots command. This command lists the depot’s name, its creation date, its type (local, remote, or spec), its host name or IP address (if remote), the mapping to the local depot, and the system administrator’s description of the depot. For details about defining multiple depots on a single Perforce server, see the Perforce System Administrator’s Guide.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 103
  • 104. Chapter 8: Scripting and ReportingSample script The following sample script parses the output of the p4 fstat command to report files that are opened where the head revision is not in the client workspace (a potential problem). Example: Sample shell script showing parsing of p4 fstat command output #!/bin/sh # Usage: opened-not-head.sh files # Displays files that are open when the head revision is not # on the client workspace echo=echo exit=exit p4=p4 sed=sed if [ $# -ne 1 ] then $echo "Usage: $0 files" $exit 1 fi $p4 fstat -Ro $1 | while read line do name=`$echo $line | $sed s/^[. ]+([^ ]+) .*$/1/` value=`$echo $line | $sed s/^[. ]+[^ ]+ (.*)$/1/` if [ "$name" = "depotFile" ] then depotFile=$value elif [ "$name" = "headRev" ] then headRev=$value elif [ "$name" = "haveRev" ] then haveRev=$value if [ $headRev != $haveRev ] then $echo $depotFile fi fi done104 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 105. Appendix A Glossary Term Definition access level A permission assigned to a user to control which Perforce commands the user can execute. See protections. admin access An access level that gives the user permission to run Perforce commands that override metadata but do not affect the state of the server. apple file type Perforce file type assigned to Macintosh files that are stored using AppleSingle format, permitting the data fork and resource fork to be stored as a single file. atomic change Grouping operations affecting a number of files in a single transaction transaction. If all operations in the transaction succeed, all the files are updated. If any operation in the transaction fails, none of the files are updated. base The file revision on which two newer, conflicting file revisions are based. binary file type Perforce file type assigned to a nontext file. By default, the contents of each revision are stored in full, and the file is stored in compressed format. branch (noun) A codeline created by copying another codeline, as opposed to a codeline that was created by adding original files. branch is often used as a synonym for branch view. (verb) To create a codeline branch with p4 integrate. branch form The Perforce form you use to modify a branch. branch mapping Specifies how a branch is to be created by defining the location of the original codeline and the branch. The branch mapping is used by the integration process to create and update branches. Client workspaces, labels, and branch specifications cannot share the same name. branch view A specification of the branching relationship between two codelines in the depot. Each branch view has a unique name and defines how files are mapped from the originating codeline to the target codeline. See branch.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 105
  • 106. Appendix A: Glossary Term Definition changelist An atomic change transaction in Perforce. The changes specified in the changelist are not stored in the depot until the changelist is submitted to the depot. changelist form The Perforce form you use to modify a changelist. changelist The unique numeric identifier of a changelist. number change review The process of sending email to users who have registered their interest in changes made to specified files in the depot. checkpoint A copy of the underlying server metadata at a particular moment in time. See metadata. client form The Perforce form you use to define a client workspace. client name A name that uniquely identifies the current client workspace. client root The root directory of a client workspace. If two or more client workspaces are located on one machine, they cannot share a root directory. client side The right-hand side of a mapping within a client view, specifying where the corresponding depot files are located in the client workspace. client workspace view A set of mappings that specifies the correspondence between file locations in the depot and the client workspace. client workspace Directories on the client machine where you work on file revisions that are managed by Perforce. By default this name is set to the name of the host machine on which the client workspace is located; to override the default name, set the P4CLIENT environment variable. Client workspaces, labels, and branch specifications cannot share the same name. codeline A set of files that evolve collectively. One codeline can be branched from another, allowing each set of files to evolve separately.106 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 107. Appendix A: Glossary Term Definition conflict One type of conflict occurs when two users open a file for edit. One user submits the file, after which the other user can’t submit because of a conflict. The cause of this type of conflict is two users opening the same file. The other type of conflict is when users try to merge one file into another. This type of conflict occurs when the comparison of two files to a common base yields different results, indicating that the files have been changed in different ways. In this case, the merge can’t be done automatically and must be done by hand. The