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Human sexual intercourse
 

Human sexual intercourse

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    Human sexual intercourse Human sexual intercourse Presentation Transcript

    • Physiology ofHuman Sexual Intercourse
    • Sexual intercourse-the act of inserting the erect penis of the male into thevagina of the female for reproduction/ and also forsexual enjoyment.The terms "sexual intercourse" and "coitus" are used inreference to people. The term for the higher vertebratesand some other animals is "copulation". Many highervertebrates animals (reptiles, birds. dogfish) reproduceinternally, but their fertilization is in the cloacae. Otheranimals, such as catfish and most amphibians reproducesexually but rely on external fertilization/ rather thancopulation.
    • The Act of Sexual Intercourse-Sexual intercourse is usually preceded byforeplay which leads to sexual arousal ofthe partners, resulting in erection of thepenis and natural lubrication of the vagina.The erect penis is inserted into the vaginaand one or both of the partners move backand forth to stimulate themselves and eachother usually to the point of ejaculation andorgasm.
    • Sexual Intercourse Positions-Sexual intercourse may be performed in a wide list ofsex positions, the most common ones being:·The woman lying on her back, the man on top and facingher ("missionary position")·The woman on hands and knees, the man kneelingbehind her ("doggy style" or in Latin coitus moreferarum/"sex in the manner of beasts")·The man on his back or sitting, the woman kneeling orsquatting on top (slang "cowgirl sex position") if thewoman faces the man or "reverse cowgirl sex position”(ifthe woman faces away from him)·Both partners lying on their sides, the man entering fromthe front ("side-by-side position")·Both partners lying on their sides, the man entering frombehind ("spoons sex position/ spooning")
    • Sexual intercourse: Biology of conception-Coitus is the basic reproductive method of Homo sapiens as of allmammals. During ejaculation, which normally accompanies themale orgasm, a series of muscular contractions delivers semencontaining male gametes known as sperm cells or spermatozoa intothe vault of the vagina. The subsequent route of the sperm from thevault of the vagina, is through the cervix and into the uterus, andthence into the fallopian tubes. When a fertile ovum from the femaleis present in the fallopian tubes, the male gamete joins with theovum resulting in fertilization and the formation of a new embryo.When a fertilized ovum reaches the uterus, it becomes implanted inthe lining of the uterus and pregnancy begins.
    • Sexual intercourse should always be considered likelyto result in pregnancy unless adequate contraceptive(birth control) measures are in force. Even then,pregnancy should be considered a possible outcome ofthe activity since no birth control measure is 100%effective. Coitus interruptus, or "withdrawal" of thepenis from the vagina just before the man’s orgasm,cannot be considered an effective method ofcontraception and is not recommended.Sexual abstinence -abstinence from heterosexual sexualintercourse is the only 100% effective way to avoidpregnancy. Outercourse, in which there is sexualactivity without insertion, can be performed withoutresulting in pregnancy provided that semen does notcome in contact with the vulva.
    • Problems of intercourse-Many males suffer from erectile dysfunction, orimpotence, at least occasionally. Some men also havedysfunction with orgasm in intercourse, calledanorgasmia. Anorgasmia is much more common inwomen, however, and usually needs attention from bothpartners over a long time span to solve. Many women,especially younger women and women with relativelylittle sexual experience, experience difficulty achievingorgasm or may be unable to achieve orgasm. Vaginismusis involuntary tensing of the pelvic floor musculature,making coitus distressing or impossible. Dyspareunia ispainful or uncomfortable intercourse; it can be due to avariety of reasons.
    • Sexually transmitted diseases (STD)-Sexual intercourse, like other sexual activities thatinvolve the possibility of transfer of body fluids, is also ameans of propagating sexually transmitted diseases.Health care professionals suggest that condoms should beused to lessen the risk of contracting STDs, but theyshould by no means be considered an absolute safeguard.The best suggestion is to avoid sexual intercourse withanyone known to have a sexually transmissible disease,and, indeed, with anyone whose disease-negative status isin doubt.
    • Sexual intercourse:Morality and legality-Various laws, moral rules and taboos surround sexualintercourse. Unlike some other sexual activities, sexualintercourse itself has rarely been made taboo on religiousgrounds or by government authorities. It is believed that allof the cultures that prohibited sexual intercourse entirelyno longer exist, save the Shakers, a sect of Christianity,which has very few adherents. Within some ideologies,coitus has been considered the only "acceptable" sexualactivity. Relatively strict designations of "appropriate" and"inappropriate" sexual intercourse have been almostuniversal in human societies.
