Integumentary system vertebrates
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Integumentary system vertebrates

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integumentary system bio102lec

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Integumentary system vertebrates Integumentary system vertebrates Presentation Transcript

  • INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM OF VERTEBRATES
  • THE SKIN (in general)
    • The skin technically refers to the vertebrate integument
    • It has the same basic structure in all vertebrates, including fish, reptiles, birds, and humans and other mammals.
    • It is the largest organ with respect to surface area of the vertebrate body
  • THE SKIN: layers
    • Epidermis
      • The outermost layer of epithelial tissue
    • Dermis
      • Thicker than the epidermis
      • Made up of a thick layer of connective tissue and one to several cells thick
      • Contains the blood vessels, nerves, glands and auxiliaries
    • Hypodermis
      • Layer below the epidermis made up of loose connective tissues and adipose tissues
  • SKIN OF JAWLESS FISHES
    • They have relatively thick skin
    • Of the several types of epidermal glandular cells, one secretes the protective cuticle
    • Multicellular slime glands secrete large amount of mucous to cover the body surface for protection
    LAMPREY HAGFISH
  • SKIN OF CARTILAGINOUS FISHES
    • Multilayered and contains mucus and sensory cells
    • The dermis contains bones in the form of placoid scales called denticles
    • Denticles contain blood vessels and nerves and is very familiar to vertebrate teeth
    COOKIE-CUTTER SHARK MANTA RAY
  • SKIN OF bony FISHES
    • They contain scales
    • A thin layer of dermal tissue overlaid the superficial epidermis normally covers the scales
    • Because scales are not shed, they grow at the margins and over the lower surface
    • Their skin are permeable and can be used in gas exchange
    • Mucus are at help in fighting off bacterial and fungal infection at the surface
    BOWFIN BROWN BULLHEAD
  • SKIN OF amphibians
    • Amphibians are transitional between aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates
    • Consists of stratified epidermis and a dermis containing mucus and serous glands plus pigmentation cells
    • The earliest amphibians were covered by dermal bone scales
    GREEN FROG HELLBENDER
    • Their skin reflects their greater commitment to a terrestrial existence
    • The outer layer of the epidermis (stratum corneum) is thick, lacks glands, and is modified into keratinized scales, scutes, plaques and beaks
    • The thick keratinized layer resists abrasion, inhibits dehydration and protects like a suit of armor
    SKIN OF REPTILES ALLIGATOR KING COBRA
  • SKIN OF BIRDS
    • Over most of the birds body, the epidermis is usually thin and only two or three layers thick
    • The most prominent part of the epidermis are the feathers (collectively known as plumage)
    • Feathers are derived from the scales of reptilian ancestors and are, most complex of all derivatives of the vertebrate stratum corneum
    BALD EAGLE
  • SKIN OF BIRDS: feathers
    • Feathers, provides the strong yet lightweight surface area needed for powered, aerodynamic flight.
    • They also serve as insulation, trapping pockets of air to help birds conserve their body heat.
    • The varied patterns, colors, textures, and shapes of feathers help birds to signal their age, sex, social status, and species identity to one another.
    • Some birds have plumage that blends in with their surroundings to provide camouflage, helping these birds escape notice by their predators.
    FISCHER’S LOVEBIRDS AFRICAN JACANA
    • Mammalian skin’s notable features include:
      • Hair,
      • A variety of epidermal glands than in other vertebrate class,
      • A highly stratified cornified epidermis,
      • And a dermis many times thicker than the epidermis
    • The prevention of dehydration is one of the evolutionary reasons mammals and other animals have been able to colonize terrestrial environment
    SKIN OF MAMMALS ENDAGERED SIBERIAN TIGER HORSE (ARABIAN)
    • It forms a barrier that helps prevent harmful microorganisms and chemicals from entering the body
    • It also prevents the loss of life-sustaining body fluids
    • It protects the vital structures inside the body from injury and potentially damaging ultraviolet rays of the sun
    • The skin also helps regulate body temperature, excretes some waste products, and is an important sensory organ
    • It contains various types of specialized nerve cells responsible for the sense of touch
    SKIN OF MAMMALS: functions
    • The skin consists of an outer, protective layer (epidermis) and an inner, living layer (dermis) which contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels nerve endings, hair follicles, small muscles and glands.
    • The top layer of the epidermis is composed of dead cells containing keratin, the horny scleroprotein that also makes up hair and nails.
    SKIN OF MAMMALS: structures
    • Sudoriferous Glands (Sweat Glands)
      • They secrete sweat by the process of perspiration which helps regulate body temperature and maintains homeostasis
    • Sebaceous Glands (Oil Glands)
      • They are connected to the hair follicles in the dermis
      • They lubricate and protect the skin by secreting sebum
      • Sebum is a permeability barrier and emollient – defense against microorganisms and skin softening
    SKIN OF MAMMALS: glands
    • Hair
      • Composed of keratin filled cells that develop from the epidermis
      • 2 Parts:
        • SHAFT – portion of the hair that protrudes from the skin
        • ROOT – portion of the hair embedded beneath the skin
    SKIN OF MAMMALS: appendages
    • Arrector Pili Muscle
      • Attaches to the connective tissue sheath of the hair follicle surrounding the bulb of the hair root
      • When the muscle contracts, it pulls the follicle and its hair to erect position (goosebumps)
  • SKIN OF MAMMALS: appendages
    • Nails
      • Like hair, nails are modification of the epidermis
      • They are flat horny plates on the dorsal surface of the distal segments of the digits
      • They are made of dead cells containing the protein keratin
      • 3 Parts:
        • the concealed ROOT
        • the BODY, which is exposed but attached to skin
        • and the EDGE
      • The nail grows out from the addition of new cells at the root