type of conflict is caused by nonmatching diffs. See file conflict. counter A numeric variable used by Perforce to track changelist numbers in conjunction with the review feature. default changelist The changelist used by Perforce commands, unless a numbered changelist is specified. A default pending changelist is created automatically when a file is opened for edit. default depot The depot name that is assumed when no name is specified. The default depot name is depot. deleted file In Perforce, a file with its head revision marked as deleted. Older revisions of the file are still available. delta The differences between two files. depot A file repository on the Perforce server. It contains all versions of all files ever submitted to the depot. There can be multiple depots on a single server. depot root The root directory for a depot. depot side The left side of any client view mapping, specifying the location of files in a depot. depot syntax Perforce syntax for specifying the location of files in the depot. detached A client machine that cannot connect to a Perforce server. diff (noun) A set of lines that don’t match when two files are compared. A conflict is a pair of unequal diffs between each of two files and a common third file. (verb) To compare the contents of files or file revisions. donor file The file from which changes are taken when propagating changes from one file to another.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 107
  • 108. Appendix A: Glossary Term Definition exclusionary mapping A view mapping that excludes specific files. exclusionary access A permission that denies access to the specified files. file conflict In a three-way file merge, a situation in which two revisions of a file differ from each other and from their base file. Also: an attempt to submit a file that is not an edit of the head revision of the file in the depot; typically occurs when another user opens the file for edit after you have opened the file for edit. file pattern Perforce command line syntax that enables you to specify files using wildcards. file repository The master copy of all files; shared by all users. In Perforce, this is called the depot. file revision A specific version of a file within the depot. Each revision is assigned a number, in sequence. Any revision can be accessed in the depot by its revision number, for example: testfile#3. file tree All the subdirectories and files under a given root directory. file type An attribute that determines how Perforce stores and diffs a particular file. Examples of file types are text and binary. fix A job that has been linked to a changelist. form Screens displayed by certain Perforce commands. For example, you use the Perforce change form to enter comments about a particular changelist and to verify the affected files. full-file The method by which Perforce stores revisions of binary files in storage the depot: every file revision is stored in full. Contrast this with reverse delta storage, which Perforce uses for text files. get An obsolete Perforce term: replaced by sync. group A list of Perforce users. have list The list of file revisions currently in the client workspace. head revision The most recent revision of a file within the depot. Because file revisions are numbered sequentially, this revision is the highest-numbered revision of that file.108 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 109. Appendix A: Glossary Term Definition integrate To compare two sets of files (for example, two codeline branches) and: • Determine which changes in one set apply to the other. • Determine if the changes have already been propagated. • Propagate any outstanding changes. Inter-File Perforce’s proprietary branching mechanism. Branching job A user-defined unit of work tracked by Perforce. The job template determines what information is tracked. The template can be modified by the Perforce system administrator job specification A specification containing the fields and valid values stored for a Perforce job. job view A syntax used for searching Perforce jobs. journal A file containing a record of every change made to the Perforce server’s metadata since the time of the last checkpoint. journaling The process of recording changes made to the Perforce server’s metadata. label A named list of user-specified file revisions. label view The view that specifies which filenames in the depot can be stored in a particular label. lazy copy A method used by Perforce to make internal copies of files without duplicating file content in the depot. Lazy copies minimize the consumption of disk space by storing references to the original file instead of copies of the file. license file Ensures that the number of Perforce users on your site does not exceed the number for which you have paid. list access A protection level that enables you to run reporting commands but prevents access to the contents of files. local depot Any depot located on the current Perforce server. local syntax The operating-system-specific syntax for specifying a filename. lock A Perforce file lock prevents other clients from submitting the locked file. Files are unlocked with the p4 unlock command or submitting the changelist that contains the locked file.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 109
