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WHEN ROMULUS AUGUSTUS, EMPEROR OF ROME WAS DEPOSED BY THE BARBARIAN KING OF ITALY ODOACER
FACTORS THAT LED TO THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE: A. THE CENTRAL AUTHORITY OF ROME FADED Powerful Roman Families who can exert local power Strong German Chieftains on Border Regions Christian Church
BARBARIAN MIGRATION OR INVASION TOOK PLACE OVER MANY DECADES: SEEKING ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES, GROUPS CROSSED INTO ROMAN TERRITORIES B. IMPERIAL TERRITORIES WERE INFILTRATED BY WAVES OF BARBARIAN TRIBAL CONFEDERATION
BARBARIAN TRIBAL CONFEDERATES IN ROME BY 5 TH AND 8 TH CENTURY: OSTROGOTHS IN ITALY VISIGOTHS IN SPAIN AND PORTUGAL FRANKS AND BURGUNDIANS IN GAUL AND WEST GERMANY SAXONS IN ENGLAND 2. BARBARIAN INVASION
THE LANDS REMAINED CHRISTIANS AND THEIR CONQUERORS WERE SOON CONVERTED INTERACTION BETWEEN CULTURE OF THE NEWCOMERS, REMNANTS OF CLASSICAL CULTURE AND CHRISTIAN INFLUENCE PRODUCED NEW MODEL FOR SOCIETY
3. GREGORY THE GREAT (590-604) AT A TIME WHEN THE CITY OF ROME WAS IN NEAR COLLAPSE, HE TOOK CHARGE OF THE CIVIL AND MILITARY ADMINISTRATION AND SAVED THE CITY OF ROME FROM GOING UNDER
AMONG THE FIRST TO ASSERT THE PRIMACY OF THE PAPAL OFFICE SUMMED UP THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE BISHOP OF ROME IN HIS OFFICIAL TITLE AS SERVUS SERVORUM DEI , THE SERVANT OF THE SERVANTS OF GOD
4. THE RISE OF THE FRANKISH KINGDOM THE CORONATION OF CHARLEMAGNE IN 800 SYMBOLIZED THE UNION OF THE RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL POWERS FORMATION OF WESTERN CHRISTENDOM
HIS REIGN AND ERA KNOWN AS THE CAROLINGIAN ERA RENEWED PLEDGE TO THE POPE AND BROUGHT MUCH OF THE REMAINDER OF WESTERN EUROPE TO THE CATHOLIC FAITH BY FORCE INITIATED A REFORM THAT SERVED AS A POWERFUL MEANS FOR UNIFICATION BUT BLURRED THE LINE BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE
5. ISLAMIC INVASIONS (ca 8 th Century) ISLAMIC FORCES HAD CONQUERED NORTH AFRICA, EASTERN SHORES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN AND MOST OF SPAIN ISLAMIC ARMIES ESTABLISHED GREATLY REDUCED THE SIZE AND POWER OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE (EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE) AND BESEIGED ITS CAPITAL.
ISLAM POSED THE THREAT OF A RIVAL CULTURE AND RELIGION
6. CRUSADES SERIES OF WARS BY WESTERN EUROPEAN CHRISTIANS TO RECAPTURE THE HOLY LAND FROM THE MUSLIMS. FIRST UNDERTAKEN IN 1096 AND ENDED IN THE LATE 13 TH CENTURY
THE TERM CRUSADE WAS ORIGINALLY APPLIED SOLELY TO EUROPEAN CHRISTIAN EFFORTS TO RETAKE FROM THE MUSLIMS THE CITY OF JERUSALEM. IT WAS LATER USED TO DESIGNATE ANY MILITARY EFFORT BY EUROPEAN CHRISTIANS AGAINST NON-CHRISTIANS.
7. THE GREGORIAN REFORM (ca1050-108O) UNDER GREGORY VII, THE CHURCH SOUGHT INDEPENDENCE FROM THE STATE THE PAPACY IS REGARDED AS HAVING MONARCHIAL POWER OF ITS OWN. INTERNALLY, THE GOVERNMENT OF THE CHURCH BECAME INCRESINGLY CENTRALIZED AND BUREAUCRATIC
8. THE GREAT SCHISM (1054) THE EAST-WEST SCHISM A RESULT OF AN EXTENDED PERIOD OF ESTRANGEMENT BETWEEN THE TWO CHURCHES. INFLUENCED BY A HOST OF CULTURAL, LINGUISIC, GEOGRAPHIC, POLITICAL, THEOLOGICAL, FACTORS
PRIMARY CAUSES : A. DISPUTES OVER PAPAL AUTHORITY OR THE DENIAL OF PAPAL SUPREMACY BY THE EASTERN CHURCH IN 440 AD, POPE LEO THE GREAT, THE PATRIARCH OF ROME, CLAIMED JURISDICTION OVER ALL CHRISTENDOM, NOT JUST THE WESTERN CHURCH .