    • These have included prohibitions against specific list ofsex positions, against intercourse among partners who arenot married (this is called fornication) or are married, butnot to each other (called adultery), against sexualintercourse with a close relative (called incest), andagainst intercourse during a woman’s menstrual period.Most countries have age of consent laws specifying theminimum legal age for engaging in sexual intercourse.Sexual intercourse with a person against their will, orwithout their informed consent informed legal consent, iscalled rape and is considered a serious criminal law crimein most cultures.
    • Birth Control
    • What is birth control?-Birth control, also called contraception, is anymethod used to prevent pregnancy. It allowsyou to choose whether or when to have a child.Most women can become pregnant from theage when they start their menstrual periodsuntil their late 40s or early 50s. During themany years before menopause, using birthcontrol is key to avoiding an unplannedpregnancy.
    • Which birth control methodshould I use?-There are many different kindsof birth control. Each has itsown pros and cons. Learningabout all the methods will helpyou find the one that is right foryou.
    • Available methods include: -Hormonal methods such as the birth control pill ("thePill"), shot, skin patch, and vaginal ring. Theintrauterine device (IUD) contains a hormone. Hormonebirth control works very well. It prevents pregnancy bystopping monthly egg production. It can also relieveheavy periods and cramping.• -Intrauterine devices (IUDs). An IUD is placed in theuterus through the vagina and cervix. The IUDinterferes with a sperm as it tries to reach and fertilizean egg. It can also stop a fertilized egg from implantingand growing into an embryo. IUDs work very well for 5to 10 years at a time, and are far safer than they weredecades ago. The hormonal IUD can also help withheavy periods and cramping.
    • • -Barrier methods, such as condoms, diaphragms, cervicalcaps, Leas Shield, sponges, and spermicides. In general,barrier methods are less effective than IUDs or hormonalmethods. To make a barrier work as well as possible, you use itwith a spermicide. This kills any sperm that get past the barrier,before they can travel through the cervix. Unless you know thatyour sexual partner does not have any sexually transmitteddiseases (STDs), use a condom every time you have sex.• -Fertility awareness (natural family planning), such as the calendarmethod. Natural family planning can work well if you and your partner arevery careful. However, do not use fertility awareness if you need highlydependable pregnancy prevention. First, you pinpoint your fertile times of themonth. (This means charting your bodys "fertile" signs and your basal bodytemperature daily for at least 2 months.) On fertile days, you must not havesex or you must use a birth control method. If you are a sexually active teenor are not able to predict when you are fertile, you cannot count on fertilityawareness to prevent pregnancy.
    • •-Permanent birth control, such asvasectomy or tubal ligation surgery, givesyou permanent protection againstpregnancy. (On rare occasion, vasectomyor tubal ligation does fail to preventpregnancy.) However, it is only a goodoption if you are absolutely sure that youwill never want to conceive a pregnancy.
    • LifestyleWhen choosing a method, first consider how well it worksand whether it fits your lifestyle. For example, if you are asingle woman who has no plans to raise a child on yourown, you will want to use a highly effective birth controlmethod. Future fertilityWhen deciding about birth control, think about how soon, ifever, you would like to start a family. Although you canbecome pregnant after stopping any birth control method(or forgetting a few days of pills), some women takeseveral months to become pregnant after using Depo-Provera shots or high-dose birth control pills.
    • Do health factors limitsome birth controloptions?-Some birth control methods may notbe right for you if you have certainhealth problems or other risk factors.To make sure a method is safe foryou, tell your health professionalabout whether you smoke or haveany health problems
    • •High blood pressure.•Blood clots (deep vein thrombosis) in yourpersonal or family history.•Migraine headaches.•Heart disease.•High triglyceride levels.•Diabetes with complications.•Sexually transmitted disease (STD)infection.•A history of breast cancer.
    • Which methods cost the least andare easiest to get?Barrier methods that you can buy at a drugstoreare the easiest form of birth control to get. Eitherpartner can buy them without a prescription.These methods include:•Condoms and spermicides.•Sponges, which have spermicide in them. Thesponge is tucked up against the cervix. (Thepopular Today sponge is expected to again beavailable in the United States by end of summer2005.)
    • Long-lasting birth control measures, suchas the intrauterine device (IUD), are morecostly when you first pay for them.However, these methods work for monthsto years, making them low-cost over time.These longer-lasting methods include: •IUDs. •Hormonal methods such as the shot or ring. •Sterilization surgery (tubal ligation for a woman or vasectomy for a man.)