  • 110. Appendix A: Glossary Term Definition log Error output from the Perforce server. By default, error output is written to standard error. To specify a log file, set the P4LOG environment variable or use the p4d -L flag when starting the server. mapping A single line in a view, consisting of a left side and a right side that specify the correspondences between files in the depot and files in a client, label, or branch. The left side specifies the depot files, and the right side specifies the client files. (See also client workspace view, branch view, label view). MD5 checksum The method used by Perforce to verify the integrity of archived files. merge The process of combining the contents of two conflicting file revisions into a single file. merge file A file generated by Perforce from two conflicting file revisions. metadata The data stored by the Perforce server that describes the files in the depot, the current state of client workspaces, protections, users, clients, labels, and branches. Metadata includes all the data stored in the server except for the actual contents of the files. modification time The time a file was last changed. nonexistent A completely empty revision of any file. Syncing to a revision nonexistent revision of a file removes it from your workspace. An empty file revision created by deleting a file and the #none revision specifier are examples of nonexistent file revisions. numbered changelist A pending changelist to which Perforce has assigned a number. open file A file that you are changing in your client workspace. owner The Perforce user who created a particular client, branch, or label. p4 The Perforce Command-Line Client program, and the command you issue to execute Perforce commands from the operating system command line. p4d The program on the Perforce server that manages the depot and the metadata. P4Diff A Perforce application that displays the differences between two files. P4Diff is the default application used to compare files during the file resolution process.110 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 111. Appendix A: Glossary Term Definition pending changelist A changelist that has not been submitted. Perforce server The Perforce depot and metadata on a central host. Also the program that manages the depot and metadata. protections The permissions stored in the Perforce server’s protections table. RCS format Revision Control System format. Used for storing revisions of text files. RCS format uses reverse delta encoding for file storage. Perforce uses RCS format to store text files. See also reverse delta storage. read access A protection level that enables you to read the contents of files managed by Perforce. remote depot A depot located on a server other than the current Perforce server. reresolve The process of resolving a file after the file is resolved and before it is submitted resolve The process you use to reconcile the differences between two revisions of a file. resource fork One fork of a Macintosh file. (Macintosh files are composed of a resource fork and a data fork.) You can store resource forks in Perforce depots as part of an AppleSingle file by using Perforce’s apple file type. reverse delta The method that Perforce uses to store revisions of text files. storage Perforce stores the changes between each revision and its previous revision, plus the full text of the head revision. revert To discard the changes you have made to a file in the client workspace. review access A special protections level that includes read and list accesses and grants permission to run the p4 review command. review daemon Any daemon process that uses the p4 review command. See also change review. revision number A number indicating which revision of the file is being referred to. revision range A range of revision numbers for a specified file, specified as the low and high end of the range. For example, myfile#5,7 specifies revisions 5 through 7 of myfile.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 111
  • 112. Appendix A: Glossary Term Definition revision specification A suffix to a filename that specifies a particular revision of that file. Revision specifiers can be revision numbers, change numbers, label names, date/time specifications, or client names. server In Perforce, the program that executes the commands sent by client programs. The Perforce server (p4d) maintains depot files and metadata describing the files and also tracks the state of client workspaces. server root The directory in which the server program stores its metadata and all the shared files. To specify the server root, set the P4ROOT environment variable. shelving The process of temporarily storing files on the Perforce server without checking in a changelist. status For a changelist, a value that indicates whether the changelist is new, pending, or submitted. For a job, a value that indicates whether the job is open, closed, or suspended. You can customize job statuses. submit To send a pending changelist and changed files to the Perforce server for processing. subscribe To register to receive email whenever changelists that affect particular files are submitted. super access An access level that gives the user permission to run every Perforce command, including commands that set protections, install triggers, or shut down the server for maintenance. symlink file type A Perforce file type assigned to UNIX symbolic links. On non- UNIX clients, symlink files are stored as text files. sync To copy a file revision (or set of file revisions) from the depot to a client workspace. target file The file that receives the changes from the donor file when you are integrating changes between a