NAME: Jean Piaget
OCCUPATION: Psychologist, Biologist
BIRTH DATE: August 09, 1896
DEATH DATE: September 16, 1980 (84 years old)
EDUCATION: Neuchâtel Latin High School,
University of Neuchâtel, University of Zürich,
PLACE OF BIRTH: Neuchâtel, Switzerland
PLACE OF DEATH: Geneva, Switzerland
• Jean Piaget was born in Switzerland on August
• the oldest child of Arthur Piaget, professor of
medieval literature at the University, and of
• at age 11, while he was a student at Neuchâtel
Latin high school, he wrote a short paper on
an albino sparrow (as the start of a brilliant
• became a well-known malacologist during his late
• studied natural sciences and received his Ph.D. in
Zoology from University of Neuchâtel in 1918
• published two philosophical essays during the
• formally began a career that would have a
profound impact on both psychology and
• after working at Alfred Binet’s institution, Piaget
developed an interest in the intellectual
development of children
• he was awarded numerous prizes and
honorary degrees all over the world.
• he died in Geneva on September 16, 1980
• Piaget's theory, the most well-known and
influential theory of cognitive development,
which provide an explanation of the
development of thinking from infancy to
• first published in 1952, after decades of
extensive observation of children, in their
natural environments as opposed to the
laboratory experiments of the behaviorists
• Definition of Cognitive Development :
- Construction of thought processes including
remembering, problem solving and decision
- It begins from childhood, through adolescenes to
- Areas of cognitive development are :
i. Information processing
iv. Language development
PIAGET’S THEORY OF
• Piaget showed that young children think in
strikingly different ways compared to adults.
• Children are born with very basic mental
• The goal of the theory is to explain the
mechanism and proccess, which infant and
then child, develops into an individual who can
reason and think.
• Cognitive development was a progressive
reorganization of mental process.
• Children construct and understanding of the
world around them.
• Human knowledge comes from what we do to
• There is always an interaction between ourselves
• I am a constructivist.. Knowledge is not ready
• Each of us is continually creating our own
• We are continually organizing what we know …..
• …..Structuring and restructuring our
• Cognitive impairment is the general loss or
lack of development of cognitive abilities.
• Particularly; autism and learning disabilities/
• There are two important points about Piaget’s
theory of development; the principles and the
- Cohesive, repeatable action sequence.
- Basic building block of intelligent behavior, a
way of organizing knowledge.
- “units” of knowledge – each related to aspects
of the world.
- Mental image to organize knowledge & make
sense of new experience.
- Fitting new experience into existing scheme.
- Can assimilate by applying old knowledge
which has been taught before.
- We become ‘old news’ and not something
new or different.
- Change that we made to the new situation
- This occurs when the existing scheme does
not work. (in need of change)
- Whole process
- Adaptation is not static
- Doesn’t exist if there’s no accommodation
- Adaptation will occur if assimilation and
accommodation are balance.
The term "sensorimotor" comes from the child
understanding their world largely through their senses
for their first 2 years.
• Lack of language and
• Develop internal representation
• Focuses on reflexes (movement response to the stimulus)
• Object permanence
• Develop ‘Cause and effect’ relationship
• Experimentation and creativity
• Trial and error learning
Sensorimotor Stage is divided into 6 sub-stages
1.Simple reflexes (Birth - 1 Month Old) Characterized by reflexes
such as rooting and sucking
2. Primary circular reactions (1-4 Months Old) Infants learn to
coordination sensations. A primary circular reaction is when the
infant tries to reproduce an event that happened by accident (ex:
3.Secondary circular reactions( 4-8 Months Old) Children become
aware of things beyond their own body and become more object
oriented. (ex: accidentally shaking a rattle and continuing to do so
for the sake of satisfaction)
4. Coordination of secondary circular reactions(8-12 Months Old)
Children start to show intentionality (ex: using a stick to reach
5.Tertiary circular reactions (12-18 Months Old) They start to
explore new possibilities of objects
6.Internalization of schemes(18-24 Months Old) A shift to symbolic
• Ranges from about ages 2 to 7
• Increased understanding of the world from the sensorimotor
• Able to mentally represent events and objects (the semiotic
function), and engage in symbolic play.
• Language skills
• Learn through imitation and play
• Use reasoning (intuitive, not logic)
• No longer egocentric
• The preoperational stage is divided into 2 substages:
1. Preconceptual thinking (2-4 years)
This sub stage is characterized by the child's inability to
understand all the properties of classes.
• Transductive reasoning is another feature of the child's
thinking in the substage. Transductive reasoning is a
faulty type of logic that involves making inferences
from one specific to another. It can lead to correct or
accurate conclusions, but it is not guaranteed to do so.
2. Intuitive thinking (4-7 years)
By this age children have formed a more complete
understanding of concepts and have mostly stopped
transductive reasoning. Their thinking has become
more logical, although it is structured more about
perception than logic.
• Piaget considered the concrete stage a major turning
point in the child's cognitive development, because it
marks the beginning of logical or operational thought
• Begin to think logically but remain very concrete in
their logic. This stage is centered around rules that now
govern the child's logic and thinking - rules such as:
reversibility, identity, and compensation.
• Less egocentric
• Better at conversation task
• Develop the ability to hypothesize, test and reevaluate
• Begin to think in a formal systematic way
• Begin at age 11 or 12 above
• Develop abstract thought and can easily conserve and
think logically in their mind
• Directly apply their logic to real objects or imagine
• Gain the ability to think in an abstract manner, the
ability to combine and classify items in a more
sophisticated way, and the capacity for higher-order
• Do mathematical calculations, think creatively, use
abstract reasoning, and imagine the outcome of
1. Implement activities based upon the
sensorimotor stages of Piaget’s (0-2 years old)
- Child begins to understand the differences
between themselves and other objects.
Conduct activities based upon the pre-operational
stages. (2-4 years old)
- Child begins to conceptualize better and classify
objects by physical appearance.
- Teach children the difference between certain
animals and other objects.
3. Work on concrete-operational stage. (7-11 yr
- Teach students to understand concept that may
be considered as abstract.
- During this time, children begin to understand
4. Formal operational-stage. (11-15 yr old)
- Students able to make decisions without any aid.
- Able to use deductive reasoning.
- Teachers/ educators can challenge student with projects
that are require deeper and more reflective thinking
• Mentoring role towards students.
• Take your students seriously.
• Encourage students to learn from their peers.
• Allow students to learn from their mistakes.
• Focus on the process as well as the results.
• Respect each student’s individual interest,
abilities and limits.
• If information is to be learned, it must first be
recognized as important.
• During learning, learners act on information in
ways that make it more meaningful.
• Transfer of learning to new contexts is not
automatic, but results form exposure to multiple
• Learning is facilitated when learners are aware of
their learning strategies and monitor their use.
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