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  1. 1. NAME: Jean Piaget OCCUPATION: Psychologist, Biologist BIRTH DATE: August 09, 1896 DEATH DATE: September 16, 1980 (84 years old) EDUCATION: Neuchâtel Latin High School, University of Neuchâtel, University of Zürich, Sorbonne PLACE OF BIRTH: Neuchâtel, Switzerland PLACE OF DEATH: Geneva, Switzerland
  2. 2. • Jean Piaget was born in Switzerland on August 9, 1896 • the oldest child of Arthur Piaget, professor of medieval literature at the University, and of Rebecca Jackson • at age 11, while he was a student at Neuchâtel Latin high school, he wrote a short paper on an albino sparrow (as the start of a brilliant scientific career)
  3. 3. • became a well-known malacologist during his late adolescence • studied natural sciences and received his Ph.D. in Zoology from University of Neuchâtel in 1918 • published two philosophical essays during the period • formally began a career that would have a profound impact on both psychology and education • after working at Alfred Binet’s institution, Piaget developed an interest in the intellectual development of children
  4. 4. • he was awarded numerous prizes and honorary degrees all over the world. • he died in Geneva on September 16, 1980 • Piaget's theory, the most well-known and influential theory of cognitive development, which provide an explanation of the development of thinking from infancy to adulthood • first published in 1952, after decades of extensive observation of children, in their natural environments as opposed to the laboratory experiments of the behaviorists
  5. 5. • Definition of Cognitive Development : - Construction of thought processes including remembering, problem solving and decision making. - It begins from childhood, through adolescenes to adulthood. - Areas of cognitive development are : i. Information processing ii. Intelligence iii. reasoning, iv. Language development v. memory
  6. 6. PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • Piaget showed that young children think in strikingly different ways compared to adults. • Children are born with very basic mental structure. • The goal of the theory is to explain the mechanism and proccess, which infant and then child, develops into an individual who can reason and think.
  7. 7. • Cognitive development was a progressive reorganization of mental process. • Children construct and understanding of the world around them.
  8. 8. PIAGET’S STATEMENT • Human knowledge comes from what we do to objects.. • There is always an interaction between ourselves and objects.. • I am a constructivist.. Knowledge is not ready made • Each of us is continually creating our own knowledge.. • We are continually organizing what we know ….. • …..Structuring and restructuring our knowledge…
  9. 9. COMMON PROBLEM • Cognitive impairment is the general loss or lack of development of cognitive abilities. • Particularly; autism and learning disabilities/ difficulties. • There are two important points about Piaget’s theory of development; the principles and the stages.
  11. 11. - Cohesive, repeatable action sequence. - Basic building block of intelligent behavior, a way of organizing knowledge. - “units” of knowledge – each related to aspects of the world. - Mental image to organize knowledge & make sense of new experience.
  13. 13. - Fitting new experience into existing scheme. - Can assimilate by applying old knowledge which has been taught before. - We become ‘old news’ and not something new or different.
  14. 14. ACCOMODATION - Change that we made to the new situation (modify) - This occurs when the existing scheme does not work. (in need of change)
  15. 15. ADAPTATION - Whole process - Adaptation is not static ASSIMILATION - Doesn’t exist if there’s no accommodation - Adaptation will occur if assimilation and accommodation are balance.
  16. 16. The term "sensorimotor" comes from the child understanding their world largely through their senses for their first 2 years. • Lack of language and • Develop internal representation • Focuses on reflexes (movement response to the stimulus) • Object permanence • Develop ‘Cause and effect’ relationship • Experimentation and creativity • Trial and error learning • Egocentric
  17. 17. Sensorimotor Stage is divided into 6 sub-stages 1.Simple reflexes (Birth - 1 Month Old) Characterized by reflexes such as rooting and sucking 2. Primary circular reactions (1-4 Months Old) Infants learn to coordination sensations. A primary circular reaction is when the infant tries to reproduce an event that happened by accident (ex: sucking thumb) 3.Secondary circular reactions( 4-8 Months Old) Children become aware of things beyond their own body and become more object oriented. (ex: accidentally shaking a rattle and continuing to do so for the sake of satisfaction) 4. Coordination of secondary circular reactions(8-12 Months Old) Children start to show intentionality (ex: using a stick to reach something) 5.Tertiary circular reactions (12-18 Months Old) They start to explore new possibilities of objects 6.Internalization of schemes(18-24 Months Old) A shift to symbolic thinking
  18. 18. • Ranges from about ages 2 to 7 • Increased understanding of the world from the sensorimotor stage. • Able to mentally represent events and objects (the semiotic function), and engage in symbolic play. • Language skills • Imagination • Animism • Learn through imitation and play • Use reasoning (intuitive, not logic) • No longer egocentric
  19. 19. • The preoperational stage is divided into 2 substages: 1. Preconceptual thinking (2-4 years) This sub stage is characterized by the child's inability to understand all the properties of classes. • Transductive reasoning is another feature of the child's thinking in the substage. Transductive reasoning is a faulty type of logic that involves making inferences from one specific to another. It can lead to correct or accurate conclusions, but it is not guaranteed to do so. 2. Intuitive thinking (4-7 years) By this age children have formed a more complete understanding of concepts and have mostly stopped transductive reasoning. Their thinking has become more logical, although it is structured more about perception than logic.
  20. 20. • Piaget considered the concrete stage a major turning point in the child's cognitive development, because it marks the beginning of logical or operational thought • Begin to think logically but remain very concrete in their logic. This stage is centered around rules that now govern the child's logic and thinking - rules such as: reversibility, identity, and compensation. • Less egocentric • Better at conversation task • Develop the ability to hypothesize, test and reevaluate hypotheses • Begin to think in a formal systematic way
  21. 21. • Begin at age 11 or 12 above • Develop abstract thought and can easily conserve and think logically in their mind • Directly apply their logic to real objects or imagine objects. • Gain the ability to think in an abstract manner, the ability to combine and classify items in a more sophisticated way, and the capacity for higher-order reasoning. • Do mathematical calculations, think creatively, use abstract reasoning, and imagine the outcome of particular actions.
  23. 23. 1. Implement activities based upon the sensorimotor stages of Piaget’s (0-2 years old) - Child begins to understand the differences between themselves and other objects.
  24. 24. Conduct activities based upon the pre-operational stages. (2-4 years old) - Child begins to conceptualize better and classify objects by physical appearance. - Teach children the difference between certain animals and other objects.
  25. 25. 3. Work on concrete-operational stage. (7-11 yr old) - Teach students to understand concept that may be considered as abstract. - During this time, children begin to understand abstract concepts.
  26. 26. 4. Formal operational-stage. (11-15 yr old) - Students able to make decisions without any aid. - Able to use deductive reasoning. - Teachers/ educators can challenge student with projects that are require deeper and more reflective thinking process.
  27. 27. • Mentoring role towards students. • Take your students seriously. • Encourage students to learn from their peers. • Allow students to learn from their mistakes. • Focus on the process as well as the results. • Respect each student’s individual interest, abilities and limits.
  28. 28. • If information is to be learned, it must first be recognized as important. • During learning, learners act on information in ways that make it more meaningful. • Transfer of learning to new contexts is not automatic, but results form exposure to multiple applications. • Learning is facilitated when learners are aware of their learning strategies and monitor their use.
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