branched codeline and the original codeline. text file type Perforce file type assigned to a file that contains only ASCII text. See also binary file type. theirs The revision in the depot with which the client file is merged when you resolve a file conflict. When you are working with branched files, theirs is the donor file.112 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 113. Appendix A: Glossary Term Definition three-way merge The process of combining three file revisions. During a three- way merge, you can identify where conflicting changes have occurred and specify how you want to resolve the conflicts. tip revision In Perforce, the head revision. Tip revision is a term used by some other SCM systems. trigger A script automatically invoked by the Perforce server when changelists are submitted. two-way merge The process of combining two file revisions. In a two-way merge, you can see differences between the files but cannot see conflicts. typemap A Perforce table in which you assign Perforce file types to files. user The identifier that Perforce uses to determine who is performing an operation. view A description of the relationship between two sets of files. See client workspace view, label view, branch view. wildcard A special character used to match other characters in strings. Perforce wildcards are: • * matches anything except a slash • ... matches anything including slashes • %%0 through %%9 used for parameter substitution in views workspace See client workspace. write access A protection level that enables you to run commands that alter the contents of files in the depot. Write access includes read and list accesses. yours The edited version of a file in the client workspace when you resolve a file. Also, the target file when you integrate a branched file.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 113
  • 114. Appendix A: Glossary114 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 115. Appendix B Perforce File Types Perforce supports a set of file types that enable it to determine how files are stored by the Perforce server and whether the file can be diffed. When you add a file, Perforce attempts to determine the type of the file automatically: Perforce first determines whether the file is a regular file or a symbolic link, and then examines the first part of the file to determine whether it’s text or binary. If any nontext characters are found, the file is assumed to be binary; otherwise, the file is assumed to be text. (Files in unicode environments are detected differently; see “Perforce file type detection and Unicode” on page 120.) To determine the type of a file under Perforce control, issue the p4 opened or p4 files command. To change the Perforce file type, specify the -t filetype flag. For details about changing file type, refer to the descriptions of p4 add, p4 edit, and p4 reopen in the Perforce Command Reference.Perforce file types Perforce supports the following file types. Keyword Description Comments How stored by the Perforce server apple Macintosh file AppleSingle storage of Macintosh data full file, fork, resource fork, file type and file compressed, creator. AppleSingle For full details, please see the Mac client format release notes. binary Nontext file Synced as binary files in the workspace. full file, Stored compressed within the depot. compressed resource Macintosh (Obsolete) This type is supported for full file, resource fork backward compatibility, but the apple file compressed type is recommended. symlink Symbolic link UNIX and BeOS client machines treat these delta files as symbolic links. Non-UNIX client machines treat them as text files. text Text file Synced as text in the workspace. Line- delta ending translations are performed automatically.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 115
  • 116. Appendix B: Perforce File Types Keyword Description Comments How stored by the Perforce server unicode Unicode file Perforce servers operating in unicode UTF-8 mode support the unicode file type. These files are translated into the local character set specified by P4CHARSET. Perforce servers not in unicode mode do not support the unicode file type. For details, see the Internationalization Notes. utf16 Unicode file If the Perforce server is operating in UTF-8 unicode mode, files are translated into the local character set as specified by P4CHARSET. If the Perforce server is operating in non- unicode mode, files are transferred as UTF- 8, and translated to UTF-16 (with byte order mark, in the byte order appropriate for the client machine) in the client workspace. For details, see the Internationalization Notes.File type modifiers You can apply file type modifiers to the base types of specific files to preserve timestamps, expand RCS keywords, specify how files are stored on the server, and more. For details about applying modifiers to file types, see“Specifying how files are stored in the server” on page 118. The following table lists the file type modifiers. Modifier Description Comments +C Server stores the full Default server storage mechanism for compressed version of each binary files and newly-added text files file revision larger than 10MB. +D Server stores deltas in RCS Default server storage mechanism for text format files.116 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 117. Appendix B: Perforce File Types Modifier Description Comments +F Server stores full file per For large ASCII files that aren’t treated as revision text, such as