Malshe06

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Malshe06

  1. 1. COMMUNICATION & PRESENTATION SKILLSORAL SKILLS & SPOKEN ENGLISH MILIND MALSHE Professor Department of Humanities & Social Sciences IIT-BOMBAY
  2. 2. MAIN POINTS TO REMEMBER ABOUT ORAL PRESENTATION• (i) effective use of visual aids• (ii) adequate eye contact : size of the audience• (iii) clarity in pronunciation and fluency• (iv) maintaining a proper speed of presentation• (v) posture and body movements suggesting confidence• (vi) seeking and making proper use of visual feedback• (vii) noting down important points arising out of discussion
  3. 3. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS• 1. Speech & Writing/Printing: a comparison• Speech : pitch, volume, tone, speed, pauses, body movements, facial expressions• Writing/Printing: punctuation, capitalization, spacing, margins, fonts
  4. 4. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued)• 2. Pronunciation of Words:(a) vowel and consonant sounds• (comparison of sounds with letters a-z);The letter “a” in : fat /æ/, father /a:/, fate /eɪ /, about /ə/Or the letters “th” in “thin” /ɵ/ & “then” /ð/.Also notice(b) word-stress: ‘language, communi’cation
  5. 5. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued)• 3. Use of the phonetic script and the (Pronouncing) Dictionary: International Phonetic Alphabet: free downloading is possible• Dictionaries on CD : listening to the pronunciation and it variety (e.g. British & American) now possible
  6. 6. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued)4. Pronunciation of Sentences:intonation and rhythmINTONATION: rising / (yes /) falling (yes ) combination / (yes /)RHYTHM: de dum de dum x ’ x ’
  7. 7. Vowel sounds of English• (Pure Vowels/Monophthongs) initially medially finally• 1. /i:/ east sheet key• 2. /I/ it hit duty• 3. /e / end send• 4. /æ/ and sand• 5. /a:/ art heart car• 6. /ɒ/ ox fox
  8. 8. Vowel sounds of English (continued) initially medially finally7. /ɔ:/ all ball saw8. /U/ put9. /u:/ ooze choose chew10./∧/ up cup11./з:/ earn learn stir12. /ə/ ago police maker
  9. 9. Vowel sounds of English (continued) Diphthongs• 13. /eɪ / eight straight stay• 14. /əʊ / oak joke slow• 15. /aɪ / ice mice my• 16./aʊ / out shout how• 17. /ɔɪ / oil boil boy• 18. /ɪ ə/ ears beard peer• 19. /eə/ airs paired hare
  10. 10. Consonant sounds of English• initially medially finally• 1. /p/ pin spin keep• 2. /b/ bin tubs club• 3. /t/ tell stick light• 4. /d/ day heads laid• 5. /k/ keep skill stick• 6. /g/ get jugs bag
  11. 11. Consonant sounds of English (continued)• initially medially finally• 7. /ʧ/ chin reached teach• 8. / ʤ / joke hinged large• 9. /m/ met smoke team• 10. /n/ net snake tin• 11. /ŋ/ rings sing• 12. /l/ lot fling full
  12. 12. Consonant sounds of English (continued)• initially medially finally• 13 /f/ fan soft if• 14. /v/ van leaves thief• 15. /ɵ/ thin months bath• 16./ð/ then clothes bathe
  13. 13. Consonant sounds of English (continued)• initially medially finally• 17. /s/ sip list less• 18. /z/ zip loser buzz• 19. /ʃ/ ship rushed hush• 20. /ʒ/ measure rouge
  14. 14. Consonant sounds of English (continued)• initially medially finally• 21. /h/ hot behave• 22. /r/ rot try• 23. /w/ watt sweat• 24. /j/ yatch tune
  15. 15. Word-stress• Two-syllable words • ‘surface• Stress on first • ‘furnace syllable • ‘husband• ‘bargain • ‘butcher• ‘govern • ‘proverb• ‘secret • ‘thorough• ‘mischief • ‘oven• ‘message • ‘onion• ‘cabbage • ‘compass
  16. 16. Word-stress (continued) Two-syllable words• Stress on second • ag’ree syllable • se’lect• ad’mit • re’quest• for’bid • pre’fer• suc’ced • re’fer• sup’press • oc’cur• po’lice • ar’rest• pay’ee • com’mence• dis’miss • per’haps
  17. 17. Word-stress (continued) Three-syllable wordsStress on first syllable Stress on second syllable• ’advertise • ad’venture• ’educate • com’mercial• ’illustrate • de’cision• ’furniture • ex’ternal• ’government • in’ternal• ’literature • per’mission• ’recognize • re’vision• ’signature • spec’tator• ’tentative • um’brella
  18. 18. Word-stress (continued) Three-syllable wordsPrimary Stress on third syllable• ,addres’see• ,ciga’rette• ,coin’cide• ,devo’tee• ,engi’neer• ,guaran’tee• ,recim’mend
  19. 19. Word-stress (continued) Four-syllable wordsPrimary Stress on first Primary Stress on syllable second syllable• ’applicable • ad’vertisement• ’accurately • ap’preciate• ’comfortable • a’rithmetic• ’honourable • e’xaggerate • par’ticipate • pho’tography
  20. 20. Word-stress (continued) Four-syllable wordsPrimary Stress on • Primary Stress on third syllable fourth syllable• acci’dental • dedica’tee• appli’cation • exami’nee• exhi’bition• inde’pendent• indi’vidual
  21. 21. Word-stress (continued) words with more than four syllablesPrimary Stress on first Primary Stress on third syllable syllable• ‘favouritism • elec’tricity• ‘cannibalism • irre’sponsible• ‘secularism • popu’larityPrimary Stress on second Primary Stress on fourth syllable syllable• ad’venturousness • acade’mician• en’thusiasm • civili’zation• con’servatism • pactici’pation
  22. 22. Word-stress (continued): stress change according to part of speech• COMPARE:Noun/Adjective Verb• ’absent ab’sent• ’accent ac’cent• ’concert con’cert• ’conflict con’flict• ’export ex’port• ’produce pro’duce• ’subject sub’ject
  23. 23. Attributes of good oral communication• 1.Sounds and sound combinations• 2. Stress• 3. Rhythm• 4. Intonation• 5. Speed: pausing• 6. Clarity of articulation• 7. Voice modulation: volume & pitch variation (avoiding “monotonous speech)

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