B. THE INSERTION OF THE FILIOQUE CLAUSE INTO THE NICENE CREED
First Council of Nicea (325) First Council of Constantinople (381) We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible. We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of the Father [the only-begotten; that is, of the essence of the Father, God of God], Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father; And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds (æons), Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father; by whom all things were made [both in heaven and on earth]; by whom all things were made; who for us men, and for our salvation, came down and was incarnate and was made man; who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and was made man; he suffered, and the third day he rose again, ascended into heaven; he was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered, and was buried, and the third day he rose again, according to the Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father;
[ from thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead. from thence he shall come again, with glory, to judge the quick and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end. And in the Holy Ghost. And in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of life, who proceedeth from the Father, who with the Father and the Son together is worshiped and glorified, who spake by the prophets. In one holy catholic and apostolic Church; we acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins; we look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen. But those who say: 'There was a time when he was not;' and 'He was not before he was made;' and 'He was made out of nothing,' or 'He is of another substance' or 'essence,' or 'The Son of God is created,' or 'changeable,' or 'alterable' — they are condemned by the holy catholic and apostolic Church.]
DOCTRINAL POINT OF VIEW: First Council of Nicea (325) First Council of Constantinople (381) And in the Holy Ghost. And in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of life, who proceedeth from the Father, who with the Father and the Son together is worshiped and glorified, who spake by the prophets. In one holy catholic and apostolic Church; we acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins; we look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen. Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father, not from the Son. The dogma of the double Procession of the Holy Ghost from Father and Son as one Principle
BOTTOMLINE OF THE FILIOQUE CONTROVERSY THE WESTERN ALTERATION OF THE NICENE-CONSTANTINOPOLITAN CREED OF 381. RAISED THE QUESTION OF AUTHORITY: THE EAST INSISTED THAT THE WEST HAD NO AUTHORITY TO CHANGE THE CREED RATIFIED BY AN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL.
CONFLICTS BETWEEN WEST AND EAST CHURCHES DATE CONTROVERSY 451 POPE LEO I REFUSED TO ENDORSE CANON 28 OF THE COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON DECREEING CONSTANTINOPLE AS THE NEW ROME. 9 TH CENTURY PHOTIUS, PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE, CAME INTO CONFLICT WITH NICHOLAS I BY DENYING PAPAL SUPREMACY 1054 CONFLICT BROKE OUT BETWEEN PAPAL LEGATES IN CONSTANTINOPLE AND PATRIARCH MICHAEL CERULARIUS, RESULTING IN MUTUAL EXCOMMUNICATIONS 1204 THE ARMIES OF THE 4 TH CRUSADE SACKED CONSTANTINOPLE – INCLUDING ITS CHURCHES.
9. THE GREAT SCHISM OF WESTERN CHRISTIANITY ON THE DEATH OF POPE GREGORY XI (1370-1378), THE ROMAN POPULACE DEMANDED AN ITALIAN POPE. BARTOLOME PRIGNANO WAS UNANIMOUSLY CHOSEN BY THE FRENCH CARDINALS (APRIL 8, 1378), TAKING THE NAME URBAN VI.
CAUSE OF THE SCHISM: FIVE MONTHS AFTER THE ELECTION OF URBAN VI, THE FRENCH CARDINALS MET AT FONDI, CLAIMING THAT THEY HAD BEEN COWED BY THE MOB INTO ELECTING A FRENCH CARDINAL, THEY PROCEEDED TO ELECT ROBERT GENEVA (SEPTEMBER 20, 1378), TAKING THE NAME CLEMENT VII (ANTI-POPE), ESTABLISHED PAPAL COURT IN AVIGNON THUS BEGAN THE WESTERN SCHISM (1378-1417), WHICH DIVIDED CHRISTENDOM FOR NEARLY FORTY YEARS.