PostScript files, where storing the deltas is not useful or efficient. +k RCS (Revision Control Supported keywords are: System) keyword expansion • $Author$ • $Change$ • $Date$ • $DateTime$ • $File$ • $Header$ • $Id$ • $Revision$ RCS keywords are case-sensitive. A colon after the keyword (for example, $Id:$) is optional. +ko Limited keyword expansion Expands only the $Id$ and $Header$ keywords. Primarily for backwards compatibility with versions of Perforce prior to 2000.1, and corresponds to the +k (ktext) modifier in earlier versions of Perforce. +l Exclusive open (locking) If set, only one user at a time can open a file for editing. Useful for binary file types (such as graphics) where merging of changes from multiple authors is not possible. +m Preserve original modification The file’s timestamp on the local file time system is preserved upon submission and restored upon sync. Useful for third-party DLLs in Windows environments, because the operating system relies on the file’s timestamp. By default, the modification time is set to the time you synced the file. +S Only the head revision is Older revisions are purged from the depot stored on the server upon submission of new revisions. Useful for executable or .obj files.Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 117
  • 118. Appendix B: Perforce File Types Modifier Description Comments +Sn Only the most recent n Older revisions are purged from the depot revisions are stored on the upon submission of more than n new server, where n is a number revisions, or if you change an existing +Sn from 1 to 10, or 16, 32, 64, 128, file’s n to a number less than its current 256, or 512. value. For details, see the Command Reference. +w File is always writable on Not recommended, because Perforce client manages the read-write settings on files under its control. +x Execute bit set on client Used for executable files. +X Archive trigger required The server runs an archive trigger to access the file. See the System Administrator’s Guide for details.Specifying how files are stored in the server File revisions of binary files are normally stored in full within the depot, but only changes made to text files since the previous revision are normally stored. This approach is called delta storage, and Perforce uses RCS format to store its deltas. The file’s type determines whether full file or delta storage is used. Some file types are compressed to gzip format when stored in the depot. The compression occurs when you submit the file, and decompression happens when you sync (copy the file from the server to the workspace). The client workspace always contains the file as it was submitted. Warning! To avoid inadvertent file truncation, do not store binary files as text. If you store a binary file as text from a Windows client machine and the file contains the Windows end-of-file character ^Z, only the part of the file up to the ^Z is stored in the depot.Assigning File Types for Unicode Files The Perforce server can be run in Unicode mode to activate support for filenames and Perforce metadata that contain Unicode characters, or in non-Unicode mode, where filenames and metadata must be ASCII, but textual files containing unicode content are still supported.118 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 119. Appendix B: Perforce File Types If you need to manage textual files that contain Unicode characters, but do not need Unicode characters in Perforce metadata, you do not need to run your server in Unicode mode. Assign the Perforce utf16 file type to textual files that contain Unicode characters. Your system administrator will be able to tell you which mode the server is using. In either mode, Perforce supports a set of file types that enable it to determine how a file is stored by the Perforce server and whether the file can be diffed. The following sections describe the considerations for managing textual files in Unicode environments. To assign file type when adding a file to the depot, specify the -t flag. For example: p4 add -t utf16 newfile.txt To change the file type of files in the depot, open the file for edit, specifying the -t flag. For example: p4 edit -t utf16 myfile.txtChoosing the file type When assigning file types to textual files that contain Unicode, consider the following: • Do you need to edit and diff the files? Many IDEs create configuration files that you never edit manually or diff. To ensure they are never translated, assign such files the binary file type. • Is your site managing files that use different character sets? If so, consider storing them using a utf16 file type, to ensure they are not translated but still can be diffed. Unicode mode servers translate the contents of unicode files into the character set specified by P4CHARSET. The following table provides more details about how Unicode- mode servers manage the various types of text files. Text file type Stored by server as Validated? Translated per Translated per (unicode mode) P4CHARSET? client platform text Extended ASCII No No No unicode UTF-8 Yes (as UTF-16 and Yes No P4CHARSET) utf16 UTF-8 Yes (as UTF-16) No NoPerforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 119
