Respiration
Outline <ul><li>How Animals Maximize Rate of Diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air-Breathin...
 
Principle of Gas Exchange in Animals <ul><li>Rate of diffusion between two regions is governed by  Fick’s Law of Diffusion...
How Animals Maximize the Rate of Diffusion <ul><li>beating cilia producing water current </li></ul><ul><li>respiratory org...
The Gill as a Respiratory Structure <ul><li>External gills  provide a greatly increased surface area for gas exchange. </l...
Bony Fish Respiration
The Gill as a Respiratory Structure <ul><li>Buccal cavity can be opened and closed by opening and closing the mouth. </li>...
Structure of a Fish Gill
Respiration in Air-Breathing Animals <ul><li>Gills replaced in terrestrial animals because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>air is l...
Respiration in Amphibians and Reptiles <ul><li>Lungs of amphibians are formed as saclike outpouching of the gut. </li></ul...
Amphibian Lungs
Respiration in Mammals <ul><li>Lungs of mammals packed with alveoli. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air brought to alveoli through ...
Human Respiratory System
Respiration in Birds <ul><li>Bird lung channels air through tiny air vessels called  parabronchi , where gas exchange occu...
Respiration in Birds <ul><li>Avian respiration occurs in two cycles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each cycle has an inspiration a...
How A Bird Breathes
Structures and Mechanisms of Breathing <ul><li>The outside of each lung is covered by a  visceral pleural membrane . </li>...
Structures and Mechanisms of Breathing <ul><li>Mechanics of breathing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boyle’s Law - when the volume ...
Gas Exchange
Structures and Mechanisms of Breathing <ul><li>Breathing measurements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tidal volume  - volume of air ...
Mechanisms That Regulate Breathing <ul><li>Rise in carbon dioxide causes blood pH to lower, stimulating neurons in the aor...
Fig. 44.28(TE Art) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (a) (b) Ab...
Hemoglobin and Oxygen Transport <ul><li>Hemoglobin  is a protein composed of four polypeptide chains and four organic heme...
Hemoglobin and Oxygen Transport <ul><li>Oxygen transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen transport in the blood is affected b...
Carbon Dioxide and Nitric Oxide Transport <ul><li>About 8% of CO 2  in blood is dissolved in plasma and another 20% is bou...
Carbon Dioxide Transport by the Blood
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Respiratory intro

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Respiratory intro

  1. 1. Respiration
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>How Animals Maximize Rate of Diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air-Breathing Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphibians and Reptiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mammals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structures and Mechanisms of Breathing </li></ul>
  3. 4. Principle of Gas Exchange in Animals <ul><li>Rate of diffusion between two regions is governed by Fick’s Law of Diffusion . </li></ul><ul><li>R = D x A (  p/d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R = rate of diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D = diffusion constant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A = area over which diffusion takes place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> p = differences in concentrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d = distance across which diffusion takes place </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. How Animals Maximize the Rate of Diffusion <ul><li>beating cilia producing water current </li></ul><ul><li>respiratory organs that increase surface area available for diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bring external environment close to internal fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>atmospheric pressure and partial pressures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one atmosphere is 760 mm Hg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>partial pressure is fraction contributed by a gas </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. The Gill as a Respiratory Structure <ul><li>External gills provide a greatly increased surface area for gas exchange. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>disadvantages are that they must be moved constantly and are easily damaged </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gills of bony fish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>located between buccal cavity and opercular cavity </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Bony Fish Respiration
  7. 8. The Gill as a Respiratory Structure <ul><li>Buccal cavity can be opened and closed by opening and closing the mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>Opercular cavity can be opened and closed by movements of the operculum . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ram ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>blood flows in an opposite direction to the flow of water, thus maximizing oxygenation of blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gill arches </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>countercurrent flow </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Structure of a Fish Gill
  9. 10. Respiration in Air-Breathing Animals <ul><li>Gills replaced in terrestrial animals because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>air is less buoyant than water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water vapor diffuses into the air through evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two main terrestrial respiratory organs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tracheae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs use a uniform pool of air in constant contact with gas exchange surface. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Respiration in Amphibians and Reptiles <ul><li>Lungs of amphibians are formed as saclike outpouching of the gut. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphibians force air into their lungs creating positive pressure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fill buccal cavity with air, and then close mouth and nostrils and elevate floor of oral cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reptiles expand their rib cages by muscular contraction and take air into lungs via negative pressure breathing. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Amphibian Lungs
  12. 13. Respiration in Mammals <ul><li>Lungs of mammals packed with alveoli. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air brought to alveoli through system of air passages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inhaled air taken to the larynx , passes through glottis into the trachea . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bifurcates into right and left bronchi which enter each lung and further subdivide into bronchioles that deliver air into alveoli . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Human Respiratory System
  14. 15. Respiration in Birds <ul><li>Bird lung channels air through tiny air vessels called parabronchi , where gas exchange occurs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unidirectional flow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When air sacs are expanded during inspiration, they take in air. </li></ul><ul><li>When they are compressed during expiration, they push air into and through the lungs. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Respiration in Birds <ul><li>Avian respiration occurs in two cycles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each cycle has an inspiration and an expiration phase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-current flow has the capacity to extract more oxygen from the air than a mammalian lung. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. How A Bird Breathes
  17. 18. Structures and Mechanisms of Breathing <ul><li>The outside of each lung is covered by a visceral pleural membrane . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second parietal pleural membrane lines inner wall of thoracic cavity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pleural cavity between the two membranes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Structures and Mechanisms of Breathing <ul><li>Mechanics of breathing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boyle’s Law - when the volume of a given quantity of gas increases, its pressure decreases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When the pressure within the lungs is lower than the atmospheric pressure, air enters the lungs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoracic volume increased by contraction of external intercostals and the diaphragm. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Gas Exchange
  20. 21. Structures and Mechanisms of Breathing <ul><li>Breathing measurements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tidal volume - volume of air moving into and out of the lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vital capacity - maximum amount of air that can be expired after a forceful inspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hypoventilating - slow breathing - too much carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hyperventilating - rapid breathing - not enough carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Mechanisms That Regulate Breathing <ul><li>Rise in carbon dioxide causes blood pH to lower, stimulating neurons in the aortic and carotid bodies to send impulses to the control center in the medulla oblongata. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sends impulses to diaphragm and external intercostal muscles, stimulating them to contract, expanding chest cavity. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Fig. 44.28(TE Art) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (a) (b) Abdominal muscles contract (for forced expiration) Expiration Inspiration Muscles contract Muscles relax Sternocleido- mastoid muscles contract (for forced inspiration) Diaphragm contracts Diaphragm relaxes
  23. 24. Hemoglobin and Oxygen Transport <ul><li>Hemoglobin is a protein composed of four polypeptide chains and four organic heme groups. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>iron atom at center of each heme group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin loads up with oxygen in the lungs, forming oxyhemoglobin . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As blood passes through the capillaries, some of the oxyhemoglobin releases oxygen and become deoxyhemoglobin . </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Hemoglobin and Oxygen Transport <ul><li>Oxygen transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen transport in the blood is affected by many conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pH - Bohr effect </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Carbon Dioxide and Nitric Oxide Transport <ul><li>About 8% of CO 2 in blood is dissolved in plasma and another 20% is bound to hemoglobin. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remaining 72% of CO 2 diffuses into red blood cells where carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the combination of CO 2 with water to form carbonic acid. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood flow and blood pressure are also regulated by the amount of NO released into the bloodstream. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Carbon Dioxide Transport by the Blood

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