*Rennin –milk-curdling enzyme found in stomachs of ruminant mammals.
III. Grinding and early digestion
Happens in intestine.
Villi –minute finger-like projection in the small intestine.
Microvilli -a microscopic hair-shaped cell that projects from the surface of the lining of the small intestine.
Pyloric sphincter -is a strong ring of smooth muscle at the end of the pyloric canal and lets food pass from the stomach to the duodenum.
Pancreatic juice & bile – has high bicarbonate content.
Trypsin & chromotrypsin – highly specific proteases that split peptide bonds deep inside a protein molecule.
Carboxypeptidase –removes amino acid from carboxyl ends of polypeptides.
Pancreatic lipase –hydrolyzes fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
Pancreatic amylase –starch-splitting enzyme.
Nucleases –degrade RNA & DNA to nucleotides.
IV. Grinding and early digestion
Aminopeptidase –splits terminal amino acids from amino end of short peptides.
Alkaline phosphatase –enzyme that attacks a variety of phospate compunds, nucleotidases & nucleosidases.
Is secreted in the bile duct.
Collects in the gallbladder between meals.
Contains no enzyme.
Bile salts –essential for digestion of fats.
Bile pigments –produces yellow-green color of bile.
V. Region of water absorption & concentration in solids
Happens in the large intestine.
Large intestine –consolidates remnants of digestion.
Rectal gland –absorbs water and ions as needed.
Regulation of Food intake
Hunger centers –located in the hypothalamus.
Brainstem –regulate the intake of food.
Brown fat –dark adipose tissue specialized in generation of heat present in placental mammals.
Uncoupling protein –acts to uncouple the production of ATP during oxidative phosphorylation.
Thermogenesis –heat production in the body thru metabolic process
Leptin –hormone w/c tells the hypothalamus & brainstem how much fat the body carries.
Regulation of Digestion
Group of hormone secreted by enteroendocrine cells.
Gastrin –a polypeptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid .
Cholecystokinin (CCK) –a polypeptide hormone that stimulates gallbladder contraction (increasing bile salts into the intestine), stimulates enzyme-rich secretion in the pancreas, & contributes a feeling of satiety after a meal particular those rich in fat.
Secretin –secreted in response to food and strong acid in the stomach and small intestine.
Carbohydrates & fats- fuel for energy.
Proteins (amino acids) –synthesis of specific proteins and other nitrogen-containing compunds.
Water –solvent for body chemistry, major component of all fluids of the body.
Mineral – inorganic elemental atoms that are essential nutrients.
Salts –(inorganic) forms structural & physiological components throughout the body.
Vitamins - organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism.
#2 world’s oldest problem & today’s major health problem.
*Atherosclerosis – disease that occurs when a diet is high in saturated lipids but low in polyunsaturated lipids.
Growing children, pregnant & lactating women are most vulnerable to effects of malnutrition.