  • 120. Appendix B: Perforce File Types Non-unicode-mode servers do not translate or verify the contents of unicode files. Instead, the UTF-8 data is converted to UTF-16 using the byte order appropriate to the client platform. To ensure that such files are not corrupted when you edit them, save them as UTF-8 or UTF-16 from within your editing software. Text file type Stored by server as Validated? Translated per Translated per (unicode mode) P4CHARSET? client platform text Extended ASCII No No No unicode UTF-8 Yes (as UTF-16 and No No P4CHARSET) utf16 UTF-8 Yes (as UTF-16) No YesPerforce file type detection and Unicode In both Unicode mode and non-Unicode mode, if you do not assign a file type when you add a file to the depot, Perforce attempts to detect file type by scanning the first 8192 characters of the file. If nonprintable characters are detected, the file is assigned the binary file type. (In Unicode mode, a further check is performed: if there are no nonprintable characters, and there are high-ASCII characters that are translatable using the character set specified by P4CHARSET, the file is assigned the unicode file type.) Finally (for servers running in Unicode mode or non-Unicode mode), if a UTF-16 BOM is present, the file is assigned the utf16 file type. Otherwise, the file is assigned the text file type. (In Unicode mode, a further check is performed: files with high-ASCII characters that are undefined in the character set specified by P4CHARSET are assigned the binary file type.) In most cases, there is no need to override Perforces default file type detection. If you must override Perforces default file type detection, you can assign Perforce file types according to a files extension, by issuing the p4 typemap command. For more about using the typemap feature, refer to the Perforce System Administrators Guide, and the Perforce Command Reference.Overriding file types Some file formats (for example, Adobe PDF files, and Rich Text Format files) are actually binary files, but they can be mistakenly detected by Perforce as being text. To prevent this problem, your system administrator can use the p4 typemap command to specify how such file types are stored. You can always override the file type specified in the typemap table by specifying the -t filetype flag.120 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 121. Appendix B: Perforce File TypesPreserving timestamps Normally, Perforce updates the timestamp when a file is synced. The modification time (+m) modifier is intended for developers who need to preserve a file’s original timestamp. This modifier enables you to ensure that the timestamp of a file synced to your client workspace is the time on the client machine when the file was submitted. Windows uses timestamps on third-party DLLs for versioning information (both within the development environment and also by the operating system), and the +m modifier enables you to preserve the original timestamps to prevent spurious version mismatches. The +m modifier overrides the client workspace [no]modtime setting (for the files to which it is applied). For details about this setting, refer to“File type modifiers” on page 116.Expanding RCS keywords RCS (Revision Control System), an early version control system, defined keywords that you can embed in your source files. These keywords are updated whenever a file is committed to the repository. Perforce supports some RCS keywords. To activate RCS keyword expansion for a file, use the +k modifier. RCS keywords are expanded as follows. Keyword Expands To Example $Author$ Perforce user submitting $Author: bruno $ the file $Change$ Perforce changelist $Change: 439 $ number under which file was submitted $Date$ Date of last submission in $Date: 2000/08/18 $ format YYYY/MM/DD $DateTime$ Date and time of last $DateTime: 2000/08/18 23:17:02 $ submission in format YYYY/MM/DD hh:mm:ss Date and time are as of the local time on the Perforce server at time of submission. $File$ Filename only, in depot $File: //depot/path/file.txt $ syntax (without revision number) $Header$ Synonymous with $Id$ $Header: //depot/path/file.txt#3 $Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 121
  • 122. Appendix B: Perforce File Types Keyword Expands To Example $Id$ Filename and revision $Id: //depot/path/file.txt#3 $ number in depot syntax $Revision$ Perforce revision number $Revision: #3 $122 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 123. Index- (minus sign) null 29 exclusionary mappings and 27 client workspaceSymbols alternate roots 29* wildcard 25, 41 defined 17+ spanning multiple drives 29 overlay mappings and 28 specifying on command line 39... wildcard 25, 41, 51, 60 code review 58 client views and 25 codeline management 75@ command line flags integrating file revisions 79 -c flag 56, 97 listing changelists 99 -f flag 31, 65, 80 listing tagged files 100 -i flag 79, 93 reserved character in file names 42, 43 -l flag 96 specifying file revisions 44, 60, 82 -n flag 53, 80 specifying revision range 46 -o flag 93 syncing file revisions 84 p4 changes command 99 syncing to a label’s contents 82 p4 help usage command 47 tagging file revisions 81 p4 resolve command 70A -q flag 97AltRoots field 29 -r flag 78automatic labels 85 -s flag 59, 100C -sd flag 61-c flag 54, 56, 97 -se flag 61changelists -t flag 115 -c flag 54, 56, 97 -v flag 67 creating 55 -x flag 62 default changelist 54 commands deleting 56 See p4 commands fixing jobs 91, 92 creating labels vs 81 branches 73, 75, 76 managing 49–59 changelists 54, 55 moving files 55 client workspaces 22 numbering 54 directories in the client workspace 50 RCS keyword 121 fixes 91 reporting and scripting 96, 97 jobs 87 shelving 57 labels 83 submitting 56 passwords 34client root D defined 17 date and time specifications 45, 46Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 123