WORSENING CRISIS: THE CONFLICT LED TO A CRISIS THAT DIVIDED EUROPE: SECULAR LEADERS HAD TO CHOOSE WHICH POPE THEY WOULD RECOGNIZE. THE SCHISM CONTINUED AFTER THE DEATH OF BOTH INITIAL CLAIMANTS: BONIFACE IX SUCCEEDED URBAN VI AT ROME IN 1389 BENEDICT XIII, SUCCEEDED CLEMENT VII AT AVIGNON FROM 1394
THE EIGHT CARDINALS OF THE ROMAN CONCLAVE OFFERED TO REFRAIN FROM ELECTING A NEW POPE IF BENEDICT WOULD RESIGN THE LEGATES OF BENEDICT REFUSED CONSEQUENTLY, THE ROMAN PARTY PROCEEDED TO ELECT INNOCENT VII. A CHURCH COUNCIL WAS HELD IN PISA IN 1408 TO TRY TO SOLVE THE DISPUTE, BUT ADDED TO THE PROBLEM BY ELECTING A THIRD POPE, ALEXANDER V (1409-1410). WHO WAS SUCCEEDED BY JOHN XXIII.
END OF THE SCHISM: THE COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE IN 1417: DEPOSED JOHN XXIII AND THE AVIGNON POPE BENEDICT XIII, SECURED FORMAL RESIGNATION OF THE ROMAN POPE GREGORY XII ELECTED POPE MARTIN V, THEREBY PERMANENTLY ENDING THE SCHISM
THE LINE OF ROMAN POPES WAS NOW RECOGNIZED AS THE LEGITIMATE LINE. FROM THIS TIME FORWARD THE CATHOLIC CHURCH DECREED EXPLICITLY THAT NO COUNCIL HAD POWER OVER THE POPES; AND SO THERE IS NO WAY TO UNDO A PAPAL ELECTION BY ANYONE BUT THE POPE.
10. THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION: MOVEMENT IN 16 TH CENTURY TO REFORM THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN WESTERN EUROPE.
THE START OF THE REFORMATION IS POPULARLY DATED AT OCTOBER 31, 1517 WHEN MARTIN LUTHER PUBLISHED HIS 95 THESES.
CHURCH BELIEFS UNDER ATTACK BY PROTESTANT REFORMERS: PURGATORY DEVOTION TO MARY SAINTS MOST OF THE SACRAMENTS AUTHORITY OF THE POPE
11. THE COUNTER REFORMATION OR CATHOLIC REFORMATION A MOVEMENT WITHIN THE CATHOLIC CHURCH DURING THE MIDDLE OF THE 16 TH CENTURY IN THE WAKE OF THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION
THE CATHOLIC REFORMATION WAS COMPREHENSIVE AND COMPRISED FIVE MAJOR ELEMENTS: DOCTRINE STRUCTURAL RECONFIGURATION RELIGIOUS ORDERS SPIRITUAL MOVEMENTS POLITICAL DIMENSIONS
RESULT OF THE REFORMS: 1. FOUNDATION OF SEMINARIES FOR THE PROPER TRAINING OF PRIESTS IN THE SPIRITUAL LIFE AND THEOLOGICAL TRADITIONS OF THE CHURCH
2.REFORM OF THE RELIGIOUS LIFE: RETURING ORDERS TO THEIR SPIRITUAL FOUNDATIONS
3. NEW SPIRITUAL MOVEMENTS FOCUS ON THE DEVOTIONAL LIFE AND PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP WITH CHRIST.
THE COUNCIL OF TRENT (1545-1563) POPE PAUL III (1534-1549) INITIATED THE COUNCIL OF TRENT. A COMMISSION OF CARDINALS TASKED WITH INSTITUTIONAL REFORM TO ADDRESS CONTENTIOUS ISSUES SUCH AS CORRUPT BISHOPS ANS PRIEST, INDULGENCES AND OTHER FINANCIAL ABUSES. THE COUNCIL CLEARLY UPHELD THE DOGMA OF SALVATION APPROPRIATED BY FAITH AND WORKS. THE DOGMA OF TRANSUBSTANTIATION WAS UPHELD ALONG WITH THE 7 SACRAMENTS THE CHURCH STRONGLY AFFIRMED PRACTICES SUCH AS INDULGENCES, VENERATION OF SAINTS AND RELICS AND THE VENERATION OF THE VIRGIN MARY.