Digestive system i


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Digestive system i

  1. 1. Fueling Body Activities: Digestion Digestive System
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Types of Digestive Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebrate Digestive Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Mouth and Teeth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Esophagus and Stomach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Small Intestine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Large Intestine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accessory Organs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Food Energy and Energy Expenditure </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Digestive Systems <ul><li>Single-celled organisms digest their food intracellularly. </li></ul><ul><li>Other animals digest their food extracellularly within a digestive cavity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digestive enzymes released into a cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specialization occurs when the digestive tract, or alimentary canal, has a separate mouth and anus. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Fig. 43.02(TE Art) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Gastrovascular cavity Body stalk Tentacle Mouth Food Wastes
  5. 5. Fig. 43.03(TE Art) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Nematode Earthworm Salamander Mouth Mouth Mouth Pharynx Pharynx Esophagus Intestine Intestine Intestine Anus Anus Anus Crop Gizzard Liver Pancreas Stomach Cloaca
  6. 6. Types of Digestive Systems <ul><li>Ingested food may be stored or first subjected to physical fragmentation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical digestion occurs next. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrolysis reactions liberate subunit molecules. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Products pass through the epithelial lining of the gut into the blood (absorption). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waste products are excreted. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Vertebrate Digestive Systems <ul><li>Consists of tubular gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mouth and pharynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>esophagus - delivers food to stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stomach - preliminary digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>small intestine - absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large intestine - water absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cloaca or rectum - waste storage </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Human Digestive System
  9. 9. Vertebrate Digestive Systems <ul><li>Accessory digestive organs include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>produces bile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gallbladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stores and concentrates bile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pancreas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>produces pancreatic juice </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Vertebrate Digestive Systems <ul><li>Tubular gastrointestinal tract has a characteristic layered structure. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mucosa - epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>submucosa - connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>muscularis - double layer of smooth muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>serosa - connective tissue </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Gastrointestinal Tract Layers
  12. 12. The Mouth and Teeth <ul><li>Vertebrate teeth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnivorous mammals have pointed teeth that lack flat grinding surfaces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivores must pulverize cellulose of cell walls of plant tissue before digestion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>have large, flat teeth suited to grinding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans are essentially carnivores in the front, and herbivores in the back. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Generalized Vertebrate Dentition
  14. 14. Fig. 43.08(TE Art) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cusp Enamel Gingiva Dentin Pulp cavity with nerves and vessels Periodontal ligaments Root canal Cementum Bone
  15. 15. The Mouth and Teeth <ul><li>Mouth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tongue mixes food with saliva. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>moistens and lubricates food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>secretions controlled by nervous system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taste-sensitive neurons in the mouth send impulses to the brain, which responds by stimulating the salivary glands. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Mouth and Teeth <ul><li>When food is ready to be swallowed, the tongue moves it to the back of the mouth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elevated by soft palate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure against pharynx triggers an automatic, involuntary reflex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>larynx contracted and raised </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>glottis pushed against epiglottis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>keeps food out of respiratory tract </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Human Pharynx, Palate, and Larynx
  18. 18. Esophagus and Stomach <ul><li>Structure and function of the esophagus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swallowing center stimulates successive waves of contraction that moves food along esophagus to stomach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>controlled by ring of smooth muscle (sphincter) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure and function of the stomach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface is highly convoluted, enabling it to fold when empty and expand as it fills with food. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Esophagus and Stomach <ul><li>Secretory systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exocrine glands contain two cell types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parietal cells - secrete hydrochloric acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chief cells - secrete pepsinogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Action of acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human stomach produces about 2 liters of HCl and other gastric juices everyday. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>helps denature food proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chyme </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Stomach and Duodenum
  21. 21. Esophagus and Stomach <ul><li>Ulcers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastric ulcers are rare because epithelial cells in the mucosa are protected by a layer of alkaline mucus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Susceptibility increased when mucosal barriers are weakened by Helicobacter pylori . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chyme leaves the stomach through the pyloric sphincter. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Small Intestine <ul><li>Digestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>approximately 4.5 m long, and divided into duodenum , jejunum and ileum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>epithelial wall covered with villi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>covered by microvilli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>greatly increase surface area </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Small Intestine
  24. 24. Accessory Organs <ul><li>Secretions of the pancreas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pancreatic fluid is secreted into duodenum through the pancreatic duct. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>host of enzymes: trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic amylase, and lipase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digest proteins into smaller polypeptides, polysaccharides into shorter sugar chains, and fat into free fatty acids. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Pancreas <ul><li>Pancreas also functions as endocrine gland, secreting hormones to control blood glucose. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produced in islets of Langerhans </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Accessory Organs <ul><li>Liver and gallbladder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver is largest internal organ of the body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Main secretion is bile, a fluid mixture of bile pigments and bile salts delivered into the duodenum during digestion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bile pigments are waste products. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bile salts act as detergents. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>emulsification of fat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stored in gallbladder </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. The Small Intestine <ul><li>Absorption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose and amino acids enter the bloodstream via the hepatic portal vein. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat enters the lymphatic system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 9 liters of fluid passes through the small intestine daily. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only about 50 g of solids and 100 ml of liquid leave the body as feces. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Large Intestine <ul><li>Small intestine empties directly into the large intestine at a junction where two vestigial structures, cecum and appendix, remain. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no digestion takes place, and only about 4% of absorption occurs there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>undigested material, primarily bacterial fragments and cellulose, compacted and stored </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>compacted feces driven by peristaltic contractions pass into rectum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Accessory Organs <ul><li>Liver regulatory functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver chemically modifies substances absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract before they reach the rest of the body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>also removes toxins and poisons, and converts them into less toxic forms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver regulates many compounds such as steroid hormones, and produces most proteins found in blood plasma. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Accessory Organs <ul><li>Regulation of blood glucose concentration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After a carbohydrate-rich meal, the liver and skeletal muscles remove excess glucose from blood and store it as glycogen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stimulated by insulin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When glucose levels decrease, the liver secretes glucose in the blood. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>breakdown of glycogen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gluconeogenesis - process of converting other molecules into glucose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Actions of Insulin and Glucagon
  32. 32. Food Energy and Energy Expenditure <ul><li>Ingestion of food serves two primary functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides source of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides raw materials that cannot be manufactured by the organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basal metabolic rate (BMR) refers to the minimum rate of energy consumption under defined resting conditions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Food Energy and Energy Expenditure <ul><li>If the amount of food energy taken in is greater than the energy consumed per day, the excess energy will be stored in glycogen and fat. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As glycogen reserves are limited, ingestion of excess food energy results primarily in the accumulation of fat. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Essential nutrients are substances an animal cannot manufacture for itself but which are necessary for health must be obtained in the diet. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>essential amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unsaturated fatty acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Essential minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>trace elements </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Table 43.01
  36. 37. Fig. 43.p906(TE Art) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Salivary gland Salivary gland b a c d Cecum Anus i g f e h j
  37. 38. Fig. 43.04(TE Art) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Salivary gland Salivary gland b. Liver a. Esophagus c. Gallbladder d. Pharynx Cecum j. Appendix Anus i. Rectum g. Small intestine f. Pancreas e. Stomach h. Colon