  • 124. Indexdefault P4PASSWD 20, 39 client options 30 P4PORT 20, 21, 23, 39 client view 22 P4USER 20, 40 file storage on server 105, 116 PWD 39 host and port 19 exclusionary mappings 27 integration revision range 79 F job naming 87 -f flag 31, 65, 80 job specification 87 file names line ending setting 33 config files 20 p4 annotate command 97 reserved characters 42 p4 changes command 99 restrictions on 42 port 19 with spaces, in views 76 submit option setting 32 file revisions 44 text editor 67 files time 45 deleting from labels 83 workspace name 17 moving between changelists 55default changelist 51, 54, 56 flagsdeleting See command line flags branch mappings 76 forms 47 changelists 56 forward slash (/) client workspace 33 specifying file paths with 40 empty directories 31 H files from the depot 49 head revision 45 jobs 88 defined 108 labels 83 deleted files 53depots diffing 60 displaying file location 96 displaying contents 97 listing 103 resolving files 70 mapping multiple 23 tagging 81 mapping to workspace 22 host structure 74 default 19displaying p4 version 40 specifying on command line 39E Ienvironment variables -i flag 79, 93 LOCALE 43 integration P4CHARSET 20 previewing results 80 P4CLIENT 17, 20, 22, 39 reporting 80 P4COMMANDCHARSET 20 re-resolving 80 P4DIFF 20, 69, 71 using branch mappings 78 P4EDITOR 20, 47 J P4HOST 20, 39 jobs P4LANGUAGE 20 searching 89 P4MERGE 20, 67, 68124 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 125. IndexL numbered changelist 55-l flag 96 Olabel view 84 -o flag 93labels overlay mappings 28 automatic 85 P changelists vs 81 p4 commands deleting 83 help command 47 deleting files from 83 label command 83 restrictions on names 83 labelsync command 83 static 84 sync command 50leaveunchanged option 32 P4CHARSET environment variable 20leaveunchanged+reopen option 32 P4CLIENT environment variable 17, 20, 22, 39length limitations 42 P4COMMANDCHARSET environment variable 20LineEnd field 33 P4DIFF environment variable 20, 69, 71local option 33 P4EDITOR environment variable 20, 47local syntax 40 P4HOST environment variable 20, 39LOCALE environment variable 43 P4LANGUAGE environment variable 20M P4MERGE environment variable 67, 68mac option 33 P4MERGE environment variables 20Macintosh P4PASSWD environment variable 20, 39 apple file type 115 P4PORT environment variable 20, 21, 23, 39 line endings 33 P4USER environment variable 20, 40 resource fork 115 Perforce syntax 40mapping part of the depot 26 permissionsmappings administrative commands and 39 conflicting 27 files in client workspace and 18, 52, 56 defined 24 integration and 78 exclusionary 27 renaming files 57 overlay 28 working detached 61minus sign ( - ) 27 portmodification time 121 configuring 15, 19, 20modtime 31 default 19N error if invalid 24-n flag 53, 80 specifying on command line 39noallwrite option 30 previewnoclobber option 30 delete results 47nocompress option 31 integration results 101nomodtime option 31 -n flag 80non-ASCII characters in file names 43 resolve results 101#none revision specifier 45 revert results 53normdir option 31 sync results 47, 94, 97not operator ( ^ ) 89 syncing to a label 100null root 29 tagging results 82Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 125
  • 126. IndexPWD environment variable 39 files in the workspace and 18Python scripting 39 specifying on command line 39Q timestamps and 46-q flag 97 verifying connection 16R working detached from 61-r flag 78 share option 33removing files from the client workspace 46 shelving 57, 112renumbering of changelists 55 spaces in file and path names 28, 42re-resolving 65 spaces in filenamesreserved characters 42 quotes around, in views 76restrictions static labels 84 binaries stored as text 118 SubmitOptions field 32 changing file permissions 18 submitunchanged option 32 entries in forms 47 submitunchanged+reopen option 32 file names 42 syntax label names 83 branch mappings 77 name length 42 command line 39 non-ASCII characters in file and object file revisions 44 names 43 integrating using branch mappings 78 relative path components 40 label view 84 searching jobs 88 local 40 white space in exclusionary mappings 27 Perforce 40revertunchanged option 32 view 47revertunchanged+reopen option 32 Trevision range 46, 79, 100, 111 -t flag 115root team development 49 alternate for different platforms 29 timestamp 121 changing 30 U defined 22, 106 UNIX depot 107 alternate client roots 29 displaying 103 comment delimiter (#) 42 null 29 finding locked files 72 server 112 line endings on mounted drives 33S LOCALE environment variable 43-s flag 59, 100 path component separator (/) 42scripting 39, 93 symlink file type 115-sd flag 61 wildcard (*) 42-se flag 61 unix option 33searching jobs 89 unlocked option 31server UTF-16 20 configuring 19, 20, 21 V default 19 -v flag 67 diffing files 60, 71 version of P4 40126 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide
  • 127. IndexView field 30views conflicting mappings 27 label 84Wwildcards client views and 25 defined 113 escaping 56 overview 41 renaming files 57 reserved characters 42 restriction on adding files recursively 51 searching jobs 89 syncing files using 51Windows binary file storage 118 installation 15 line endings 33 multiple drives 29 regional settings 43 timestamps on DLLs 117workspace spanning multiple drives 29write permission 18X-x flag 62ZZeroconf 21Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide 127
  • 128. Index128 Perforce 2009.2 P4 User’s Guide